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Lab Report 1

Purpose:
The purpose of this lab was to get comfortable with different forms of measurement and conversions in order
to work with the concepts and use them in later labs.
Lab Observations:
In this lab there were not many things to observe, but that does not mean that I did not learn a lot from this lab.
I began by using a ruler and string to measure several objects such as my favorite sandals, my index finger, pencil,
the width of my debit card and the circumference of my head and thigh. After measuring these items, I calculated
the conversions necessary with a calculator (as it am not a very good math student). I also calculated the value of
uncertainty for each measurement. After doing this in table 1.1, I was able to calculate the volume of my head in
table 1.2. I next moved on to length measurements which I was given measurements to convert between
kilometers, meters, miles and feet. The next two tables called for mass and volume conversion which I was able to
calculate. The last two tables were temperature conversion and binary fission bacteria growth. I completed all
tables and now feel confident in my conversion skills with all the opportunities that I was given to practice with in
this lab.
Lab Answers:
1. Using a metric ruler, determine the length of the items in Table 1.1 below:
In the final column, you are to estimate your measurement precision. To do this, measure each item a second or even third
time. How close are the measurements? If there is a range of values for the length you measure, record the average
difference between measurement values as your uncertainty. If your measured value for a given object appears the same
after repeated measurements, this does not necessarily mean that your uncertainty is zero. Look closely at your ruler or
measurement device and estimate the smallest unit of length that you would be able to discriminate with it. Every
measurement device has limits. For instance, very few people use a ruler with a precision greater than 1/3 or 1/2 of a
millimeter; in many cases, even this precision is difficult or impossible to obtain. Typically +/- 1 mm is standard for
measuring flat objects with a ruler, but this uncertainty can be expected to go up when the object has significant curvature or
its length is not quite so well defined.
To measure the circumference (length around) of your head or thigh, wrap a piece of string around it and mark where the
string meets itself. Then lay the string out flat and measure the length with your ruler.
Table 1.1. Metric measurements and uncertainties.
meters
cm
Your favorite shoe
0.2794
Your index finger
0.08382
A pencil
0.0787
Fingernail of your pinky 0.010668
Width of a credit card
0.003556
The circumference of
0.6350
your thigh
The circumference of
0.5334
your head
2. Measure and record volume in Table 1.2.

mm

inches

27.94
8.382
7.874
1.0668
0.3556
63.50

279.4
83.82
78.74
10.668
3.556
635

11
3.3
3.1
.42
.14
25

Uncertainty

+/-.25
+/-.2
+/-.25
+/-.2
+/-.1
+/-1

53.34

533.4

21

+/-1

Estimate the rough volume of your head by using the circumference (denoted C) and multiplying out this formula (based on
the volume of a sphere =4r3/3 = C3/(6
Volume 1/59 C C C = C3/59
Estimate the uncertainty in your head volume (V, called "delta V") calculation by using the uncertainty in your
measurement of the circumference of your head (denoted C) and multiplying through the following formula:
V 3/59 C C C = 3/59 C2 C
Table 1.2. Head volume and uncertainty estimates.
Circumference
Uncertainty in
Head Volume
(C)
Circumference
(C)
1/59 C3
21
22.42
156.7 cm3

Uncertainty in
Head Volume (V)
3/59 C2 C
+/-1

3. Complete the conversions in Table 1.3. The first row has been done.
Table 1.3. Length conversions.
Length
km
2.0 km
2.0
705 m
.705
3.25 miles
5.23
300 ft
.091

m
2,000
705
5230.3
91.44

miles
1.24
.438
3.25
.05

feet
6,562
2312.9
17160
300

4. Complete the conversions in Table 1.4.


Table 1.4. Mass conversions.
Weight
kg
5.0 kg
5.0
400 g
.4
50 pounds
22.67

g
5000
400
22679.6

pounds (lbs)
11.02
.881
50

ml
6000
600
11356.23

gallons
1.585
.158
3

5. Complete the conversions in Table 1.5.


Table 1.5. Volume conversions.
Volume
liters
6.0 liters (l)
6.0
600 ml
.6
3 gallons
11.35
6. Complete the conversions in Table 1.6.
Table 1.6. Temperature conversions.
Temperature
C

100 C
27 C
-2 C
27 F
95 F
-40 F

100
27
-2
2.77
35
-40

212
80.6
28.4
27
95
-40

7. Population biologists use the term Doubling time to refer to how long it takes a population to double in size. This concept is
particularly useful when the average time for a given individual to reproduce is fairly constant in a species. Consider a
bacterial population that can reproduce by dividing into two daughter cells (binary fission) from an original single individual
cell. Assume a doubling time of ten minutes and fill out the following table. At time zero there is one bacterium, ten minutes
later there are two bacteria, ten minutes after that there are 4 bacteria, etc. Fill in the blanks in Table 1.7.
Table 1.7. Population growth.
Number of
1
Bacteria
Time

8
30 min

1 hour

2 hour

First
exceeds
10,000
2 h 12 min

Conclusion:
This lab helped me learn about measurement and the conversion methods in different types of
measurement. By measuring everyday objects and converting them to different forms of measurement several
times, this helped me to grasp the concepts and methods presented. First I measured metrically where I learned
that my favorite sandal is 11 inches long, meaning that it is also 0.2794 meters, 27.94 centimeters and 279.4
millimeters. I learned that this was the case in metric measurements, but also in length, mass, volume and
temperature conversions. I found that it was very interesting in the temperature conversions that -40 F is also -40
C. The last section integrated some of the learning material that I gained from the virtual labs when we worked with
binary fission. The replication of bacteria in binary fission is very rapid and has made me very scared of the
bacteria all around me. This lab was very helpful in learning how different units of measure convert differently and
this may be very beneficial to me in future experiments.

Lab Report 2

Purpose:
The purpose of this lab was to observe and recognize different catalase activities and pH changes.
Lab Observations:
In this lab I first collected all necessary materials and read through the experiment before beginning. I
gathered some glasses from my kitchen, making sure that the one that held the ammonia was disposable. I then
peeled and chopped up a white potato and added it to glasses 2-4. I then added water to glass one, water to glass
two, vinegar to glass three, and ammonia to glass four. Next I let the glasses sit for five minutes so that the
potatoes could have time to absorb the various liquids before adding in the hydrogen peroxide to each solution.
When I added the hydrogen peroxide it seemed that glass four was showing the largest reaction, but this changed
within a few minutes as the bubbles in cup two grew largely as time passed. I then recorded my observations in
regards to the catalase reactions by describing each cups number of bubbles, size of bubbles, an estimation of pH
and the amount of catalase activity.
Lab Answers:
1. Fill in the following table. Compare all cups. Use relative terms to describe the size and number of bubbles in each cup. For
instance, describe the Number of Bubbles using the terms: No bubbling, Moderate bubbling, Good bubbling, Very good
bubbling. To describe average bubble size use the terms: Very small, Small, Large, or Very large. To describe pH without
access to pH detectors, simply use the pH chart earlier in this chapter to describe each as acidic, neutral, or basic. To
describe the Catalase Activity, use your data on the size and number of bubbles to estimate the amount of gas produced in
the Catalase mediated process. Use the following terms: Very Low, Low, Moderate, High, Very high
Table 2.1. Catalase reaction observations.
Cup Number of Bubbles Size of
Bubbles
1
No Bubbling
None
2

Very good Bubbling

Very Large

pH
Neutra
l
Neutra
l

Catalase
Activity
Very Low
Very High

3
4

Moderate Bubbling
Good Bubbling

Small
Large

Acidic
Basic

Low
High

2. Bubbling indicates the formation of what chemical?


Bubbling means that oxygen is being released from the solution due to the catalyst activity.
3. Describe the activity of Catalase as pH increases. Do you think that other enzymes are likely to behave in this way as well?
Why or why not.
The catalyst speeds up the rate of reaction and breakdown of molecules I think that other enzymes will act
similarly.
4. Assume that you have a pH meter which would enable you to very accurately measure the pH of a solution. Describe an
experimental design that would allow you to pinpoint the exact pH at which Catalase is the most active.
If I was going to use pH strips, I would monitor the pH in many phases of the experiment. I would first test the pH
with the water only, then after I added the potatoes, then 5-10 minutes later after the solutions absorbed into the
potatoes and after I added the hydrogen peroxide. This would ensure that I could identify definitively what changes
occurred in pH throughout the duration of the experiment.
5. Regarding cup #1:
a) Describe the utility of cup #1 as a control.
Cup one served as a control in this experiment. Without this cup, I wouldnt have been able to see a great contrat
and identify which elements had the greatest amount of catalyst activity.
b) What other material did you introduce to this cup? Describe what you observed. How does Catalase activity in the material
you investigated compare to potato?
I did not introduce any other material in this cup because I used it to compare it to other cups as a control. I
imagine using other types of materials would create different reactions based on the material.
Conclusion:
I found this experiment to be very fun and also informational. I did not think that potatoes would change the
reaction activity so largely from glass one to glass two, this was very surprising and interesting to learn. I liked that
this experiment was simple but also very easy to understand and measure results. I learned that the catalyst
reaction can be very different dependent on which material are used to conduct the experiment. I think that using
pH strips as described in question 5b would have enhanced this experiment but without them I was still able to
measure visual differences between the reactions. I would like to do this experiment with pH strips in the future,
they are just difficult to find at times.

Lab Report 3

Purpose:
The purpose of this lab was to experiment with different materials and conditions to create the optimal
conditions to which the carbon cycle can be carried out.
Lab Observations:
To set up this experiment, I gathered all materials and read through the procedures before beginning the
experiment. I first began by drinking a lot of diet coke to clear out the bottles for the experiment then washed them
so that they would be ready for the experiment, I then took all the bottles and labeled the bottles and caps with
permanent marker so that I would be able to keep track of which bottles contained each element. I then began
putting the yeast in each bottle, followed by the allotted amount of water and sugar as described in table 2.1. I then
measured the height of each solution to make sure that if there were any changes during the experiment I would be
able to observe them. I then added the balloons to the top of each bottle and placed bottles 2-6 in a large pot with
just enough water so they would not float, and added the meat thermometer to the pot as well so that I could
monitor the temperature within the pot. I then turned the heat on low and waited for 20 minutes and observed and
recorded the results below. I also took before and after pictures (the first two above from right when I started to the
third picture of how they turned out after 20 minutes).
Lab Answers:
1. List the following experimental materials:
a) Kind of yeast used: Fleischmanns Fresh Active Yeast
b) Kind of water used: Tap water
c) Average temperature of the water bath during the experiment: 110 F
d) Average room temperature during the experiment (estimate if necessary): 78 F
e) Duration of yeast solutions exposure to bath: 20 Minutes
2. List your results in Tables 3.1 - 3.4.
Table 3.1. Independent variables and experimental conditions.

Bottle

Sugar

Yeast

Water

1
2
3
4

1 teasp
1 teasp
1 teasp
1/3
teasp
No
Sugar
2 teasp

2 teasp
2 teasp
2 teasp
2 teasp
2 teasp

5
6

To be heated in warm water bath?

cup
cup
cup
cup

Yeast solution
height (in cm)
3.048
3.048
3.048
3.048

cup

3.048

Yes.

No Yeast

Yes.

No Yeast cup

Table 3.2. Observations of dependent variables.


Bottle
Balloon size
Yeast growth
1
.75 inches
Low growth
2
2.20 inches
Large growth
3
2.20 inches
Large growth
4
1.45 inches
Medium growth
5
1 inch
Low/Medium
growth
6
None
None

No. Leave this bottle at room temp.


Yes.
Yes. Replicates bottle #2
Yes.

Other observations
Small expansion of balloon
Large expansion of balloon
Large expansion of balloon
Medium expansion of balloon
Small/Medium expansion of balloon
No expansion

Table 3.3. Balloon size and solution height measurements.


Bottle Circumference, Uncertainty in C, Radius
C (cm)
C
(long axis,
R;
cm)
1
1.905
+/-1
0.635
2
5.08
+/-1
1.524
3
5.08
+/-1
1.524
4
3.175
+/-1
1.016
5
2.54
+/-1
0.762
6
0
+/-0
0

Uncertainty in R,
R

New height of
yeast solution
(in cm)

+/-1
+/-1
+/-1
+/-1
+/-1
+/-0

1.905
5.08
5.08
3.175
2.54
0

3. In Table 3.4, record yeast growth and estimated volume of each balloon on Bottles 1-6.
a) Yeast growth = New height (in Table 3.3) - Original height (in Table 3.1)
b) If the balloon did not inflate, it has a volume of zero.
c) To estimate the volume of each balloon, use the following formula for the approximate volume of an ellipsoid with a horizontal
circumference C and long axis radius R (from Table 3.3):
Volume 2/19 (C C R)
d) To estimate the fractional uncertainty in the volume, use this formula:
V 2 (C + R) / C
Table 3.4. Yeast growth and balloon volume.

Bottle

Independent Variable

1
2
3
4
5
6

No heating
Control 1
Control 2
1/3 teaspoon sugar
No sugar
No yeast

Yeast growth:
(Change in
solution height)
None
2.5 cm
2.5
1.25
.75
0

Balloon Volume
(cm3)
None
15.63
15.63
7.81
.625
0

Uncertainty in
Balloon Volume
estimate (V)
+/-1
+/-1
+/-1
+/-1
+/-1
+/-0

4. Outline the experimental questions in this yeast activity (in a paragraph or two).
The goal of the experiment was to examine the elements of cellular respiration and the production of
carbon dioxide in the yeast. There were many variables to this experiment which is why six bottles were needed to
carry out this experiment. The use of these different variables was to see which would have an effect on the yeast
and if so, what kind of effect. The use of balloons captures the CO2 that is being released during the experiment.
5. Describe what is measured by the balloon volume. How does it correlate with yeast growth?
The volume of the balloon is determines by the amount of CO2 released during the experiment.
6. Compare Bottles # 2 & 3. Are they very different? Discuss the utility of having a duplicate measurement when considering the
precision of your experimental technique.
Bottles two and three I my experiment came out almost identical. This is a good thing considering the same
conditions were given to both of these bottles. This duplication validates the results reached for both bottles as
accurate.
7. Compare Bottles # 1 to 2 & 3 and discuss the effect of temperature on cellular respiration in yeast.
Temperature obviously has an effect on cellular respiration as these bottles displayed. If temperature had
no effect, the results of these bottles would be similar but they did not end up being similar. Yeast did not appear to
be active without the temperature change aided by the water temperature.
8. Compare Bottles # 2, 3, 4, 5 and discuss the effect of sugar on cellular respiration in yeast.
Comparing these bottles shows that sugar also plays a role in the activation of yeast. When no sugar was
present, there was little expansion of the balloon. Once sugar was added, it had a positive correlation to the
amount of yeast activation.
9. Discuss results obtained with your experimental Bottle #6 in comparison with the other experimental conditions.
This bottle exemplified that fact that the combination of these materials without yeast does not have the
same effect. This means that the yeast is the central material in this experiment because without it the same results
are not present.
10. In a paragraph or two, describe your conclusions, thoughts about what you learned about cellular respiration, and/or things
that went wrong.
The combination of yeast, sugar, water and increased temperature are the elements needed to produce
CO2 which was evident in the balloons. Sugar increases the amount of CO2 released when added to yeast and
water, so if I were to redo this experiment, I would add more yeast and sugar to another bottle to see if I could
create more carbon dioxide than even in bottle two and three. These varying elements cannot work alone and are
all required to create optimal CO2 production. One thing I would do differently would be to buy more yeast, as this
experiment requires a lot more than I expected, as I only bought a little since it was rather expensive.
Conclusion:
I really liked conducting this experiment because the results were really evident and therefore drawing
conclusions about the varying elements was pretty easy. I was very happy that I feel that I accurately measured
enough for the two controls, bottles two & three to come out with very similar results. I also was able to learn about
how different materials can have a very different outcome based on their quantity such as the addition and
subtraction of sugar in varying bottles. I really liked creating my own carbon cycle and it was both fun and

educational, I did not know that the amount of sugar would have such a great effect on the experiment so this
surprised me. I really enjoyed doing this experiment and it was a very great design for a home experiment.

Lab Report 4
Purpose:
The purpose of this experiment was to visually examine DNA as well as see influence DNA has on the
appearance of an individual.
Lab Observations:
The first part of this lab required me to gather materials, read through the procedures and chill the rubbing
alcohol for the experiment. After chilling the alcohol, I brought it out to proceed with the experiment. I then swished
water around in my mouth to extract the DNA needed for the experiment, I was also instructed to scratch the sides
of my mouth with my teeth in order to make a large about of DNA present for the experiment. I then added salt to
the solution as well as dish soap. After adding these elements I stirred the solution without creating bubbles
within. I then added the chilled alcohol and observed that the alcohol layered on top of the solution and observe
the DNA present itself and used a paper clip to investigate the solution. The DNA seemed stringy and it appeared to
form islands.
In the second part of this experiment, I examined my own phenotypes in order to examine which possible
genotypes these could correlate to. I also did this with my familys phenotypes. I filled in the tables supplied with
this information.
Lab Answers:
1. Describe what you can see in the final DNA extraction solution. Is the precipitant bubbly or stringy? Does it stick together or
does it form many islands?
The DNA strands stick together in the solution and form a strand when pulled out of the solution.
2. List your phenotype for the tongue rolling, ear attachment, and hitch-hiker thumb traits in Table 4.1. Use the following
notation:
a) If you can roll your tongue, then your phenotype is R. If you cannot, then your phenotype is r.
b) If your earlobes are unattached, then your phenotype is U. If your earlobes are attached, then your phenotype is u.
c) If you do not have a hitch-hiker thumb, then your phenotype is H. If you do have a hitch-hiker thumb, then your phenotype is
h.
Use the information above to determine your possible genotypes and record them in Table 4.1. Notice that the phenotype
for a given trait is recorded with a single letter, whereas the genotype requires two letters per trait.
Then, using what you have figured about your genotype, infer the different possible genotypes that your parents could have
had. For instance, if you determine that your possible genotype for earlobe attachment is UU or Uu, then the possible
parental genotypes are:
Possible parents of UU: UU UU; UU Uu; Uu Uu
Possible parents of Uu: UU Uu; UU uu; Uu Uu; Uu uu
For this question, do not ask your parents about their phenotypes! You will do this in question 3. Question 2 is an exercise
in inference based on your understanding of genetics.

Table 4.1. Personal phenotype and genotype; inferred possible parental genotypes.
Trait
Your
Your possible
Inferred possible parental genotypes
Phenotype Genotypes
Tongue rolling
R
RR
RR x Rr or RR x RR
(R or r)
U
Uu
UU x Uu or UU x UU
Earlobe attachment
(U or u)
h
hh
Hh x hh or hh x hh
Hitch-hiker thumb
(H or h)

3. Complete Table 4.2 for you, any blood relatives that you can ask (i.e., parents, siblings, children, etc.), and at least five
unrelated Others (e.g., spouse, friends, co-workers, etc.). As before, phenotypes for a given trait are recorded with a
single letter. You may wish to report separately on your children and spouse in Table 4.3.
Table 4.2. Observed parental, sibling, and others phenotypes,
Trait
Mothers
Fathers
Relatives
Phenotype Phenotype Phenotype(s)
Tongue rolling
Rr
RR
RR
(R or r)
Earlobe attachment
Uu
UU
Uu
(U or u)
Hitch-hiker thumb
hh
hh
Hh
(H or h)

Others
Phenotype(s)
Rr
uu
HH

In Table 4.2, are there any traits that are particularly common or uncommon among you and your relatives, compared to the
unrelated others?
In my family, although the gene for a hitchhikers thumb is recessive, many people in my family express this
trait. This implies that many people carry a gene that is hh or Hh in my family and it is more common in my
particular family than it is in general.
Conclusion:
I really enjoyed learning about DNA and the ways that it presents itself in physical characteristics. I have
never observed my own DNA, so I thought that being able to see it with the help of a few materials was really
interesting. I also earned about which phenotypes are evident in my own appearance as well as those of my family
and relatives. I found that in regard to tongue rolling and earlobes I carry dominate traits, but in regards to a hitchhikers thumb I carry a recessive trait and this is a trait that is present in my family very commonly. I really enjoyed
learning visually in all of these labs as it really aided my understanding of the concepts presented.

Lab Report 5
Purpose:

The purpose of this lab was to examine the life cycle of seeds and germination as well as learn how seeds are
dispersed by parent plants.
Lab Observations:
During the first portion of the lab I collected all the materials necessary for this experiment. I found a pinecone
from a tree near my house. With the pine cone, I followed all lab experiment instructions and recorded my results
below. The change in the pine cone suggested that water plays a large role in germination. The water acted as the
activation to release seeds in the pine cone.
In the second portion of the lab I learned about vascular transport by examining it in a celery stock as it filled
with water. This part of the lab helped convey the travel that water makes from the root to the top of plants.
The third part of the experiment consisted of gaining knowledge in the area of seed dispersal. I learned how
important it is for a parent plant to use various modes of transport to disperse seeds in order to increase their
likelihood of survival. I also learned how fire, smoke and heat can also be a catalyst to seed release in some plants
or trees and be beneficial to their ecology.
Lab Answers:
1. Anatomy of a pine.
a) Place your open seed cone into a cup of tap water.
b) Record: Time into water 10 minutes Cone appearance Pine cone begins to swell
c) Let the cone sit in the water for at least 30 minutes.
d) Record: Time out of water 5 minutes Cone appearance Pine cone has swollen more and now the scales of
the cone are beginning to become brittle and cracked. There is also a general color change in the pine cone as
well as a newly exposed seed.
2. Vascular transport.
a) Examine the top of the celery stalk. Record your observations:
The bottom of the celery stalk appears to be lighter than the green top. The top is green and leafy, it also
appears to be holding most of the water meaning that water may have traveled from bottom to top.
b) Make a cross-section cut where the celery stalk has not been split. Record your observations:
The cross section examined appears to be plentiful in water, with stringy fibers within it.
3. Answer the following questions about seed dispersal.
a) Why is it important for a parent plant to disperse its seeds? Notice that this is not asking why reproduction is
important.
It is important that parent plants disperse their seeds in order to create multiple environments for the seeds
so that they do not have to compete for nutrients and are able to flourish.
b) What do gymnosperms use to disperse seeds? What do angiosperms use?
Gymnosperms use the natural elements that are available to them to disperse their seeds, these elements
include but are not limited to water and wind. Angiosperms take advantage of the transport of fruits and
flowers by other animals to disperse their seeds.
c) Some gymnosperms, such as redwoods, release seeds only after a fire. Suggest a reason why this is done.
The heat, smoke and carbon dioxide produced by the fire acts as a catalyst for the seeds to be released.
Redwoods are so accustomed to fires that it has become a part of their lifecycle.
d) Design an experiment that would test the hypothesis that you posed in c).
A possible experiment could be testing the effect of fire, smoke and heat and then combinations of the
elements on the redwood seeds.
4. Which direction does xylem flow? What about phloem?
Xylem grows up starting from the roots and moving into the stem and upward. Phloem grows from the
source to designated sugar sinks.
5. Use Figure 5.4 to answer this question. What is the function of:
a) radicle? The radicle is the first element to emerge from a seed in order to absorb nutrients such as

b) hypocotyl? The hypocotyl is responsible for the maturation from seed to plant.
c) epicotyl? The epicotyl is the embryonic representation of what will later mature into a plants leaves.
Conclusion:
In this lab I learned about plants and how germination and production of seeds is very important to their
life cycles. In the pine cone, it was seen that water was used as an agent to influence the seed into being released.
In the second part of the lab, the celery was used to show how water is transported throughout a plant and this
gave a more visual representation about how water travels. This lab showed how different plants and trees such as
the redwoods use environmental elements to aid in their own germination processes and these elements can
actually act to release seeds. This lab showed many of the ways that plants participate in processes which aid their
life cycle and reproduction.

Lab Report 6
Purpose:
To understand the germination of seeds and the impact of various elements on the germination process.
Lab Observations:
The first step in the process of this lab was collecting all the necessary materials and first reading over the
instructions before I began, luckily I began this lab early so I was able to germinate the radish seeds and even
keep them a few days longer than required to view any additional changes. When I was viewing the celery in
the cups, the cup that had little to no salt seems to show that water traveled up from the base into the leaves.
When salt was added, the process was much slower. Based on the unequal distribution, salt pushed water out
of the celery rather than into it. I think that the celery was trying to avoid root damage from the salt so it pushed
down rather than up.
Salt seemed to have negative effects in both portions of this experiment as it also seemed to slow the rate
of germination in radishes. The more salt present, the slower the process of germination was able to be carried
out.
Lab Answers:

Lab 6A: Water transport and salinity


1. Examine the top of the celery stalks. Are there differences between the celery in the high salt and low salt water
conditions? Record your observations.
The celery that is exposed to larger amounts of salt begins to become slightly wilted. This could be because
water is being pushed out of the celery and into the salt water because of concentration. If the concentration is not
equal on both sides of the membrane then there will be movement of water molecules so the concentration must
be unequal.
2. Record the distance (cm) traveled by the red dye in high salt conditions (S), the blue dye in high salt conditions (S), the
red dye in low salt conditions (non-S) and the blue dye in low salt conditions (non-S).
Table 6.1
Distance (cm)
Red dye (S)

4.1 cm

Blue dye (S)

4.1 cm

Red dye (non-S)

4.1 cm

Blue dye (non-S)

4.1 cm

3. From Question 2 above, did the dyes travel at the same rate? What can you conclude about the effect of salinity on
water transport in celery from this experiment? Propose a biological or physical explanation for your conclusion.
The dyes changed the color of the leaves on the celery, but higher concentrations of slat slowed this
process. The eaves of celery changed colors completely whereas the stems changed in color slightly. Because
there was more of an unequal concentration in the solutions with larger salt contents it took longer for the
molecules to travel.

Lab 6B: Seed germination and environmental conditions


4. Observe the radish seed and sprout. Are radishes monocots or dicots? How can you tell?
The appearance of cotyledons and leaves during germination signify that a radish is a dicot.
5. Describe the results of your experiment in Table 6.2. How many sprouted seeds were present in each group per day?
Include any other relevant observations, such as appearance, color, etc. Include any alternative treatments or
conditions.
Table 6.2. Seed germination.
Initial date (Day 0): 05/25/2014
Record # sprouts, appearance, etc. per day.
Saline solution
Day 1:
Day 2:
Day 3:
2 Sprouted
0 Sprouted 0 Sprouted
Seeds, Large
Seeds,
Seeds, Slight
Change in
0% ("0" cup)
Solid
Splitting
Growth
0 Sprouted 0 Sprouted
1 Sprouted
3.1% ("1/32" cup)
Seeds
Seeds
Seed
0 Sprouted
0 Sprouted 0 Sprouted
Seeds, Slight
6.3% ("1/16 cup)
Seeds
Seeds
Splitting
0 Sprouted
0 Sprouted 0 Sprouted
Seeds, Slight
12.5% ("1/8" cup)
Seeds
Seeds
Splitting
0 Sprouted 0 Sprouted
0 Sprouted
25% ("1/4" cup)
Seeds
Seeds
Seeds
0 Sprouted
Seeds,
0 Sprouted
0 Sprouted
Cloudy
Seeds, Cloudy
Seeds, Cloudy
50% ("1/2" cup)
Appearance Appearance
Appearance
0 Sprouted
Seeds,
1 Sprouted
2 Sprouted
Evident
Seed, Sugar
Seeds, Sugar is
Alternative: Sugar
Sugar
Less Visible
Slightly Visible

Alternative: Aspirin (2)

0 Sprouted
Seeds

0 Sprouted
Seeds, Slight
Reddish Color

1 Sprouted
Seed, Color
Appears to be
Red

Day 4:
2 Sprouted
Seeds, More
Growth
Evident
2 Sprouted
Seeds
1 Sprouted
Seed
1 Sprouted
Seed
0 Sprouted
Seeds
0 Sprouted
Seeds,
Cloudy
Appearance
2 Sprouted
Seeds, Sugar
Unnoticeable
2 Sprouted
Seeds,
Clearer
Colored
Water

6. From your results in Table 6.2, draw a conclusion about the effect of salinity on sprouting success. Include conclusions
drawn from alternative treatments or conditions.
The presence of salt had a large impact on the germination of seeds. It appears that the more salt that is
present, the slower seeds are able to grow and mature. Large amounts of salt present actually showed very
little progress compared to the less salty brother/sister seeds. The alternates that I used in this experiment,
aspirin and sugar actually seemed to aid in germination of the seeds.

Conclusion:
In this experiment I learned that several natural processes within plants can easily be interrupted from outside
stimulus. Salt had a negative impact on both the celery and radish seeds and the more salt that was present, the
slower their natural processes became. I found also that in the second part of the experiment there were additional
elements added such as sugar and aspirin which actually seemed to benefit the germination process. This
experiment shows that the processes of plants can be positively or negatively affected by several different types of
environmental stimuli.

Lab Report 7
Purpose:
The purpose f this experiment was to show the similarities and differences among living organisms in the
animal kingdom.
Lab Observations:
In the first part of the lab I used my own general knowledge of biology to compare and contrast several living
organisms. I was very surprised to see that fungi and animals seem to be more similar than fungi and plants as I
would have guessed previously. These similarities and differences among living organism caused the creation of
the classifications within the animal kingdom, and was probably created similarly to this experiment because
whoever originally created the classifications weighed the similarities and differences within species as I was
required to in this experiment. In the second part of the experiment, I collected the materials and used a scalpel to
make a cut down the center of each animal to view their internal organs easier. I recorded my findings of both the
worm and mackerel below.
Lab Answers:
Lab 7A: Fungi
1. List four ways that Fungi are similar to plants.
Fungi and plants are similar in that they both: are eukaryotic cells, multicellular, have cell walls and require
nutrients.
2. List four differences between Fungi and plants.
Fungi and plants are different in that they have different types of cell walls (cellulose for plants and chitin for
fungi), only plants participate in photosynthesis, plants have roots whereas fungi do not and lastly fungi are
heterotrophic decomposers and plants are autotrophic producers.
3. List four differences between Fungi and animals.
Animals are consumers and fungi are decomposers. Animals are mobile whereas fungi are fairly stationary.
Fungi have cell walls whereas animals have semipermeable membranes. Animals reproduce sexually whereas
fungi do not.
4. List four ways that Fungi are similar to animals.
Both fungi and animals: contain eukaryotic cells, require oxygen, are heterotrophic and require nutrients.
5. Which two groups are most closely related evolutionarily (explain your answer):
a) Plants and animals,
b) Plants and fungi,
c) Fungi and Animals.
I think that the most distinct similarities are found in animals and fungi because they are both contain
eukaryotic cells, require oxygen, are heterotrophic and require nutrients.
6. List four facts that you learned about Fungi, but did not know before.

I did not know that fungi were decomposers, share similar genes with humans, are heterotrophic and have cell
walls.
Lab 7B: Animalia
7. For the animals that you examined, briefly describe at least three unique or distinctive features for each animal.
The two animals I chose to dissect were a mackerel which had fins, scales, and gills and a worm which was a
hermaphrodite, small, and a decomposer.
8. Compare and contrast the two animals. That is, describe at least four features of their body design that are similar, and
at least four ways in which they differ.
The ways that these two animals are similar are: they both contain eukaryotic cells, they both require nutrients,
they both have bilateral symmetry and both have a mouth and anus. The ways these two animals differ include:
different living environments, the mackerel has gills and the worm does not, the worm has sperm grooves and the
mackerel does not, and the mackerel has some bones whereas the worm does not.
Conclusion:
Many species in the animal kingdom can be both extremely similar but different at the same. Almost every
combination will have similarities and differences. This experiment taught that there can be differences but there
can also be unnoticed similarities. Before being asked to describe the similarities and difference of various living
organisms, I had never really considered the amount of similarities that vastly different organisms can have. For
example, the worm and mackerel I dissected seem to be very different from each other but they do share several
similarities such as they both contain eukaryotic cells, they both require nutrients, they both have bilateral
symmetry and both have a mouth and anus. This experiment really exemplified how the animal kingdom is
classified.

Lab Report 8
Purpose:
The purpose of this lab was to learn more about human anatomy and physiology to better understand the
functions of various areas of the body.
Lab Observations:
In the first part of the lab I was required to link bones, muscles and arteries based on their locations in relation
to each other. I learned from this that each bone corresponds to a muscle and artery. This shows that the bod is
very dependent upon itself and damage to one area can cause damage to not only bone but muscles and arteries
as well. In the second part of the experiment, I got to use my new knowledge to experiment with my own body. I
followed all given instructions and completed the tables with my findings. I noticed that the two arteries used
showed to have similar but slightly different readings.
Lab Answers:
1. Using Figure 8.1, find each of the listed bones on your body. Then, using Figures 8.2 and 8.3, write in a muscle that
attaches to the bone and an artery that runs alongside the bone.
Bone

Muscle

Artery

Cranium

Temporalis

Vertebral

Clavicle

Deltoid

Sternum

Pectoralis Minor

Subclavian
Ascending Aorta

Humerus

Biceps Bicali

Brachial

Radius or Ulna

Palmaris Longus

Radial

Coxal bone

Pectineus

Common Iliac

Metacarpals

Pronator Teres

Palamar Aches

Femur

Rectus Femoris

Femoral

Tibia

Fibularis Longus

Peroneal

Fibula

Soleus

Posterior Tibial

Metatarsals

Tibialis Anterior

Plantar Arch

2. Record data for heart rate as measured from the carotid artery (see Figure 8.5).
Table 8.1. Heart rate (carotid artery).
A
B
(Resting) (Exercise 1)
Check 1 (15 sec)
5
12
Check 2 (15 sec)
6
12
Check 3 (15 sec)
5
13
Check 4 (15 sec)
5
13
Sum of all checks

21
Heart rate
(beats/min
)

C
(Exercise 2)
15
15
14
14

D
(End Rest)
7
7
7
6

50
Heart rate

58
Heart rate

27
Heart rate

(beats/min)

(beats/min)

(beats/min)

3. Record data for heart rate as measured from the radial artery (see Figure 8.6).
Table 8.2. Heart rate (radial artery).
A
B
C
D
(Resting) (Exercise 1)
(Exercise 2)
(End Rest)
Check 1 (15 sec)
6
12
16
7
Check 2 (15 sec)
5
11
16
7
Check 3 (15 sec)
6
11
15
6
Check 4 (15 sec)
6
11
15
6
Sum of all checks

23
Heart rate
(beats/min
)

45
Heart rate

62
Heart rate

26
Heart rate

(beats/min)

(beats/min)

(beats/min)

4. Discuss your investigation of heart rate, answering the following:


a) How similar was Resting heart rate (beats/min), as measured on the carotid artery vs. the radial artery?

The resting heart rate of the carotid artery was slightly higher than that of the radial artery.
b) After Exercise 1, did the data change between checks? How does the Exercise 1 heart rate (beats/min) differ
from the Resting heart rate?
The data slightly varied between checks but I think with the amount of checks overall it averaged
out. The exercise one increased my heart rate to about double of the resting rate.
c) After Exercise 2, did the data change between checks? How does the Exercise 2 heart rate (beats/min) differ
from the Resting and Exercise 1 heart rates?
There was a slight difference between checks in this area as well but they also seemed to average
out. The second exercise showed that there was an increase in heart rate but not as large of a
difference as seen when going from resting to exercise initially.
d) Is End Rest heart rate (beats/min) similar to the original Resting heart rate? If not, describe your physical
condition at the time of the End Rest heart rate.
The end rest heat rate was only slightly higher than the original resting rate but this could be
explained by the fact that it could return to the original rate with slightly more time available.
Conclusion:
In this lab I learned about the human body, its components and their functions and the role that they play in
the body. In the first art of the experiment I found out that each bone has a corresponding muscle and bone. For
example the Femur bone in the leg is supported by the Rectus Femoris muscle and the Femoral Artery. In the
second part of the experiment, I used this new familiarity with my own anatomy to measure my heart rate at two
different artery sites and the measuring the effect of exersize on my heart rate. I found in this part of the
experiment that excersize increases heart rate.

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