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Sciences Experiences and outcomes

The sciences framework provides a range of different contexts for learning which draw on important aspects of everyday life and work.

Learning in the sciences will enable me to:

develop curiosity and understanding of the environment and my place in the living, material and physical world

demonstrate a secure knowledge and understanding of the big ideas and concepts of the sciences

develop skills for learning, life and work

develop the skills of scientific inquiry and investigation using practical techniques

develop skills in the accurate use of scientific language, formulae and equations

apply safety measures and take necessary actions to control risk and hazards

recognise the impact the sciences make on my life, the lives of others, the environment and on society

recognise the role of creativity and inventiveness in the development of the sciences

develop an understanding of the Earth’s resources and the need for responsible use of them

express opinions and make decisions on social, moral, ethical, economic and environmental issues based upon sound understanding

develop as a scientifically-literate citizen with a lifelong interest in the sciences

establish the foundation for more advanced learning and future careers in the sciences and the technologies.

Planet Earth








I have observed living

  • I can distinguish

  • I can identify and classify

  • I can sample and identify

  • I understand how animal and


things in the

between living and non

examples of living things,

living things from different

plant species depend on


environment over time

living things. I can sort

past and present, to help me

habitats to compare their

each other and how living

and am becoming

living things into

appreciate their diversity. I

biodiversity and can suggest

things are adapted for

Learners explore the

aware of how they

groups and explain my

can relate physical and

reasons for their distribution.

survival. I can predict the

rich and changing

depend on each other.


behavioural characteristics to

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impact of population growth

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their survival or extinction.

and natural hazards on

diversity of living things

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and develop their

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understanding of how organisms are

  • I can explore

  • I can use my knowledge of

  • I have collaborated on

  • I have propagated and grown

interrelated at local and

examples of food

the interactions and energy

investigations into the

plants using a variety of

global levels. By

chains and show an

flow between plants and

process of photosynthesis

different methods. I can

exploring interactions

appreciation of how

animals in ecosystems, food

and I can demonstrate my

compare these methods and

and energy flow

animals and plants

chains and webs. I have

understanding of why plants

develop my understanding of

between plants and

depend on each other

contributed to the design or

are vital to sustaining life on

their commercial use.

animals (including

for food.

conservation of a wildlife


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humans) learners

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develop their

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understanding of how

  • I can contribute to the design

species depend on one

Through carrying out

of an investigation to show

another and on the

practical activities and

the effects of different factors

environment for

investigations, I can show

on the rate of aerobic

survival. Learners

how plants have benefited

respiration and explain my

investigate the factors



affecting plant growth and develop their understanding of the positive and negative impact of the human population on the environment.

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Planet Earth (continued)








I have helped to grow

I can help to design

I have collaborated in the

Through investigations and

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Through investigating the


plants and can name

experiments to find out

design of an investigation

based on experimental

nitrogen cycle and evaluating



their basic parts. I can talk about how they grow and what I need to

what plants need in order to grow and develop. I can observe

into the effects of fertilisers on the growth of plants. I can express an informed view of

evidence, I can explain the use of different types of chemicals in agriculture and

results from practical

experiments, I can suggest a

design for a fertiliser, taking

do to look after them.

and record my findings

the risks and benefits of their

their alternatives and can

account of its environmental

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and from what I have


evaluate their potential


learned I can grow

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impact on the world’s food

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healthy plants in school.


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Planet Earth (continued)







Energy sources

I have experienced,

I am aware of different

By considering examples

I can use my knowledge of

By contributing to an

and sustainability

used and described a

types of energy around

where energy is conserved, I

the different ways in which

investigation on different

wide range of toys and

me and can show their

can identify the energ y

heat is transferred between

ways of meeting society’s

Learners explore types,

common appliances. I

importance to

source, how it is transferred

hot and cold objects and the

energy needs, I can express

can say ‘what makes it

everyday life and my

and ways of reducing wasted

thermal conductivity of

an informed view on the risks

sources and uses of energy and develop

go’ and say what they



materials to improve energy

and benefits of different

their understanding of

do when they work.

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efficiency in buildings or

energy sources, including

how energy is

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other systems.

those produced from plants.

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transferred and conserved. They

Through exploring non-

By investigating renewable

Through investigation, I can

consider the relevance

renewable energy sources, I

energy sources and taking

explain the formation and

of these concepts to

can describe how they are

part in practical activities to

use of fossil fuels and

everyday life. They

used in Scotland today and

harness them , I can discuss

contribute to discussions on

explore the nature and

express an informed view on

their benefits and potential

the responsible use and

sustainability of energy sources and discuss

the implications for their


conservation of finite

benefits and assess

future use.

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possible risks to form an

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informed view of responsible energy use.


I can investigate the use and development of renewable and sustainable energy to gain an awareness of their growing importance in Scotland or beyond.


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Planet Earth (continued)







Processes of the

By investigating how water can change from one

I can apply my knowledge of

By contributing to

I have developed my


form to another, I can relate my findings to

how water changes state to

experiments and

understanding of the kinetic

everyday experiences.

help me understand the

investigations, I can develop

model of a gas. I can

Learners explore the


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processes involved in the

my understanding of models

describe the qualitative

changing states of


water cycle in nature over

of matter and can apply this

relationships between

matter and the physical


to changes of state and the

pressure, volume and

and chemical processes

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energy involved as they

temperature of gases.

occur in nature.

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which influence Earth’s


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atmosphere and oceans. They learn

I can explain some of the

Through exploring the carbon

about climate change

processes which contribute

cycle, I can describe the

as a natural process in

to climate change and

processes involved in

time as well as the

discuss the possible impact

maintaining the balance of

result of human activity.

of atmospheric change on

gases in the air, considering

Through connections with collaborative

the survival of living things.

causes and implications of

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changes in the balance.

studies of landscape, weather and climate in social studies they build up an integrated picture of the dynamic nature of Earth.

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Planet Earth (continued)








I have experienced the

By safely observing

By observing and

By using my knowledge of

By researching

wonder of looking at

and recording the sun

researching features of our

our solar system and the

developments used to

Learners develop their

the vastness of the

and moon at various

solar system, I can use

basic needs of living things, I

observe or explore space, I

understanding of the

sky, and can recognise

times, I can describe

simple models to

can produce a reasoned

can illustrate how our

Earth’s position within

the sun, moon and

their patterns of

communicate my

argument on the likelihood of

knowledge of the universe

the universe while

stars and link them to

movement and

understanding of size, scale,

life existing elsewhere in the

has evolved over time.

developing a sense of

daily patterns of life.

changes over time. I

time and relative motion


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can relate these to the

within it.

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time and scale. They develop their understanding of how

length of a day, a month and a year.

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our knowledge of the universe has changed over time and explore ideas of future space exploration and the likelihood of life beyond planet Earth.

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Forces, electricity and waves








Through everyday

By investigating forces

By investigating how friction,

By contributing to

  • I can use appropriate

experiences and play

on toys and other

including air resistance,

investigations of energy loss

methods to measure,

Learners first develop

with a variety of toys

objects, I can predict

affects motion, I can suggest

due to friction, I can suggest

calculate and display

an understanding of

and other objects, I

the effect on the shape

ways to improve efficiency in

ways of improving the

graphically the speed of an

how forces can change

can recognise simple

or motion of objects.

moving objects.

efficiency of moving systems.

object, and show how these

the shape or motion of

types of forces and

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methods can be used in a

an object, considering

describe their effects.

selected application.

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both forces in contact with objects and those which act over a

By making accurate

distance. They

measurements of speed and

investigate the effects of

acceleration, I can relate the

friction on motion and

motion of an object to the

explore ways of

forces acting on it and apply

improving efficiency in

this knowledge to transport

moving objects and


systems. Study of

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speed and acceleration of an object leads to an


By exploring the forces

I have collaborated in

I have collaborated in

  • I can help to design and

understanding of the

exerted by magnets on

investigations to compare

investigations into the effects

carry out investigations into

relationship between its

other magnets and

magnetic, electrostatic and

of gravity on objects and I

the strength of magnets and

motion and the forces

magnetic materials, I

gravitational forces and have

can predict what might

electromagnets. From

acting on it. This is

can contribute to the

explored their practical

happen to their weight in

investigations, I can compare

linked to transport safety. Learners

design of a game.


different situations on Earth

the properties, uses and

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and in space.

commercial applications of

develop their understanding of the

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electromagnets and


concept of buoyancy force and density.

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Forces, electricity and waves (continued)









By investigating floating and


Through experimentation, I


sinking of objects in water, I

can explain floating and

can apply my understanding

sinking in terms of the

of buoyancy to solve a

relative densities of different

practical challenge.


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Forces, electricity and waves (continued)








I know how to stay

I can describe an

I have used a range of

Having measured the current

Through investigation, I

safe when using

electrical circuit as a

electrical components to help

and voltage in series and

understand the relationship

The learner’s

electricity. I have

continuous loop of

to make a variety of circuits

parallel circuits, I can design

between current, voltage and

knowledge about

helped to make a

conducting materials. I

for differing purposes. I can

a circuit to show the

resistance. I can apply this

electricity begins with

display to show the

can combine simple

represent my circuit using

advantages of parallel

knowledge to solve practical

knowing how to use it

importance of

components in a

symbols and describe the

circuits in an everyday


electricity in our daily

series circuit to make a

transfer of energy around the


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safely and this aspect is reinforced throughout


game or model.


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their learning. They

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By contributing to

develop their

investigations into the

understanding of

properties of a range of

electricity as a means of

electronic components, I can

transferring energy by

select and use them as input

investigating circuits

and output devices in

and building chemical

practical electronic circuits.

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cells. Learners develop their understanding of series and parallel

Using my knowledge of

circuits and of electrical

electronic components and

and electronic

switching devices, I can help

components and apply

to engineer an electronic

their knowledge to the

system to provide a practical

solution to a real-life

process of designing,


constructing, testing and modifying.

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Forces, electricity and waves (continued)









To begin to understand how

I can help to design simple

Using experimental


batteries work, I can help to

chemical cells and use them

evidence, I can place metals

build simple chemical cells

to investigate the factors

in an electrochemical series

using readily-available

which affect the voltage

and can use this information

materials which can be used


to make predictions about

to make an appliance work.

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their use in chemical cells.

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Using a variety of sources, I

have explored the latest

developments in chemical

cells technology and can

evaluate their impact on


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Forces, electricity and waves (continued)







Vibrations and

Through play, I have

By collaborating in

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Through research on how


By recording and analys ing


explored a variety of

experiments on

animals communicate, I can

sound signals, I can describe

ways of making

different ways of

explain how sound vibrations

how they can be manipulated

Learners explore the


producing sound from

are carried by waves through

and used in sound

nature of sound, light

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vibrations, I can

air, water and other media.


demonstrate how to

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and radiations in the electromagnetic spectrum. They use

change the pitch of the sound.

musical instruments to explore the relationship

By exploring reflections, the

By exploring the refraction of

By carr ying out a comparison

between vibrations and

formation of shadows and the

light when passed through

of the properties of parts of

sounds produced. They

m ixing of coloured lights, I

different materials, lenses

the electromagnetic spectrum

develop their

can use my knowledge of the

and prisms, I can explain h ow

beyond the visible, I can

understanding of the

properties of light to show

light can be used in a variety

explain the use of radiation

properties of light and other forms of

how it can be used in a

of applications.

and discuss how this has


creative way.

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impacted upon society and

radiations. They explore

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our quality of life.

how different waves relate to the environment and how we make use of them in

By exploring radiations beyond the visible, I can describe a selected application, discussing the advantages and limitations.

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health, medicine and communications.

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Biological systems







Body systems and

  • I am aware of my

By researching, I can

By investigating some body

  • I have explored the structure

  • I can explain how biological


growing body and I am

describe the position

systems and potential

and function of organs and

actions which take place in

learning the correct

and function of the

problems which they may

organ systems and can relate

response to external and

Learners develop their

names for its different

skeleton and major

develop, I can make informed

this to the basic biological

internal changes work to

knowledge and

parts and how they

organs of the human

decisions to help me to

processes required to sustain

maintain stable body

understanding of the

work .

body and discuss what

maintain my health and



structure and function of

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  • I need to do to keep them healthy.


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organs of the body, including the senses. They learn about cells

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as the basic units of life,

  • I can identify my

  • I have explored my

  • I have explored the structure

  • I have explored the role of

Through investigation, I can

and their organisation to

senses and use them

senses and can

and function of sensory

technology in monitoring

explain how changes in

to explore the world

discuss their reliability

organs to develop my

health and improving the

learned behaviour due to

form familiar body systems. Through

around me.

and limitations in

understanding of body

quality of life.

internal and external stimuli

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responding to the

actions in response to outside

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are of benefit to the survival

observation, research and practical



of species.

investigation learners explore the risk and

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impact of microorganisms in


I know the symptoms

  • I have contributed to

Using a microscope, I have

By researching cell division, I

relation to health, and

of some common

investigations into the role of

developed my understanding

can explain its role in growth

then in industrial

diseases caused by

microorganisms in producing

of the structure and variety of

and repair and can discuss

processes. They

germs. I can explain

and breaking down some

cells and of their functions.

how some cells can be used

experience the use of

how they are spread


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technology in monitoring

and discuss how some

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health and improving the quality of life and

methods of preventing and treating disease

  • I have contributed to

  • I have taken part in practical

develop informed views

benefit society.

investigations into the

activities which involve the

on the moral and ethical

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different types of

use of enzymes and

implications of

microorganisms and can

microorganisms to develop

controversial biological

explain how their growth can

my understanding of their


be controlled.

properties and their use in

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Biological systems (continued)







Body systems and



I have explored how the body

I can debate the moral and


defends itself against disease

ethical issues associated with

and can describe how

some controversial biological

vaccines can provide




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Biological systems (continued)








I recognise that we

By comparing

By investigating the lifecycles

I understand the processes

Through investigation, I can

have similarities and

generations of families

of plants and animals, I can

of fertilisation and embryonic

compare and contrast how

Starting with

differences but are all

of humans, plants and

recognise the different

development and can

different organisms grow and

observations of


animals, I can begin to

stages of their development.

discuss possible risks to the


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understand how

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similarities and differences between individuals, learners

characteristics are inherited.

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develop their

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By exploring the

I have extracted DNA and

Through evaluation of a

understanding of how

characteristics offspring

understand its function. I can

range of data, I can compare

inherit when living things

express an informed view of

sexual and asexual

organisms develop and pass on genetic

reproduce, I can distinguish

the risks and benefits of DNA

reproduction and explain

information to the next

between inherited and non-


their importance for survival

generation. They begin

inherited character istics.

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of species.

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to develop their knowledge of genetics and of the role of DNA

I can use my understanding

of how characteristics are

and examine moral and ethical questions which

inherited to solve simple

arise from technological

genetic problems and relate


this to my understanding of

DNA, genes and



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Properties and

Through creative play,

Through exploring

By contributing to

  • I have developed my

Through gaining an

uses of

I explore different

properties and sources

investigations into familiar

knowledge of the Periodic

understanding of the

materials and can

of materials, I can

changes in substances to

Table by considering the

structure of atoms and how


share my reasoning for

choose appropriate

produce other substances, I

properties and uses of a

they join, I can begin to

By exploring the

selecting materials for

materials to solve

can describe how their

variety of elements relative to

connect the properties of

properties of different

different purposes.

practical challenges.

characteristics have

their positions.

substances with their

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possible structures.

substances and how

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they can be changed, learners gradually develop their understanding of the connection between structure and properties. They explore the development of new

Having contributed to a variety of practical activities to make and break down compounds, I can describe examples of how the properties of compounds are different from their constituent elements.

substances which have useful properties, and

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begin to relate physical and chemical properties


I can make and test

I have participated in

  • I can differentiate between

I have carried out research

to models of atomic

predictions about

practical activities to

pure substances and

into novel materials and can

structure. Learners

solids dissolving in

separate simple mixtures of

mixtures in common use and

begin to explain the scientific

begin to use symbols

water and can relate

substances and can relate

can select appropriate

basis of their properties and

and chemical formulae

my findings to the

my findings to my everyday

physical methods for

discuss the possible impacts

as a way of

world around me.


separating mixtures into their

they may have on society.


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information about elements and compounds.

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Materials (continued)







Properties and



By investigating common

I have taken part in practical

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Through evaluation of

uses of

conditions that increase the

investigations into solubility

experimental results, I can


amount of substance that will

using different solvents and

demonstrate my

dissolve or the speed of dissolving, I can relate my

can apply what I have learned to solve everyday

understanding of

conservation of mass.


findings to the world around

practical problems.

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Materials (continued)







Earth’s materials


Throughout all my

Having explored the

Through evaluation of a

  • I have explored how different

learning, I take

substances that make up

range of data, I can describe

materials can be derived

Learners develop their

appropriate action to

Earth’s surface, I can

the formation, characteristics

from crude oil and their uses.

knowledge and

ensure conservation of

compare some of their

and uses of soils, minerals

  • I can explain the importance

understanding of

materials and

characteristics and uses.

and basic types of rocks.

of carbon compounds in our

substances that make

resources, considering

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the impact of my

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up the Earth’s surface. Properties, uses and methods of extraction of

actions on the environment.

I can participate in practical activities to extract useful

such materials are

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substances from natural resources.

explored. Opportunities exist to discuss the importance of carbon compounds derived from crude oil to our lives.

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Materials (continued)







Chemical changes

  • I have investigated different

Having taken part in practical

I can monitor the

water samples from the

activities to compare the

environment by collecting

Learners gradually

environment and explored

properties of acids and

and analysing samples. I can

develop an

methods that can be used to

bases, I have demonstrated

interpret the results to inform

understanding of

clean and conserve water

ways of measuring and

others about levels of

chemical changes. They

and I am aware of the

adjusting pH and can

pollution and express a

consider processes

properties and uses of water.

describe the significance of

considered opinion on how

which take place in the

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pH in everyday life.

science can help to protect

environment and in the

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our environment.

laboratory, and develop their understanding of

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the environmental impact of some

  • I have collaborated in

Through experimentation, I

I can collect and analyse

changes. They develop

activities which safely

can identify indicators of

experimental data on

demonstrate simple chemical

chemical reactions having

chemical reactions that result

their understanding of energy changes in

reactions using everyday

occurred. I can describe

in an obvious change in

chemical reactions and

chemicals. I can show an

ways of controlling the rate of

energy. I can apply my

some of the factors

appreciation of a chemical

reactions and can relate my

findings to explain the

affecting the rates of

reaction as being a change in

findings to the world around

significance of the energy

reactions. Learners

which different materials are


changes associated with

develop the use of


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chemical reactions.

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chemical names, formulae and equations

I have helped to design and

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Having carried out a range of

as a way of conveying

carry out practical activities

experiments using different

information about

to develop my understanding

chemicals, I can place metals

chemical changes.

of chemical reactions

in an order of reactivity, and

involving the Earth’s

relate my findings to their

materials. I can explain how

everyday uses.

we apply knowledge of these

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reactions in practical ways.

Topical science







Topical science


Through research and

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I have collaborated with

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I have researched new

discussion I have an

others to find and present

developments in science and

By considering current

appreciation of the

information on how scientists

can explain how their current

issues of science,

contribution that individuals

from Scotland and beyond

or future applications might

learners increasingly

are making to scientific

have contributed to

impact on modern life.

discovery and invention and

innovative research and

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develop their understanding of

the impact this has made on society.


scientific concepts and

their capacity to form informed social, moral and ethical views. They

I can talk about

I have contributed to

I can report and comment on

Through research and

Having selected scientific

reflect upon and

science stories to

discussions of current

current scientific news items

discussion, I have

themes of topical interest, I

critically evaluate media

develop my

scientific news items to

to develop my knowledge

contributed to evaluations of

can critically analyse the

portrayal of scientific

understanding of

help develop my

and understanding of topical

media items with regard to

issues, and use relevant


science and the world

awareness of science.


scientific content and ethical

information to develop an

around me.

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informed argument.

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