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UNIT 3 MODULE 1

VOLCANOES

Power
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Plants in the Philippines:


Tiwi, Albay
Kidapawan, North Cotabato
Calacan, Laguna
Tongonan, Leyte
Bago City, Negros Occidental
Valencia, Negros Oriental
Bacon, Sorsogon
Power plants are built in an area where it is
particularly hot just below the surface such as near a
group of geysers, hot springs, or volcanic activity.
How is geothermal energy generated?
Wells are drilled 1 or 2 miles deep into the
Earth to pump steam or hot water to the
surface.
Mostly found in area with hot springs, geysers,
or volcanic activity.

What determines eruption style?


The crystal and gas content and temperature of
a magma help determine a volcano's eruption style.
1. Crystals (silica content) in magma make it more
viscous, so magma with a high crystal content is more
likely to explode than flow.
2. Gases create explosions if they cannot easily escape
from viscous magma, but they can also be released
without explosions (or with only minor ones) from fluid
magma.
3. High-temperature magmas usually erupt effusively,
while low-temperature magmas cannot flow easily and
are more likely to erupt explosively.
TYPES OF VOLCANIC ERUPTION
a. Phreatic a steam-driven eruption.
Characterized by fine ash column.
b. Phreatomagmatic steam-driven (violent)
eruption with inclusion of molten magma.
Characterized by large columns of fine ash and
high-speed pyroclastic emission.
c. Strombolian a periodic of weak to violent
eruption characterized by fountain lava.
d. Vulcaninan characterized by tall eruption
columns that reach up to 20km high with
pyroclastic flow and ashfall tephra.
e. Plinain excessively explosive type of eruption
of gas and pyroclastics.

A pyroclastic flow - is a fast-moving current of


hot gas and rock (collectively known as tephra),
which reaches speeds moving away from a
volcano of up to 700 km/h (450 mph). The gas
can reach temperatures of about 1,000 C
(1,830 F).
Tephra is fragmental material produced by
a volcanic eruption regardless of composition,
fragment size or emplacement mechanism.

Tephra fragments are classified by size:


Ash particles smaller than 2 mm (0.08
inches) in diameter,
Lapilli or volcanic cinders between 2 and
64 mm (0.08 and 2.5 inches) in diameter,
Volcanic bombs or volcanic blocks larger
than 64 mm (2.5 inches) in diameter.
The words "tephra" and "pyroclast" both derive
from Greek. Tephra means "ash". Pyro means "fire"
and klastos means "broken"; thus pyroclasts carry the
connotation of "broken by fire".

ENERGY FROM THE VOLCANO


Geothermal energy the heat from the earths interior
as a source of energy.

How It Works

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Hot water is pumped from deep underground


through a well under high pressure.
When the water reaches the surface, the
pressure is dropped, which causes the water
to turn into steam.
The steam spins a turbine, which is
connected to a generator that produces
electricity.
The steam cools of in a cooling tower and
condenses back to water.
The cooled water is pumped back into the
Earth to begin the process again.

Efects of Volcanic Eruptions


Despite from its bad effect such as loss of lives
and destruction properties, there are other good effect
of volcanic eruption.
1. Decrease in the earths surface temperature
2. Production of rich soil for farming
3. Creation of landscapes and generates tourism
4. Production of earthenware out of ashfall.
Signs of Impending Volcanic Eruptions:
1.
Increase in the frequency of volcanic quakes
with rumbling sounds; occurrence of volcanic
tremors
2. Increased steaming activity; change in color of
steam emission from white to gray due to
entrained strash
3. Crater glow due to presence of magma at or
near the crater
4. Ground swells (or inflation, ground tilt and
ground fissuring due to magma intrusion
5. Localize landslides, rockfall and landslides from
the summit area which not attributable to
heavy rains
6. Noticeable increase in the extent of drying up
vegetation around the volcanos upper slopes
7. Increase in the temperature of hot springs,
wells, and crater lake

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Noticeable variation in the chemical content of


the springs, crater lakes within the vicinity of
the volcano
Drying up of springs/wells around the volcano;
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10. Development of new thermal areas and/or


reactivation of old ones; appearance of
solfataras.
For more information: visit this page:

http://mail.colonial.net/~hkaiter/volcanoes.html