0 Stimmen dafür0 Stimmen dagegen

69 Aufrufe42 Seitenhgh

Jul 03, 2015

© © All Rights Reserved

DOC, PDF, TXT oder online auf Scribd lesen

hgh

© All Rights Reserved

Als DOC, PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

69 Aufrufe

hgh

© All Rights Reserved

Als DOC, PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

- Tablas y Figura 23
- vmc aits
- Mt3 Adv p1 Questions
- Chemistry Chapter Outline 9-21
- jayc promo
- rgd 32
- PM7006 WhatsNew Portuguese Br
- 960 Physics [PPU] Semester 1 Topics
- Intro Physics 1
- Ch18 Young Freedman1
- A-Tutorial-3.docx
- 01 Kinetic Theory of Gases Theory1
- 2009 EOY 2E Science Ansfrw
- Tunnel ventilation
- chromebook lab activity newtons 2nd law
- A94 Gasket-Sert PSP
- AP Chemistry Review Questions
- Fundamental Thoughts.pdf
- Gay Lus Forms
- 21 - The Kinetic Theory of Gases

Sie sind auf Seite 1von 42

11.1 Introduction.

In gases the intermolecular forces are very weak and its molecule may fly apart in all

directions. So the gas is characterised by the following properties.

(i)It has no shape and size and can be obtained in a vessel of any shape or size.

(ii) It expands indefinitely and uniformly to fill the available space.

(iii) It exerts pressure on its surroundings.

Kinetic theory of gases relates the macroscopic properties of gases (such as pressure,

temperature etc.) to the microscopic properties of the gas molecules (such as speed,

momentum, kinetic energy of molecule etc.)

Actually it attempts to develop a model of the molecular behaviour which should result in the

observed behaviour of an ideal gas. It is based on following assumptions :

(1) Every gas consists of extremely small particles known as molecules. The molecules of a

given gas are all identical but are different than those of another gas.

(2) The molecules of a gas are identical, spherical, rigid and perfectly elastic point masses.

(3) Their size is negligible in comparison to intermolecular distance (10 9 m)

(4) The volume of molecules is negligible in comparison to the volume of gas. (The volume of

molecules is only 0.014% of the volume of the gas).

(5) Molecules of a gas keep on moving randomly in all possible direction with all possible

velocities.

(6) The speed of gas molecules lie between zero and infinity (very high speed).

(7) The number of molecules moving with most probable speed is maximum.

(8) The gas molecules keep on colliding among themselves as well as with the walls of

containing vessel. These collisions are perfectly elastic. (i.e. the total energy before collision =

total energy after the collision).

(9) Molecules move in a straight line with constant speeds during successive collisions.

(10) The distance covered by the molecules between two successive collisions is known as

free path and mean of all free paths is known as mean free path.

(11) The time spent M a collision between two molecules is negligible in comparison to time

between two successive collisions.

(12) The number of collisions per unit volume in a gas remains constant.

(13) No attractive or repulsive force acts between gas molecules.

(14) Gravitational attraction among the molecules is ineffective due to extremely small

masses and very high speed of molecules.

Page 2

PHYSICS

(15) Molecules constantly collide with the walls of container due to which their momentum

changes. The change in momentum is transferred to the walls of the container. Consequently

pressure is exerted by gas molecules on the walls of container.

(16) The density of gas is constant at all points of the container.

Consider an ideal gas (consisting of N molecules each of mass m) enclosed in a cubical box

of side L.

Its any molecule moves with velocity v in any direction where v vxi vy j vz k

This molecule collides with the shaded wall (A1 ) with

vx

vx

As the momentum remains conserved in a collision, the

After rebound this molecule travel toward opposite wall A2 with velocity vx , collide to it

and again rebound with velocity vx towards wall A1.

(1) Time between two successive collision with the wall A1.

t

Distance

travelled

by molecule

between

twosuccessive

collision 2L

Velocityof molecule

vx

1 vx

t 2L

(2) The momentum imparted per unit time to the wall by this molecule nP

vx

m

2mvx vx2

2L

L

This is also equal to the force exerted on the wall A1 due to this molecule F

(3) The total force on the wall A1 due to all the molecules Fx

m

L

m 2

vx

L

2

x

Fx

m

A AL

Px

So

Px Py Pz

or

2

x

m

V

(v

2

x

m

V

2

x

Similarly

Py

m

V

2

y

and

Pz

m

V

2

z

vy2 vz2 )

3P

m

V

3P

m 2

(v1 v22 v33 ......)

V

3P

V

N

Page 3

PHYSICS

3P

or

vrms

mN 2

vrms

V

or

1 mN 2

vrms

3 V

Important points

(i) P

1 mN 2

vrms

3 V

or

(m N)T

V

2

[As vrms

T]

(a) If volume and temperature of a gas are constant P mN i.e. Pressure (Mass of gas).

i.e. if mass of gas is increased, number of molecules and hence number of collision per

second increases i.e. pressure will increase.

(b) If mass and temperature of a gas are constant. P (1/V), i.e., if volume decreases,

number of collisions per second will increase due to lesser effective distance between the walls

resulting in greater pressure.

(c) If mass and volume of gas are constant, P (vrms)2 T

i.e., if temperature increases, the mean square speed of gas molecules will increase and as

gas molecules are moving faster, they will collide with the walls more often with greater

momentum resulting in greater pressure.

(ii) P

1 mN 2

1M 2

vrms

vrms

3 V

3 V

1

2

vrms

3

M

As V

Kinetic energy

1 M 2

1

1

2

2

M vrms

vrms vrms ..(i)

Kinetic energy per unit volume (E)

2 V

2

2

and we know P

From (i) and (ii), we get P

1

2

vrms

3

..(ii)

2

E

3

i.e. the pressure exerted by an ideal gas is numerically equal to the two third of the mean

kinetic energy of translation per unit volume of the gas.

Problem 1. The root mean square speed of hydrogen molecules of an ideal hydrogen gas kept in a gas

chamber at 0C is 3180 m/s. The pressure on the hydrogen gas is

(Density of hydrogen gas is 8.99 102 kg / m3 , 1 atmosphere 1.01 105 N / m2 )

[MP PMT 1995]

Solution : (d) As P

1

1

2

vrms

(8.99 10 2 ) (3180)2 3.03 105 N/m2 3.0 atm

3

3

Page 4

PHYSICS

Problem 2. The temperature of a gas is raised while its volume remains constant, the pressure exerted

by a gas on the walls of the container increases because its molecules

[CBSE PMT 1993]

(b) Are in contact with the wall for a shorter time

(c) Strike the wall more often with higher velocities

(d) Collide with each other less frequency

Solution : (c) Due to increase in temperature root mean square velocity of gas molecules increases. So

they strike the wall more often with higher velocity. Hence the pressure exerted by a gas on

the walls of the container increases.

Problem 3. A cylinder of capacity 20 litres is filled with H 2 gas. The total average kinetic energy of

translatory motion of its molecules is 1.5 105 J . The pressure of hydrogen in the cylinder

is

[MP PET 1993]

(a) 2 106 N / m2

(b) 3 106 N / m2

(c) 4 106 N / m2

(d) 5 106 N / m2

Pressure

2 1.5 105

2E

5 106 N/m2 .

3 20 10 3

3V

Problem 4. N molecules each of mass m of gas A and 2N molecules each of mass 2m of gas B are

contained in the same vessel at temperature T. The mean square of the velocity of

molecules of gas B is v2 and the mean square of x component of the velocity of molecules of

gas A is w2. The ratio

w2

v2

(a) 1

is

(b) 2

(c)

1

3

(d)

2

3

3kT

m

Mean square velocity 3w2

3kT

m

From (i) and (ii)

3w2

v2

..(i)

3kT

2m

..(ii)

2

w2

2

so 2 .

1

3

v

3.0 1022 . The mass of an oxygen molecule is 5.3 1026 kg and at that temperature the

rms velocity of molecules is 400 m/s. The pressure in N / m2 of the gas in the flask is

(a) 8.48 104

Solution : (a) V 103 m3 , N 3.0 1022 , m 5.3 1026 kg, vrms 400m/s

1 mN 2

1 5.3 1026 3.0 1022

vrms

(400)2 8.48 104 N/m2 .

3

3 V

3

10

Problem 6. A gas at a certain volume and temperature has pressure 75 cm. If the mass of the gas is

doubled at the same volume and temperature, its new pressure is

(a) 37.5 cm

(b) 75 cm

(c) 150 cm

(d) 300 cm

Page 5

PHYSICS

Solution : (c)

1M 2

MT

vrms P

3 V

V

At constant volume and temperature, if the mass of the gas is doubled then pressure will

become twice.

A gas which strictly obeys the gas laws is called as perfect or an ideal gas. The size of the

molecule of an ideal gas is zero i.e. each molecule is a point mass with no dimension. There is no

force of attraction or repulsion amongst the molecule of the gas. All real gases are not perfect

gases. However at extremely low pressure and high temperature, the gases like hydrogen,

nitrogen, helium etc. are nearly perfect gases.

The equation which relates the pressure (P), volume (V) and temperature (T) of the given

state of an ideal gas is known as gas equation.

Ideal gas equations

For 1 mole or NA molecule or M gram or 22.4 litres

of gas

PV = RT

PV = RT

R

PV

NA

T kT

PV = NkT

For 1 gm of gas

R

T rT

M

PV

for n gm of gas

PV = nrT

R

PV

Pressure

Volume

Workdone

T

No. of moles Temperatu

re No. of moles Temperatu

re

Thus universal gas constant signifies the work done by (or on) a gas per mole per kelvin.

litre atm

Joule

cal

8.31

1.98

0.8221

mole kelvin

mole kelvin

mole kelvin

S.T.P. value :

k

R

8.31

N 6.023 1023

r

R

;

M

Unit :

Joule

gm kelvin

Since the value of M is different for different gases. Hence the value of r is different for

different gases.

Problem 7. A gas at 27C has a volume V and pressure P. On heating its pressure is doubled and volume

becomes three times. The resulting temperature of the gas will be

[MP PET 2003]

(a) 1800C

(b) 162C

(c) 1527C

(d) 600C

Page 6

PHYSICS

Solution : (c) From ideal gas equation PV RT we get

T2 P2

T1 P1

V2 2P1

V P

1 1

3V1

V 6

1

[MP PMT/PET 1998; JIPMER 2001, 2002]

3

(a) 500m

(b) 700m3

V2 T2

V1 T1

(c) 900m3

(d) 1000m3

P1 270 1

9

9

3

Problem 9. When volume of system is increased two times and temperature is decreased half of its

initial temperature, then pressure becomes

[AIEEE 2002]

(a) 2 times

(b) 4 times

(c) 1 / 4 times

P2 T2

P1 T1

V1 T1 / 2

V2 T1

(d) 1 / 2 times

V1

1

P

P2 1

2

V

4

4

1

Problem 10.

(a) PV 8RT

(b) PV RT / 4

(c) PV RT

(d) PV RT / 2

1

4

1

RT

RT or PV

4

4

So from PV RT we get PV

Problem 11. A flask is filled with 13 gm of an ideal gas at 27C and its temperature is raised to 52C. The

mass of the gas that has to be released to maintain the temperature of the gas in the flask

at 52C and the pressure remaining the same is

[EAMCET (Engg.) 2000]

(a) 2.5 g

(b) 2.0 g

(c) 1.5 g

(d) 1.0 g

In this problem pressure and volume remains constant so M 1T1 = M2T2 = constant

12

12

M 2 M1

13

gm 12gm

M 1 T2 (52 273) 325 13

13

13

Problem 12.

Air is filled at 60C in a vessel of open mouth. The vessel is heated to a temperature T so

that 1 / 4th part of air escapes. Assuming the volume of vessel remaining constant, the value

of T is

[MP PET 1996, 99]

(a) 80C

(b) 444C

(c) 333C

(d) 171C

M

3M

[As 1 / 4th part of air escapes]

4

4

If pressure and volume of gas remains constant then MT = constant

Problem 13.

T2 M 1 M

4

4

4

T2 T1 333 444K 171C

3

T1 M 2 3M / 4

3

3

If the intermolecular forces vanish away, the volume occupied by the molecules

contained in 4.5 kg water at standard temperature and pressure will be given by

[CPMT 1989]

3

(a) 5.6 m

(b) 4.5 m

(d) 11.2 m3

Page 7

PHYSICS

Solution : (a)

4.5 kg

Massof water

Molecularwt.of water 18 10 3 kg

5.66m3 .

5

P

10

From PV RT V

Problem 14. The pressure P, volume V and temperature T of a gas in the jar A and the other gas in the jar B

at pressure 2P, volume V/4 and temperature 2T, then the ratio of the number of molecules in

the jar A and B will be [AIIMS 1982]

(a) 1 : 1

(b) 1 : 2

(c) 2 : 1

(d) 4 : 1

N

Solution : (d) Ideal gas equation PV RT

NA

number

Problem 15.

N1 P1

N 2 P2

V1

V

2

RT

T2

4

P V 2T

T 2P V/4 T 1 .

1

The expansion of an ideal gas of mass m at a constant pressure P is given by the straight

line D. Then the expansion of the same ideal gas of mass 2m at a pressure P/ 2 is given by

the straight line

Volume

(a) E

(b) C

6

4

(c) B

2

1

(d) A

Temperature

M

M

T ; Here

P

P

B

C

D

E

temperature axis.

2M

M

4

i.e. slope becomes four time so graph A is correct in

P /2

P

this condition.

Problem 16.

If the value of molar gas constant is 8.3 J/mole-K, the n specific gas constant for

hydrogen in J/mole-K will be

(a) 4.15

(b) 8.3

Problem 17.

(c) 16.6

Universal

gasconstant

(R)

8.3

4.15 Joule/mole-K.

Molecularweightof gas(M )

2

contain equal masses of the two gases in the respective containers. Which of the following

can be true

(a) PAVA PB VB

Solution : (b, c)

i.e. A B

(b) PA PB , VA VB (c) PA PB , VA VB

(d)

PA

P

B

VA

VB

According to problem mass of gases are equal so number of moles will not be equal

P A VA

P V

B B

A

B

are equal]

Page 8

PHYSICS

From this relation it is clear that if PA PB then

Similarly if VA VB then

Problem 18.

VA A

1 i.e. VA VB

VB B

PA A

1 i.e. PA PB .

PB B

Two identical glass bulbs are interconnected by a thin glass tube. A gas is filled in these

bulbs at N.T.P. If one bulb is placed in ice and another bulb is placed in hot bath, then the

pressure of the gas becomes 1.5 times. The temperature of hot bath will be

(a) 100C

(b) 182C

(c) 256C

Hot bath

Ice

(d) 546C

Solution : (d) Quantity of gas in these bulbs is constant i.e. Initial No. of moles in both bulb = final number

of moles

1 2 1' 2'

1.5 PV 1.5PV

PV

PV

R(273) R(273)

R(273)

R(T )

2

1.5 1.5

273 273 T

T 819K 546C .

Two containers of equal volume contain the same gas at pressures P1 and P2 and

Problem 19.

absolute temperatures T1 and T2 respectively. On joining the vessels, the gas reaches a

common pressure P and common temperature T. The ratio P/T is equal to

(a)

P1 P2

T1 T2

(b)

P1T1 P2T2

(T1 T2)2

(c)

P1T2 P2T1

(T1 T2)2

(d)

P1V

P2V

and number of moles in second vessel 2

RT1

RT2

remains same i.e 1 2

RT

RT1 RT2

P

P

P

1 2

T 2T1 2T2

Problem 20.

P1

P

2

2T1 2T2

Initially

P1 T1

V

Finally

P T

V

P2 T2

V

PT

V

An ideal monoatomic gas is confined in a cylinder by a spring-loaded piston if crosssection 8 103 m2 . Initially the gas is at 300K and occupies a volume of 2.4 103 m3 and

the spring is in a relaxed state. The gas is heated by a small heater coil H. The force

constant of the spring is 8000 N/m, and the atmospheric pressure is 1.0 105 Pa . The

cylinder and piston are thermally insulated. The piston and the spring are massless and

there is no friction between the piston and cylinder. There is no heat loss through heater coil

wire leads and thermal capacity of the heater coil is negligible. With all the above

assumptions, if the gas is heated by the heater until the piston moves out slowly by 0.1m,

then the final temperature is

(a) 400 K

Gas

(b) 800 K

Spring

(c) 1200 K

(d) 300 K

Page 9

PHYSICS

Solution : (b) V1 2.4 103 m3 ,

P1 P0 105

N

m2

and

T1 = 300 K

(given)

volume of the gas = Ax

and if force constant of a spring is k then force F = kx and pressure =

F

kx

A

A

P2 P0

From

kx

8000 0.1

105

2 105

3

A

8 10

ideal

gas

equation

P1V1

P V

2 2

T1

T2

2 105 3.2 103

300

T2

T2 800K

Two identical containers each of volume V0 are joined by a small pipe. The containers

Problem 21.

temperature 2T0 while maintaining the other at the same temperature. The common

pressure of the gas is P and n is the number of moles of gas in container at temperature

2T0

(a) P 2P0

Solution : (b, c)

(b) P

4

P0

3

For container B

(c) n

2 P0V0

3 RT0

(d) n

3 P0V0

2 RT0

P0 V0 n0 RT0

P0 V0 n0 RT0

n0

P0 V0

RT0

n0, V0

P0, T0

Initially

(A)

n0, V0

P0, T0

(B)

Hence

n1 n2 2n0

......(i)

For container A PV0 n1R 2T0

PV0

n1

2RT0

PV0

n2

RT0

n1, V0

P, 2T0

(A)

Finally

n2, V0

P, T0

(B)

PV0

PV0

2.P0 V0

2RT0 RT0

RT0

4

P0

3

No. of moles in container A (at temperature 2T0 ) = n1

PV0

2 P0 V0

4

V0

P0

2RT0 3 2RT0

3 RT0

As P 3 P0

Problem 22.

At the bottom of the mountain these read 27C and 76 cm of Hg respectively. Comparison of

density of air at the top with that of bottom is

o

(a) 75/76

7 C, 70 cm of

Hg

(b) 70/76

(c) 76/75

27oC, 76 cm of

Hg

Page 10

PHYSICS

(d) 76/70

Solution : (a) Ideal gas equation, in terms of density

Top

Bottom

PTop

PBottom

P1

P2

P

T

constant 1 1 2

1T1 2T2

2 P2 T1

TBottom 70 300 75

TTop

76 280 76

All real gases do not obey the ideal gas equation. In order to explain the behaviour of real

gases following two modification are considered in ideal gas equation.

(i) Non-zero size of molecule : A certain portion of volume of a gas is covered by the

molecules themselves. Therefore the space available for the free motion of molecules of gas will

be slightly less than the volume V of a gas.

Hence the effective volume becomes (V b)

(ii) Force of attraction between gas molecules : Due to this, molecule do not exert that

force on the wall which they would have exerted in the absence of intermolecular force.

Therefore the observed pressure P of the gas will be less than that present in the absence of

V

The equation obtained by using above modifications in ideal gas equation is called Vander

Waals equation or real gas equation.

Vander Waal's gas equations

V2

(V b) RT

2

P a (V b) RT

V 2

Dimension : [a] = [ML5T 2 ] and [b] = [L3]

Units : a = N m4 and b = m3.

The pressure (P) versus volume (V) curves for actual gases are called Andrews curves.

(1) At 350C, part AB represents vapour phase of water,

1

in this part Boyles law is obeyed P . Part BC represents

V

vapours completely change to liquid phase. Part CD is parallel

to pressure axis which shows that compressibility of the water

is negligible.

liquid vapour phase is shorter.

D G

Gas

380C

Liquid

vapour

region

374.1C

Liquid

370C

F

C

360C

E

B

350C

water

Vapour

A

V

Page 11

PHYSICS

(4) At 374.1C, it reduces to point (H) called critical point and the temperature 374.1C is

called critical temperature (Tc) of water.

(5) The phase of water (at 380C) above the critical temperature is called gaseous phase.

Critical temperature, pressure and volume

The point on the P-V curve at which the matter gets converted from gaseous state to liquid

state is known as critical point. At this point the difference between the liquid and vapour

vanishes i.e. the densities of liquid and vapour become equal.

(i) Critical temperature (Tc) : The maximum temperature below which a gas can be

liquefied by pressure alone is called critical temperature and is characteristic of the gas. A gas

cannot be liquefied if its temperature is more than critical temperature.

CO2 (304.3 K), O2 (118C), N2 (147.1C)

(ii) Critical pressure (Pc) : The minimum pressure necessary to liquify a gas at critical

temperature is defined as critical pressure.

CO2 (73.87 bar) and

O2 (49.7atm)

(iii) Critical volume (Vc) : The volume of 1 mole of gas at critical pressure and critical

temperature is defined as critical volume.

CO2 (95 106 m3)

(iv) Relation between Vander Waals constants and Tc, Pc, Vc :

a

8a

Tc

, Pc

, Vc 3b ,

27Rb

27b2

R Tc

27R 2 Tc2

, b

8 Pc

64 Pc

Pc Vc

3

R

Tc

8

and

Problem 23.

Under which of the following conditions is the law PV = RT obeyed most closely by a real

gas

[NCERT 1974; MP PMT 1994, 97; MP PET 1999; AMU 2001]

Solution : (c) At low pressure and high temperature real gas obey PV = RT i.e. they behave as ideal gas

because at high temperature we can assume that there is no force of attraction or repulsion

works among the molecules and the volume occupied by the molecules is negligible in

comparison to the volume occupied by the gas.

Problem 24.

aT2

The equation of state of a gas is given by P

are constants. The isotherms can be represented by P AV m BVn , where A and B depend

only on temperature then

[CBSE PMT 1995]

(a)

m c

(d)

and n 1

(b)

m c

and n 1

m c

and n 1

(c)

m c

and

n1

aT 2

Solution : (a) P

Page 12

PHYSICS

By comparing this equation with given equation P AV m BV n we get m c and

n 1 .

Problem 25.

pressure such that it deviates from the ideal gas behaviour. The variation of

shown in the diagram. The correct variation will correspond

to

PV/RT

[CPMT 1988]

2.0

PV

with P is

RT

A

B

(a) Curve A

1.0

(b) Curve B

C

D

(c) Curve C

0, 0

(d) Curve D

20 40 60 80 100 P (atm)

PV

constant

RT

but when pressure increase, the decrease in volume will not take place in same proportion

PV

so

will increases.

RT

Solution : (b) At lower pressure we can assume that given gas behaves as ideal gas so

Problem 26.

(a) Possible only at low pressure

(d) Impossible

Solution : (d) Because there is zero attraction between the molecules of ideal gas.

The motion of molecules in a gas is characterised by any of the following three speeds.

(1) Root mean square speed : It is defined as the square root of mean of squares of the

N

vrms

3PV

mN

3PV

Massof gas

(ii) vrms

3PV

Massof gas

(iii) vrms

3RT

3P

As

3RT

3N A kT

NAM

1 mN 2

vrms

3 V

gas

PV = RT and Mass of gas = M ]

3RT

M

3kT

m

Massof gas

3P

3RT

3kT

m

Important points

(i) With rise in temperature rms speed of gas molecules increases as vrms T .

(ii) With increase in molecular weight rms speed of gas molecule decreases as vrms

1

M

e.g., rms speed of hydrogen molecules is four times that of oxygen molecules at the same

temperature.

(iii) rms speed of gas molecules is of the order of km/s

Page 13

PHYSICS

3RT

3

As

3RT

M

vrms

vs

and

3 8.31 273

1840m/ s .

2 103

RT

M

vrms

3

vs

(v) rms speed of gas molecules does not depends on the pressure of gas (if temperature

remains constant) because P (Boyles law) if pressure is increased n times then density will

also increases by n times but vrms remains constant.

(vi) Moon has no atmosphere because vrms of gas molecules is more than escape velocity (ve).

A planet or satellite will have atmosphere only and only if vrms ve

(vii) At T = 0; vrms = 0 i.e. the rms speed of molecules of a gas is zero at 0 K. This

temperature is called absolute zero.

(2) Most probable speed : The particles of a gas have a range of speeds. This is defined as

the speed which is possessed by maximum fraction of total number of molecules of the gas. e.g.,

if speeds of 10 molecules of a gas are 1, 2, 2, 3, 3, 3, 4, 5, 6, 6 km/s, then the most probable

speed is 3 km/s, as maximum fraction of total molecules possess this speed.

Most probable speed vmp

2P

2RT

2kT

m

(3) Average speed : It is the arithmetic mean of the speeds of molecules in a gas at given

temperature.

vav

v1 v2 v3 v4 .....

N

8P

Note :

8 RT

8 kT

m

3:

8

: 2 3 : 2.5 : 2

For oxygen gas molecules vrms = 461 m/s, vav = 424.7 m/s and vrms = 376.4 m/s

Problem 27.

At room temperature, the rms speed of the molecules of certain diatomic gas is found to

be 1930 m/s. The gas is

[IIT-JEE 1984; MP PET 2000; BCECE 2003]

(a) H 2

(b) F2

M

3RT

2

(1930)

(d) Cl 2

(c) O 2

3RT

1930m/s

M

(given)

3 8.31 300

2 10 3 kg 2 gm i.e. the gas is hydrogen.

1930 1930

Page 14

PHYSICS

Problem 28.

TA

T

4. B ; where T is the temperature and M

MA

MB

is the molecular mass. If C A and C B are the rms speed, then the ratio

to

[BHU 2003]

(a) 2

(b) 4

3RT

M

Problem 29.

CA

will be equal

CB

CA

CB

(c) 1

TA / TB

42

MA / MB

As

(d) 0.5

TA

M

4 A given

TB

MB

The rms speed of the molecules of a gas in a vessel is 400 ms1. If half of the gas leaks

out at constant temperature, the rms speed of the remaining molecules will be

[Kerala (Engg.) 2002]

(a) 800 ms

Solution : (c) Root mean square velocity does not depends upon the quantity of gas. For a given gas and

at constant temperature it always remains same.

Problem 30.

The root mean square speed of hydrogen molecules at 300 K is 1930 m/s. Then the root

mean square speed of oxygen molecules at 900 K will be

[MH CET 2002]

(a)

1930 3 m/ s

vO2

3RT

M

vH 2

vO2

TH 2

M H2

M O2

(d)

TO2

1930

m/ s

3

1930

vO2

300 32

2

900

1930 3

836m/s .

4

Problem 31.

At what temperature is the root mean square velocity of gaseous hydrogen molecules is

equal to that of oxygen molecules at 47C

[CPMT 1985; MP PET 1997; RPET 1999; AIEEE 2002]

(a) 20 K

(b) 80 K

3RTO2

M O2

According to problem

Problem 32.

TO2

M O2

TH 2

M H2

(c) 73 K

For hydrogen vH 2

and

3RTO2

M O2

3R

(d) 3 K

3R

TH 2

M H2

TH 2

M H2

H2

32

32

2

Cooking gas containers are kept in a lorry moving with uniform speed. The temperature

of the gas molecules inside will

[AIEEE 2002]

(a) Increase

(b) Decrease

others

Solution : (c) If a lorry is moving with constant velocity then the vrms of gas molecule inside the container

2

will not change and we know that T vrms

. So temperature remains same.

Page 15

PHYSICS

Problem 33.

The speeds of 5 molecules of a gas (in arbitrary units) are as follows : 2, 3, 4, 5, 6. The

root mean square speed for these molecules is

[MP PMT 2000]

(a) 2.91

(b) 3.52

(c) 4.00

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

Solution : (d) v v1 v2 v3 v4 v5 2 3 4 5 6

rms

(d) 4.24

100

20 4.24

Problem 34. Gas at a pressure P0 in contained as a vessel. If the masses of all the molecules are halved

and their speeds are doubled, the resulting pressure P will be equal to

[NCERT 1984; MNR 1995; MP PET 1997; MP PMT 1997; RPET 1999; UPSEAT 1999, 2000]

(a) 4P0

(b) 2P0

1 mN 2

Solution : (b) P

vrms

3 V

Problem 35.

2

mvrms

(c) P0

P2 m2 v2

so

P1 m1 v1

P0

2

(d)

2

m / 2 2v1

1

m1 v1

2 P2 2P1 2P0

Let v, vrms and vmp respectively denote the mean speed, root mean square speed and

most probable speed of the molecules in an ideal monoatomic gas at absolute temperature

T. The mass of a molecule is m. Then

[IIT-JEE 1998]

2 vrms

(c) vmp v vrms

(d) The average kinetic energy of a molecule is

We know that vrms

Solution : (c, d)

vrms

vmp

and

3RT

, vav

M

3

2

mvmp

4

8 RT

and

M

vmp

RT

M

3

3 2

2

or vrms

vmp

2

2

Average

kinetic

energy

1

1 3 2

2

mvrms

m vmp

2

2 2

3

2

mvmp

.

4

Problem 36.

The root mean square speed of the molecules of a diatomic gas is v. When the

temperature is doubled, the molecules dissociate into two atoms. The new root mean square

speed of the atom is

[Roorkee 1996]

(a)

2v

(b) v

(c) 2v

(d) 4v

3RT

. According to problem T will becomes T/2 and M will becomes M/2 so the value

M

of vrms will increase by 4 2 times i.e. new root mean square velocity will be 2v.

Problem 37.

The molecules of a given mass of a gas have a rms velocity of 200 m/sec at 27C and

1.0 105 N / m2 pressure. When the temperature is 127C and pressure is 0.5 105 N / m2 ,

[AIIMS 1985; MP PET 1992]

(a)

100 2

3

(b) 100 2

(c)

400

3

Solution : (c) Change in pressure will not affect the rms velocity of molecules. So we will calculate only the

effect of temperature.

Page 16

PHYSICS

As

vrms

v400

Problem 38.

200 2

3

v300o

v400o

300

3

400

4

200

v400

3

4

400

m/s .

3

[IIT-JEE 1981]

(b) Two different gases at the same temperature pressure have equal root mean square

velocities

(c) The rms speed of the molecules of different ideal gases, maintained at the same

temperature are the same

(d) Given sample of 1cc of hydrogen and 1cc of oxygen both at N.T.P.; oxygen sample has a

large number of molecules

Solution : (a) At absolute temperature kinetic energy of gas molecules becomes zero but they possess

potential energy so we can say that absolute zero degree temperature is not zero energy

temperature.

Problem 39.

The ratio of rms speeds of the gases in the mixture of nitrogen oxygen will be

(a) 1 : 1

Problem 40.

(b)

vN2

3RT

vO2

M

M O2

M N2

(c)

3 :1

8:

(d)

6:

32

8

28

7

A vessel is partitioned in two equal halves by a fixed diathermic separator. Two different

ideal gases are filled in left (L) and right (R) halves. The rms speed of the molecules in L part

is equal to the mean speed of molecules in the R part. Then the ratio of the mass of a

molecule in L part to that of a molecule in R part is

(a)

3

2

(b)

/4

(c)

2/ 3

(d) 3 / 8

vrms

According to problem

Problem 41.

3KT

mL

8 KT

mR

3

8

mL mR

3KT

mL

8 KT

mR

mL

3

.

mR

8

An ideal gas ( = 1.5) is expanded adiabatically. How many times has the gas to be

expanded to reduce the root mean square velocity of molecules 2 times

(a) 4 times

(b) 16 times

(c) 8 times

(d) 2 times

Solution : (b) To reduce the rms velocity two times, temperature should be reduced by four times (As

vrms

T )

T1 T

T2

T

, V1 V

4

Page 17

PHYSICS

V

V1

T1

4

T2

V2

(4) 1

V1

3/2 given]

1

2

1

V2

16

V1

Molecules of ideal gases possess only translational motion. So they possess only

translational kinetic energy.

Quantity of gas

Kinetic energy

1 3kT

1

3

2

m

kT

mvrms

2 m

2

2

As vrms

1

1

3RT

3

2

M vrms

M

RT

2

2

M

2

As vrms

3kT

3RT

3 R

3 k NA

3k

3

T

T

T rT

2M

2 mN A

2m

2

Here m = mass of each molecule, M = Molecular weight of gas and NA = Avogadro number =

6.023 1023

Important points

(1) Kinetic energy per molecule of gas does not depends upon the mass of the molecule but

only depends upon the temperature of the gas.

3

kT or E T i.e. molecules of different gases say He, H2 and O2 etc. at same

2

temperature will have same translational kinetic energy though their rms speed are different.

E

vrms

3kT

As

(2) Kinetic energy per mole of gas depends only upon the temperature of gas.

(3) Kinetic energy per gram of gas depend upon the temperature as well as molecular

weight (or mass of one molecule) of the gas.

Egram

3k

T

2m

Egram

T

m

From the above expressions it is clear that higher the temperature of the gas, more will be

the average kinetic energy possessed by the gas molecules at T = 0, E = 0 i.e. at absolute zero

the molecular motion stops.

Page 18

PHYSICS

Problem 42.

Read the given statements and decide which is/are correct on the basis of kinetic theory

of gases

[MP PMT 2003]

(I) Energy of one molecule at absolute temperature is zero

(II) rms speeds of different gases are same at same temperature

(III) For one gram of all ideal gas kinetic energy is same at same temperature

(IV)For one mole of all ideal gases mean kinetic energy is same at same temperature

(a) All are correct

Solution : (c) If the gas is not ideal then its molecule will possess potential energy. Hence statement (I) is

wrong.

rms speed of different gases at same temperature depends on its molecular weight

vrms

1

. Hence statement

M

But K.E. of one mole of ideal gas does not depends on the molecular weight E RT .

2

Problem 43.

At which of the following temperature would the molecules of a gas have twice the

average kinetic energy they have at 20C

[MP PET 1992; BVP 2003]

(a) 40C

(b) 80C

(c) 313C

(d) 586C

E 2 T2

2E1

T2

E1 T1

E1

(20 273)

Solution : (c)

ET

Problem 44.

A vessel contains a mixture of one mole of oxygen and two moles of nitrogen at 300 K.

The ratio of the average rotational kinetic energy per O 2 molecule to that per N2

molecule is

[IIT-JEE 1998; DPMT 2000]

(a) 1 : 1

(b) 1 : 2

(c) 2 : 1

(d) Depends on the moments of inertia of the two molecules

Solution : (a) Kinetic energy per degree of freedom

1

kT

2

As diatomic gas possess two degree of freedom for rotational motion therefore rotational

kT kT

K.E. 2

2

In the problem both gases (oxygen and nitrogen) are diatomic and have same temperature

(300 K) therefore ratio of average rotational kinetic energy will be equal to one.

Problem 45.

vrms and K are the rms speed and average kinetic energy of the gases. Which of the

following is true

[AMU (Engg.) 2000]

(a) (vrms)1 (vrms)2 (vrms)3 and (K )1 (K )2 (K )3

(b)

(c) (vrms)1 (vrms)2 (vrms)3 and (K )1 (K )2 (K )3

(d)

Page 19

PHYSICS

Solution : (a) The rms speed depends upon the molecular mass vrms

1

M

depends on it E M 0

In the problem m1 m2 m3 (vrms)1 (vrms)2 (vrms)3 but (K 1 ) (K 2 ) (K 3 )

Problem 46.

The kinetic energy of one gram mole of a gas at normal temperature and pressure is (R

= 8.31 J/mole-K)

[AFMC 1998; MH CET 1999; Pb. PMT 2000]

Solution : (d) E

Problem 47.

3

3

RT 8.31 273 3.4 103 Joule

2

2

The average translational kinetic energy of O2 (molar mass 32) molecules at a particular

temperature is 0.048 eV. The translational kinetic energy of N 2 (molar mass 28) molecules in

eV at the same temperature is

[IIT-JEE 1997 Re-Exam]

(a) 0.0015

(b) 0.003

(c) 0.048

(d) 0.768

Solution : (c) Average translational kinetic energy does not depends upon the molar mass of the gas.

Different gases will possess same average translational kinetic energy at same temperature.

Problem 48.

The average translational energy and the rms speed of molecules in a sample of oxygen

gas at 300 K are 6.21 1021J and 484 m/s respectively. The corresponding values at 600

K are nearly (assuming ideal gas behaviour)

[IIT-JEE 1997 Cancelled]

(b)

(d)

i.e. if temperature becomes twice then energy will becomes two time i.e. 2 6.21 1021 =

12.42 1021 J

But rms speed will become

Problem 49.

2 684m/s .

number of molecules in the box is doubled keeping the total kinetic energy of the gas same

as before. If the new pressure is P2 and temperature T2 , then

[MP PMT 1992]

(a) P2 P1 , T2 T1

T2

(b) P2 P1 , T2

T1

2

(c) P2 2P1 , T2 T1

(d)

P2 2P1 ,

T1

2

Initially E1

3

NkT

2

3

3

N1kT1 and finally E 2 N 2kT2

2

2

T

3

3

N1kT1 (2N1 )kT2 T2 1

2

2

2

Page 20

PHYSICS

3

3

N1kT1 N 2kT2 N 1T1 N 2T2 NT = constant

2

2

P1V1 P2V2

Problem 50.

P1 P2

Three closed vessels A, B and C are at the same temperature T and contain gases which

obey the Maxwellian distribution of velocities. Vessel A contains only O2 , B only N 2 and C

a mixture of equal quantities of O2 and N 2 . If the average speed of the O2 molecules in

vessel A is V1 , that of the N 2 molecules in vessel B is V2 , the average speed of the O2

molecules in vessel C is (where M is the mass of an oxygen molecule)

(a) (V1 V2) / 2

(c) (V1V2)1 / 2

(b) V1

[IIT-JEE 1992]

(d)

3kT / M

8kT

. It depends on temperature and molecular

m

mass. So the average speed of oxygen will be same in vessel A and vessel C and that is

equal to V1 .

Problem 51.

The graph which represent the variation of mean kinetic energy of molecules with

temperature tC is

(a)

(b)

E

(c)

E

(d)

E

t

3

3

kT k(t 273) where T = temperature is in kelvin and t

t

t

t

2

2

= is in centigrade

3

3

k t 273k k = Boltzmann's constant

2

2

3

3

k and c 273k . So the graph between E and t will be straight line with

2

2

positive intercept on E-axis and positive slope with t-axis.

We get m

(1) Boyles law : For a given mass of an ideal gas at constant temperature, the volume of a

gas is inversely proportional to its pressure.

i.e. V

1

P

or PV = constant

m

or P1V1 P2V2

constant

(i) PV = P

[As volume ]

P1 P2

P

constantor

1 2

[As m = constant]

Page 21

PHYSICS

N

constant

n

(ii) PV = P

N

N

V

V

n

P1 P2

P

constantor

n1 n2

n

[As N = constant]

P

massof gas

T

V

1 mN 2

vrms

3 V

1

. This is in accordance with

V

Boyles law.

(iv) Graphical representation : If m and T are constant

PV

PV

1/V

1/P

Problem 52.

volume by

[MP PET 2002]

(a) 5%

(b) 5.26%

(c) 4.26%

(d) 4.76%

From Boyles law PV = constant

Fractional change in volume

V2

P

P

100

1

V1

P2 1.05P

105

V V2 V1 100 105

5

V

V1

105

105

V

5

100%

100% 4.76% i.e. volume decrease by

V

105

4.76%.

Problem 53.

A cylinder contained 10 kg of gas at pressure 107 N / m2 . The quantity of gas taken out

of cylinder if final pressure is 2.5 106 N / m is (assume the temperature of gas is constant)

[EAMCET (Med.) 1998]

(a) Zero

(b) 7.5 kg

(c) 2.5 kg

(d) 5 kg

P1 m1

P2 m2

Page 22

PHYSICS

107

2.5 106

10

m2

m2

2.5 106 10

107

2.5 kg

The quantity of gas taken out of the cylinder = 10 2.5 = 7.5 kg.

Problem 54.

temperature of 100C (373.15 K). What will be its volume at 4 atmospheric pressure; the

temperature being the same

[NCERT 1977]

(a) 100 cc

(b) 400 cc

(c) 2.5 cc

(d) 104 cc

V2

P

1

1

1 V2 10 2.5 cc

V1 P2

4

V

Solution : (c)

Problem 55.

An air bubble of volume V0 is released by a fish at a depth h in a lake. The bubble rises

to the surface. Assume constant temperature and standard atmospheric pressure P above

the lake. The volume of the bubble just before touching the surface will be (density of water

is )

(b) V0 ( gh/ P )

(a) V0

V0

gh

(c)

1

gh

(d) V0 1

P

Solution : (d) According to Boyles law multiplication of pressure and volume will remains constant at the

bottom and top.

If P is the atmospheric pressure at the top of the lake

P2V2

P h g

(P h g)V0 PV V

V0

P

(P1 V1)

gh

V V0 1

P

Problem 56.

The adjoining figure shows graph of pressure and volume of a gas at two temperatures

T1 and T2 . Which of the following interferences is correct

P

(a) T1 T2

(b) T1 T2

(c) T1 T2

T2

T1

V1

V2

Solution : (c) For a given pressure, volume will be more if temperature is more (Charles law)

From the graph it is clear that V2 > V1

T2 > T1

(i) If the pressure remains constant, the volume of the given mass of a gas increases or

1

of its volume at 0C for each 1C rise or fall

273.15

in temperature.

decreases by

Vt

V0

273.15

t(C)

Page 23

PHYSICS

1

Vt V0 1

t . This is Charles law for centigrade scale.

273

.

15

(ii) If the pressure remaining constant, the volume of the given mass of a gas is directly

proportional to its absolute temperature.

V1 V2

T1 T2

V

constant or

T

V T or

m

V

constant

T

T

(iii)

T constant

or

[As volume V

or 1T1 2T2

[As m = constant]

or P

1 mN 2

vrms

3 V

Massof gas

T

V

If mass and pressure of the gas remains constant then V T. This is in accordance with

Charles law.

(v) Graphical representation : If m and P are constant

1/V

V/T

V/T

Problem 57.

V or 1/V

T or 1/T

1/T

kelvin]

A perfect gas at 27C is heated at constant pressure to 327C. If original volume of gas

at 27C is V then volume at 327C is

[CPMT 2002]

(a) V

(b) 3V

Problem 58.

(c) 2V

(d) V/2

2 V2 2V.

27 273 300

V1

T1

remaining same, what fraction of hydrogen will come out

[MP PMT 2002]

(a) 0.07

Solution : (a) As V T

(b) 0.25

V2 T2

V1

T1

(c) 0.5

(d) 0.75

313

V1

293

V2

313

V1 V1

V2 V1 293

20

Fraction of gas comes out

.

0.07

V1

V1

293

Problem 59.

The expansion of unit mass of a perfect gas at constant pressure is shown in the

diagram. Here

Page 24

PHYSICS

a

(b) a = volume, b = K temperature

(d) a = K temperature, b = volume

Solution : (c) In the given graph line have a positive slop with X-axis and negative intercept on Y-axis.

So we can write the equation of line y = mx c

According to Charles law Vt

...... (i)

V0

t V0 , by rewriting this equation we get

273

273

Vt 273

t

V0

......(ii)

By comparing (i) and (ii) we can say that time is represented on Y-axis and volume in X-axis.

Problem 60.

A gas is filled in the cylinder shown in the figure. The two pistons are joined by a string. If

the gas is heated, the pistons will

(a) Move towards left

Gas

(c) Remain stationary

(d) None of these

Solution : (b) When temperature of gas increases it expands. As the cross-sectional area of right piston is

more, therefore greater force will work on it (because F = PA). So piston will move towards

right.

Problem 61.

due to an increase in temperature T, pressure remaining constant. The quantity

varies with temperature as

(a)

(b)

(c)

gas equation

T

or

T + T

(Temp. K)

P V

T + T

RT(Temp. K)

(d)

PVT= RT

V

VT

..(i)

T

..(ii)

T + T

(Temp. K)

V

T

V

1

V

T

VT T

T + T

(Temp. K)

(given)

1

. So the graph between and T will be rectangular hyperbola.

T

(i) The volume remaining constant, the pressure of a given mass of a gas increases or

1

of its pressure at 0C for each 1C rise

273.15

or fall in temperature.

decreases by

Pt

P0

t(C)

273.15

Page 25

PHYSICS

1

Pt P0 1

t

273

.

15

(ii) The volume remaining constant, the pressure of a given mass of a gas is directly

proportional to its absolute temperature.

PT

P1 P2

P

constantor

T1 T2

T

or

P

or

1 mN 2

vrms

3 V

2

[As vrms

T]

massof gas

T

V

If mass and volume of gas remains constant then P T. This is in accordance with Gay

Lussacs law.

(4) Graphical representation : If m and V are constants

P/T

T or 1/T

1/P

P/T

P or 1/P

1/T

Sample problems based on Gay Lussac's law

kelvin]

Problem 62.

[AFMC 2002]

(a) 760 mm

Solution : (d) From Gay Lussacs law

Problem 63.

(b) 730 mm

(c) 780 mm

P2 T2 100 273

373

373

760 1038mm.

P2

P1 T1 0 273

273

273

1C, the initial temperature must be

[NCERT 1982; EAMCET (Engg.) 1995; RPMT 1996; MP PET 1999]

(a) 250 K

Solution : (a)

(b) 250C

(c) 2500 K

P1 P , T1 = T , P2 P (0.4% of P) P

P1 T1

P2 T2

0.4

P

T2 T 1

PP

100

250

(d) 25C

P

P

250

T

T 1

vessel]

By solving we get T = 250 K.

Problem 64.

Pressure versus temperature graph of an ideal gas of equal number of moles of different

volumes are plotted as shown in figure. Choose the correct alternative

(a) V1 V2, V3 V4 and V2 V3

(b) V1 V2, V3 V4 and V2 V3

(c) V1 V2 V3 V4

3

1

Page 26

PHYSICS

(d) V4 V3 V2 V1

Solution : (a) From ideal gas equation PV RT P

R

T

V

V=

constant

Slope of line tan m

R

V

i.e. V

1

tan

For the given problem figure

Point 1 and 2 are on the same line so they will represent same volume i.e. V1 V2

Similarly point 3 and 4 are on the same line so they will represent same volume i.e. V3 V4

But V1 V3 (= V4 ) or V2 V3 (= V4 )

(5) Avogadros law : Equal volume of all the gases under similar conditions of temperature

and pressure contain equal number of molecules.

According to kinetic theory of gases PV

For first gas, PV

..(i)

1

2

m1 N1 vrms

(1)

3

..(ii)

From (i) and (ii)

1

2

m N vrms

3

1

2

m2 N 2 vrms

(2)

3

2

2

m1 N1 vrms

1 m2 N 2 vrms2

..(iii)

As

the

two

2

2

m1 vrms

1 m2 vrms2

gases

are

at

the

same

temperature

1

1

3

2

2

m1 vrms

m2 vrms

kT

1

2

2

2

2

..(iv)

(i) Avogadros number (NA) : The number of molecules present in 1 gm mole of a gas is

defined as Avogadro number.

N A 6.023 1023 per gm mole 6.023 1026 per kg mole.

(ii) At S.T.P. or N.T.P. (T = 273 K and P = 1 atm) 22.4 litre of each gas has 6.023 1023

molecule.

(iii) One mole of any gas at S.T.P. occupy 22.4 litre of volume

Example : 32 gm oxygen, 28 gm nitrogen and 2gm hydrogen occupy the same volume at

S.T.P.

(iv) For any gas 1 mole = M gram = 22.4 litre = 6.023 1023 molecule.

Page 27

PHYSICS

Problem 65.

Joule/molecule. Number of molecules in 1 litre gas at S.T.P. will be

[CPMT 1994]

Solution : (a) As we know that at S.T.P. 22.4 litre of gas contains 6.023 1023 molecules

Problem 66.

The average kinetic energy per molecule of helium gas at temperature T is E and the

molar gas constant is R, then Avogadros number is

(a)

RT

2E

(b)

3RT

E

(c)

But Avagadro number N A

Problem 67.

6.023 1023

2.68 1022 molecules.

22.4

E

2RT

(d)

3RT

2E

3

2E

kT k

2

3T

R

R

3RT

NA

.

k

(2E / 3T )

2E

One mole of a gas filled in a container at N.T.P., the number of molecules in 1 cm3 of

volume will be

(a) 6.02 1023 / 22400(b) 6.02 1023

(c) 1/22400

Solution : (a) Number of molecule in 22.4 litre gas at N.T.P. 6.023 1023

or number of molecule in 22.4 103 cm3 6.023 1023

3

[As

22.4

litre

22.4 10 cm ]

6.023 1023

.

22400

(6) Grahms law of diffusion : When two gases at the same pressure and temperature are

allowed to diffuse into each other, the rate of diffusion of each gas is inversely proportional to

the square root of the density of the gas.

We know vrms

1

3P

or vrms

and rate of diffusion of a gas is proportional to its rms velocity i.e., r vrms

r

or

r1

r2

2

1

(7) Daltons law of partial pressure : The total pressure exerted by a mixture of nonreacting gases occupying a vessel is equal to the sum of the individual pressures which each

gases exert if it alone occupied the same volume at a given temperature.

For n gases P P1 P2 P3 .....Pn

where P = Pressure exerted by mixture and

component gases.

SUCCESS STUDY CIRCLE Prepared by-A.K.Pradhan 9438224466

Page 28

PHYSICS

Problem 68.

CO2 mixture at 27C. If R = 8.31 J/mole kelvin, then the pressure in the vessel in N / m2

will be (approx.)

(a) 5 105

(b) 5 104

Problem 69.

(c) 106

(d) 105

1RT 2 RT 3 RT RT

RT m1 m2 m3

[ 1 2 3 ]

V

V

V

V

V M1 M 2 M 3

8.31 300 6 8 5

3~

3~ 5 2

498

10

500

10

5 10 N/m .

3 32 28 44

3 10

Two gases occupy two containers A and B the gas in A, of volume 0.10m3 , exerts a

pressure of 1.40 MPa and that in B of volume 0.15m3 exerts a pressure 0.7 MPa. The two

containers are united by a tube of negligible volume and the gases are allowed to

intermingle. Then it the temperature remains constant, the final pressure in the container

will be (in MPa)

(a) 0.70

(b) 0.98

(c) 1.40

(d) 2.10

PA VA PB VB

P(VA VB )

RT

RT

RT

VA VB

0.1 0.15

P 0.98 MPa .

Problem 70.

The temperature, pressure and volume of two gases X and Y are T, P and V respectively.

When the gases are mixed then the volume and temperature of mixture become V and T

respectively. The pressure and mass of the mixture will be

(a) 2P and 2M

(b) P and M

(c) P and 2M

(d) 2P and M

Similarly mass also will become double i.e. 2M.

Problem 71.

A closed vessel contains 8g of oxygen and 7g of nitrogen. The total pressure is 10 atm at

a given temperature. If now oxygen is absorbed by introducing a suitable absorbent the

pressure of the remaining gas in atm will be

(a) 2

(b) 10

(c) 4

(d) 5

Solution : (d) From Daltons law final pressure of the mixture of nitrogen and oxygen

P P1 P2

1RT 2 RT m1 RT m2 RT

8 RT

7 RT RT

M

V

M

V

32 V

28 V

2V

V

V

1

2

10

RT

2V

RT

4V

..(i)

When oxygen is absorbed then for nitrogen let pressure is P

7 RT

28 V

..(ii)

From equation (i) and (ii) we get pressure of the nitrogen P 5 atm.

(massof gas)T

V

1 mN 2

vrms

3 V

2

[As vrms

T]

or

Page 29

PHYSICS

11.10 Degree of Freedom.

The term degree of freedom of a system refers to the possible independent motions,

systems can have.

or

The total number of independent modes (ways) in which a system can possess energy is called the

degree of freedom (f).

The independent motions can be translational, rotational or vibrational or any combination

of these.

So the degree of freedom are of three types : (i) Translational degree of freedom

(ii) Rotational degree of freedom

(iii) Vibrational degree of freedom

General expression for degree of freedom

f = 3A B ; where A = Number of independent particles, B = Number of

independent restriction

(1) Monoatomic gas : Molecule of monoatomic gas can move in any

direction in space so it can have three independent motions and hence 3

degrees of freedom (all translational)

y

vy

v

vx

vz

atoms joined rigidly to one another through a bond. This cannot only move

bodily, but also rotate about one of the three co-ordinate axes. However its

moment of inertia about the axis joining the two atoms is negligible

compared to that about the other two axes. Hence it can have only two

rotational motion. Thus a diatomic molecule has 5 degree of freedom : 3

translational and 2 rotational.

x

z

about any of three co-ordinate axes. Hence it has 6 degrees of freedom : 3

translational and 3 rotational.

x

z

Atomicity of

gas

Example

f = 3A B

Monoatomic

He, Ne, Ar

f=3

Diatomic

H2, O2

f=5

H2O

f=6

Triatomic

linear

non

Figure

A

B

CO2, BeCl2

f=7

A

B

A

Triatomic linear

A

B

Page 30

PHYSICS

Note :

The above degrees of freedom are shown at room temperature. Further at high

temperature, in case of diatomic or polyatomic molecules, the atoms with in the

molecule may also vibrate with respect to each other. In such cases, the molecule will

have an additional degrees of freedom, due to vibrational motion.

An object which vibrates in one dimension has two additional degree of freedom.

One for the potential energy and one for the kinetic energy of vibration.

A diatomic molecule that is free to vibrate (in addition to translation and rotation) will

have 7 (2 + 3 + 2) degrees of freedom.

An atom in a solid though has no degree of freedom for translational and rotational

motion, due to vibration along 3 axes has 3 2 = 6 degrees of freedom (and not like

an ideal gas molecule). When a diatomic or polyatomic gas dissociates into atoms it

behaves as monoatomic gas whose degree of freedom are changed accordingly.

For any system in thermal equilibrium, the total energy is equally distributed among its

various degree of freedom. And the energy associated with each molecule of the system per

1

degree of freedom of the system is kT .

2

where k 1.38 1023 J / K , T = absolute temperature of the system.

If the system possess degree of freedom f then

Total energy associated with each molecule

f

kT

2

N

f

kT

2

f

RT

2

f

RT

2

f

rT

2

M0

f

rT

2

Problem 72.

3

PV .

2

The total translational kinetic energy of all molecules of a diatomic gas as the same volume

and pressure is

[UPSEAT 2002]

Energy of all molecules of a monoatomic gas having a volume V and pressure P is

(a)

1

PV

2

(b)

3

PV

2

(c)

f

f

RT PV

2

2

5

PV

2

(d) 3 PV

Monoatomic or diatomic both gases posses equal degree of freedom for translational motion

and that is equal to 3 i.e. f = 3

3

PV

2

3

PV

2

[As f = 3]

Page 31

PHYSICS

For diatomic gas E total

Problem 73.

5

PV

2

[As f = 5]

total heat supplied to the gas is a combination of translational and rotational energies. Their

respective shares are [BHU 2000]

(a) 60% and 40%

Solution : (d) As argon is a monoatomic gas therefore its molecule will possess only translatory kinetic

energy i.e. the share of translational and rotational energies will be 100% and 0%

respectively.

CO2(O C O) is a triatomic gas. Mean kinetic energy of one gram gas will be (If N-

Problem 74.

(a) 3 / 88NkT

(b) 5 / 88NkT

(c) 6 / 88NkT

E

(d) 7 / 88NkT

f

RT

2

1 7

m 7

7

7

NkT

NkT

RT

NkT

M

2

44

2

2

88

CO 2 ]

Problem 75.

At standard temperature and pressure the density of a gas is 1.3 gm/ m3 and the speed

of the sound in gas is 330 m/sec. Then the degree of freedom of the gas will be

(a) 3

(b) 4

P 1.01 105

(c) 5

m

,

sec

(d) 6

kg

m3

, Atomic pressure

N

m2

Now from 1

we get 1.41

2

2

2

5.

we get f

1

1

.

4

1

f

The molecules of a gas move with high speeds at a given temperature but even then a

molecule of the gas takes a very long time to go from one point to another point in the container

of the gas. This is due to the fact that a gas molecule suffers a

number of collisions with other gas molecules surrounding it. As a

result of these collisions, the path followed by a gas molecule in

the container of the gas is zig-zag as shown in the figure. During

two successive collisions, a molecule of a gas moves in a straight

line with constant velocity and the distance travelled by a gas

molecule between two successive collisions is known as free path.

Page 32

PHYSICS

The distance travelled by a gas molecule between two successive collisions is not constant

and hence the average distance travelled by a molecule during all collisions is to be calculated.

This average distance travelled by a gas molecule is known as mean free path.

Let

1, 2,3,...n

1

(1)

2nd2

1 2 3 .... n

n

volume

(2) As

PV = RT = NkT

So

N

P

V kT

kT

2

2 d P

(3) From

2nd

m

2 (mn)d

m

2d 2

]

(4) If average speed of molecule is v then

t

v T

N

two collisions]

Important points

(i) As

2d

2

a gas.

(ii) As

molecules,

kT

. For constant volume and hence constant number density n of gas

2

d

P

2

P

is constant so that will not depend on P and T. But if volume of given mass of a

T

1

at constant

P

temperature.

Problem 76.

If the mean free path of atoms is doubled then the pressure of gas will become

[RPMT 2000]

(a) P / 4

Solution : (b) As

(b) P / 2

kT

2

2 d P

(c) P / 8

(d) P

1

i.e. by increasing two times pressure will become half.

Page 33

PHYSICS

Problem 77.

The mean free path of nitrogen molecules at a pressure of 1.0 atm and temperature 0C

is 0.8 107 m . If the number of density of molecules is 2.7 1025 perm3 , then the

molecular diameter is

(a) 3.2nm

(c) 3.2m

(b) 3.2

m

(d) 2.3mm

1

2nd2

we get d

It characterises the nature of the substance in response to the heat supplied to the

substance. Specific heat can be defined by two following ways : Gram specific heat and Molar

specific heat.

(1) Gram specific heat : Gram specific heat of a substance may be defined as the amount

of heat required to raise the temperature of unit mass of the substance by unit degree.

Gram specific heat c

Units :

Q

mT

cal

cal

Joule

,

,

gm C

gm kelvin kg kelvin

Dimension : [L2T 2 1 ]

(2) Molar specific heat : Molar specific heat of a substance may be defined as the amount

of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram mole of the substance by a unit degree, it

is represented by capital (C)

C

Units :

Q

T

calorie

calorie

Joule

,

or

mole C mole kelvin

mole kelvin

Important points

(1) C Mc

M Q 1 Q

T

m T

m

As M

i.e. molar specific heat of the substance is M times the gram specific heat, where M is the molecular

weight of that substance.

(2) Specific heat for hydrogen is maximum c 3.5

cal

.

gm C

cal

.

gm C

(4) Specific heat of a substance also depends on the state of substance i.e. solid, liquid or

gas.

Example : cice 0.5

cal

cal

cal

, cwater 1

, csteam 0.47

gm C

gm C

gm C

Page 34

PHYSICS

(5) Specific heat also depends on the conditions of the experiment i.e. the way in which heat

is supplied to the body. In general, experiments are made either at constant volume or at

constant pressure.

In case of solids and liquids, due to small thermal expansion, the difference in measured

values of specific heats is very small and is usually neglected. However, in case of gases, specific

heat at constant volume is quite different from that at constant pressure.

In case of gases, heat energy supplied to a gas is spent not only in raising the temperature

of the gas but also in expansion of gas against atmospheric pressure.

Hence specific heat of a gas, which is the amount of heat energy required to raise the

temperature of one gram of gas through a unit degree shall not have a single or unique value.

(i) If the gas is compressed suddenly and no heat is supplied from outside i.e. Q = 0, but

the temperature of the gas raises on the account of compression.

Q

0

m(T )

i.e. C = 0

(ii) If the gas is heated and allowed to expand at such a rate that rise in temperature due to

heat supplied is exactly equal to fall in temperature due to expansion of the gas. i.e. T = 0

Q

Q

m(T )

0

i.e. C =

(iii) If rate of expansion of the gas were slow, the fall in temperature of the gas due to

expansion would be smaller than the rise in temperature of the gas due to heat supplied.

Therefore, there will be some net rise in temperature of the gas i.e. T will be positive.

Q

positive

m(T )

i.e. C = positive

(iv) If the gas were to expand very fast, fall of temperature of gas due to expansion would be

greater than rise in temperature due to heat supplied. Therefore, there will be some net fall in

temperature of the gas i.e. T will be negative.

C

Q

negative

m( T )

i.e. C = negative

Hence the specific heat of gas can have any positive value ranging from zero to infinity.

Further it can even be negative. The exact value depends upon the mode of heating the gas. Out

of many values of specific heat of a gas, two are of special significance.

(1) Specific heat of a gas at constant volume (cv) : The specific heat of a gas at

constant volume is defined as the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of unit mass

(Q)v

mT

If instead of unit mass, 1 mole of gas is considered, the specific heat is called molar specific

heat at constant volume and is represented by capital Cv.

C v Mcv

M (Q)v

1 (Q)v

mT

T

m

As M

Page 35

PHYSICS

(2) Specific heat of a gas at constant pressure (cp) : The specific heat of a gas at

constant pressure is defined as the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of unit

mass of gas through 1 K when its pressure is kept constant, i.e., cP

(Q)p

mT

If instead of unit mass, 1 mole of gas is considered, the specific heat is called molar specific

heat at constant pressure and is represented by Cp.

C p MC p

M (Q)p

mT

1 (Q)p

T

m

As M

Out of two principle specific heats of a gas, Cp is more than Cv because in case of Cv, volume

of gas is kept constant and heat is required only for raising the temperature of one gram mole of

the gas through 1C or 1 K.

No heat, what so ever, is spent in expansion of the gas.

It means that heat supplied to the gas increases its internal energy only i.e.

(Q)v U Cv T

..(i)

(i) In increasing the temperature of the gas by T

(ii) In doing work, due to expansion at constant pressure (W)

So

(Q)p U W C p T

..(ii)

C p T Cv T W

T(C p C v ) PV

C p Cv

PV

T

[From PV = RT, At constant pressure PV =

RT]

C p Cv R

This relation is called Mayers formula and shows that C p Cv i.e. molar specific heat at

constant pressure is greater than that at constant volume.

We know that kinetic energy of one mole of the gas, having f degrees of freedom can be

given by

E

f

RT

2

..(i)

where T is the temperature of the gas but from the definition of Cv , if dE is a small amount

of heat energy required to raise the temperature of 1 gm mole of the gas at constant volume,

through a temperature dT then

dE C vdT Cv dT or Cv

dE

dT

[As = 1]

..(ii)

Page 36

PHYSICS

Putting the value of E from equation (i) we get Cv

f

R

2

Cv

d f

f

RT R

dT 2

2

f

f

1 R

From the Mayers formula C p Cv R C p Cv R R R

2

2

1 R

2

Cp

1 R

Cp 2

2

Ratio of Cp and Cv :

1

f

Cv

f

R

2

1

2

f

Important points

(i) Value of is always more than 1. So we can say that always Cp > Cv .

(ii) Value of is different for monoatomic, diatomic and triatomic gases.

(iii) As 1

f

2

f

f

1

2

1

2 1

f

Cv 2 R 1

1

R

1 R

1 R

2

and C p

Monoatom

ic

Diatomic

Triatomic

nonlinear

Triatomic

linear

Atomicity

Restriction

f

R

R

2

1

3

R

2

5

R

2

3R

7

R

2

R

1 R

2

5

R

2

7

R

2

4R

9

R

2

Degree

freedom

of

Molar

specific

heat at constant

volume

Molar

specific

heat at constant

pressure

f = 3A B

Cv

Cp

Page 37

PHYSICS

Ratio of Cp and Cv

Kinetic energy of

Cp

Cv

E mole

1 mole

Kinetic energy of

Kinetic energy of

E gram

1 gm

5~

1.66

3

7~

1.4

5

4~

1.33

3

9~

1.28

7

3

RT

2

5

RT

2

3RT

7

RT

2

3

kT

2

5

kT

2

3kT

7

kT

2

3

rT

2

5

rT

2

3rT

7

rT

2

f

RT

2

E molecule

1 molecule

2

f

f

kT

2

f

rT

2

Problem 78.

Find the ratio of specific heat at constant pressure to the specific heat constant volume

for NH 3

[RPMT 2003]

(a) 1.33

(b) 1.44

(c) 1.28

(d) 1.67

Solution : (c) For polyatomic gas ratio of specific heat < 1.33

Because we know that as the atomicity of gas increases its value of decreases.

Problem 79.

For a gas

R

0.67 . This gas is made up of molecules which are

Cv

2001, 2002]

(a) Diatomic

molecules

(c) Monoatomic

(b) Mixture

of

diatomic

and

polyatomic

(d) Polyatomic

R

we get 1 0.67 or = 1.67 i.e. the gas is

1

monoatomic.

Problem 80.

gas from 20C to 30C at a constant pressure. The amount of heat required to raise its

temperature over the same interval at a constant volume (R 2 caloriemole1 K 1 ) is

[UPSEAT 2000]

(a) 20 calorie

(b) 40 calorie

(c) 60 calorie

(d) 80 calorie

Cv C p R

4 2 2

calorie

molekelvin

calorie

mole kelvin

Problem 81.

[DPMT 1999]

(a)

3

2

(b)

5

2

(c)

Problem 82.

2

3

R

3R

1

2

3R

, then the value of will be

2

5

3

(given)

5

.

3

For a gas the difference between the two specific heats is 4150 J/kg K. What is the

specific heats at constant volume of gas if the ratio of specific heat is 1.4

[AFMC 1998]

Page 38

PHYSICS

Solution : (d) Given c p cv 4150

..(i)

cp

and

cv

1.4 c p 1.4cv

..(ii)

By substituting the value of c p in equation (i) we get 1.4cv cv 4150 0.4cv 4150

cv

Problem 83.

4150

10375J /kg- K .

0.4

Two cylinders A and B fitted with pistons contain equal amounts of an ideal diatomic gas

at 300K. The piston of A is free to move while that of B is held fixed. The same amount of

heat is given to the gas in each cylinder. If the rise in temperature of the gas in A is 30 K,

then the rise in temperature of the gas in B is [IIT-JEE 1998]

(a) 30 K

(b) 18 K

(c) 50 K

(d) 42 K

Solution : (d) In both cylinders A and B the gases are diatomic ( = 1.4). Piston A is free to move i.e. it is

isobaric process. Piston B is fixed i.e. it is isochoric process. If same amount of heat Q is

given to both then

(Q)isobaric (Q)isochoric

C p (T) A C v (T )B

Problem 84.

(T)B

Cp

Cv

[MP PET 1996]

Solution : (c) Range of specific heat varies from positive to negative and from zero to infinite. It depends

upon the nature of process.

Problem 85.

The specific heat at constant volume for the monoatomic argon is 0.075 kcal/kg-K

whereas its gram molecular specific heat C v 2.98 cal/mole/K. The mass of the argon

atom is (Avogadros number 6.02 1023 molecules/mole)

[MP PET 1993]

23

(a) 6.60 10

gm

Solution : (a) Molar specific heat = Molecular weight Gram specific heat

C v M cv

2.98

calorie

kcal

0.075 103

calorie

M 0.075

M

3

mole kelvin

kg - kelvin

gm kelvin

10

i.e.

39.7

23

6.023 10

Problem 86.

mass

of

2.98

39.7 gm

0.075

39.7

gm

mass

of

single

atom

6.60 10 23 gm.

When an ideal diatomic gas is heated at constant pressure, the fraction of the heat

energy supplied which increases the internal energy of the gas is

[IIT-JEE 1990]

(a) 2/5

(b) 3/5

(c) 3/7

(d) 5/7

Solution : (d) When a gas is heated at constant pressure then its one part goes to increase the internal

energy and another part for work done against external pressure i.e. (Q) p U W

C p T C v T PV

Page 39

PHYSICS

So fraction of energy that goes to increase the internal energy

C

U

1 5

7

v

[As

(Q)p C p

7

5

Problem 87.

The temperature of 5 mole of a gas which was held at constant volume was changed

from 100oC to 120oC. The change in internal energy was found to be 80 J. The total heat

capacity of the gas at constant volume will be equal to

[CPMT 1988]

(a) 8 J K

(b) 0.8 J K

(c) 4 J K 1

(d) 0.4 J K 1

Solution : (c) At constant volume total energy will be utilised in increasing the temperature of gas

i.e. (Q)v C v T C v (120 100) 80

Problem 88.

Cv

80

4 Joule/kelvin. This is the heat capacity of 5 mole gas.

20

A gas, is heated at constant pressure. The fraction of heat supplied used for external

work is

(a)

(b) 1

1

(d) 1 2

(c) 1

Solution : (b) We know fraction of given energy that goes to increase the internal energy

So we can say the fraction of given energy that supplied for external work 1

Problem 89.

supplied that increases the internal energy of the gas and that is involved in the expansion

is

(a) 75%, 25%

of

energy

supplied

for

increment

in

internal

energy

3

5

gas

As 3 for monoatomic

Percentage energy

30

60%

5

5

1

1 1 3

2

5

5

3

Percentage energy

Problem 90.

2

100% 40% .

5

The average degrees of freedom per molecule for a gas is 6. The gas performs 25 J of

work when it expands at constant pressure. The heat absorbed by gas is

(a) 75 J

(b) 100 J

(c) 150 J

(d) 125 J

2

2 4

1

f

6 3

W

1

1

Q

Page 40

PHYSICS

25

1

1

Q

4 / 3

3 1

4 4

Q 25 4 100Joule

Problem 91.

Certain amount of an ideal gas are contained in a closed vessel. The vessel is moving

with a constant velocity v. The molecular mass of gas is M. The rise in temperature of the

gas when the vessel is suddenly stopped is ( C P / C V )

(a)

Mv2

2R( 1)

(b)

Mv2( 1)

2R

(c)

Mv2

2R( 1)

Solution : (b) If m is the total mass of the gas then its kinetic energy

(d)

Mv2

2R( 1)

1

mv2

2

When the vessel is suddenly stopped then total kinetic energy will increase the temperature

1

m

mv2 C v T

C v T

2

M

Cv

R

]

1

2

m R

1

T mv2 T Mv ( 1) .

M 1

2

2R

Problem 92.

[As

The density of a polyatomic gas is standard conditions is 0.795 kgm3 . The specific heat

of the gas at constant volume is

(a) 930 J -kg1 K 1 (b) 1400 J - kg1 K 1

1

925 J - kg

Specific

m

rT rT

V

heat

(d)

or

1120 J - kg1 K 1

(c)

at

P

1.013 105

466.7

T

0.795 273

constant

volume

cv

r

466.7

1 4

1

3

J

1400

kg.kelvin

omicgas

3 for polyat

Problem 93.

state. If P A and PB denote the pressure and TA and TB denote the temperatures in the

two states, then

(a) PA PB , TA TB (b) P A PB , TA TB (c) PA PB , TA TB

(d) P A PB , TA TB

Solution : (c) For state A, C p Cv R i.e. the gas behaves as ideal gas.

For state B, C p C v 1.06R ( R) i.e. the gas does not behave like ideal gas.

and we know that at high temperature and at low pressure nature of gas may be ideal.

So we can say that P A PB and TA TB

If two non-reactive gases are enclosed in a vessel of volume V. In the mixture 1 moles of

one gas are mixed with 2 moles of another gas. If NA is Avogadros number then

Number of molecules of first gas N1 1 N A

Page 41

PHYSICS

and number of molecules of second gas N 2 2 N A

(i) Total mole fraction ( 1 2 ) .

(ii) If M 1 is the molecular weight of first gas and M 2 that of second gas.

1M1 2M 2

1 2

C Vmix

C Vmix

1C V1 2C V2

1 2

R

R

2

1 1

2 1

1 2

R

1 2

1

2

1 1 2 1

m1 / M 1 m2 / M 2

m1 m2 1 1

2 1

M1 M 2

R

1C P1 2C P2

1 2

C Pmix

C Pmix

2

1

R 2

R

2

R 1

2

1

1 1

2 1

1 2 1 1

2 1

1 2

m1 1 m2 2

m1 m2 M 1 1 1 M 2 2 1

M1 M 2

( 1C P1 2C P2 )

(v) mixture

C Pmix

C Vmix

1C P1 2C P2

1 2

( 1C V1 2C V2 ) 1C V1 2C V2

1 2

1

2

R 2

R

1

1 1

2 1

R

R

2

1

1 1

2 1

1 1 2 2

1 1 2 1 1 1( 2 1) 2 2 ( 1 1)

mixture

1

2

1( 2 1) 2 ( 1 1)

1 1 2 1

Sample problems based on Mixture

Problem 94.

If two moles of diatomic gas and one mole of monoatomic gas are mixed with then the

ratio of specific heats is

[MP PMT 2003]

(a)

7

3

(b)

5

4

(c)

19

13

(d)

15

19

Page 42

PHYSICS

Solution : (c)

1 1, 1

5

7

(for monoatomic gas) and 2 2 , 2

(for diatomic gas)

3

5

5

3

1 1 2 2

5

1

1 1 2 1 3

From formula

mixture

1

2

1

1 1 2 1 5 1

3

1

7

5

7

1

5 / 2 7 19

5

2

3 / 2 5 13

7

1

5

Problem 95.

mixture is

(a) 32C

(b) 27C

(c) 37C

(d) 30.5C

Heat gained by CO 2 = Heat lost by O 2

1C v1 T1 2C v2 T2

22

16 5

(3R)(t 27)

R (37 t)

44

32 2

3(t 27)

5

(37 t)

2

Problem 96.

Neglecting all vibrational modes, the total internal energy of the system is

(a) 4 RT

(b) 15 RT

(c) 9 RT

5

3

RT 4 RT 5 RT 6 RT 11RT

2

2

(d) 11 RT

f1

f

RT 2 2 RT

2

2

argon)]

Page 43

- Tablas y Figura 23Hochgeladen vonGiovanyBracho
- vmc aitsHochgeladen vonPrateek Madaan
- Mt3 Adv p1 QuestionsHochgeladen vonayush
- Chemistry Chapter Outline 9-21Hochgeladen vonEdward Egan
- rgd 32Hochgeladen vonabhi7112
- jayc promoHochgeladen vonJason Ong Dazs
- PM7006 WhatsNew Portuguese BrHochgeladen vonJoao Pedro
- 960 Physics [PPU] Semester 1 TopicsHochgeladen vonJosh, LRT
- Intro Physics 1Hochgeladen vondanutzpn
- Ch18 Young Freedman1Hochgeladen vonAndrew Merrill
- A-Tutorial-3.docxHochgeladen vonReborn Tay
- 01 Kinetic Theory of Gases Theory1Hochgeladen vonANGELS8DEMON
- 2009 EOY 2E Science AnsfrwHochgeladen vonBryan Seow
- Tunnel ventilationHochgeladen vonRamyaa Lakshmi
- chromebook lab activity newtons 2nd lawHochgeladen vonapi-290509627
- A94 Gasket-Sert PSPHochgeladen vonZachary Ng
- AP Chemistry Review QuestionsHochgeladen vonKevin To
- Fundamental Thoughts.pdfHochgeladen vonamir
- Gay Lus FormsHochgeladen vonBrUnoMoreno
- 21 - The Kinetic Theory of GasesHochgeladen vonRaya Smagulova
- Pressure drop calculationsHochgeladen vonOmprakaash Mokide
- 6. Term 3 Test QuestionsHochgeladen vonAdelaide Monyethabeng
- LMS TEMPLATE - NOTES chap 4.docxHochgeladen vonAlex
- 1_Soal gasHochgeladen vonputriwahyu
- DLL_SCIENCE 3_Q1_W5.docxHochgeladen vonWilliam Carlos Husband
- DLL_SCIENCE 3_Q1_W5.docxHochgeladen vonAnonymous f6ykjIg
- Problems and Solutions Physical Chemistry by LAIDLERHochgeladen vonMohammad Khaled
- vacuum technologyHochgeladen vonvenkatesh
- Gas Properties and KMTHochgeladen vonAndi
- Chapter-21f.pptHochgeladen vonHemlata Tiwari

- Surprize TestHochgeladen vonAshok Pradhan
- State Biot servat law and hence obtain an expression for the magnetic induction produced by infinite long current carrying conductor at any point near it.docxHochgeladen vonAshok Pradhan
- Comparison between edge and screw dislocation.docxHochgeladen vonAshok Pradhan
- Cold working and Annealing.docxHochgeladen vonAshok Pradhan
- 207394225 Manufacturing Process 1 Question BankHochgeladen vonAshok Pradhan
- weekly test july mmmmmmmm.docxHochgeladen vonAshok Pradhan
- REPRODUCTION IN ORGANISMS.docxHochgeladen vonAshok Pradhan
- Moving Coil Galvanometer.docxHochgeladen vonAshok Pradhan
- L.No.01Hochgeladen vonAnnas Equity Analyst
- ess_at_12_cn_stuHochgeladen vonjsmith012x
- Chapter7cor1-2Hochgeladen vonsenthilkumar100
- Current ElectricityHochgeladen vonAshok Pradhan
- optics.docxHochgeladen vonAshok Pradhan
- SYLLABUSSHochgeladen vonAshok Pradhan
- electro-chem.docxHochgeladen vonAshok Pradhan
- Chepter Wise QuestionsHochgeladen vonAshok Pradhan
- Current electricity.docxHochgeladen vonAshok Pradhan
- LAW OF MOTON HC VERMA.docxHochgeladen vonAshok Pradhan
- Comparison between edge and screw dislocation.docxHochgeladen vonAshok Pradhan
- Current electricity.docxHochgeladen vonAshok Pradhan
- -Wave-Optics.docxHochgeladen vonAshok Pradhan
- weekly test physics.docxHochgeladen vonAshok Pradhan

- Pwd questions answers by Rahul VhanmaneHochgeladen vonRahul Vhanmane
- Weird! Quantum Entanglement Can Reach Into the PastHochgeladen vonYash
- Winston ComprehensiveHochgeladen vonWinston Frias
- A Type of Non Return Damper CatHochgeladen vonMuhammedShafi
- MomentumHochgeladen vonAz MY
- Comparative Experimental Analysis of Straight and Conical Coil Heat ExchangerHochgeladen vonGRD Journals
- A Coast, High-efficiency Solar Cell Based on Dye-sensitized Colloidal TiO2 FilmsHochgeladen von이지환
- ColpittsHochgeladen vonRavi Teja
- Chemical Equilibrium (Final Review)Hochgeladen vonpolypeptide
- day 1 metric and motionHochgeladen vonapi-259781257
- blake_ch24.pdfHochgeladen vonAntonio Antonio
- frenkel_93_montecarlo_simulations_primer.pdfHochgeladen vonOguamahIfeanyi
- Water Hardness EdtaHochgeladen vontrs22
- Blade.element.theoryHochgeladen vonAdimasu Ayele
- Final Spring 2010 1Hochgeladen vonم.محمد الفريحات
- Periodic Table ProjectHochgeladen vonjeffsorce
- sample-gateme.pdfHochgeladen vonPriyank Gaba
- Sunscreen Testing According to COLIPA 2011 FDA Final Rule 2011 Using UV Vis LAMBDA SpectrophotometersHochgeladen vonSergio Alberto Bernal Chavez
- Holmes - Ch3 Modulation of One Inverter Phase LegHochgeladen voncubrilo228
- Indentation of Metals by a Flat-Ended Cylindrical PunchHochgeladen vonSIU KAI WING
- Mod 1 Set 9 Rev 0Hochgeladen vonMohamad Nadzmi
- Jeffrey C. Morton- Groupoidification in PhysicsHochgeladen vondcsi3
- Question Paper PhyHochgeladen vonkumar
- Wind Turbine PptHochgeladen vonNIDHI
- AWS 517Hochgeladen vonafarmaia
- researchHochgeladen vonkumarscribd5482
- section_7_6_Coupled_Line_Directional_Couplers_package.pdfHochgeladen vonravi010582
- O & M of Sub StationHochgeladen vonAlbert Sekar
- After the Race. James JoyceHochgeladen vonanon_732724715
- Section 2 - Thermal PhysicsHochgeladen vonUnatti Agarwal

## Viel mehr als nur Dokumente.

Entdecken, was Scribd alles zu bieten hat, inklusive Bücher und Hörbücher von großen Verlagen.

Jederzeit kündbar.