Ghislain Brunet
Maccaferri, Inc
10303 Governor Lane Blvd.,
Williamsport, MD 217953116
Ph: 3012236910
gbrunet@maccaferriusa.com
Giorgio Giacchetti
OFFICINE MACCAFERRI S.p.A.
Via Kennedy 10
40069 Zola Predosa
Ph: 01139051646000
giorgio.giacchetti@maccaferri.com
Prepared for the 63rd Highway Geology Symposium, May 710, 2012
Disclaimer
Statements and views presented in this paper are strictly those of the author, and do
not necessarily reflect positions held by their affiliations, the Highway Geology
Symposium (HGS), or others acknowledged above. The mention of trade names
for commercial products does not imply the approval or endorsement by HGS.
Copyright Notice
Copyright 2012 Highway Geology Symposium (HGS)
All Rights Reserved. Printed in the United States of America. No part of this
publication may be reproduced or copied in any form or by any means graphic,
electronic, or mechanical, including photocopying, taping, or information storage
and retrieval systems without prior written permission of the HGS. This excludes
the original authors.
ABSTRACT
A secured drapery system, consisting of rockfall netting and a systematic
nailing scheme, is designed to stabilize surficial material on an exposed rock face.
The design procedure can be very complicated because the geomechanical models
are very complex or unrealistic, and obtaining accurate input data is rather
problematic. This paper presents a simple design approach for secured a drapery
system, which combines the field experience of geologists and engineers on one
hand, and the results of full scale drapery field tests on the other.
The proposed calculations assume that the rock face exists in a limit
equilibrium condition. With this approach, knowledge of parameters like cohesive
strength and friction angle that are difficult to obtain is not required. The necessary
input data are geometric measurement of the rock face and the main performance
features of the anchors and mesh. The safety factors proposed in the calculations are
based on considerations concerning the slope morphology, the weathering of the
rock mass, and the presence of additional loads such as snow or ice. In this way the
designer can easily input data and deal with uncertainties related to the real slope
situation.
The calculation procedure allows for determining both the ultimate limit
state (verification of breaking loads of the system components), and serviceability
limit state (maximum permissible deformation of the facing).
The design analysis has been implemented in the MacRo 1 software package from
Officine Maccaferri. Nevertheless, even if the software allows a quick and simple
calculation approach, onsite observations are always recommended to achieve a
good design, with the ultimate goal of protecting property and the public.
PRELIMINARY REMARKS
Protection against rockfall is frequently carried out with mesh facing and
patterned nails; this system, known as secured drapery (or pin drapery, or surficial
consolidation or cortical strengthening) is aimed at improving the rock face stability
(Fig. 1). This kind of intervention is typically recommended where the number of
unstable blocks is too large, and/or the unstable rock size is too small to allow the
nailing of each single rock, so that the surficial portion of slope can be compared to
a continuous unstable thickness. The unstable portion is usually thinner than 1.0 m
(3 ft) and frequently ranges between 0.30.6 m (12 ft); it can be generally estimated
by observing the thickness of the weathered / loose rock mass (typical size of the
fallen blocks is also a good indication of the dimension). A more precise estimation
approach would require a good geomechanical survey and an analysis with the
Goodman & Shi theory (Goodman and Shi, 1985) in order to size the removable
area and the average thickness of the unstable portion; A time consuming
approach that often does not make sense in common practice.
Even if the secured drapery system could improve the global stability for
slopes smaller than 1000 m2 (11,000 ft2), the solution should only be considered for
surficial stability problems. That is why the designers judgment is always required
for identifying the extent and depth of the unstable rock face. In common practice,
the secured drapery design is often dimensioned on the basis of experience and
common sense when accurate data is not available.
Fig. 1 Secured drapery system: the intervention consists of a mesh facing and
a pattern of nails. Diamond cable netting pattern is shown above.
Figure 2 Scheme of the nailed rock mass. The anchors support the whole
unstable mass, including the net. The net has only to control the unstable rock
portion between the anchors.
The stability of the exposed rock face, reinforced with nails, is obtained by
the contribution of the steel mesh. The function of the mesh is to stabilize the
material between the nails by limiting the bulging (which may also have an
aesthetic function). the steel mesh facing has a flexible structural behavior, within
the limits of its intrinsic deformability, and works in unison with the passive action
of the nails. In fact, this type of stabilization cannot be considered as a stiff structure
(e.g. shotcrete or precast elements), which limits the blocks displacement in an
optimal approach. The design of the flexible structural facing requires a certain
consideration in order to minimize any problems related to the intrinsic properties of
the mesh and its limited applications. The punch testing method is fundamental for
modeling the transition of the forces to the nails (Fig. 3).
In the past, several authors have carried out tests of samples with different
sizes and restrained within different test frames (Ruegger R., & Flum D., 2000;
Bonati & Galimberti, 2004; Muhunthan B. et Al., 2005). The most interesting tests
have been developed in Pont Boset (Aosta Italia), where a realistic restraint is
formed by a pattern of 3.0 m x 3.0 m (10 ft x 10 ft) nails, similar to that frequently
adopted for the consolidation of rock and soil slopes. A punch device plunging at
45 on the mesh plane (Fig. 4) was installed to reproduce rock movement (Bertolo
et. al. 2007; Bertolo et. al. 2009).
3.0 m
The test results have demonstrated the poor correlation between laboratory
tests with small size samples and real site behavior, highlighting the necessity to
reproduce the real conditions in which the mesh is applied (Majoral et Al., 2008).
Secondly, the results have demonstrated that certain meshes develop resistance
appreciable forces only after they have reached a displacement of several decimeters
(one or more feet) with negligible load. For example, the displacement of the punch
device under load for hexagonal mesh, at 0.4 m (16 inches), is half that of a
diamond mesh with high tensile resistance wire (Fig. 5). Given this behavior, it is
obvious that the rock displacements engage nails in a passive intervention, where
the facing elements do not yet offer a stabilizing contribution. Stabilizing will only
start when the selected mesh generates load transfer to the nail, usually after few
decimeters of displacement.
SOME IMPLICATIONS
Some important implications for the design approach of the structural flexible
facing came out as corollaries of the above:

From the geomechanical point of view, the mesh has a passive behavior
where it needs to be solicited before generating any resistance forces. It
cannot be modeled as shotcrete which is made to transmit almost uniform
pressures on the ground surface by means of the nails.
The difference of behavior between meshes depends upon the way the fabric
is manufactured and not upon the steel grade of the wire. The membrane
stiffness plays a primary role into the facing choice; the higher the stiffness
is, the more effective the facing is. Therefore, the tensile strength has
marginal importance in the mesh choice, because the tensile stresses acting
on the mesh are almost always 3 times lower than the nominal tensile
strength of the mesh.
With flexible structural facing, the nails could have difficulty cooperating
with each other in consolidation of the surface, which depends on mutual
interlocking of the blocks near the nails; that is why nail spacing should
never exceed 3.0 m, because with larger spacing, each anchor is working
independently of the other.
Figure 5 Insitu test on a net installed in real conditions, (Pont Boset Facility
test). A stiffer mesh can be obtained by inserting cables in the netting.
THE SIMPLIFIED DIMENSIONING APPROCH OF MARCRO 1
The design of secured drapery is not at all easy because of numerous
variables, including topography, rock mass properties, joint geometry and
properties, mesh type and related restraint conditions. Often the solution to the
problem may require complex numerical modeling which is not practical for every
project, especially if the design is aimed at interventions of modest size and scope.
Because of that, at the present, limit equilibrium models are the preferable design
method; they can be simplified by estimating the rock mass displacement. Taking
this into consideration and incorporating field experience, Officine Maccaferri has
developed MacRo1, a limit equilibrium approach for the design of secured drapery.
The procedure is quite rough, but it is sufficient when considering the low accuracy
level of the input data, the reliability of the results and the speed of the calculations.
NAIL DIMENSIONING
Considering passive behavior, the nail calculation must assume the unstable
portion of the slope lies in condition of limit equilibrium, where the safety factor is
equal to 1.0. Therefore, the resisting forces have the same value of the driving
forces and the following equation is true:
[1]
where
W = weight of the unstable rock mass to be consolidated
= inclination of the slope surface, where the sliding of the unstable rock mass can
occur.
Using the resistance criteria of BartonBandis for the joints, equation [1] can be
rewritten to describe the improved stability condition (Hoek and Brown, 1981):
Wsin c sin tan + R W (sin + c cos )
[2]
assuming
[3]
or
assuming
FDslp = (W sin + c cos ) DW = Sum of the driving forces
and
FSslp = ((W sin ) (1 c)) / RW + R = Sum of stabilizing forces
Equation [3] allows for determining the nail force that consolidates a rock mass in
the limit equilibrium state. It is a conservative equation and is simple to use since
the only geotechnical variable is the inclination of the sliding plane. The safety
coefficients (RW, DW) depend on several factors. The rock mass features affect the
size of the stabilizing forces, so that their safety coefficient can be described as
RW = THl WG BH
where

The reinforcing nail bars work principally in proximity to the sliding joint,
where it is subjected to shear stresses together with tensile stresses. The resisting
force R, due to the bar along the sliding plane, is derived utilising the maximum
work principal:
1 +
R=
1 +
[4]
where:
m = cotg ( + )
m2
16
m 2
4
1
2
Ne
= the angle between the bar axis and a line perpendicular to the sliding joint.
It is equal to
= 90  o , where o is the drilling inclination referenced to the horizontal.
= sliding surface dilatancy
Ne = bar strength (elasticity limit condition) = ESS adm = ESS ST / ST
ST = coefficient of reduction for the steel resistance.
ESS = effective area of the steel bar = / 4 ((fe  2 fc)2 fi2)
fe = external diameter of the steel bar
fc = thickness of corrosion on the external crown
fi = minor diameter of the steel bar
plan =
where:
ix iy s cos
ix iy
L g ( 0 .02 JRC 0 )
JRC 0
L0
Lg ( 0.03 JRC 0 )
JCS 0
L0
Please note that the roughness values and the uniaxial compression resistance
should be estimated on the most unfavourable joints.
LP = length of hole with plasticity phenomena in firm part of the rock mass. It is assumed
to equal 0.3 m (1.0 ft).
With
drill = diameter of the hole for the bar
lim = adherence tension between grout rock
gt = safety coefficient of the adhesion grout rock
P = pullout force; it is the greater of the following:
PMesh = ((WSbar  WDbar) cos ( + o)) ix = pull out force due to the mesh
PRock = (FSslp R FDslp) cos (+ o) = pull out force due to the slope
instability.
The length of the nail now has a preliminary value. The final suitable length of the
bars has to be evaluated during drilling and confirmed with pull out tests.
In the case of the mesh, the ultimate limit state is satisfied when
Tadm  T > = 0
where
Tadm = admissible tensile strength of the mesh
The admissible tensile strength of the mesh would be
Tadm = Tm / MH
where
Tm = Tensile resistance of the mesh
MH = safety coefficient for the reduction of the tensile resistance of the
mesh. Taking into account the inhomogeneous stress state of the loaded
mesh, the minimum safety coefficient should be not lower than 2.50.
The stress T on the mesh depends on the force pushing on the mesh (M see figure
6), which can be calculated using the same principles as formula [3]
M = F sin () ix = (Mbdrv Mbstb) sin () ix
Where:
Mbdrv = (Mb sin + c cos ) DW = driving forces
Mbstb = (Mb sin (1 c)) RW = resisting forces
Mb = V = weight of the unstable rock mass
V = maximum unstable volume between nails which is calculated by the
following:
1 2
iy tan( )
2
V =
1
s2
V = iy s
2 tan( )
V = 0.5 s2 / tan()
Finally
if M/ix /sin () p) < Mb sen
then
T = M / ix / sin () p
else T = Mb sen
with
p arctg (bulg / 1.5) = angle of deformation of the mesh.
Zbulg = displacement related to the punch load M. It is directly measured
from Maccaferris test experiences.
REFERENCES
AICAP, (1993): Anchor in soil and rock: recommendations (in Italian).
Bertolo P. , Giacchetti G., 2008  An approach to the design of nets and nails for
surficial rock slope revetment in Interdisciplinary Workshop on Rockfall
Protection, June 2325 2008, Morshach, Switzerland.
Bertolo P., Ferraiolo F., Giacchetti G., Oggeri C., Peila D., e Rossi B., (2007):
Metodologia per prove in vera grandezza su sistemi di protezione corticale dei
versanti GEAM Geoingegneria Ambientale e mineraria, Anno XLIV, N. 2,
MaggioAgosto 2007.
Bertolo P., Oggeri C., Peila D., 2009 Full scale testing of draped nets for rock fall
protection  Canadian Geotechnical Journal, No. 46 pp. 306317.
Besseghini F., Deana M., Di Prisco C., Guasti G., 2008 Modellazione meccanica
di un sistema corticale attivo per il consolidamento di versanti di terreno,
Rivista GEAM Geoingegneria ambientale e Mineraria, Anno XLV, N. III
dicembre 2008 (125) pp. 2530 (in Italian)
Bonati A., e Galimberti V., (2004): Valutazione sperimentale di sistemi di difesa
attiva dalla caduta massi in atti Bonifica dei versanti rocciosi per la difesa
del territorio  Trento 2004, Peila D. Editor.
Castro D., 2008 Proyetos de investigacin en la Universidad de Cantabria  II
Curso sobre proteccin contra caida de rocas Madrid, 26 27 de Febrero.
Organiza STMR Servicios tcnicos de mecnica de rocas.
Cravero M., Iabichino G., Oreste P.P., e Teodori S.P. 2004: Metodi di analisi e
dimensionamento di sostegni e rinforzi per pendii naturali o di scavo in roccia
in atti Bonifica dei versanti rocciosi per la difesa del territorio Trento 2004,
Peila D. Editor.
Ferraiolo F., e Giacchetti G., (2004): Rivestimenti corticali: alcune considerazioni
sullapplicazione delle reti di protezione in parete rocciosa in atti Bonifica
dei versanti rocciosi per la difesa del territorio Trento 2004, Peila D.
Editor.
Ferrero A.M., Giani G.P., Migliazza M., (1997): Interazione tra elementi di rinforzo
di discontinuit in roccia  atti Il modello geotecnico del sottosuolo nella
progettazione delle opere di sostegno e degli scavi IV Conv. Naz.
Ricercatori universitari Hevelius pp. 259 275.
Flumm D., Ruegger R. (2001): Slope stabilization with high performance steel wire
meshes with nails and anchors International Symposium Earth reinforcement,
Fukuoka, Japan.
Goodman, R.E. and Shi, G. (1985), Block Theory and Its Application to Rock
Engineering, PrenticeHall, London.
Hoek E., e Bray J.W., (1981): Rock slope engineering  IMM London.
Jacob V., (2009): Engineering, unpublished thesis, Technical University Torino.
LCPC, (2001) : Parades contre les instabilits rocheuses  Guide technique  Paris.
Majoral R., Giacchetti G., Bertolo P., 2008 Las mallas en la estabilizacin de
taludes II Curso sobre proteccin contra caida de rocas Madrid, 26 27 de
Febrero. Organiza STMR Servicios tcnicos de mecnica de rocas (in Spanish).
Muhunthan B., Shu S., Sasiharan N., Hattamleh O.A., Badger T.C., Lowell S.M.,
Duffy J.D., (2005): Analysis and design of wire mesh/cable net slope
protection  Final Research Report WARD 612.1  Washington State
Transportation Commission Department of Transportation/U.S. Department
of Transportation Federal Highway Administration.
Pellet F., e Egger P., (1995): Analytical model for the behaviour of bolded rock
joints and practical applications. In proceedings of international symposium
Anchors theory and practice. Widmann R. Editor. A.A. Balkema.
Phear A., Dew C., Ozsoy B., Wharmby N.J., Judge J., e Barley A.D., (2005): Soil
nailing Best practice guidance  CIRIA C637, London, 2005.
Ruegger R., e Flumm D., (2000): High performance steel wire mesh for surface
protection in combination with nails and anchors Contribution to the 2nd
colloquium Contruction in soil and rock Accademy of Esslingen
(Germany).
Saderis A., (2004): Reti in aderenza su versanti rocciosi per il controllo della caduta
massi: aspetti tecnologici e progettuali Tesi di Laurea in Ingegneria per
lAmbiente e il Territorio, unpublished thesis, Technical University Torino.
Torres Vila J.A., Torres Vila M.A., e Castro Fresno D., (2000): Validation de los
modelos fisicos de analisis y diseno para el empleo de membranas flexibile
Tecco G65 como elemento de soporte superficial en la estabilizacion de
taludes.
Valfr A., (2007): Dimensionamento di reti metalliche in aderenza per scarpate
rocciose mediante modellazioni numeriche GEAM Geoingegneria
Ambientale e mineraria, Anno XLIII, N. 4, Dicembre 2006.
Wyllie D.C., e Mah C.W., (2004): Rock slope engineering civil and mining  4th
edition Spon Press London and New York.
Viel mehr als nur Dokumente.
Entdecken, was Scribd alles zu bieten hat, inklusive Bücher und Hörbücher von großen Verlagen.
Jederzeit kündbar.