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Objective:

To study the pressure control trainer.

Block Diagram:

Specifications:

Product

Product code

314A

Type of control

SCADA

Control unit

communication

Communication

Pressure Transmitter

I/P converter

Control valve

Air to close, Characteristics: linear

Process tank

Pressure vessel, MS

Pressure gauge

Overall dimensions

550Wx480Dx525H mm

Optional

Theory:

Pressure control trainer is designed for understanding the basic principle of pressure

control. The process set up consists of pressure vessel fitted with pneumatic control

valve. Pressure transmitter is used for pressure sensing. The process

parameter(pressure) is controlled by microprocessor based digital indicating

controller which manipulates pneumatic control valve fitted at outlet of pressure

tank outlet through I/P converter. These units along with necessary piping are fitted

on support housing designed for table-top mounting. The controller can be

connected to computer through USB port for monitoring the process in SCADA

mode.

Experiment 1

Aim:

Study of open loop response (Manual control).

Procedure:

1. Start the setup, adjust the vent valve.

2. Initialize Modbus communication on the computer i.e. Start| All programs |

Wonderware FactorySite | IO Servers | Modicon MODBUS

3. Execute Programs | Wonderware | InTouch for Pressure control. Select All in

Windows to open and Click Runtime.

4. Select open loop Experiment (click on Change Expt. Button, click on Change,

Click on Open Loop button.)

5. Close the control valve by increasing the controller output to 100%. Note down

steady state process value.

6. Apply the step change by 10% to controller output and wait for the process value to

reach the steady state value. Note down the process value.

7. Repeat the above step until the controller output reaches to minimum 0%.

Observations:

Tabulate the observations as follows:

Controller output in %

100

90

80

Process Value in %

The output required for maintaining the process at desired set points is studied for a

particular vent valve opening.

Experiment 2

Aim:

To study on/off controller for pressure regulation

Procedure:

1. Repeat the first three steps of experiment-3A.

2. Select On-Off mode option for the control from software. (click on Change

Expt. Button, click on Change, Click on On-Off mode button.)

3. Change Hysteresis value to 1%.(Range 0.1-10%)

4. Change the values of the set point and observe the On-Off control operation.

Observations:

Observe that if process value exceeds the set point and increases above the

value of (0.5x Hysteresis), control valve is full open and if process value

decreases below the set point by (0.5 x Hysteresis), the control valve closes

fully i.e. controller operates like On/Off switch.

S. No.

Model Graph:

Time

Process Value

Experiment 3C

Study of proportional controller

Aim:

Study of proportional controller.

Procedure:

1. Repeat the first three steps of experiment-3A.

2. Select P Mode option for control from software. (click on Change Expt.

Button, click on Change, Click on P Mode button.)

3. Keep the set point to 60%. Change output mode to Manual. Adjust output

value so as to match the process value with set point and apply this output

value as bias value to the controller. Adjust the proportional band to 50%.

4. Switch the controller to Auto mode.

5. Apply step change of 10% to set point and observe the response.

6. Switch the controller to Manual mode. Decrease proportional band to half of

the previous value & then shift controller to Auto mode. With each decrease,

obtain a new response of the step change. Ensure that the set point changes

are around the same operating point (@ 5-10% only).

7. Using trial and error approach, find a value of proportional band so that

the response to a step change has at most one overshoot and one

undershoot.

8. Set the controller to the settings obtained in the above step and wait for

the system to reach at steady state.

Observations:

1. Observe steady state error decreases as proportional band decreases.

2. Observe the effect of very low proportional band values (system

works in oscillatory mode).

3. Study of proportional integral controller.

Model Graph:

Experiment 3D

Study of proportional integral controller

Aim:

Study of proportional integral controller.

Procedure:

1. Repeat the first three steps of experiment-3A.

2. Select PI Mode option for control from software. (click on Change Expt.

Button, click on Change, Click on PI Mode button.)

3. Adjust the process value by changing the output of controller in manual

mode to a particular pressure (set point =60%).

4. Set the proportional band estimated from Proportional control (from

previous experiment). Start with derivative time=0 and integral time=1000

sec., which will cut off the derivative action and widen the effect of integral

action.

5. Set the set point to desired pressure (@60%). Allow the process to

reach at steady state. Record the steady state error.

6. Switch on the controller to manual mode. Reduce the integral time to half of

the previous value. Switch to Auto mode and apply step change to the set

point by 2 to 3%. Note the response of the system.

7. Using trial and error, find out an integral time, which gives satisfactory

response to the step change in set point.

Observations:

Observe the effect of reducing integral time on offset and on the response

of the process.

Model Graph:

Experiment 3E

Study of proportional derivative controller

Aim:

Study of proportional derivative controller.

Procedure:

1. Repeat the first three steps of experiment-3A.

2. Select PD Mode option for control from software. (Click on Change

Expt. Button, click on Change, Click on PD Mode button.)

3. Select PD controller. Set the proportional band estimated from Proportional

control (P only). Start with derivative time=0 and integral time=6000 sec.,

which will cut off the derivative action and widen the effect of integral

action.

4. Set the set point to desired pressure (@60%). Allow the process to reach at

steady state. Note the response of the system.

5. Switch on the controller to manual mode. Increase the derivative time by 1

sec.

6. Switch to Auto mode and apply step change to the set point by 2 to 3%. Note

the response of the system.

7. Increase the derivative time gradually and observe the process response for

step change.

Observations:

Observe the effect of increasing derivative time. Also note that the process

may show offset as effect of integral action is cut off.

Experiment 3F

Study of proportional integral derivative controller

Aim:

Study of proportional integral derivative controller.

Procedure:

1. Repeat the first three steps of experiment-3A.

2. Select PID Mode option for control from software. (click on Change

Expt. Button, click on Change, Click on PID Mode button.)

3. Switch the controller to manual mode.

4. Change the proportional band to the value that estimated in

proportional controller. Set integral time and derivative time based on

the responses in previous experiments.

5. Change the controller to Auto mode. Apply step change by 2 to 3% to the

set point and observe the response of the process.

6. Change the proportional band, integral time, derivative time and observe

the response of the process for step change for each change in setting.

Observations:

Compare the steady state response of the PID controller with P, PI and PD

controller obtained in the previous experiments.

Experiment 3G

Tuning of controller (Open loop method)

Aim:

Study of open loop controller tuning.

Procedure:

1. Repeat the first three steps of experiment-3A.

2. Select Process Reaction option for control from software. (Click on Change

Expt. Button, click on Change, Click on Process Reaction button.)

3. Adjust controller output, so that the process value is maintained at 60%.

4. Start data logging.

5. With the controller still in manual mode impose a step change apply a 20 30 % change to controller output. (Open the control valve) Record the step

response. Wait for the steady state.

6. Stop data logging.

7. Plot the step response (Process reaction curve) from stored data. Find out

the value of slope at the point of inflection and time lag.

8. Calculate P I D settings for different modes.

9. Select PID Mode option for control from software. (Click on Change Expt.

Button, click on Change, Click on PID Mode button.) Switch on the

controller to manual mode and Keep the set point to 60%. Adjust output

value so as to match the process value to set point.

10. Set the PID values obtained from the calculations. Switch on the controller

to

11. Auto mode. Apply the step change & observe the response of the system.

Allow the system to reach steady state.

Observations:

(Refer Theory of process control for formula.)

1. Step change to the system P = Initial output - Final output of the controller.

2. Plot the graph of process value Vs. Time on a graph paper.

Slope of the process reaction curve R =

Time lag L=

4. Calculate P, PI, PID setting from above values.

5. Observe response of the system for different PID settings.

Model Graph:

Where

Slope R: Slope of line drawn tangent to the point of inflection.

R=%Change in variable/time(min) = Y/X.

Dead time L=time between the step change and point where tangent line crosses the

initial value of the controlled variable(in min.)

P=Step change applied in %.

Using these parameters ,the empirical equations are used to predict the controller

setting for a decay ratio of .

For P, PI and PID controller the parameters are calculated as follows:

Experiment 3H

Tuning of controller (Closed loop method)

Aim:

Study of Closed loop controller tuning.

Procedure:

1. Repeat the first three steps of experiment-1A.

2. Select Close Loop option for control from software. (Click on Change

Expt. Button, click on Change, Click on Close Loop button.)

3. Set the proportional band value to maximum (Say 100). Set the

controller to manual mode and adjust the output so that the process is

nearly at set point (60%).

4. Set controller to auto mode and impose step on the process by moving

the set point for a few seconds & then return to its original value (or apply

the step change to the set point of 5%). Wait for some time & observe the

response.

5. Decrease the proportional band to the half of previous and impose step

on the process as mentioned above. Wait for some time & observe the

response.

6. Repeat the above procedure and find out correct value of proportional

band for which the system just goes unstable i.e. continuous oscillations

are observed in the output of controller.

7. Record the ultimate proportional band and ultimate period from the

response.

8. Calculate the PID values from the table. Select the PID controller and apply

the parameter values obtained from the above steps. Observe the

response of the process to a step change with these settings.

Observations:

1. Record the ultimate proportional band (Pbu) and ultimate period (Tu) from

above experiment.

2. Calculate PID values by referring theory part for different control actions.

3. Observe the process response for these settings.

4. Compare the values obtained with open loop response method.

Model Graph:

Experiment 3J

To study stability of the system (Bode plot)

Aim:

Study of stability of the system using Bode plot.

Procedure:

1. Repeat the first three steps of experiment 1.

2. Select Stability analysis option for control from software. (Click on Change

3. Expt. Button, click on Change, Click on Stability analysis button.)

4. Select function generator to apply the sinusoidal input to the output

of the controller.

5. Enter Reference point, Amplitude and Period.

6. Observe the sinusoidal output of the controller and sinusoidal response

of the process.

7. Log the data for records.

8. Change the period and repeat the observation for 3-4 different values of

the period.

Observations:

1. Form the data file stored note down the

2. Observe the output response of the process and note down the output

amplitude.

Measure output wave period and note down as T sec. Measure the phase

lag x and note down in sec.

Obs.

Input

Output

Output

Lag X

No.

amplitude

amplitude

Period

In sec

A1 %

A2 %

T in sec

Frequenc

y

Calculations:

1. Calculate for each observation

Magnitude ratio as M = A2/A1

Phase angle = (X/T) x 360

Frequency = 1/T cycles / sec.

2. Draw the graphs of:

Magnitude Vs frequency on log - log scale

Phase angle Vs frequency on semi-log coordinates.

3. Study the graph for stability conditions mentioned in theory

Model Graph:

Let,

M Magnitude ratio

A1 Input amplitude(%)

A2 Output amplitude(%)

Phase angle (degree)

X lag (seconds)

F frequency (cycles per seconds)=1/T.

Then, M=A2/A1

=(X/T)*360.

BODE diagram:

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