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Field Theory

B O T HID

U PSILON B OOKS

Electromagnetic

Field Theory

B O T HID

Swedish Institute of Space Physics

Uppsala, Sweden

and

Department of Astronomy and Space Physics

Uppsala University, Sweden

and

LOIS Space Centre

School of Mathematics and Systems Engineering

Vxj University, Sweden

Also available

E LECTROMAGNETIC F IELD T HEORY

E XERCISES

by

Tobia Carozzi, Anders Eriksson, Bengt Lundborg,

Bo Thid and Mattias Waldenvik

Freely downloadable from

www.plasma.uu.se/CED

This book was typeset in LATEX 2 (based on TEX 3.141592 and Web2C 7.4.4) on an HP Visualize 90003600 workstation running HP-UX 11.11.

Copyright 19972006 by

Bo Thid

Uppsala, Sweden

All rights reserved.

Electromagnetic Field Theory

ISBN X-XXX-XXXXX-X

L EV M IKHAILOVICH E RUKHIMOV (19361997)

and a truly remarkable man.

Contents

Contents

List of Figures

ix

xiii

Preface

xv

Classical Electrodynamics

1.1 Electrostatics

1.1.1 Coulombs law

1.1.2 The electrostatic field

1.2 Magnetostatics

1.2.1 Ampres law

1.2.2 The magnetostatic field

1.3 Electrodynamics

1.3.1 Equation of continuity for electric charge

1.3.2 Maxwells displacement current

1.3.3 Electromotive force

1.3.4 Faradays law of induction

1.3.5 Maxwells microscopic equations

1.3.6 Maxwells macroscopic equations

1.4 Electromagnetic duality

1.5 Bibliography

1.6 Examples

1

2

2

3

6

6

7

9

10

10

11

12

15

15

16

18

20

Electromagnetic Waves

2.1 The wave equations

2.1.1 The wave equation for E

2.1.2 The wave equation for B

2.1.3 The time-independent wave equation for E

25

26

26

27

27

ix

Contents

2.2

2.3

2.4

2.5

30

31

32

33

34

36

Plane waves

2.2.1 Telegraphers equation

2.2.2 Waves in conductive media

Observables and averages

Bibliography

Example

Electromagnetic Potentials

3.1 The electrostatic scalar potential

3.2 The magnetostatic vector potential

3.3 The electrodynamic potentials

3.4 Gauge transformations

3.5 Gauge conditions

3.5.1 Lorenz-Lorentz gauge

3.5.2 Coulomb gauge

3.5.3 Velocity gauge

3.6 Bibliography

3.7 Examples

39

39

40

40

41

42

43

47

49

49

51

4.1 Electric polarisation and displacement

4.1.1 Electric multipole moments

4.2 Magnetisation and the magnetising field

4.3 Energy and momentum

4.3.1 The energy theorem in Maxwells theory

4.3.2 The momentum theorem in Maxwells theory

4.4 Bibliography

4.5 Example

53

53

53

56

58

58

59

62

63

5.1 The magnetic field

5.2 The electric field

5.3 The radiation fields

5.4 Radiated energy

5.4.1 Monochromatic signals

5.4.2 Finite bandwidth signals

5.5 Bibliography

65

67

69

71

74

74

75

76

6.1 Radiation from an extended source volume at rest

6.1.1 Radiation from a one-dimensional current distribution

77

77

78

6.2

6.3

6.4

6.5

Radiation from a localised source volume at rest

6.2.1 The Hertz potential

6.2.2 Electric dipole radiation

6.2.3 Magnetic dipole radiation

6.2.4 Electric quadrupole radiation

Radiation from a localised charge in arbitrary motion

6.3.1 The Linard-Wiechert potentials

6.3.2 Radiation from an accelerated point charge

6.3.3 Bremsstrahlung

6.3.4 Cyclotron and synchrotron radiation

6.3.5 Radiation from charges moving in matter

Bibliography

Examples

81

85

85

89

91

92

93

94

96

104

108

115

122

124

Relativistic Electrodynamics

7.1 The special theory of relativity

7.1.1 The Lorentz transformation

7.1.2 Lorentz space

7.1.3 Minkowski space

7.2 Covariant classical mechanics

7.3 Covariant classical electrodynamics

7.3.1 The four-potential

7.3.2 The Linard-Wiechert potentials

7.3.3 The electromagnetic field tensor

7.4 Bibliography

131

131

132

134

139

142

143

143

144

147

150

8.1 Charged particles in an electromagnetic field

8.1.1 Covariant equations of motion

8.2 Covariant field theory

8.2.1 Lagrange-Hamilton formalism for fields and interactions

8.3 Bibliography

8.4 Example

153

153

153

159

160

167

169

Formul

F.1 The electromagnetic field

F.1.1 Maxwells equations

F.1.2 Fields and potentials

F.1.3 Force and energy

F.2 Electromagnetic radiation

171

171

171

171

172

172

xi

Contents

F.3

F.4

F.5

xii

F.2.2 The far fields from an extended source distribution

F.2.3 The far fields from an electric dipole

F.2.4 The far fields from a magnetic dipole

F.2.5 The far fields from an electric quadrupole

F.2.6 The fields from a point charge in arbitrary motion

Special relativity

F.3.1 Metric tensor

F.3.2 Covariant and contravariant four-vectors

F.3.3 Lorentz transformation of a four-vector

F.3.4 Invariant line element

F.3.5 Four-velocity

F.3.6 Four-momentum

F.3.7 Four-current density

F.3.8 Four-potential

F.3.9 Field tensor

Vector relations

F.4.1 Spherical polar coordinates

F.4.2 Vector formulae

Bibliography

172

172

172

173

173

173

174

174

174

174

174

174

175

175

175

175

175

176

176

178

M Mathematical Methods

M.1 Scalars, vectors and tensors

M.1.1 Vectors

M.1.2 Fields

M.1.3 Vector algebra

M.1.4 Vector analysis

M.2 Analytical mechanics

M.2.1 Lagranges equations

M.2.2 Hamiltons equations

M.3 Examples

M.4 Bibliography

179

179

179

181

184

186

188

188

189

190

198

Index

199

List of Figures

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.4

Coulomb interaction for a distribution of electric charges

Ampre interaction

Moving loop in a varying B field

3

5

7

13

5.1

73

6.1

6.2

6.3

6.4

6.5

6.6

6.7

6.8

6.9

6.10

6.11

6.12

6.13

6.14

Linear antenna

Electric dipole antenna geometry

Loop antenna

Multipole radiation geometry

Electric dipole geometry

Radiation from a moving charge in vacuum

An accelerated charge in vacuum

Angular distribution of radiation during bremsstrahlung

Location of radiation during bremsstrahlung

Radiation from a charge in circular motion

Synchrotron radiation lobe width

The perpendicular field of a moving charge

Electron-electron scattering

Vavilov-Cerenkov

cone

79

80

82

87

89

94

96

105

106

109

111

113

115

120

7.1

7.2

7.3

Rotation in a 2D Euclidean space

Minkowski diagram

133

139

140

8.1

160

190

xiii

Preface

This book is the result of a more than thirty year long love affair. In 1972, I took

my first advanced course in electrodynamics at the Department of Theoretical

Physics, Uppsala University. A year later, I joined the research group there and

took on the task of helping my supervisor, professor P ER -O LOF F RMAN, with

the preparation of a new version of his lecture notes on the Theory of Electricity.

These two things opened up my eyes for the beauty and intricacy of electrodynamics, already at the classical level, and I fell in love with it. Ever since that

time, I have on and off had reason to return to electrodynamics, both in my studies, research and the teaching of a course in advanced electrodynamics at Uppsala

University some twenty odd years after I experienced the first encounter with this

subject.

The current version of the book is an outgrowth of the lecture notes that I

prepared for the four-credit course Electrodynamics that was introduced in the

Uppsala University curriculum in 1992, to become the five-credit course Classical

Electrodynamics in 1997. To some extent, parts of these notes were based on

lecture notes prepared, in Swedish, by B ENGT L UNDBORG who created, developed

and taught the earlier, two-credit course Electromagnetic Radiation at our faculty.

Intended primarily as a textbook for physics students at the advanced undergraduate or beginning graduate level, it is hoped that the present book may be

useful for research workers too. It provides a thorough treatment of the theory

of electrodynamics, mainly from a classical field theoretical point of view, and

includes such things as formal electrostatics and magnetostatics and their unification into electrodynamics, the electromagnetic potentials, gauge transformations, covariant formulation of classical electrodynamics, force, momentum and

energy of the electromagnetic field, radiation and scattering phenomena, electromagnetic waves and their propagation in vacuum and in media, and covariant

Lagrangian/Hamiltonian field theoretical methods for electromagnetic fields, particles and interactions. The aim has been to write a book that can serve both as

an advanced text in Classical Electrodynamics and as a preparation for studies in

Quantum Electrodynamics and related subjects.

In an attempt to encourage participation by other scientists and students in

the authoring of this book, and to ensure its quality and scope to make it useful

in higher university education anywhere in the world, it was produced within a

xv

Preface

World-Wide Web (WWW) project. This turned out to be a rather successful move.

By making an electronic version of the book freely down-loadable on the net,

comments have been received from fellow Internet physicists around the world

and from WWW hit statistics it seems that the book serves as a frequently used

Internet resource.1 This way it is hoped that it will be particularly useful for

students and researchers working under financial or other circumstances that make

it difficult to procure a printed copy of the book.

Thanks are due not only to Bengt Lundborg for providing the inspiration to

write this book, but also to professor C HRISTER WAHLBERG and professor G RAN

FLDT, Uppsala University, and professor YAKOV I STOMIN, Lebedev Institute,

Moscow, for interesting discussions on electrodynamics and relativity in general

and on this book in particular. Comments from former graduate students M ATTIAS

WALDENVIK, T OBIA C AROZZI and ROGER K ARLSSON as well as A NDERS E RIKS SON , all at the Swedish Institute of Space Physics in Uppsala and who all have

participated in the teaching on the material covered in the course and in this book

are gratefully acknowledged. Thanks are also due to my long-term space physics

colleague H ELMUT KOPKA of the Max-Planck-Institut fr Aeronomie, Lindau,

Germany, who not only taught me about the practical aspects of high-power radio

wave transmitters and transmission lines, but also about the more delicate aspects

of typesetting a book in TEX and LATEX. I am particularly indebted to Academician

professor V ITALIY L AZAREVICH G INZBURG, 2003 Nobel Laureate in Physics, for

his many fascinating and very elucidating lectures, comments and historical notes

on electromagnetic radiation and cosmic electrodynamics while cruising on the

Volga river at our joint Russian-Swedish summer schools during the 1990s, and

for numerous private discussions over the years.

Finally, I would like to thank all students and Internet users who have downloaded and commented on the book during its life on the World-Wide Web.

I dedicate this book to my son M ATTIAS, my daughter K AROLINA, my

high-school physics teacher, S TAFFAN RSBY, and to my fellow members of the

C APELLA P EDAGOGICA U PSALIENSIS.

Uppsala, Sweden

December, 2006

1 At

xvi

B O T HID

www.physics.irfu.se/bt

the time of publication of this edition, more than 500 000 downloads have been recorded.

1

Classical

Electrodynamics

Classical electrodynamics deals with electric and magnetic fields and interactions

caused by macroscopic distributions of electric charges and currents. This means

that the concepts of localised electric charges and currents assume the validity of

certain mathematical limiting processes in which it is considered possible for the

charge and current distributions to be localised in infinitesimally small volumes of

space. Clearly, this is in contradiction to electromagnetism on a truly microscopic

scale, where charges and currents have to be treated as spatially extended objects

and quantum corrections must be included. However, the limiting processes used

will yield results which are correct on small as well as large macroscopic scales.

It took the genius of JAMES C LERK M AXWELL to unify electricity and magnetism into a super-theory, electromagnetism or classical electrodynamics (CED),

and to realise that optics is a subfield of this super-theory. Early in the 20th century, H ENDRIK A NTOON L ORENTZ took the electrodynamics theory further to the

microscopic scale and also laid the foundation for the special theory of relativity,

formulated by A LBERT E INSTEIN in 1905. In the 1930s PAUL A. M. D IRAC expanded electrodynamics to a more symmetric form, including magnetic as well

as electric charges. With his relativistic quantum mechanics, he also paved the

way for the development of quantum electrodynamics (QED) for which R ICHARD

P. F EYNMAN, J ULIAN S CHWINGER, and S IN -I TIRO T OMONAGA in 1965 received

their Nobel prizes in physics. Around the same time, physicists such as S HELDON

G LASHOW, A BDUS S ALAM, and S TEVEN W EINBERG were able to unify electrodynamics the weak interaction theory to yet another super-theory, electroweak

theory, an achievement which rendered them the Nobel prize in physics 1979.

The modern theory of strong interactions, quantum chromodynamics (QCD), is

influenced by QED.

In this chapter we start with the force interactions in classical electrostatics

1. Classical Electrodynamics

and classical magnetostatics and introduce the static electric and magnetic fields

to find two uncoupled systems of equations for them. Then we see how the conservation of electric charge and its relation to electric current leads to the dynamic

connection between electricity and magnetism and how the two can be unified

into one super-theory, classical electrodynamics, described by one system of

eight coupled dynamic field equationsthe Maxwell equations.

At the end of this chapter we study Diracs symmetrised form of Maxwells

equations by introducing (hypothetical) magnetic charges and magnetic currents

into the theory. While not identified unambiguously in experiments yet, magnetic charges and currents make the theory much more appealing, for instance by

allowing for duality transformations in a most natural way.

1.1 Electrostatics

The theory which describes physical phenomena related to the interaction between stationary electric charges or charge distributions in a finite space which

has stationary boundaries is called electrostatics. For a long time, electrostatics,

under the name electricity, was considered an independent physical theory of its

own, alongside other physical theories such as magnetism, mechanics, optics and

thermodynamics.1

It has been found experimentally that in classical electrostatics the interaction

between stationary, electrically charged bodies can be described in terms of a

mechanical force. Let us consider the simple case described by figure 1.1 on

page 3. Let F denote the force acting on an electrically charged particle with

charge q located at x, due to the presence of a charge q0 located at x0 . According

to Coulombs law this force is, in vacuum, given by the expression

1

1

qq0 x x0

qq0

qq0 0

F(x) =

=

=

(1.1)

40 |x x0 |3

40

40

|x x0 |

|x x0 |

1 The

The whole theory of electrostatics constitutes a group of abstract ideas and general propositions, formulated in the clear and concise language of geometry and algebra, and connected with one another by the rules of strict logic. This whole fully satisfies the reason of

a French physicist and his taste for clarity, simplicity and order. . . .

Electrostatics

q

x x0

x

q0

x0

O

F IGURE 1.1: Coulombs law describes how a static electric charge q, located at

a point x relative to the origin O, experiences an electrostatic force from a static

electric charge q0 located at x0 .

where in the last step formula (F.71) on page 177 was used. In SI units, which we

shall use throughout, the force F is measured in Newton (N), the electric charges q

and q0 in Coulomb (C) [= Ampre-seconds (As)], and the length |x x0 | in metres

(m). The constant 0 = 107 /(4c2 ) 8.8542 1012 Farad per metre (F/m) is

the vacuum permittivity and c 2.9979 108 m/s is the speed of light in vacuum.

In CGS units 0 = 1/(4) and the force is measured in dyne, electric charge in

statcoulomb, and length in centimetres (cm).

Instead of describing the electrostatic interaction in terms of a force action at a

distance, it turns out that it is for most purposes more useful to introduce the

concept of a field and to describe the electrostatic interaction in terms of a static

vectorial electric field Estat defined by the limiting process

def

F

q0 q

Estat lim

(1.2)

net electric charge q0 on the test particle with a small electric net electric charge

q. Since the purpose of the limiting process is to assure that the test charge q does

not distort the field set up by q0 , the expression for Estat does not depend explicitly

on q but only on the charge q0 and the relative radius vector x x0 . This means

that we can say that any net electric charge produces an electric field in the space

1. Classical Electrodynamics

that surrounds it, regardless of the existence of a second charge anywhere in this

space.2

Using (1.1) and equation (1.2) on page 3, and formula (F.70) on page 177,

we find that the electrostatic field Estat at the field point x (also known as the

observation point), due to a field-producing electric charge q0 at the source point

x0 , is given by

q0 x x0

q0 0

q0

1

1

Estat (x) =

=

=

40 |x x0 |3

40

40

|x x0 |

|x x0 |

(1.3)

In the presence of several field producing discrete electric charges q0i , located

at the points x0i , i = 1, 2, 3, . . . , respectively, in an otherwise empty space, the assumption of linearity of vacuum3 allows us to superimpose their individual electrostatic fields into a total electrostatic field

Estat (x) =

1

40

0

0 x xi

q

i 0 3

x xi

i

(1.4)

If the discrete electric charges are small and numerous enough, we introduce

the electric charge density , measured in C/m3 in SI units, located at x0 within

a volume V 0 of limited extent and replace summation with integration over this

volume. This allows us to describe the total field as

Z

Z

1

1

x x0

1

3 0

0

=

Estat (x) =

d3x0 (x0 )

d

x

(x

)

40 V 0

40 V 0

|x x0 |

|x x0 |3

Z

1

(x0 )

d3x0

=

40

|x x0 |

V0

(1.5)

where we used formula (F.70) on page 177 and the fact that (x0 ) does not depend

on the unprimed (field point) coordinates on which operates.

2 In the preface to the first edition of the first volume of his book A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism, first published in 1873, James Clerk Maxwell describes this in the following almost poetic manner

[9]:

For instance, Faraday, in his minds eye, saw lines of force traversing all space where the

mathematicians saw centres of force attracting at a distance: Faraday saw a medium where

they saw nothing but distance: Faraday sought the seat of the phenomena in real actions

going on in the medium, they were satisfied that they had found it in a power of action at

a distance impressed on the electric fluids.

3 In fact, vacuum exhibits a quantum mechanical nonlinearity due to vacuum polarisation effects manifesting themselves in the momentary creation and annihilation of electron-positron pairs, but classically

this nonlinearity is negligible.

Electrostatics

x x0i

x

q0i

x0i

V0

O

F IGURE 1.2:

within a volume V 0 of limited extent.

We emphasise that under the assumption of linear superposition, equation (1.5) on page 4 is valid for an arbitrary distribution of electric charges, including discrete charges, in which case is expressed in terms of Dirac delta

distributions:

(x0 ) = q0i (x0 x0i )

(1.6)

as illustrated in figure 1.2. Inserting this expression into expression (1.5) on page 4

we recover expression (1.4) on page 4.

Taking the divergence of the general Estat expression for an arbitrary electric

charge distribution, equation (1.5) on page 4, and using the representation of the

Dirac delta distribution, formula (F.73) on page 177, we find that

1

x x0

d3x0 (x0 )

40 V 0

|x x0 |3

Z

1

1

=

d3x0 (x0 )

40 V 0

|x x0 |

Z

1

1

3 0

0

2

=

d x (x )

40 V 0

|x x0 |

Z

1

(x)

=

d3x0 (x0 ) (x x0 ) =

0 V 0

0

Estat (x) =

(1.7)

Since, according to formula (F.62) on page 177, [(x)] 0 for any 3D

1. Classical Electrodynamics

Z

(x0 )

1

=0

Estat (x) =

d3x0

40

|x x0 |

V0

(1.8)

To summarise, electrostatics can be described in terms of two vector partial

differential equations

(x)

0

stat

E (x) = 0

Estat (x) =

(1.9a)

(1.9b)

1.2 Magnetostatics

While electrostatics deals with static electric charges, magnetostatics deals with

stationary electric currents, i.e., electric charges moving with constant speeds, and

the interaction between these currents. Here we shall discuss this theory in some

detail.

Experiments on the interaction between two small loops of electric current have

shown that they interact via a mechanical force, much the same way that electric

charges interact. In figure 1.3 on page 7, let F denote such a force acting on a

small loop C, with tangential line element dl, located at x and carrying a current

I in the direction of dl, due to the presence of a small loop C 0 , with tangential

line element dl0 , located at x0 and carrying a current I 0 in the direction of dl0 .

According to Ampres law this force is, in vacuum, given by the expression

0 II 0

x x0

dl dl0

4 C

|x x0 |3

C0

I

I

0 II 0

1

=

dl dl0

4 C

|x x0 |

C0

F(x) =

(1.10)

From the definition of 0 and 0 (in SI units) we observe that

0 0 =

1

107

(F/m) 4 107 (H/m) = 2 (s2 /m2 )

4c2

c

(1.11)

Magnetostatics

C

I dl

x x0

I 0 dl0

x

C0

x0

O

F IGURE 1.3: Ampres law describes how a small loop C, carrying a static

electric current I through its tangential line element dl located at x, experiences

a magnetostatic force from a small loop C 0 , carrying a static electric current I 0

through the tangential line element dl0 located at x0 . The loops can have arbitrary

shapes as long as they are simple and closed.

At first glance, equation (1.10) on page 6 may appear unsymmetric in terms of

the loops and therefore to be a force law which is in contradiction with Newtons

third law. However, by applying the vector triple product bac-cab formula (F.51)

on page 176, we can rewrite (1.10) as

I

I

0 II 0

1

F(x) =

dl0 dl

4 C 0

|x x0 |

C

(1.12)

I

I

0 II 0

x x0

0

dl

dl

4 C C 0 |x x0 |3

Since the integrand in the first integral is an exact differential, this integral vanishes and we can rewrite the force expression, equation (1.10) on page 6, in the

following symmetric way

F(x) =

0 II 0

4

I I

C

C0

x x0

dl dl0

|x x0 |3

(1.13)

In analogy with the electrostatic case, we may attribute the magnetostatic interaction to a static vectorial magnetic field Bstat . It turns out that the elemental Bstat

1. Classical Electrodynamics

can be defined as

def

dBstat (x)

x x0

0 I 0 0

dl

4

|x x0 |3

(1.14)

which expresses the small element dBstat (x) of the static magnetic field set up at

the field point x by a small line element dl0 of stationary current I 0 at the source

point x0 . The SI unit for the magnetic field, sometimes called the magnetic flux

density or magnetic induction, is Tesla (T).

If we generalise expression (1.14) to an integrated steady state electric current

density j(x), measured in A/m2 in SI units, we obtain Biot-Savarts law:

Z

Z

0

0

x x0

1

3 0

0

Bstat (x) =

=

d3x0 j(x0 )

d

x

j(x

)

4 V 0

4 V 0

|x x0 |

|x x0 |3

Z

0

j(x0 )

=

d3x0

4

|x x0 |

V0

(1.15)

where we used formula (F.70) on page 177, formula (F.57) on page 177, and the

fact that j(x0 ) does not depend on the unprimed coordinates on which operates.

Comparing equation (1.5) on page 4 with equation (1.15), we see that there exists

a close analogy between the expressions for Estat and Bstat but that they differ

in their vectorial characteristics. With this definition of Bstat , equation (1.10) on

page 6 may we written

F(x) = I

dl Bstat (x)

(1.16)

In order to assess the properties of Bstat , we determine its divergence and curl.

Taking the divergence of both sides of equation (1.15) and utilising formula (F.63)

on page 177, we obtain

Z

0

0

stat

3 0 j(x )

B (x) =

dx

=0

(1.17)

4

|x x0 |

V0

since, according to formula (F.63) on page 177, ( a) vanishes for any vector

field a(x).

Applying the operator bac-cab rule, formula (F.64) on page 177, the curl of

equation (1.15) can be written

Z

0

j(x0 )

Bstat (x) =

d3x0

=

4

|x x0 |

V0

Z

Z

0

0

1

1

3 0

0

2

3 0

0

0

0

=

d x j(x )

+

d x [j(x ) ]

4 V 0

4 V 0

|x x0 |

|x x0 |

(1.18)

Electrodynamics

In the first of the two integrals on the right-hand side, we use the representation

of the Dirac delta function given in formula (F.73) on page 177, and integrate the

second one by parts, by utilising formula (F.56) on page 177 as follows:

Z

1

3 0

0

0

0

d x [j(x ) ]

|x x0 |

V0

Z

1

3 0 0

0

= x k d x j(x )

xk0 |x x0 |

V0

Z

1

d3x0 0 j(x0 ) 0

|x x0 |

V0

Z

Z

0

0

1

1

2 0 0

0

3 0

0

= x k d x n j(x ) 0

d x j(x )

xk |x x0 |

|x x0 |

S0

V0

(1.19)

Then we note that the first integral in the result, obtained by applying Gausss

theorem, vanishes when integrated over a large sphere far away from the localised

source j(x0 ), and that the second integral vanishes because j = 0 for stationary

currents (no charge accumulation in space). The net result is simply

B

stat

(x) = 0

Z

V0

(1.20)

1.3 Electrodynamics

As we saw in the previous sections, the laws of electrostatics and magnetostatics

can be summarised in two pairs of time-independent, uncoupled vector partial

differential equations, namely the equations of classical electrostatics

(x)

0

Estat (x) = 0

Estat (x) =

(1.21a)

(1.21b)

Bstat (x) = 0

stat

(1.22a)

(x) = 0 j(x)

(1.22b)

Since there is nothing a priori which connects Estat directly with Bstat , we must

consider classical electrostatics and classical magnetostatics as two independent

theories.

1. Classical Electrodynamics

one theory, classical electrodynamics. This unification of the theories of electricity and magnetism is motivated by two empirically established facts:

1. Electric charge is a conserved quantity and electric current is a transport of

electric charge. This fact manifests itself in the equation of continuity and,

as a consequence, in Maxwells displacement current.

2. A change in the magnetic flux through a loop will induce an EMF electric

field in the loop. This is the celebrated Faradays law of induction.

Let j(t, x) denote the time-dependent electric current density. In the simplest case

it can be defined as j = v where v is the velocity of the electric charge density .R In general, j has to be defined in statistical mechanical terms as j(t, x) =

q d3v v f (t, x, v) where f (t, x, v) is the (normalised) distribution function for

particle species with electric charge q .

The electric charge conservation law can be formulated in the equation of

continuity

(t, x)

+ j(t, x) = 0

t

(1.23)

which states that the time rate of change of electric charge (t, x) is balanced by a

divergence in the electric current density j(t, x).

We recall from the derivation of equation (1.20) on page 9 that there we used the

fact that in magnetostatics j(x) = 0. In the case of non-stationary sources

and fields, we must, in accordance with the continuity equation (1.23), set

j(t, x) = (t, x)/t. Doing so, and formally repeating the steps in the derivation

of equation (1.20) on page 9, we would obtain the formal result

Z

Z

0

1

3 0

0

0

3 0

0

0

B(t, x) = 0 d x j(t, x )(x x ) +

d x (t, x )

4 t V 0

|x x0 |

V0

= 0 j(t, x) + 0 0 E(t, x)

t

(1.24)

10

Electrodynamics

where, in the last step, we have assumed that a generalisation of equation (1.5) on

page 4 to time-varying fields allows us to make the identification4

Z

1

1

d3x0 (t, x0 )0

40 t V 0

|x x0 |

Z

1

1

3 0

0

d x (t, x )

=

(1.25)

t

40 V 0

|x x0 |

Z

(t, x0 )

d3x0

= E(t, x)

0

0

t

40

t

|x x |

V

The result is Maxwells source equation for the B field

1

t

c t

(1.26)

where the last term 0 E(t, x)/t is the famous displacement current. This term

was introduced, in a stroke of genius, by Maxwell [8] in order to make the right

hand side of this equation divergence free when j(t, x) is assumed to represent the

density of the total electric current, which can be split up in ordinary conduction currents, polarisation currents and magnetisation currents. The displacement

current is an extra term which behaves like a current density flowing in vacuum.

As we shall see later, its existence has far-reaching physical consequences as it

predicts the existence of electromagnetic radiation that can carry energy and momentum over very long distances, even in vacuum.

If an electric field E(t, x) is applied to a conducting medium, a current density

j(t, x) will be produced in this medium. There exist also hydrodynamical and

chemical processes which can create currents. Under certain physical conditions,

and for certain materials, one can sometimes assume, that, as a first approximation, a linear relationship exists between the electric current density j and E. This

approximation is called Ohms law:

j(t, x) = E(t, x)

(1.27)

where is the electric conductivity (S/m). In the most general cases, for instance

in an anisotropic conductor, is a tensor.

We can view Ohms law, equation (1.27) above, as the first term in a Taylor

expansion of the law j[E(t, x)]. This general law incorporates non-linear effects

4 Later,

11

1. Classical Electrodynamics

such as frequency mixing. Examples of media which are highly non-linear are

semiconductors and plasma. We draw the attention to the fact that even in cases

when the linear relation between E and j is a good approximation, we still have

to use Ohms law with care. The conductivity is, in general, time-dependent

(temporal dispersive media) but then it is often the case that equation (1.27) on

page 11 is valid for each individual Fourier component of the field.

If the current is caused by an applied electric field E(t, x), this electric field

will exert work on the charges in the medium and, unless the medium is superconducting, there will be some energy loss. The rate at which this energy is expended is j E per unit volume. If E is irrotational (conservative), j will decay

away with time. Stationary currents therefore require that an electric field which

corresponds to an electromotive force (EMF) is present. In the presence of such a

field EEMF , Ohms law, equation (1.27) on page 11, takes the form

j = (Estat + EEMF )

(1.28)

E=

I

C

dl (Estat + EEMF )

(1.29)

In subsection 1.1.2 we derived the differential equations for the electrostatic field.

In particular, on page 6 we derived equation (1.8) which states that Estat (x) = 0

and thus that Estat is a conservative field (it can be expressed as a gradient of a

scalar field). This implies that the closed line integral of Estat in equation (1.29)

above vanishes and that this equation becomes

E=

dl EEMF

(1.30)

produced in a closed circuit C if the magnetic flux through this circuit varies with

time. This is formulated in Faradays law which, in Maxwells generalised form,

reads

E(t, x) =

I

C

12

dl E(t, x) =

d

dt

Z

S

d

m (t, x)

dt

d2x n B(t, x) =

Z

S

d2x n

B(t, x)

t

(1.31)

Electrodynamics

B(x)

B(x)

d2x n

v

C

dl

F IGURE 1.4:

A loop C which moves with velocity v in a spatially varying magnetic field B(x) will sense a varying magnetic flux during the motion.

where m is the magnetic flux and S is the surface encircled by C which can

be interpreted as a generic stationary loop and not necessarily as a conducting

circuit. Application of Stokes theorem on this integral equation, transforms it

into the differential equation

E(t, x) =

B(t, x)

t

(1.32)

which is valid for arbitrary variations in the fields and constitutes the Maxwell

equation which explicitly connects electricity with magnetism.

Any change of the magnetic flux m will induce an EMF. Let us therefore

consider the case, illustrated if figure 1.4, that the loop is moved in such a way

that it links a magnetic field which varies during the movement. The convective

derivative is evaluated according to the well-known operator formula

d

=

+v

dt t

(1.33)

which follows immediately from the rules of differentiation of an arbitrary differentiable function f (t, x(t)). Applying this rule to Faradays law, equation (1.31)

on page 12, we obtain

E(t, x) =

d

dt

Z

S

d2x n B =

Z

S

d2x n

d2x n (v )B

(1.34)

13

1. Classical Electrodynamics

During spatial differentiation v is to be considered as constant, and equation (1.17) on page 8 holds also for time-varying fields:

B(t, x) = 0

(1.35)

(it is one of Maxwells equations) so that, according to formula (F.59) on page 177,

(B v) = (v )B

(1.36)

E(t, x) =

I

C

dl EEMF =

d

dt

= d x n

t

S

Z

d2x n B

(1.37)

2

d x n (B v)

S

E(t, x) =

I

C

dl EEMF =

d2x n

dl (B v)

(1.38)

I

C

dl (EEMF v B) =

Z

S

d2x n

B

t

(1.39)

where EEMF is the field which is induced in the loop, i.e., in the moving system.

The use of Stokes theorem backwards on equation (1.39) above yields

(EEMF v B) =

B

t

(1.40)

E = EEMF v B

(1.41)

qEEMF = qE + q(v B)

(1.42)

EEMF = E + v B

(1.43)

Hence, we can conclude that for a stationary observer, the Maxwell equation

E=

B

t

(1.44)

14

Electrodynamics

We are now able to collect the results from the above considerations and formulate

the equations of classical electrodynamics valid for arbitrary variations in time and

space of the coupled electric and magnetic fields E(t, x) and B(t, x). The equations

are

(1.45a)

E=

0

B

E=

(1.45b)

t

B=0

(1.45c)

E

B = 0 0

+ 0 j(t, x)

(1.45d)

t

In these equations (t, x) represents the total, possibly both time and space dependent, electric charge, i.e., free as well as induced (polarisation) charges, and j(t, x)

represents the total, possibly both time and space dependent, electric current, i.e.,

conduction currents (motion of free charges) as well as all atomistic (polarisation,

magnetisation) currents. As they stand, the equations therefore incorporate the

classical interaction between all electric charges and currents in the system and

are called Maxwells microscopic equations. Another name often used for them

is the Maxwell-Lorentz equations. Together with the appropriate constitutive relations, which relate and j to the fields, and the initial and boundary conditions

pertinent to the physical situation at hand, they form a system of well-posed partial

differential equations which completely determine E and B.

The microscopic field equations (1.45) provide a correct classical picture for arbitrary field and source distributions, including both microscopic and macroscopic

scales. However, for macroscopic substances it is sometimes convenient to introduce new derived fields which represent the electric and magnetic fields in which,

in an average sense, the material properties of the substances are already included.

These fields are the electric displacement D and the magnetising field H. In the

most general case, these derived fields are complicated nonlocal, nonlinear functionals of the primary fields E and B:

D = D[t, x; E, B]

(1.46a)

H = H[t, x; E, B]

(1.46b)

Under certain conditions, for instance for very low field strengths, we may assume

that the response of a substance to the fields may be approximated as a linear one

15

1. Classical Electrodynamics

so that

D = E

(1.47)

H= B

(1.48)

i.e., that the derived fields are linearly proportional to the primary fields and that

the electric displacement (magnetising field) is only dependent on the electric

(magnetic) field.

The field equations expressed in terms of the derived field quantities D and H

are

D = (t, x)

B

E=

t

B=0

D

+ j(t, x)

H=

t

(1.49a)

(1.49b)

(1.49c)

(1.49d)

and are called Maxwells macroscopic equations. We will study them in more

detail in chapter 4.

If we look more closely at the microscopic Maxwell equations (1.45), we see that

they exhibit a certain, albeit not complete, symmetry. Let us follow Dirac and

make the ad hoc assumption that there exist magnetic monopoles represented by

a magnetic charge density, which we denote by m = m (t, x), and a magnetic

current density, which we denote by jm = jm (t, x). With these new quantities included in the theory, and with the electric charge density denoted e and the electric current density denoted je , the Maxwell equations will be symmetrised into

the following two scalar and two vector, coupled, partial differential equations:

e

0

(1.50a)

E=

(1.50b)

E=

B

0 jm

t

B = 0 m

E

B = 0 0

+ 0 je

t

16

(1.50c)

(1.50d)

Electromagnetic duality

We shall call these equations Diracs symmetrised Maxwell equations or the electromagnetodynamic equations.

Taking the divergence of (1.50b), we find that

( E) =

( B) 0 jm 0

t

(1.51)

where we used the fact that, according to formula (F.63) on page 177, the divergence of a curl always vanishes. Using (1.50c) to rewrite this relation, we obtain

the magnetic monopole equation of continuity

m

+ jm = 0

t

(1.52)

which has the same form as that for the electric monopoles (electric charges) and

currents, equation (1.23) on page 10.

We notice that the new equations (1.50) on page 16 exhibit the following symmetry (recall that 0 0 = 1/c2 ):

E cB

(1.53a)

cB E

(1.53b)

c

e

(1.53c)

c

m

e

(1.53d)

cj j

(1.53e)

j cj

(1.53f)

known as the Heaviside-Larmor-Rainich transformation (indicted by the Hodge

star operator ?)

?

E = E cos + cB sin

c B = E sin + cB cos

? e

c = c cos + sin

e

? m

= c sin + cos

? e

c j = cj cos + j sin

? m

j = cj sin + j cos

e

(1.54a)

(1.54b)

(1.54c)

(1.54d)

(1.54e)

(1.54f)

which leaves the symmetrised Maxwell equations, and hence the physics they

describe (often referred to as electromagnetodynamics), invariant. Since E and je

are (true or polar) vectors, B a pseudovector (axial vector), e a (true) scalar, then

m and , which behaves as a mixing angle in a two-dimensional charge space,

must be pseudoscalars and jm a pseudovector.

17

1. Classical Electrodynamics

transformation means that the amount of magnetic monopole density m is irrelevant for the physics as long as the ratio m /e = tan is kept constant. So whether

we assume that the particles are only electrically charged or have also a magnetic

charge with a given, fixed ratio between the two types of charges is a matter of

convention, as long as we assume that this fraction is the same for all particles.

Such particles are referred to as dyons [14]. By varying the mixing angle we can

change the fraction of magnetic monopoles at will without changing the laws of

electrodynamics. For = 0 we recover the usual Maxwell electrodynamics as we

know it.5

1.5 Bibliography

[1]

and Applications, World Scientific Publishing Co., Singapore, 1995, ISBN 981-02-20952.

[2]

New York, NY, 1982, ISBN 0-486-64290-9.

[3]

W. G REINER, Classical Electrodynamics, Springer-Verlag, New York, Berlin, Heidelberg, 1996, ISBN 0-387-94799-X.

[4]

[5]

J. D. JACKSON, Classical Electrodynamics, third ed., John Wiley & Sons, Inc.,

New York, NY . . . , 1999, ISBN 0-471-30932-X.

[6]

English ed., vol. 2 of Course of Theoretical Physics, Pergamon Press, Ltd., Oxford . . . ,

1975, ISBN 0-08-025072-6.

[7]

F. E. L OW, Classical Field Theory, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, NY . . . , 1997,

ISBN 0-471-59551-9.

[8]

J. C. M AXWELL, A dynamical theory of the electromagnetic field, Royal Society Transactions, 155 (1864).

5 As

. . . there are strong theoretical reasons to believe that magnetic charge exists in nature,

and may have played an important role in the development of the universe. Searches for

magnetic charge continue at the present time, emphasising that electromagnetism is very

far from being a closed object.

18

Bibliography

[9]

J. C. M AXWELL, A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism, third ed., vol. 1, Dover Publications, Inc., New York, NY, 1954, ISBN 0-486-60636-8.

[10] J. C. M AXWELL, A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism, third ed., vol. 2, Dover Publications, Inc., New York, NY, 1954, ISBN 0-486-60637-8.

[11] D. B. M ELROSE AND R. C. M C P HEDRAN, Electromagnetic Processes in Dispersive Media, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge . . . , 1991, ISBN 0-521-41025-8.

[12] W. K. H. PANOFSKY AND M. P HILLIPS, Classical Electricity and Magnetism, second ed.,

Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Inc., Reading, MA . . . , 1962, ISBN 0-201-057026.

[13] F. ROHRLICH, Classical Charged Particles, Perseus Books Publishing, L.L.C., Reading,

MA . . . , 1990, ISBN 0-201-48300-9.

[14] J. S CHWINGER, A magnetic model of matter, Science, 165 (1969), pp. 757761.

[15] J. S CHWINGER , L. L. D E R AAD , J R ., K. A. M ILTON , AND W. T SAI, Classical Electrodynamics, Perseus Books, Reading, MA, 1998, ISBN 0-7382-0056-5.

[16] J. A. S TRATTON, Electromagnetic Theory, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New

York, NY and London, 1953, ISBN 07-062150-0.

[17] J. VANDERLINDE, Classical Electromagnetic Theory, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New

York, Chichester, Brisbane, Toronto, and Singapore, 1993, ISBN 0-471-57269-1.

19

1. Classical Electrodynamics

1.6 Examples

E XAMPLE 1.1

Postulate 1.1 (Indestructibility of magnetic charge). Magnetic charge exists and is indestructible in the same way that electric charge exists and is indestructible. In other words we postulate that there exists an equation of continuity for magnetic charges:

m (t, x)

+ jm (t, x) = 0

t

Use this postulate and Diracs symmetrised form of Maxwells equations to derive Faradays law.

The assumption of the existence of magnetic charges suggests a Coulomb-like law for magnetic fields:

Z

Z

0

0

1

0

3 0 m 0 xx

3 0 m 0

stat

d x (x )

d x (x )

B (x) =

=

4 V 0

4 V 0

|x x0 |

|x x0 |3

(1.55)

Z

m 0

0

(x

)

= d3x0

4

|x x0 |

V0

[cf. equation (1.5) on page 4 for Estat ] and, if magnetic currents exist, a Biot-Savart-like law for

electric fields [cf. equation (1.15) on page 8 for Bstat ]:

Z

Z

0

x x0

0

1

3 0 m 0

Estat (x) =

d3x0 jm (x0 )

=

d

x

j

(x

)

4 V 0

4 V 0

|x x0 |

|x x0 |3

(1.56)

Z

m 0

0

j (x )

= d3x0

4

|x x0 |

V0

Taking the curl of the latter and using the operator bac-cab rule, formula (F.59) on page 177,

we find that

Z

0

jm (x0 )

Estat (x) = d3x0

=

4

|x x0 |

V0

(1.57)

Z

Z

0

1

0

1

3 0 m 0

0

0

d3x0 jm (x0 )2

d

x

[j

(x

)

]

=

4 V 0

4 V 0

|x x0 |

|x x0 |

Comparing with equation (1.18) on page 8 for Estat and the evaluation of the integrals there, we

obtain

Estat (x) = 0

Z

V0

(1.58)

We assume that formula (1.56) above is valid also for time-varying magnetic currents.

Then, with the use of the representation of the Dirac delta function, equation (F.73) on page 177,

the equation of continuity for magnetic charge, equation (1.52) on page 17, and the assumption

of the generalisation of equation (1.55) to time-dependent magnetic charge distributions, we

obtain, formally,

20

Examples

E(t, x) = 0

Z

V0

0

4 t

Z

V0

d3x0 m (t, x0 )0

1

|x x0 |

= 0 jm (t, x) B(t, x)

t

(1.59)

[cf. equation (1.24) on page 10] which we recognise as equation (1.50b) on page 16. A transformation of this electromagnetodynamic result by rotating into the electric realm of charge

space, thereby letting jm tend to zero, yields the electrodynamic equation (1.50b) on page 16,

i.e., the Faraday law in the ordinary Maxwell equations. This process also provides an alternative interpretation of the term B/t as a magnetic displacement current, dual to the electric

displacement current [cf. equation (1.26) on page 11].

By postulating the indestructibility of a hypothetical magnetic charge, we have thereby been

able to replace Faradays experimental results on electromotive forces and induction in loops as

a foundation for the Maxwell equations by a more appealing one.

C E ND OF EXAMPLE 1.1

E XAMPLE 1.2

Show that the symmetric, electromagnetodynamic form of Maxwells equations (Diracs

symmetrised Maxwell equations), equations (1.50) on page 16, are invariant under the duality

transformation (1.54).

Explicit application of the transformation yields

e

?E = (E cos + cB sin ) =

cos + c0 m sin

0

? e

1

1 m

e

=

cos + sin =

0

c

0

1

?B

= (E cos + cB sin ) +

E sin + B cos

?E +

t

t

c

B

1 E

= 0 jm cos

cos + c0 je sin +

sin

t

c t

1 E

B

sin +

cos = 0 jm cos + c0 je sin

c t

t

= 0 (cje sin + jm cos ) = 0 ?jm

e

1

sin + 0 m cos

?B = ( E sin + B cos ) =

c

c0

= 0 (ce sin + m cos ) = 0 ?m

(1.60)

(1.61)

(1.62)

21

1. Classical Electrodynamics

?B

1 ?E

1

1

= ( E sin + B cos ) 2 (E cos + cB sin )

c2 t

c

c t

1

1 B

1 E

= 0 jm sin +

cos + 0 je cos + 2

cos

c

c t

c t

1 E

1 B

2

cos

sin

c t

c t

1 m

= 0

j sin + je cos = 0 ?je

c

(1.63)

QED

C E ND OF EXAMPLE 1.2

E XAMPLE 1.3

Show that for a fixed mixing angle such that

m = ce tan

(1.64a)

j = cj tan

(1.64b)

Explicit application of the fixed mixing angle conditions on the duality transformation

(1.54) on page 17 yields

1

1

= e cos + m sin = e cos + ce tan sin

c

c

1

1 e

2

e

2

e

=

( cos + sin ) =

cos

cos

? m

= ce sin + ce tan cos = ce sin + ce sin = 0

1

1 e

? e

j = je cos + je tan sin =

(je cos2 + je sin2 ) =

j

cos

cos

? m

j = cje sin + cje tan cos = cje sin + cje sin = 0

? e

(1.65a)

(1.65b)

(1.65c)

(1.65d)

Hence, a fixed mixing angle, or, equivalently, a fixed ratio between the electric and magnetic

charges/currents, hides the magnetic monopole influence (m and jm ) on the dynamic equations.

We notice that the inverse of the transformation given by equation (1.54) on page 17 yields

E = ?E cos c?B sin

(1.66)

E = ?E cos c ?B sin

(1.67)

Furthermore, from the expressions for the transformed charges and currents above, we find that

?E =

22

? e

1 e

=

0

cos 0

(1.68)

Examples

and

?B = 0 ?m = 0

(1.69)

so that

E=

e

1 e

cos 0 =

cos 0

0

(1.70)

QED

C E ND OF EXAMPLE 1.3

E XAMPLE 1.4

It is sometimes convenient to introduce the complex field six-vector, also known as the

Riemann-Silberstein vector

G(t, x) = E(t, x) + icB(t, x)

3

(1.71)

3

products in this space are invariant just as they are in R3 . However, as discussed in example M.3

on page 193, the inner (scalar) product in C3 can be defined in two different ways. Considering

the special case of the scalar product of G with itself, we have the following two possibilities

of defining (the square of) the length of G:

1. The inner (scalar) product defined as G scalar multiplied with itself

G G = (E + icB) (E + icB) = E 2 c2 B2 + 2icE B

(1.72)

E 2 c2 B2 = Const

(1.73a)

E B = Const

(1.73b)

2. The inner (scalar) product defined as G scalar multiplied with the complex conjugate of

itself

G G = (E + icB) (E icB) = E 2 + c2 B2

(1.74)

which is also an invariant scalar quantity. As we shall see later, this quantity is proportional to the electromagnetic field energy, which indeed is a conserved quantity.

3. As with any vector, the cross product of G with itself vanishes:

G G = (E + icB) (E + icB)

= E E c2 B B + ic(E B) + ic(B E)

(1.75)

= 0 + 0 + ic(E B) ic(E B) = 0

4. The cross product of G with the complex conjugate of itself

23

1. Classical Electrodynamics

G G = (E + icB) (E icB)

= E E + c2 B B ic(E B) + ic(B E)

(1.76)

is proportional to the electromagnetic power flux, to be introduced later.

C E ND OF EXAMPLE 1.4

E XAMPLE 1.5

Expressed in the Riemann-Silberstein complex field vector, introduced in example 1.4 on

page 23, the duality transformation equations (1.54) on page 17 become

?

= E(cos i sin ) + icB(cos i sin ) = ei (E + icB) = ei G

2

?

G ?G = ?G = ei G ei G = |G|2

(1.77)

(1.78)

while

?

G ?G = e2i G G

(1.79)

Furthermore, assuming that = (t, x), we see that the spatial and temporal differentiation

of ?G leads to

?G

= i(t )ei G + ei t G

t

?G ?G = iei G + ei G

t ?G

?

G G = ie G + e G

i

(1.80a)

(1.80b)

(1.80c)

and ?G transform as ?G itself only if is space-independent.

C E ND OF EXAMPLE 1.5

24

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