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# MATH 38

## Mathematical Analysis III

I. F. Evidente
IMSP (UPLB)

Outline

Sequences

Graphs of Sequences

Convergence of a Sequence

Recall:

Recall:

(e ):

Recall:

(e ): limit is

Recall:

(e ): limit is
(e ):

Recall:

(e ): limit is
(e ): limit is 0

Recall:

(e ): limit is
(e ): limit is 0
(ln()):

Recall:

(e ): limit is
(e ): limit is 0
(ln()): limit is

Recall:

(e ): limit is
(e ): limit is 0
(ln()): limit is
(ln(0+ )):

Recall:

## Some limit forms (Not indeterminate!)

(e ): limit is
(e ): limit is 0
(ln()): limit is
(ln(0+ )): limit is

Recall:

## Some limit forms (Not indeterminate!)

(e ): limit is
(e ): limit is 0
(ln()): limit is
(ln(0+ )): limit is
(Arctan()):

Recall:

## Some limit forms (Not indeterminate!)

(e ): limit is
(e ): limit is 0
(ln()): limit is
(ln(0+ )): limit is
(Arctan()): limit is

Recall:

## Some limit forms (Not indeterminate!)

(e ): limit is
(e ): limit is 0
(ln()): limit is
(ln(0+ )): limit is
(Arctan()): limit is
(Arctan()):

Recall:

## Some limit forms (Not indeterminate!)

(e ): limit is
(e ): limit is 0
(ln()): limit is
(ln(0+ )): limit is
(Arctan()): limit is

(Arctan()): limit is 2

Examples

x2 + 1
lim ln
=
x
2x 1

Examples

x2 + 1
lim ln
=
x
2x 1

Examples

x2 + 1
lim ln
=
x
2x 1

1
lim ln
=
x
x

Examples

x2 + 1
lim ln
=
x
2x 1

1
lim ln
=
x
x

Examples

x2 + 1
lim ln
=
x
2x 1

1
lim ln
=
x
x

lim Arctan(ln x) =

x0+

Examples

x2 + 1
lim ln
=
x
2x 1

1
lim ln
=
x
x

lim+ Arctan(ln x) =

x0

Outline

Sequences

Graphs of Sequences

Convergence of a Sequence

## Squeeze Theorem for Sequences

Sequences

What is a sequence?

Sequences

What is a sequence?
A sequence is a succession of numbers whose order is determined by
a rule.

## What is the rule for the following sequences?

1

{5, 2, 1, 4, 7, ...}

## What is the rule for the following sequences?

1
2

{5, 2, 1, 4, 7, ...}
1 1 1 1
2 , 4 , 8 , 16 , ...

## What is the rule for the following sequences?

1
2
3

{5, 2, 1, 4, 7, ...}
1 1 1 1
2 , 4 , 8 , 16 , ...
{1, 0, 1, 0, ...}

## What is the rule for the following sequences?

1
2

{5, 2, 1, 4, 7, ...}
1 1 1 1
2 , 4 , 8 , 16 , ...

{1, 0, 1, 0, ...}

{1, 12 , 31 , 14 , ...}

## What is the rule for the following sequences?

1
2

{5, 2, 1, 4, 7, ...}
1 1 1 1
2 , 4 , 8 , 16 , ...

{1, 0, 1, 0, ...}

{1, 12 , 31 , 14 , ...}

{1, 21 , 13 , 14 , ...}

## What is the rule for the following sequences?

1
2

{5, 2, 1, 4, 7, ...}
1 1 1 1
2 , 4 , 8 , 16 , ...

{1, 0, 1, 0, ...}

{1, 12 , 31 , 14 , ...}

{1, 21 , 13 , 14 , ...}

{ 21 , 23 , 43 , 45 , ...}

## What is the rule for the following sequences?

1
2

{5, 2, 1, 4, 7, ...}
1 1 1 1
2 , 4 , 8 , 16 , ...

{1, 0, 1, 0, ...}

{1, 12 , 31 , 14 , ...}

{1, 21 , 13 , 14 , ...}

{ 21 , 23 , 43 , 45 , ...}

{0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, ...}

Sequences

## Focus: sequences with infinite terms, rule is defined by a function.

Definition
A sequence of real numbers is the ordered range of some function f (n)
whose domain I is an ordered set of the form {k, k +1, k +2, ...}, where k .

Definition
A sequence of real numbers is the ordered range of some function f (n)
whose domain I is an ordered set of the form {k, k +1, k +2, ...}, where k .

Example

## N R, where f (n) = pn. What is the sequence arising from

Consider f :
this function?

Definition
A sequence of real numbers is the ordered range of some function f (n)
whose domain I is an ordered set of the form {k, k +1, k +2, ...}, where k .

Definition
A sequence of real numbers is the ordered range of some function f (n)
whose domain I is an ordered set of the form {k, k +1, k +2, ...}, where k .

## Terminologies and Notations:

Indexing Set: I = {k, k + 1, k + 2, ...},

Definition
A sequence of real numbers is the ordered range of some function f (n)
whose domain I is an ordered set of the form {k, k +1, k +2, ...}, where k .

## Terminologies and Notations:

Indexing Set: I = {k, k + 1, k + 2, ...}, index,

Definition
A sequence of real numbers is the ordered range of some function f (n)
whose domain I is an ordered set of the form {k, k +1, k +2, ...}, where k .

## Terminologies and Notations:

Indexing Set: I = {k, k + 1, k + 2, ...}, index, lower or starting index,

Definition
A sequence of real numbers is the ordered range of some function f (n)
whose domain I is an ordered set of the form {k, k +1, k +2, ...}, where k .

## Terminologies and Notations:

Indexing Set: I = {k, k + 1, k + 2, ...}, index, lower or starting index,
usual lower index: 0, 1, 2

Definition
A sequence of real numbers is the ordered range of some function f (n)
whose domain I is an ordered set of the form {k, k +1, k +2, ...}, where k .

## Terminologies and Notations:

Indexing Set: I = {k, k + 1, k + 2, ...}, index, lower or starting index,
usual lower index: 0, 1, 2
Rule: f (n)

Definition
A sequence of real numbers is the ordered range of some function f (n)
whose domain I is an ordered set of the form {k, k +1, k +2, ...}, where k .

## Terminologies and Notations:

Indexing Set: I = {k, k + 1, k + 2, ...}, index, lower or starting index,
usual lower index: 0, 1, 2
Rule: f (n)
Notation: {an }
, where an = f (n)
n=k

Definition
A sequence of real numbers is the ordered range of some function f (n)
whose domain I is an ordered set of the form {k, k +1, k +2, ...}, where k .

## Terminologies and Notations:

Indexing Set: I = {k, k + 1, k + 2, ...}, index, lower or starting index,
usual lower index: 0, 1, 2
Rule: f (n)
Notation: {an }
, where an = f (n)
n=k
If there is no ambiguity, we simply write {an }

What is the function defining the rule for the following sequences?
1

{5, 2, 1, 4, 7, ...} =

What is the function defining the rule for the following sequences?
1

{5, 2, 1, 4, 7, ...} =
{3n 8}
n=1

What is the function defining the rule for the following sequences?
1

{5, 2, 1, 4, 7, ...} =
{3n 8}
n=1

1
21 , 14 , 81 , 16
, ... =

What is the function defining the rule for the following sequences?
1

{5, 2, 1, 4, 7, ...} =
{3n 8}
n=1

1
21 , 14 , 81 , 16
, ... =

(1)n
2n

n=1

What is the function defining the rule for the following sequences?
1

{5, 2, 1, 4, 7, ...} =
{3n 8}
n=1

1
21 , 14 , 81 , 16
, ... =

{1, 0, 1, 0, ...}

(1)n
2n

n=1

What is the function defining the rule for the following sequences?
1

{5, 2, 1, 4, 7, ...} =
{3n 8}
n=1

1
21 , 14 , 81 , 16
, ... =

(1)n
2n

n=1

{1, 0, 1, 0, ...}
{a n }
n=1

where an =

(
1

if n is even
if n is odd

What is the function defining the rule for the following sequences?
1

{1, 12 , 31 , 14 , ...} =

What is the function defining the rule for the following sequences?
1

{1, 12 , 31 , 14 , ...} =

1
n n=1

What is the function defining the rule for the following sequences?
1

{1, 12 , 31 , 14 , ...} =

{1, 12 , 13 , 14 , ...} =

1
n n=1

What is the function defining the rule for the following sequences?
1

{1, 12 , 31 , 14 , ...} =

1
n n=1

{1, 12 , 13 , 14 , ...} =

(1)n+1
n

n=1

What is the function defining the rule for the following sequences?
1

{1, 12 , 31 , 14 , ...} =

1
n n=1

{1, 12 , 13 , 14 , ...} =

{ 12 , 23 , 34 , 45 , ...} =

(1)n+1
n

n=1

What is the function defining the rule for the following sequences?
1

{1, 12 , 31 , 14 , ...} =

1
n n=1

{1, 12 , 13 , 14 , ...} =

{ 12 , 23 , 34 , 45 , ...} =

(1)n+1
n

n=1

n n o
n +1

Outline

Sequences

Graphs of Sequences

Convergence of a Sequence

## Squeeze Theorem for Sequences

Graph of a Sequence
The graph of a sequence {an } is the geometric representation on the
Cartesian plane of the the set
{(n, a n ) | n I }

Example
{3n 8}
n=1

Example
{3n 8}
n=1

Example
n

o
(1)n
2n
n=1

Example
n

o
(1)n
2n
n=1

Example
{1, 0, 1, 0, ...}

Example
{1, 0, 1, 0, ...}

Example
1
n n=1

Example
1
n n=1

Example
n

o
(1)n+1
n
n=1

Example
n

o
(1)n+1
n
n=1

Example

n
n+1 n=1

Example

n
n+1 n=1

Outline

Sequences

Graphs of Sequences

Convergence of a Sequence

## Squeeze Theorem for Sequences

Question
What is the behavior of a sequence at the tail end, when n is very, very
large?

Question
What is the behavior of a sequence at the tail end, when n is very, very
large?
(Mathematicians say: for all values of n greater than some fixed index N .)

## Definition (Convergence of a Sequence)

A sequence {an } is said to converge to the limit L if

## Definition (Convergence of a Sequence)

A sequence {an } is said to converge to the limit L if given any > 0,

## Definition (Convergence of a Sequence)

A sequence {an } is said to converge to the limit L if given any > 0, there
exists a positive integer N such that

## Definition (Convergence of a Sequence)

A sequence {an } is said to converge to the limit L if given any > 0, there
exists a positive integer N such that
|a n L| < for all n N .

## Definition (Convergence of a Sequence)

A sequence {an } is said to converge to the limit L if given any > 0, there
exists a positive integer N such that
|a n L| < for all n N .

## Definition (Convergence of a Sequence)

A sequence {an } is said to converge to the limit L if given any > 0, there
exists a positive integer N such that
|a n L| < for all n N .

## A sequence that does not converge is said to diverge.

Notation:
lim a n = L , or a n L as n .

Remark
Intuitively, the limit of {an } is the unique value L that an approaches
as n .

Remark
Intuitively, the limit of {an } is the unique value L that an approaches
as n .
For a sequence to converge, L must be a real number (and cannot be
).

Example
1

{3n 8}
n=1

Example
1

{3n 8}
n=1 is divergent.

Example
1
2

{3n 8}
is divergent.
n
o n=1
n
(1)
2n

n=1

Example
1
2

{3n 8}
is divergent.
n
o n=1
n
(1)
2n

n=1

converges to 0.

Example
1
2
3

{3n 8}
is divergent.
n
o n=1
n
(1)
2n

n=1

converges to 0.

{1, 0, 1, 0, ...}

Example
1
2
3

{3n 8}
is divergent.
n
o n=1
n
(1)
2n

n=1

converges to 0.

Example
1
2
3
4

{3n 8}
is divergent.
n
o n=1
n
(1)
2n

n=1

converges to 0.

1
n n=1

Example
1
2
3
4

{3n 8}
is divergent.
n
o n=1
n
(1)
2n

n=1

converges to 0.

## {1, 0, 1, 0, ...} is divergent.

1
n n=1 converges to 0.

Example
1
2
3
4
5

{3n 8}
is divergent.
n
o n=1
n
(1)
2n

n=1

converges to 0.

1
converges to 0.
n
n n=1
o
n+1
(1)
n

n=1

Example
1
2
3
4
5

{3n 8}
is divergent.
n
o n=1
n
(1)
2n

n=1

converges to 0.

1
converges to 0.
n
n n=1
o
n+1
(1)
n

n=1

converges to 0.

Example
1
2
3
4
5
6

{3n 8}
is divergent.
n
o n=1
n
(1)
2n

n=1

converges to 0.

1
converges to 0.
n
n n=1
o
n+1
(1)
n

n=1

n
n+1 n=1

converges to 0.

Example
1
2
3
4
5
6

{3n 8}
is divergent.
n
o n=1
n
(1)
2n

n=1

converges to 0.

1
converges to 0.
n
n n=1
o
n+1
(1)
n

n=1

n
n+1 n=1

converges to 0.

converges to 1.

## Consider the behavior of

1
n

, where f (n) = n1

## Consider the behavior of

1
n

, where f (n) = n1

## Consider the behavior of

1
n

, where f (n) = n1

## R \ {0} R \ {0}, where f (x) = x1 .

Remark
Let {an } be a sequence, where an = f (n).

Remark
Let {an } be a sequence, where an = f (n). Consider f (x), f :

R R.

Remark

R R

## Let {an } be a sequence, where an = f (n). Consider f (x), f : . Then

the behavior of f (n) as n "follows" the behavior of f (x) as x .

Theorem
Let {an }
n=1 , where a n = f (n). Consider f (x), f :
(or ), then lim f (n) = L (or ).
n

R R. If x
lim f (x) = L

If as x , f (x) L, or , then

f (x).

## If as x , f (x) L, or , then f (n) will "follow" the behavior of

f (x).
But not the other way around!

## If as x , f (x) L, or , then f (n) will "follow" the behavior of

f (x).
But not the other way around!
Consider {sin n} and the function f (x) = sin x .

## If as x , f (x) L, or , then f (n) will "follow" the behavior of

f (x).
But not the other way around!
Consider {sin n} and the function f (x) = sin x .

## If as x , f (x) L, or , then f (n) will "follow" the behavior of

f (x).
But not the other way around!
Consider {sin n} and the function f (x) = sin x .

## If as x , f (x) L, or , then f (n) will "follow" the behavior of

f (x).
But not the other way around!
Consider {sin n} and the function f (x) = sin x .

Theorem
Let {an }
n=1 , where a n = f (n). Consider f (x), f :
(or ), then lim f (n) = L (or ).
n

R R. If x
lim f (x) = L

Theorem
Let {an }
n=1 , where a n = f (n). Consider f (x), f :
(or ), then lim f (n) = L (or ).
n

Usefulness of theorem:

R R. If x
lim f (x) = L

Theorem
Let {an }
n=1 , where a n = f (n). Consider f (x), f :
(or ), then lim f (n) = L (or ).

R R. If x
lim f (x) = L

Usefulness of theorem:
To compute lim f (n), we can use limit theorems for function f :
n
(thms from Math 36 and 37!)

RR

Example
1

{3n 8}
n=1

Example
1

{3n 8}
n=1
lim 3n 8 =

Example
1

{3n 8}
n=1
lim 3n 8 =

Example
1

{3n 8}
n=1
lim 3n 8 =

1
n n=1

Example
1

{3n 8}
n=1
lim 3n 8 =

1
n n=1

lim

n n

Example
1

{3n 8}
n=1
lim 3n 8 =

1
n n=1

lim

n n

=0

Example
1

{3n 8}
n=1
lim 3n 8 =

1
n n=1

lim

n n

n
n+1

=0

Example
1

{3n 8}
n=1
lim 3n 8 =

1
n n=1

lim

n n

n
n+1

=0

lim

n n + 1

Example
1

{3n 8}
n=1
lim 3n 8 =

1
n n=1

lim

n n

n
n+1

=0

lim

n n + 1

=1

Example
Determine whether the following sequences converge or diverge.

Example
Determine whether the following sequences converge or diverge.

n 3 + n 2 + 2n + 1
3n 3 + n + 5

Example
Determine whether the following sequences converge or diverge.
n 3 + n 2 + 2n + 1
3n 3 + n + 5
{n n 2 }

Example
Determine whether the following sequences converge or diverge.
n 3 + n 2 + 2n + 1
3n 3 + n + 5
{n n 2 }

1
ln
n 1 n=2

2
3

Example
Determine whether the following sequences converge or diverge.
n 3 + n 2 + 2n + 1
3n 3 + n + 5
{n n 2 }

1
ln
n 1 n=2

1
tan1 n
n

2
3

Example
Determine whether the following sequences converge or diverge.
n 3 + n 2 + 2n + 1
3n 3 + n + 5
{n n 2 }

1
ln
n 1 n=2

1
tan1 n
n
n
2
1 + 2n

2
3

Example
Determine whether the following sequences converge or diverge.
n 3 + n 2 + 2n + 1
3n 3 + n + 5
{n n 2 }

1
ln
n 1 n=2

1
tan1 n
n
n
2
1 + 2n
n n n o
n +1

2
3

Example
Determine whether the following sequences converge or diverge.
n 3 + n 2 + 2n + 1
3n 3 + n + 5
{n n 2 }

1
ln
n 1 n=2

1
tan1 n
n
n
2
1 + 2n
n n n o
+1
n
1
n!

2
3

Outline

Sequences

Graphs of Sequences

Convergence of a Sequence

## Theorem (Squeeze Theorem for Sequences)

Let {an }, {bn }, {c n } be sequences such that

## Theorem (Squeeze Theorem for Sequences)

Let {an }, {bn }, {c n } be sequences such that an bn c n (for all values of n
beyond some fixed index N ).

## Theorem (Squeeze Theorem for Sequences)

Let {an }, {bn }, {c n } be sequences such that an bn c n (for all values of n
beyond some fixed index N ). If the sequences {an } and {c n } converge to L ,
then

## Theorem (Squeeze Theorem for Sequences)

Let {an }, {bn }, {c n } be sequences such that an bn c n (for all values of n
beyond some fixed index N ). If the sequences {an } and {c n } converge to L ,
then {bn } also converges to L .

Example
Determine whether the following sequences converge or diverge. Assume
the starting index is 1, unless otherwise specified.

Example
Determine whether the following sequences converge or diverge. Assume
the starting index is 1, unless otherwise specified.

cos n
n +1

Example
Determine whether the following sequences converge or diverge. Assume
the starting index is 1, unless otherwise specified.

cos n

n +1

sin n
n

Example
Determine whether the following sequences converge or diverge. Assume
the starting index is 1, unless otherwise specified.

n +1

sin n
n

3n + sin n
3 4n

cos n

Example
Determine whether the following sequences converge or diverge. Assume
the starting index is 1, unless otherwise specified.

n +1

sin n
n

3n + sin n
3 4n

cos n

In Summary

Sequences

Graphs of Sequences

Convergence of a Sequence

Announcements

Regarding SW