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Setting out is the process of using the surveying instruments and techniques
described in preceding chapters to transfer information from a plan to the ground. As
such it is the opposite of surveying and the task most commonly performed by site
engineers supervising the construction of new works.
There are three distinct elements to the task horizontal control to ensure that the
new works are in the correct place, vertical control to ensure that they are at the correct
level and vertical alignment to ensure that multi-storey or underground construction is
Information on the drawing concerning the proposed works must be transferred to
the ground in a format that can be understood by all levels of the workforce on site.



- To make a laying out at the corners of a proposed building according to the dimension
taken from building site plan.
- To expose student to setting out works and prepare before build a building.



i) Total Station
ii) Prism
iii) Pole and mini prism
iv) Nails and hammer
v) Tape
vi) Wooden pegs
vii) Tripod




The traverse and tachymetry plan were used which is from previous project.


A suitable area was selected for suggestion of a building construction in the traverse area.


A line of traverse and a station were taken as observation station.


Station 5 was chose as control point and line station 5 to 1 as a reference line.

Bearing and distance of every point of the building area were determined by using

Setting up work was started.

The total station were set at station 5 and observed at station 1. Bearing 5 to 1 were set as
reference bearing.
Observations were done at every point of the building area based on the bearing that
obtained from the AutoCAD. The pole and mini prism were moved to get exact distance.

Observations were done on point A,B,C,D,E and F. Every point was marked with set out.


To checked, a method using theorem Pythagoras were used:

Total station was set at the other station from station 5.

The bearing was set which is from station 1 to station 5.

Distance and bearing were observed at every point of the building for.


The shape of the building was produced.

The plotting building points were done in Traverse plan by using AutoCAD and report
was done.





To find the Latitude :

Distace x Cos (Bearing)

To find the Departure :

Distance x Sin (Bearing)

To find the coordinate :

(Coordinate from Station or Point) (each of latitude for N/S coordinate or departure for E/W

For example :
To get the value of latitude and departure for point A from Point 1.

Data :
Bearing : 3191720
Distance : 29.112 m
Coordinate :
Point 1
N/S = -15237.945
E/W = -45361.800

Therefore ,

= 29.112 x cos 3191720

= 22.067

Departure = 29.112 x sin 3191720

= -18.988
Finally after got the latitude and departure, the coordinate should be defined.

The coordinate :
For N/S,
= -15215.878
For E/W.
= -45380.788

The calculation to get the different coordinate between point 5 and point 1 at every point
For example :
Coordinate at point A for N/S = -15265.482 ( - 15215.878 ) = -49.604
Coordinate at point A for E/W= -45342.045 ( - 45380.788 ) = 38.743

The calculation to get the error of at every point

For example :
Data :
Different value at point A for N/S = -49.604
Different value at point A for E/W= 38.743
So the error ,e = (38.743)+ (-49.604)
= 62.941



The calculation should be done to determine the bearing and the distance from the
surveying software, for each point of the building that we want to build. The field work is just to
mark the point which has been plot in the purpose building plan.
From our traverse area, we plan a building inside the boundary of the traverse. First each
corner point of the building that we want to build is set out using pegs.
From what we have done, there are a few errors that occurred. The error that we can see
is that our allowable error is bigger than it should be. Because of the error that is too big, the
building will not be at the exact location as set up on our purpose building plan.
The factors that contribute to the errors are:

Human factor

Communication between the observer and the pole holder wasnt good.

Pole holder adjusted the pole before the point was marked, so, the point was not marked
at an accurate point.
While installing the pegs at the point, maybe it was moved a little bit off from its exact

Instrument factor

-The total station was set up at a location that was not levelled.

Ways to overcome the factors of errors:


By providing walkie-talkie for observer and pole holder.

The observer and pole holder should discuss by using hand signals before the work starts.



For the conclusion, we found that the setting out surveying works was done to determine
the point at the building that we want to build. From the purpose building plan, we designed the
building location and transfer it to the ground surface. If the setting out was not accurate, the
building that we want to build would not be at the correct location and size.
This will contribute a lot of problems while and after the construction work. Hence, the
accuracy of the setting out is very important to guarantee the comfort and safety to the people.
This setting out was done, based on previous three surveying work, which is levelling,
traverse, and tacheometry. The most important thing while doing this setting our work is that we
should know how to efficiently conduct all these three surveying work because, from the
levelling work, we can determine the reduce level at out point while from the traverse work, we
can know the boundary and the coordinate for our point. Lastly, from tacheometry works, we can
produce the topographic and detail plan to continue this setting out work.
From all these data that we have, we have set the exact location for the building by using
pegs. Since, there are some errors in our setting out work; we cannot proceed for the continuous
work. So, we need to overcome these errors first.

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