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# EP-Program

## Dr.Wattana Toutip - Department of Mathematics Khon Kaen University

2010 :Wattana Toutip

wattou@kku.ac.th

http://home.kku.ac.th/wattou

## 3 The binomial theorem

3.1 Positive integer powers
Pascals Triangle is the triangle of numbers shown below, in which each term is obtained
by adding the two terms above it.
1
n0
1
1
n 1
1
2
1
n2
1
3
3
1
n3

1
1
1

4
5

6
10

15

4
10

20

n4
n5
n6

1
5

15

1
6

The binomial coefficient nCr is the r th term of the n th row of Pascals Triangle,
(counting from 0 instead of from 1 ).
5
4
So for example :
C0 1;
C2 6 ;

C6 1

## These coefficients are also given by the formula:

n!
n
Cr
r !(n r )!
n
The binomial coefficients are sometimes written as
r
The binomial theorem state that:
(a b)n a n nCr a n1b nCr a nr br

bn .

## So for example (a b)5 a5 5a 4b 10a 3b 2 10a 2b3 5ab 4 b5 .

The binomial theorem can be used to find approximations for expressions of the form
(1 x)n , where x is small. Continue taking terms until they are so small that they do
not affect the answer to the required degree of accuracy.
3.1.1 Examples
1. Expand ( x 2 y )4 .
Solution
Use the binomial theorem, with the fourth row of Pascals Triangle.
Put a x and b 2 y .

( x 2 y) 4 x 4 4 x3 (2 y) 6 x 2 (2 y) 2 4 x(2 y)3 (2 y) 4
(1 2 y) 4 x 4 8 x3 y 24 x 2 y 2 32 xy 3 16 y 4 .

1. Use the binomial theorem to find an approximation for (0.997)7 ,taking the first three
term of expansion of (1 x)7 .
Solution
The first three terms of (1 x)7 are : 1 7C1 x 7C2 x2 .
Put x 0.003 to obtain 1 7 0.003 21 0.0032
(0.977)7 0.979189 .
3.1.2 Exercises
1. Expand the following using the binomial theorem , and simplify as far as possible.
(a) (2 b)5
(b) (1 3b)4
(c) (2 x 3 y ) 4

(d) (1 2 z )6

## (f) (1 0.5 x)7

2. In the following expansions, write down the appropriate terms. Simplify your answer as
far as possible .
(a) (1 x)8 x 3 tern
(b) (1 y )9 y 5 term
(c) (2 x)10 x 8 term

## (d) (1 2 x)8 x 3 term

(e) (3 2 y )5 y 3 term

## (h) (2a 3b)7 a5b 2 term

1
(i) ( x )8 x 4 term
x

2
(j) ( y )7 y 3 term
y

1
1
(k) ( x 2 )7 x8 term
(l) ( y 2 )9 constant term.
y
x
3. Find the greatest coefficient of a power of x in the following expansion :
(a) (1 x)17
(b) (1 2 x)7
(c) (1 3 x)8

(d) (2 3x)9

## 4. Expand and simplify (1 3)6 (1 3)6 ,without using a calculator.

5. Expand (1 x)12 up to the term in x 3 .Hence find approximations for :
(a) 1.0212
(b) 0.9612
6. Use the binomial expansion up to the x 3 term to find approximations for :
(a) 1.018
(b) 0.957
(c) 2.019
(d) 2.965
7. The first two terms of the expansion of (2 ax)n are 1024 15360x .Find a and n .
b
8. The constant term in the expansion of (ax )10 is 8064 .Find a in terms of b .
x
2
9. There is no x term the expansion of (1 ax)6 (2 bx)7 .Find the ratio of a to b .

## 10. Use the expansion of (1 y )10 to find 1 x x

2 10

, up to the term in x 2 .

## 11. Expand the following, up to the term indicated:

(a) (1 x x 2 )7 x 2 term
(b) (1 x 2 )8 x 6 term
(c) (1 2 x 3x 2 )6 x 2 term

(d) (2 x 2 x 2 )7 x 2 term

## 3.2.Binomial theorem for other powers

If n th is not a positive integer, the binomial theorem is still true , with certain restrictions
.Provided that 1 x 1 :

## n(n 1) x3 n(n 1)(n 2) x3

2!
3!
In general, this series continues to infinity .So if only the first few terms are take then the
result is only an approximation.
3.2.1 Examples
(1 x)n 1 nx

## 1. Find an expansion for 1 x , up to the term in x 2 .Hence find an approximation for 17

.
Solution
Write 1 x as (1 x)0.5 .Putting n 0.5 in the binomial expansion:
0.5(0.5 1) 2
x
2!
1 0.5 x 0.125 x 2

(1 x)0.5 1 0.5 x

## Write 17 as (16 1)0.5 4(1 0.0625)0.5

Put x 0.0625 in the expansion above :

## 17 4[1 (0.5)(0.0625) (0.125)(0.0625)2 ]

4.1230 .
1 3x
1. Expand
up to the terms in x 2 . For which values of x is the expansion valid?
1 2x
Solution
1 3x
Write
as (1 3x)(1 2 x) 1
1 2x
1x 2 x(2 x) 2
(1 2 x) 1 1 1x(2 x)
2!
2
1 2x 4x
1 3x
(1 3x)(1 2 x 4 x 2 ) .
1 2x
Expand this ignoring the term in x 3 :
1 3x
1 5 x 10 x 2
1 2x
The expansion is valid if 1 2 x 1 .

## The expansion is valid for 0.5 x 0.5

3.2.2 Exercises
1. Expand the following up to the term x 2 .
1

(b) (1 3 x)

(a) (1 x) 4
(c) (1 x )

3
2

(d) (1 2 x)

4
3

1
1 2x
1
3
(g)
(h)
2
1 x
1 x2
2. For which values of x are the expansions in Question 1 valid?
3. Use the expansion up to x 2 to find approximations for:

(e) (1 x)2

(f)

1
2

(a) 1.01

(c) 0.98

(b) 1.05

1
2

(d) 0.96

## 4. Without using a calculator or table , use the binomial expansion up to x 3 to find an

approximation for

1.01 0.99 .
1
2

## 5. Using the binomial expansion up to x of (1 x) , and writing 50 as 49 1 , find an

3

approximation for 50 .
6. Use the method of Question 5 to find approximations for :
(a) 101

(b) 98

1
3

(c) 28
(d) 63
2
7. Expand the following up to term in x :

1
3

1 x2
(b)
1 2x

1 x
(a)
1 x
1 2 x x2
(c)
1 3x

(d)

1 x
1 x2

## (1 x) (1 x) up to the tern in x 3 is of the form a bx 2

.Find a and b .
9.

1 ax bx 2
has no tern in either x or x 2 .Find a and b .
(1 x) 2

## 10. Find the expansion of

1
(1 x) , up to the x 2 tern. By putting x ,show that
8

800
.
253
3.3.Examination questions
1. Find the first three terms in the expansion in ascending powers of x , of
(i) (1 3x)5
(ii) (2 x) 4

approximately

7 is

## Hence find the coefficient of x 2 in the expansion of (1 3x)5 (2 x) 4 .

2. (i) Write down the expansion of (1 x)5 .Deduce that the first three terms in the expansion
of (1 3x)(1 x)5 are 1 8 x 25 x 2 and find the term in x 3 .
1
by taking the first three terms
100
of the expansion. Show that the inclusion of t he term in x 3 does not affect the
approximation when working to 4 decimal places.
3. Obtain the expansion in ascending powers of x of (1 x)8 .Hence calculate the value of

## (0.95)8 correct to three decimal places.

When a ball is dropped on to level ground it always rebounds to a height of 0.95 times the
height from, which it fell. If it is dropped from a height of 10 metres, calculate, correct to
three significant figures, the height to which it rebounds after eight bounces.
4. (a) Evaluate the tern which is independent of x in the expansion of
1
( x )8
x
(b) Expand (1 x)2 (1 2 x) in ascending powers of x as far the term in x 3 . For which
values of x is this expansion valid?

1 px
5. The first three terms in ascending power of
and (1 x)10 are identical. Find the
1 qx
values of p and q , assuming that x is sufficiently small for both expansions to be valid.
1

## Us e this result to that the tenth root of 33 is approximately

651 2
.
649

1
in partial fractions .Hence or otherwise, given that x is
(1 x)(2 x)
sufficiently small for powers of x above the second to be neglected, show that
1
1
(4 6 x 7 x 2 )
(1 x)(2 x) 8
(b) Show that the first three non-zero terns in the series expansion of

6. (a) Express

1 n
1
n
in ascending powers of

1
are :
n
2

1 11
1
n 2 n
4

1
and find the term in .
n
By giving n a suitable value, use the first four non-zero terms of the series to find a value for
1

(0.9)10

## giving your answer to five decimal places.

1
4

7. Use the binomial series to expand (1 x ) in ascending powers of x as far as the term in
x3 .

1
in the expression and in the series, calculate the value of 51/4 correct to
81
five decimal places, explaining why your working ensures this degree of accuracy.
Common errors
1. Positive integer powers
(a) When writing out the expansion of (a b) n do nor forget the binomial coefficients.

By putting x

(b) When expanding something like (a 2b)5 , do not forget to take powers of 2 as of b .
For example , the third term is 10a3 (2b)2 40a3b 2 20a3b 2 .
(c) Similarly, be careful of negative numbers. If you are expanding (a 2b)5 , then the
terms will be alternately positive and negative.
2. Other powers
If n is not a positive integer, then the binomial theorem only holds for expansions of
the form (1 x) n , where 1 x 1 .Do not try to expand

5 as (1 4)1/2 ,using x 4 .
1/2

Similarly, the first term inside the bracket must be 1 .Do not write

1 1
5 as 4
2 2

## and attempt to expand .

1
5 is to write it as (4 1)1/2 2(1 )1/2 . This can now be
4
expand using the Binomial theorem.

## The correct way to find

Solution (Exercise)
3.1.2
1.
(a) 32 80b 80b2 40b3 10b4 b5
(b) 1 12b 54b2 108b3 82b4
(c) 16 x 4 96 x3 y 216 x 2 y 2 216 xy 3 81y 4
(d) 1 12 z 60 z 2 160 z 3 240 z 4 192 z 5 64 z 6
(e) 128a 7 448a 6b 672a5b2 560a 4b3 280a3b4 84a 2b5 14ab6 b7

1
5
7
1 7
(f) 128 244 x 168 x 2 70 x3 17 x 4 2 x5 x 6
x
2
8
32
128

2.
(a) 56x 3
(b) 126 y 5
(c) 180x8
(d) 448x 3
(e) 720 y 3
(f) 11250x 2
(g) 4368x5 y11
(h) 6048a5b2
(i) 28x 4
(j) 672 y 3
(k) 21x8
(l) 84
3.
(a) 24310
(b) 672
(c) 20412
(d) 489888
4. 416
5. 1 12 x 66 x 2 220 x3
(a) 1.26816
(b) 0.61152
6.
(a) 1.083
(b) 0.698
(c) 535.5
(d) 227.2
7. a 3, n 10
8.
9.

2
b
224 : 5

10. 1 10 x 55 x 2
11.
(a) 1 7 x 28 x 2
(b) 1 8 x 2 28 x 4 56 x 6
(c) 1 12 x 78 x 2
(d) 128 488 x 1568 x 2
(e) 1 8 x 28 x 2

(f) 1 9 x 30 x 2
(g) 1 8 x 29 x 2 64 x3
(h) 1 11x 56x 2 175x3
3.2.2
1.
(a) 1

x 3x 2

4 32

3x 9 x 2

2
8
3x 3x 2
(c) 1
2
8
(b) 1

8x 8x2

3
9
1 2 x 3x 2
1 2 x 4 x2
1 x2
3 3x 2

(d) 1
(e)
(f)
(g)
(h)

2. a, c, e, g , h, 1 x 1
3.
(a) 1.00498
(b) 1.02468
(c) 0.98995
(d) 0.9798
4. 1.999975
5. 7.07106
6.
(a) 10.0499
(b) 9.8995
(c) 3.0366
(d) 3.97906
7.
(a) 1 2 x 2 x 2
(b) 1 2 x 5 x 2
(c) 1 x 2 x 2
(d) 1 x x 2
1
8. a 2, b
4
9. a 2, b 1

x x2
10. 1
3 9

1
1
b, x
3
3

1
1
d, f , x
2
2

x x2
11. 1
2 8

===========================================================
References:
Solomon, R.C. (1997), A Level: Mathematics (4th Edition) , Great Britain, Hillman
Printers(Frome) Ltd.