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Magnetic-Field Measurements Near Two-Pole-Type Distribution Substations

Achilleas N. Proios, Student Member, IEEE, Constantinos D. Halevidis, Student Member, IEEE, Emmanuel I. Koufakis, and Perikles D. Bourkas

Abstract—This paper presents the mean values of the resulting magnetic field in the low-frequency range, which were recorded during spring and summer near two-pole-type distribution substa- tions in urban areas. The mitigation of the magnetic field that was achieved after covering the low-voltage (LV) fuse boxes with thin aluminum plates is also presented. The mean attenuation achieved is approximately 23% during spring and 18% during the summer at the region of up to 30 cm from the substations and at a height of 1.0 m from the ground, at the measuring points near the LV fuse boxes. All of the measured magnetic-field values that were ob- served were lower in comparison with those specified as limits and introduced by ICNIRP.

Index Terms—Magnetic field, measurements, shielding, two-pole-type distribution substations.

I. INTRODUCTION

H UMAN exposure to low-frequency (50- and 60-Hz) elec- tromagnetic fields (EMFs), emanated from transmission

and distribution electrical networks, has occupied the public’s interest for many years. The possible effects to human health from exposure to low-frequency EMFs are presented in [1] and [2]. Consequently, many countries adopted limits for the recom- mended maximum exposure to EMFs for the general public and workers based on guidelines that were introduced by interna- tional organizations, such as the International Commission on Non- Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), National Radio- logical Protection Board (NRPB), and IEEE [3]–[5]. In accor- dance with the ICNIRP guidelines, the exposure limits to 50-Hz magnetic and electric fields are T and 5 kV/m for public and T and 10 kV/m for occupational exposure, respec- tively. These limits are taken into consideration when the power networks are designed and constructed. This paper has focused on the measurements of the resulting magnetic field near two-pole-type distribution substations of 20/0.4 kV and 400 kVA in urban areas, during spring and summer. In addition, a comparison between the measured values of the field and those specified as limits by ICNIRP are also presented. Furthermore, the measurements of the resulting magnetic field were carried out after placing thin aluminum

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Manuscript received May 29, 2010; revised September 05, 2010; accepted October 07, 2010. Paper no. TPWRD-00401-2010.

  • A. N. Proios, C. D. Halevidis, and P. D. Bourkas are with the School of

Electrical and Computer Engineering, National Technical University of Athens,

Athens 15780, Greece (e-mail: axilleas_proios@yahoo.gr; khalev@cen- tral.ntua.gr; pbourkas@central.ntua.gr).

  • E. I. Koufakis is with the Public Power Corporation S.A., Chania 73300,

Greece (e-mail: e.koufakis@dei.com.gr). Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TPWRD.2010.2089068

plates on all sides of the LV fuse boxes to investigate the effectiveness of this method with respect to the mitigation of the magnetic field. The two-pole-type substations are commonly used in the Greek distribution network, because they have the advantage of lower cost and simpler installation when compared with indoor and other types of outdoor distribution substations. There are many academic works that have examined the mea- surements and modeling of EMFs in the vicinity of high-power transmission and distribution lines [6]–[9]. In addition, the presence of EMFs in urban environments has been the subject of much research. Measurements of the magnetic field in city streets conducted in Göteborg, Sweden, and in the city of Cáceres, Spain, are presented in [10] and [11]. Furthermore, measurements of the magnetic fields derived from underground distribution systems in residential areas are described in [12] and [13]. Comparisons between the international specified limits for public and occupational exposure, and from EMFs and those measured inside outdoor substations are presented in [14]–[17]. In addition, theoretical calculations of EMFs based on computer programs are described in [16] and [17]. Measurements of the EMFs inside and outside the fences of outdoor substations and inside indoor substations are shown in [18]–[23]. Measurements of EMFs in the proximity of different outdoor and indoor substations of 250–630 kVA and 11/0.22-0.4 kV along with two substations of 150-36/11 kV are presented in [22] and [23]. In addition, in these papers, the momentary measured values were compared with the limits for public expo- sure according to the ICNIRP guidelines. The momentary mag-

netic-field measurements were used to calculate the average,

maximum, and nominal exposure of the public.

II. MAGNETIC-FIELD MEASUREMENTS

Magnetic-field measurements near 15 two-pole-type distri- bution substations were conducted in the city of Chania in the Island of Crete, in Greece. Measurements near ten substations were conducted between February 15 and March 5, 2010, between 09:00 and 17:00 h, while measurements near the first five substations were repeated during the summer between July 24th and August 1st, between 09:00 and 17:00 h. The atmospheric conditions during the experimental study in the spring and summer were as follows: temperature: 9.7–17.3 and 29.4–36.3 C, respectively, and relative humidity: 43.6–85.8 and 48.6–65.3%, respectively. A typical two-pole-type distribution substation of 400 kVA and 20/0.4 kV is illustrated in Fig. 1. It consists of two wooden or concrete poles, LV and MV lines, MV fuses, a transformer, and an LV fuse box. The height of the poles is at least 12 m

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Fig. 1.

Typical two-pole-type distribution substation.

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Fig. 2.

Ground sketch of the two-pole-type distribution substations.

and the distance between them is 2.21 m. The transformer is installed at least 5 m above the ground and the dimensions of the LV fuse box are as follows: height: 1.52 m from the ground, length: 1.16 m, width: 35.5 cm, and thickness of the steel enclo- sure: 2 mm. The instrument used to measure the resulting magnetic field was the High Field EMDEX II of Enertech Consultants, with a frequency range of 40–800 Hz and a measuring range of

mT with an accuracy of 1%. The instrument measured the , , and vector components of the magnetic field through internal sensors, and with the use of an external sensor, the measurement of the electric-field magnitude was possible. The measurements can be stored in the instrument’s memory and transferred to a personal computer for storage, display, and further analysis. The instrument was calibrated and programmed to measure the resulting magnetic field according to (1) with a sample rate of 5.0 s

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where , , and

(1) are the , , and vector components of
(1)
are the
,
, and
vector components of

the magnetic field. The ground sketch with the selected measuring points in the vicinity of the 15 two-pole-type distribution substations is shown in Fig. 2. For each substation, 80 measuring points were selected. Each substation was divided into four different sides. Side A comprised measuring points 1–4 and 65–80, Side B comprised points 41–68, Side C comprised points 25–44, and Side D comprised points 1–28. The measurements were carried out according to IEEE Standard 644-1994 [24] in three different heights from the ground, namely, 1.0, 1.5, and 1.7 m in an attempt to emulate the position of the vital organs, heart, and human brain. A wooden adjustable meter stand was used to obtain the magnetic-field measurements from all the measuring points and heights. The origin of the axis was 0.5 m left from point 76 and 0.5 m down from point 4. In each measuring point, the values of the magnetic field were taken by placing the High Field EMDEX II on the adjustable meter stand. The sensors of the instrument were oriented toward the side of each substation in a horizontal position toward the ground, and after about 1 min, the maximum value was recorded.

TABLE I

CHRONOLOGICAL ORDER OF MEASUREMENTS

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In each substation, six series of magnetic-field measurements were conducted. The instrument was adjusted to measure the resulting magnetic field of the fundamental frequency of 50 Hz in the frequency range between 40 and 800 Hz. In measuring points 0–80, for all the aforementioned heights,

the first series of measurements was conducted at a horizontal distance of 0–30 cm from each substation, while the second se- ries was conducted at a horizontal distance of 0–3.0 m.

To investigate the mitigation of the magnetic field that can be

achieved, the next two series were conducted after placing thin aluminum plates of 0.50-mm thickness externally in the LV fuse

boxes of the substations. According to bibliography, many methods are used for the shielding of the magnetic field in substations. The different methods of magnetic-field shielding that are applied in MV/LV substations are presented in [25]–[28]. These methods refer to the replacement of busbars with cables, and the replacement of a transformer with a new one that could produce a lower mag- netic field, covering transformers and cables with aluminum plates and changing the arrangement of the phases in the LV conductors, as well as a combination of the aforementioned methods. In measuring points 9–20, in the aforementioned horizontal distances and heights, the last two series of the magnetic-field measurements were conducted near the LV fuse boxes, with their doors open. The intention behind these series of measure- ments was not only to measure the magnitude of the magnetic field when technicians of power utility work on the substation, but to examine the shielding that the steel enclosure provides. The series of measurements near the substations were con- ducted in the following chronological order as described in Table I.

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Fig. 3. Distribution of the mean values of the resulting magnetic field of 50 Hz at a height of 1.0 m from the ground during spring.

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Fig. 4. Distribution of the mean values of the resulting magnetic field of 50 Hz at a height of 1.0 m from the ground during summer.

The mean value of the magnetic field for

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-substations, in

each height and measuring point j was calculated by using

  • (2)

The 3-D maps in Figs. 3 and 4 show the distribution of the mean values of the resulting magnetic field at 50 Hz at a height of 1.0 m above the ground. The 3-D maps regarding the distri- bution of the field in the other studied heights are found to be similar to the aforementioned ones. Along with the magnetic-field measurements, the LV cur- rents in each substation were recorded for a period of 24 h.

The

, , ,
,
,
,

, and

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are the mean values

of the currents during the following time periods: 9:00–10:45,

10:45–12:30, 12:30–14:15, 14:15–16:00, and 16:00–17:00 h,

respectively, as shown in Table I. For example,

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is

the average current in substation 1 during the time period 2,

10:45–12:30 h. Furthermore,

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is the mean value of the

currents during the eight hours of the experimental study near

each substation, while

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is the mean value during 24 h.

The nominal power of the transformers of the two-pole-type

substations was 400 kVA and from

  • (3)

the level of loading of the transformers in each substation was calculated. Figs. 5 and 6 show the load curve for the substations 3 and 12 during 24 h. Table II shows the mean values of the cur-

rents

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and

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in each substation along with

the ratio of the calculated loading and nominal power of the transformers.

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Fig. 5.

Load curve for substation 3 during spring.

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Fig. 6.

Load curve for substation 12 during summer.

TABLE II

LV SIDE CURRENTS OF THE TWO-POLE-TYPE DISTRIBUTION SUBSTATIONS

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III. DISCUSSION

The analysis of the experimental data revealed that all of the measured magnetic-field values were lower when compared with the value of T for public exposure introduced by IC- NIRP, when the doors of the LV fuse boxes were closed. In ad- dition, as the distance from the substations increased, the field

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weakened at a high rate in every direction.

The measurements conducted in spring (Fig. 7) show that for the horizontal distance of 0–30 cm from the substations, the

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Fig. 7. Mean magnetic-field attenuation with a horizontal distance of 0–30 cm from the substations (side A) during spring.

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Fig. 8.

Mean magnetic-field attenuation with a horizontal distance of 0–3.0 m

from the substations (side A) during the summer.

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Fig. 9.

Mean magnetic-field values measured for three heights along the line

connecting the measuring points 28 and 44 during spring.

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Fig. 10.

Mean magnetic-field values measured for three heights along the line

connecting measuring points 4 and 68 during spring.

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Fig. 11. Mean magnetic field values of the measuring points 1–28 (between the poles) at horizontal distances of 0–30 cm (side D) during the spring.

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Fig. 12. Mean magnetic-field values of the measuring points 1–28 (between the poles) at horizontal distances of 0–30 cm (side D) during summer.

mean magnetic-field values decayed at a high rate near the poles at measuring points 1–4, 25–44, and 65–80 that are far from the LV fuse boxes. Furthermore, the high rate of reduction of the field of distance 0–30 cm was also observed during summer near these points. During spring, the values of the magnetic field at the mea- suring points 1–4 and 65–80 at a height of 1.0 m and distance of 30 cm from the substations, as shown in Fig. 7, fluctuated between 6 and 35% of the respective magnetic-field values at a distance of 0 m from the substations, while in summer, the vari- ation was 12%–38%. As can be seen from Fig. 8 (measurements taken 0–3.0 m away from the substations), the mean values of the magnetic field at a distance of 1.0 m varied between 3 and 23% in the spring, and at a distance of 1.0 m, they varied between 10% and 29% in the summer. In addition, at the horizontal distance of 3.0 m, all of the measured values were under T. As shown in Figs. 9 and 10, depending on the measuring points, there was an evident increase or decrease in the mean values of the field near the poles, when the height was changed.

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Furthermore, for the measuring points 5–8, 21–24, 45–48, and 61–64 between the poles and the LV fuse boxes during spring, the values of the field at the distance of 30 cm at all measured heights fluctuated between 33% and 92% of the value when the distance was 0 m, while in summer, the fluctuation was 34%–85%. In both time periods, all of the recorded values at those points at a distance of 3.0 m were under T. As shown in Figs. 11 and 12, for side D in reference to mea- suring points 1–28 between the poles, the mean values of the field at the first 30 cm (for height 1.0 m) varied by 22%–37% and 27%–42%, respectively, of the values adjacent to the sub- station. However, for side B with regard to measuring points 41–68, the values varied by 14%–21% and 19%–27%. As the measuring height increased to 1.5 and 1.7 m at a dis- tance of 0–30 cm along the line connecting measuring points

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16 and 56, during spring, the field’s mean values varied be- tween 18% and 91% of the values at a height of 1.0 m, as shown in Fig. 13. During summer, the variation of the field at the aforementioned measuring points was 22%–90%. As the hori-

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Fig. 13. Mean magnetic-field values for three heights along the line connecting the measuring points 16 and 56 during spring.

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Fig. 14. Mean magnetic-field values of the measuring points 9–20 (side D) with the LV fuse boxes open at horizontal distances of 0–3.0 m during the spring.

zontal distance increased from 1.0 to 3.0 m, slight changes were recorded between the measured values. The magnetic field at measuring points 9–20 and 49–60 was influenced by the LV fuse boxes. The highest measured value was T during spring in substation 8 at measuring point 13 (horizontal distance of 0 m and height of 1.0 m). However, in summer, the highest value was T in substation S-12 at measuring point 13 (horizontal distance of 0 m and height of 1.0 m). The LV bus bars were located near measuring point 13. The high values of the magnetic field near the LV fuse boxes can be justified by the presence of high currents. The loads of the substations during the summer were higher when compared with those in spring, resulting in higher magnetic-field values in all measuring points. In measuring points 9–20 and 49–60, at a height of 1.0 m, as the measured distance increased to 1.0 m, the mean values of the field were approximately 3%–14% and 8%–11% of the values at 0 m in the spring and summer, respectively. In addition, all of the values at the distance of 3.0 m were under 2.20 T. In measuring points 1–4 and 77–80, the magnetic-field values were influenced by the MV conductors, while in 25–32, the field was influenced by MV and LV conductors. Figs. 11 and 12 show that near the measuring points 25–32, the field was higher, be- cause the currents in the LV conductors were always higher. Refrences [10] and [11] describe the magnetic-field measure- ments carried out in city streets, without providing information about measurements close to distribution pillars or power sub- stations. Another study [12] describes the magnetic-field mea- surements conducted in an underground residential distribution system. The measured values of the field were lower when com- pared with those measured near the two-pole-type distribution substations of 400 kVA. This difference can be attributed to the

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fact that the transformer of 75 kVA was loaded to 30%–40% of its nominal power. In [22], the magnetic-field measurements near two outdoor substations of 400 kVA were similar to those measured near the two-pole-type distribution substations. The values recorded outside the indoor and underground substations in [22] were lower when compared with those recorded near the two-pole- type substations. At the horizontal distance of 1.0 m from the substations, both studies showed that the field decayed at a high rate. In [22], through the momentary measured magnetic field and current values, and based on

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(4)

the daily or yearly average, maximum, and nominal exposure of the public to the magnetic field were calculated. Based on the data from Table II and using (4), the average

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daily exposure of the public in each measuring point according to

,
,
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(5)

can be calculated ( is the measuring point). For measuring point 15, at a horizontal distance of 2.0 m and height of 1.0 m from the ground during spring, the mean value of the resulting mag-

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netic field between 9:00 and 10:45 h was

calculated from Table II, according to (5),

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214 A,

T.

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T. As

159 A, and

Fig. 14 shows the measurements of the resulting magnetic

field at measuring points 9–20, with the doors of the LV fuse boxes being kept open. These measurements were conducted to

measure the magnitude of the magnetic field when technicians work on the substations. The highest measured value during spring was observed in substation 8, at measuring point 13, at a horizontal distance of 0 m and height of 1.0 m from the ground. Its value was T. However, in the summer, the maximum value recorded was T at measuring point 13, at a height of 1.0 m, and distance of 0 m from the substation S-12. All of the values of the magnetic field were lower when compared with the limit of T for occupational exposure. At a horizontal distance of 0–30 cm from the substations, the field decayed at a

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high rate. As the measuring distance increased to 2 and 3 m, all of the measured values were under T. During inspection,

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the substations are under voltage and the duration of the techni- cians’ visit is limited, while during maintenance and other kinds of work, the substations are not under voltage and, hence, there is no presence of field. A comparison between the measurements of this study and those referring to occupational exposure inside outdoor [14]–[19] and indoor substations [20], [21] near the sources of the magnetic field, such as busbars, transformers, and switch- boards revealed that the measured values of this study were lower. This difference was not only because the values of the currents were lower and the outdoor and indoor substations had different configurations, constructions, and sizes, but also because in each study, the distances from the sources of the magnetic field were different.

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Fig. 15. Mean magnetic-field values of the measuring points 9–20 (side D) with the LV fuse boxes open at distances 0–30 cm.

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Fig. 16. Mean magnetic-field values between the poles of the measuring points 1–28, with the LV fuse boxes covered with aluminum plates, 0–30 cm away from substations (side D) during the spring.

Moreover, the measurements in points 9–20 with the doors of the LV fuse boxes that were kept open aimed to examine the shielding provided by the steel enclosure. During spring, the mean magnetic-field values with the doors of the LV fuse boxes were kept closed, as shown in Fig. 15, at distances of 0 m and 30 cm, and at a height of 1.0 m were 52%–61% and 33%–67% of the values when the doors were open, respectively. In the summer, the mean values at distances of 0 m and 30 cm and a height of 1.0 m were 45%–59% and 51%–69% of the values when the doors were open, respectively. At a height of 1.0 m and horizontal distances of 1.0 and 3.0 m, the mean values of the field when the doors were closed were between 47%–70% and 43%–53% in the spring and 52%–67% and 49%–61% in the summer of the values when the doors were open. Overall, the mean attenuation achieved through the LV fuse box housing was equal to approximately 54% during spring and 57% during summer at the region up to 30 cm from the substations and at a height of 1.0 m from the ground, at the measuring points near the LV fuse boxes. Similarly, [13] has presented the magnetic-field mea- surements conducted with the doors of the pad-mounted transformers being kept open and closed. As a result, the transformers’ housing provided a significant shielding of the magnetic field by a factor of about 7. After placing thin aluminum plates of 0.50-mm thickness ex- ternally to all sides of the LV fuse boxes, measurements of the resulting 50-Hz magnetic field were conducted at distances of 0–30 cm and 0–3.0 m from the substations to investigate the magnetic-field mitigation that can be achieved. The aluminum plates were chosen to examine the mitigation of the field owing to their low cost as well because they can be easily attached externally to the LV fuse boxes. Mitigation of the field was higher near the LV fuse boxes at measuring points 9–20 and 49–60 than at points 5–8, 21–24, 41–44, and 61–64 between the poles and the LV fuse boxes. At all other measuring points, there was no notable change in the magnetic-field values when compared with the previous measurements without the aluminum plates. The highest values of the field were recorded at a horizontal distance of 0 m and a height of 1.0 m from the ground at the measuring points 9–20 and 49–60. In the first 30 cm, the field decayed at a high rate, as shown in Fig. 16. From Fig. 17 re- garding the measurements at a height of 1.0 m from the ground in side D, it can be observed that the mean values of the field, when the aluminum plates were placed externally to the LV fuse

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Fig. 17. Mean magnetic-field values between the poles of the measuring points 1–28, with the LV fuse boxes with and without aluminum plates at distances 0–30 cm away from substations (side D) during the spring.

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Fig. 18. Mean magnetic-field values between the poles of the measuring points 1–28, with the LV fuse boxes with and without aluminum plates at distances 0–30 cm away from substations (side D) during the summer.

boxes, were between 57% and 98% at a distance of 0 m, and 47% and 96% at a distance of 30 cm, when compared with the mean values of the field without the aluminum plates. In side B, the values were between 62% and 98% at a distance of 0 m, and 61% and 97% at a distance of 30 cm, when compared with the values without the aluminum plates. In addition, from Fig. 18, the mean values of the field with the aluminum plates in side D were 61%–99% at a distance of 0 m and 56%–98% at a dis- tance of 30 cm from the substations. On the other hand, in side B, they were 65%–98% and 68%–99% in the same distances, re- spectively. Overall, the mean attenuation achieved was approxi- mately 23% during spring and 18% during summer at the region up to 30 cm from the substations and at a height of 1.0 m from the ground, at the measuring points near the LV fuse boxes. With regard to the other measuring heights of 1.5 and 1.7 m in both time periods, in sides B and D, the mean values of the field with the aluminum plates at the distance of 30 cm varied

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PROIOS et al.: MAGNETIC-FIELD MEASUREMENTS NEAR TWO-POLE-TYPE DISTRIBUTION SUBSTATIONS

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between 54% and 99%, when compared with the values without the aluminum plates. As the horizontal distance increased to 1.0 m and for a height of 1.0 m, the mean values of the field were between 3 and 25% of those at 0 m. At a distance of 2.0 m, all of the mean values were less than , and at 3.0 m, they were less than during both periods of the experimental study. The greatest re- duction in the field was recorded at a height of 1.0 m from the ground, while at other heights, the reduction was smaller. With regard to the two-pole-type distribution substations, fur- ther study for the mitigation of the magnetic field is suggested. As mentioned in [25]–[28], plates made of different materials and thicknesses can be used to cover the LV fuse boxes and the LV and MV cables.

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IV. CONCLUSION

Measurements of the resulting 50-Hz magnetic field near 15 two-pole-type distribution substations of 400 kVA during the spring and summer showed that all the values recorded were lower when compared with the values presented in the guide- lines that ICNIRP has introduced for public and occupational exposure. The loading of the substations during summer was higher when compared with those in the spring, resulting in higher magnetic-field values at all measuring points. For the first 30 cm of all directions from the substations, the field decayed at a high rate. As the measuring distance in- creased, the reduction in the field was even greater, and at 3.0 m, all of the values were less than 2.20 T in both seasons of the study. Near the LV fuse boxes at point 13, at a horizontal distance of 0 m and height of 1.0 m from the ground, the highest values were recorded. These values were 59.40 and during spring and summer, respectively, with the doors of the LV fuse boxes being kept closed. When the doors were kept open, the maximum recorded values were 118.69 and during spring and summer, respectively. The mean attenuation achieved through the LV fuse box housing was approximately 54% during the spring and 57% during the summer at the region of up to 30 cm from the substations and at a height of 1.0 m from the ground, at the measuring points near the LV fuse boxes. At measuring points 9–20 and 49–60 near the LV fuse boxes, high values of the field were recorded. In these points, the miti- gation of the field was achieved, with the external placement of thin aluminum plates on all sides of the LV fuse boxes. The mean attenuation achieved was approximately 23% during spring and 18% during summer at the region of up to 30 cm from the substations and at a height of 1.0 m from the ground, at the measuring points near the LV fuse boxes. At all of the other measuring points, there was no notable change in the magnetic-field values when compared with those measured without the aluminum plates. Further study is suggested to examine the shielding materials used in the LV fuse boxes and LV and MV conductors of the two-pole-type distribution substations.

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REFERENCES

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Constantinos D. Halevidis (S’10) was born in Athens, Greece, in 1987. He is currently pursuing the Ph.D. degree from the National Technical Uni- versity of Athens, Athens. His research interests are diverse including topics, such as power transmission and distribution and ELF fields.

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Emmanuel I. Koufakis was born in Kissamos, Crete, Greece, on August 15, 1954. He received the Electrical Engineer degree from the University of Patras, Patras, Greece, in 1978, and the Ph.D. degree from the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department of the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA), Athens, Greece, in 2008. Since 1981, he has been with the Public Power Corporation S.A., working on planning and oper- ation of power distribution networks in Crete and other Aegean islands. Since 2001, he has been the Manager of PPC S.A./Hania District, in Crete island. His research interests include power systems, electrical measurements, and condition monitoring of electrical equipment.

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Achilleas N. Proios (S’09) was born in Thessaloniki, Greece, on April 25, 1978. He received the Bach- elor’s degree in energy technology from the Techno- logical and Educational Institution, Athens, in 2001 and the Dipl- Eng degree in electrical and computer engineering from the National Technical University of Athens, Athens, where he is currently pursuing the Ph.D. degree. His research interest is in measurements and analysis of electromotive forces produced by electric power systems.

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Perikles D. Bourkas is Prof. Dr. Dipl. Eng. (Elec- trical Engineer) at the National Technical University (NTU) of Athens, Athens, Greece. His working experience includes positions, such as: President of the Technical Council of the Ministry of Health, Director of the Technical Services at the Ministry of Health, and Director Electrical Engineer of the Athens General Hospital. He has also been an Elec- trical Engineer in various industries. Currently, he is Professor at the NTU of Athens and Vice President of the Electrical and Computer Engineering Depart- ment. His technical experience and research activities involve high-voltage engineering, electrical measurements, electrical insulating materials, electro- mechanical installations in industry and buildings, hospital installations, and biomedical technology.