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Ancient Geography of Burma


Duroiselle, C.
Rangoon : Government
Printing Press Burma
1906
29 pgs.

: 2014

: 053

7
UC-NRLF

*c la

7IdT

Reprint from the

" Bcole

Frangaise

cT Extreme'OrieniJ*

NOTES
ON THE

ANCIENT GEOGRAPHY OF BURMA


(I)

BY
C.

M.R.A.S.

DUROISELLE,
w
LECTURER IN

PAli,

RANGOON COLLEGE

Comulofthe United States ofAtmrica

RANGOON
OFFICE OF THE SUPERINTENDENT, GOVERNMENT PRINTING,

1906

BURMA

NOTES ON THE
ANCIENT GEOGRAPHY OF BURMAThe

PunYiovada-stittii of the

word

for word, in the Sanskrit version of the

is

found, almost

celebrated Legend

^
by Burnouf from the Divyavadana.

of Pura, as translated

The

Sutta does not give us any further information concerning


Buddha but the commentaries or Aitha-

PcLli

this

Samyutia-nikaya

interlocutor of the

hatha give, as a rule, the history of the persons mentioned in the


^
texts.
Consequently, while looking over the voluminous commentary on the Sannyutta, I have found therein the Legend of Pua
(Sanskrit Purwa) such as it is known to the Southern School of Bud-

dhism,

or, at least,

that part of the legend which the commentators

have thought fit to insert in their work for if the stdta itself seems to
be but an extract (unless one prefers to see in it the nucleus round
:

which the legend

later

on developed

itself),

to the careful reader the impression that

the
it

commentary gives

(the

commentary)

is

but an abridgment from which are omitted secondary incidents


known to the Sanskrit version. Two points seem to me to admit
of no doubt

on the one hand, the story existed before the evolution


peculiar to Northern Buddhism, since the Purnavaddna contains
the P41i sutta ; on the other, it had remained quite
popular
:

amongst the Southern Buddhists up

to the time of the redaction of

the Sannyutta/Makatha, for this commentary introduces the two


brothers in the story with the words " cte dve Bhataro^' without
these

"

two brothers

confirms

me

in the

"

having yet been mentioned.

opinion that the compilers

This detail

whose intention was

merely to recall that part of the story relating to the country


have not judged necessary to reproduce in its

of Sunaparanta,

(') Samyuttaor Sannyutta-nikdya., ed. Feer,Vol, IV, page 60; Divyd'.


vaddna, ed. Cowell and Neil, pages 24. 55- Burnouf, Introduction, ed. 1844,
pages 235276; ed. 1876, page ^09 245.
(0 Most of these commentaries have not yet been edited and are there-,

fore

unknown

to scholars in

Europe.

M144730

entirety a legend already well


few unimportant details, as

The
the

"

known and such

we have

that the Divyavadana


History of the Foot-Print'^'

fact

is

is

it

unknown

we find

probably, except a
the Divayvadana.

in

in

Burma,

but in

another legend forming

a kind of introduction to that of the Sannyutta commentary, and


from this we may infer that the Sanskrit version has not been
altogether
(')

unknown

in

Burma.

The Legend

We h^ive reasons to believe that Sanskrit was


The Burmese

of the

icth

and nth

of Funna. contains,

known

in

centuries dispels

Burma

before

doubts on
this point for in the inscriptions of that period are found words clearly derived
from Sanskrit, rind not only technical terms, but words which must have
already been in popular use, such as, f r example, prassad, from Sanskrit
Pali being pdsdda-, S akr d
Sar\s]^nt Cakra (Pali sakka).
prdsdda, the
After its introduction into P^igan, Pali was studied with great fervour, and the
first outcome of these studies, about one century after the fall of ThatSn, was the
P41i.

all

Sadda-ntii, a

grammar

of the Tripitaka,

and the most comprehensive

in exis-

gives 1156 A.D. as the date of this work; but


tence.
himself says that it was completed in 1154 A.D.
Aggava^wsa, the auth r,
Now, Asgnvamsa, in the second p <rt of his grammar, the Dhdtumdld or

Forchhrimmer

It
of Roots," gives here and there the equivalent Sanskrit forms.
therefore plnusible to suppose that S ns^^rit existed at Pagan in the nth
studied before Pali, for the first work in
century at least and was scientific^illy
the latter language written in Burma bases itself on Sanskrit grammar to

*'

Garland

is

Another proof is the use, in the d^tes of tne ith


Pali forms.
explnin a few
andthei2th centuries of the Hindu astionomical terminology; for instance,
i

=
Asan = Acvini (1054 A.D.) Mrikkaso Mrgaciras (1081 A.D.), etc The
known
in Pagan anterior to th-se dates.
been
have
must
Siddhanta, then,
Moreover, certain names of places and rivers indicate a familiarity, very
already secular in Anorata's time with Hindu mythology ; to
;

probably
on the banks of the Irrawaddy (=Pali, Erdvati=s
give but one example
uirdvata is well known.
Sanskiit airCivati), the legend of the famous elephant
Mr.
Ko
Taw
thus
Sein
sure:
less
are
{Notes on the Ka'yani
Other proofs
of bricks found at Tagoung and at Pagan itself, inscribed
Inscriptions) speaks
introduction ot Southern
with legends in Sanskrit and older than the
Buddhism in Pagan ; but Phayre says [History of Burma, page 14) that the
As it is very difficult to procure any of these bricks,
legends were in Pali.
it is to be doubted whether e\en the ArchaeologiI cannot settle this question ;
Museum in Rangoon possesses any ; at least, none of these short legends
:

cal

been found in
has ever yet been deciphered. No Sanskrit inscription has yet
it is true, says {Notes on an Archceologlcal tour in
Fiihrer,
Dr.
Burma:
he discovered two at Tagoung: but nothing more was
Upper Bur mj) th-st
lithic inscriptions, of such a paramount importance
two
these
of
ever heard
which I doubt very much.
if they do really exist,

Burmese ^Oo5gOo5od^C8 {Rhve-cak-to-SamSn). The principal


"
or
These histories,
history."
and
pagodas each have their samon
temples
contain
of
marvellous
tales,
very p-ecious historical inforamid the overgrowth
of contemporary events.
mations, and give dates, which are generally exact,
Some of these sant'^n have been utilized for the compilation of the Maharajava ; but most of them are crumbling to pieces in the dust of monasteries.
(2) In

of the two imprints of the


according to the Burmese, the history
Buddha's left foot, which he, the Master after having, as it is

written, spent one

week

magnificent monastery built with red


one, on the bank of the o^sg^dSs (Man Khyo)^

wood left,

sandal

in the

stream, the other on the summit of the ODgc$ (Saccaban) Hill,^


whose foot is washed by the said stream. This hill, consecrated

by the Buddha's presence, is situated near Saku,in the Minbu


District, which is itself comprised in the Province of Aparanta
or Sunaparanta for the Burmese have appropriated to themselves
name at the expense of the Konkan and apply it to the region
;

this

on the right bank of the Irrawaddy, behind


and above Pagan. They have not the least doubt that Suna-

which

stretches,

of the Saiinutta^Makatha,
^ronaparanta)
the very same as the Burmese Province called by that name.

(Sanskrit

paranta
is

The Legend

is

the foundation of

none

is

"

mada
(

;*

but the village called cco5o8g (Le Kine) by the

else

Burmese and that


(')

Prome

Mahardjavan when recording


therein we are told that Va7?ijagama
the

in

quoted

it is

Charmed-stream

situated in the Province of Sunaparanta.

"
;

Man

= manta

(Sanskrit mantra)

it is

the

Nam-

of the legend.

Pron. Thissaban

= Saccabandha

further on,

we

shall see the origin of

this name.

Mahdrdjavan, Vol. I, pages 167 168. Prome is written \Q^ Pran, by


the l^urmese and the Arakanese. The Burmese pronounce Pyi and Py6, the
Arakanese, Pri. But the Mon (Talaings) write this word and pronounce it
(')

c[y?C Pron, and (9v Prawn. It is then in Talaing documents that we must
look for the origin of this name, the signification of which I do not know; * the
Talaings I have consulted could not give me any information on this point.
"
"
Some, however, told me that this word ought to be written, Pr8m
{pro-

word means "crushed, destroyed," and


its destruction by the M6n (TaBut this etymology is not
foundation of Pagan.

nounced exactly as Prome);

this

Criksetra has, they say, been so called since


laings)

some years before

worth stopping

the

to consider.

Namanta,

in

the Rajavan,

name of the stream, which is also sometimes called


tut Namanta is but a corruption of Nammada.
*

may

It

has been urged that

very well be.

But

it is

"Prome"

is

derived from

given as the

is

after ihe

Naga's name;

"Brahma";

this

remarkable that none of the nations that have

"known this old city call it by a name derived, according to their phonetics,
from "Brahma." It was better known to them as Crik^etra, or its modified
equivalents

stand

for

Phonetically, the

"Brahma," and

Burmese and Arakanese

their pronunciation of

it

(9^

differs

still

Prafi,

more

cannot
widely.

Now,

the Paganrajavaw

us that

tells

Le Kine

or

Vawijagama

is

in

the Province of Purantappa, This name, Purantappa, applies to


the region already mentioned in manuscripts, and is unknown to
However
the majority of the Burmese, even to those well educated.

Legend, as, it is understood by them, is intera very clear example of the origin of the
artificial geography of Burma, in the fabrication of which some
texts have been flagrantly distorted and their sense deliberately
the case

be, the

may

esting, in that

is

it

Before

misunderstood.

going into

this

question of fabrication^

me be allowed to give here the Burmese legend which forms


kind
of introduction to that of Pua.
a

let

In olden times, there was, in the Island of c^8g(^r^^8^ (Ho-kri

this bull, as
kyvan), a cultivator who
and
was
vicious
no
one but his
he
was
as
beautiful,
savage
strong
to do so would have been to run to a
master dared approach him

possessed a magnificent bull

certain

He had become the terror

death.

of the village, for

pursued and tore into pieces everything he found

in his

he

way, beasts

He had

already carried mourning and sorrow into many


families, and the fear of him had come to such a pitch that all

and men.

work

in

the fields was at last neglected.

much

This state of things

famine and ruin were spreading their


ravages in the neighbouring villages as well. The villagers assembled and, after a short discussion, unanimously resolved to
destroy
could not last

longer, for

the ferocious animal.


leaving him the choice
Moreover, the word

They apprized the owner of their intention,


to go somewhere else and take his bull with

Brahma

well

is

known

(^OQ (brahma)

name

G^

in its

by any

rule,

proper form

(pran) fcr the city's

appellation.

The Talaing

is

it

according to Burmese phonetics, [^qo might become fSSg,

(bram), but never,

the

Burmese, and is of very


always and rightly wriiten :

to the

frequent occurrence in their sacred literature;

for

"

strange that, possessing already

should have altered


gcg, brahma), they

name and

Brahma "

It is

g^.

is

to

S^^^"^

(Mranma)

for their

own

it

to

national

[^[5 (Brom, pron. Pram), a word extensively

used in their literature, for they were under brahmanical influence fcr centuries; but they too, rejecting the proper, ready-made and well-known appellation(

^5

),

call

Crikretra by a

name

G^

which, according to

Talaing

phonetics, cannot be a derivation of "Brahma."


(')
.

(')

Page

One

37 of the manuscript in
of the

my

possession (page 3 of the 2nd chap.).

names by which Cape Negrais

is

known

to the

Burmese.

The

him.

who was

farmer,

attached to his

fields,

allowed them,

some demur, to do as they pleased. The villagers then:


armed themselves with sticks, pitchforks, bows, etc., and, after a

after

<juasi-homeric fight, brought the bull to his death


carcase there and then, and distributed its flesh.

they cut up the

The happy event

of the bull's death was, on the evening of the very same day, celebrated by a great feast, of which the enormous animal's flesh formed

one

of the

however

most delicate dishes.


has

justifiable,

who had

taken part

Sunaparanta,

in

in

Unfortunately, every violent act,


all those

retribution; in consequence,

its

the feast were born again in the forests of

Some became

Upper Burma.

rabbits, antelopes, wild-boars, etc.,

and the

bisons, sortie deer,

bull, their victim,

a hunter w hose humble dwelling was a hut on


Maku/a Hill i^the same which received, later

became

the slope of the


on, the

name

of

Saccabandha). This hill is now known also as "the Hunter's


His arrows never erred he roamed in the woods and on
Hill."
'

(i)t^d^gGcOD6(Mu-cho-to), near L6-k6( cooSd^Ss), in the Minbu District.


legend has been perpetuated in the names of certain hills; fur Instance,

The
the

hill

G00d6

wheie he dried
Sa-re-kral<-to?z

CX)^! I-im

= le=

his skins is the "stretched-out-hides


;

the one where he strung his

bow

Hill/'oOD8GCj(^o6
is to-day: ci6co5

GCOS) -ta-kun;the forest wherein he pursued the hare is


so forth, cf. the legend given by

known as:cxj$^^CCOD ,Yun-kran-to; and

Sir George Scctt {,Upper Burma Gazetteer, II, iii page 163). I do not know
whereSirGeor.ee has taken this story Ixom; he has, I suppose,transIatedit from

the

S' won, for

it is

essentially the

The Burmese always

possible.

same

but, surely, the dates

mentioned are im-

give the correct dates, as they are entered in

the Maharajavan, a work found everywhere in Burma ; they perhaps might


make an error of some years, but never one of several centuries, as Sir

George does, and the dates which he gives are not


that

"

in 248 B.E. (^Burmese Era, that

is

those

to say,

the Samdn.

He says

Caka, = 886 A D.) Alaung

Sithu, king of Pagan, visited the Shwe-zet-taw," but Alaung Sithu became
king only in 1085 A.D., according to Phayre. In Vol. II, part ii, 307, he
writes:

"The

1108 A.D.,

left

Alaung Sithu, in 470 B.E.


Saku, then called Ramawadi;" the differ-

says that king

legend

Minbu and went

to

ence between the two dates given

for

one and the same reign

is

consequently

this king to

not that given by the Sambn for the visit of


454
l09^ A.D. On the page already quoted,'

lands to the Sliwe-z-t-taw."

But Paif/iama Min Gaung ascended the throne

322 vears!

The date

108

is

Minbu, but Caka


a few lines lower down (Vol. II, iii page 163), ha says: "In 427 B.E.=
1065 A.D. the king Patama (Pa^Aama) Min Gaung made a dedication of

AD., and the Sandn tells us that, in Caka 763 (=1401 A.D.),
only
this king visited tne famous foot-prints; here, the difference is 336 years
in

140X

the

playing great havoc among their wild inhabitants, whose


he sold to his customers.

hil's,

flesh

happened the One-thousand-eyed ^akra, looking down oa


the hunter of Sunaparanta, whose bow had

It

the earth, descried

caused the

ust less

was moved with


hunter, as a

death of so many innocent creatures, and his heart

He

pity.

also perceived in ihe h<art of the cruel

mouldering under the ashes, a disposition towards


spiritu lUty which would make of him a great saint if he could be
induced to embrace religious life. He, then, assumed the appearance
rtre

a hunter, descended to Sunapiranta and hid himself near a spot


by which the destroyer had to pass. This hill is well known as Saof

The Sunaparanta

krapun-to;/ (oo^DSt^^gcoo^S).

him:

whither

hunter appeared

are

,'

going ?'^
"
" A
I
for
the
must
for my
venison
other,
hunting," replied
provide
customers," ^al<ra, with his divine e'oquence, shewed him the

^akra

greett^d

"Friend,

you

cruelty of thus killing innocent victims, and the terrible torments)n had in store for him in the course of his

which such a professi


"

What

"

exclaimed the astonished hunter,


?
Do you not, too, make a living,
a
hunter
you yourself
in
the
in
deer
the
forests ?"
What a fine
pursuing
"
"
sermon you are preaching me
My friend," ans\^ered ^akra.

future existences.

''are not

One would be inclined to think that Sir George Scott follows a local
false dates; but such

Gazetteer

is

is

legend giving

not the case, for the legend of the Upper

merely that of the

Sambn abridged, and

Burma

as the dates of the S(j'on

agree with those of the Chronicles, one cannot understand these glaring error*
in so serious a work.
However, on the following page (II, iii page 164), under
the heading Shwe^zi-gon, he gives a date better in accordance with facts. There

he writes

"
:

It is

said that the founder of the Shwezi-gon

is

Prince Saw-Lu,

Anawyata Min Zau (Anuruddha-maw-co), who visited Pindale (now


Minthale) in 421 B.E. (= 1059 A.D.). Phayre makes Saw-Lu die in in 1057
A.D. after a reign of five years, which is, according to the inscriptions, altogether
wrong. Most of the dates given by Phayre {History of Burma) for the eleventh
and twelfth centuries are inexact, and this part of his History must be read
with great caution- As a matter of fact, the Chronicles themselves do not
a son

of

agree on those dates.

For the beginning of Anorata's reign, the Maharajava

gives 1017 A.D., and this

same work

is

the date generally accepted; the old edition of the

gives 967; the Sv6

Cun Kyo Ta

Pagan Rajava gives 999. Now,


erected by Anorata and speaking of a
the

there
relic

the other dates are viciated by this one.

firmed by the inscriptions.

The date

also to be corrected, although the

go5^Gcq)5oD6

1002 A.D.

an inscription dated 984 A.D^


brought back from Thaton. All
is

The date

of the fall of

of his death, 1059, is con-

Thaton

will perhaps have


Kalyani gives 1057. The Talaing Chronicle

"

very different from yours. You kill all the animals you
meet with, evt n vvhen you are no longer in need of meat. I, on the

my

case

is

contrary, with

whose

flying-deer,

bow, scour the Himalayas in search of


sold to kings, brings me an immense

tliis infallible

skin,

not for the sole pleasure of killing. I came into these


Here,
parts in pursuit of a certain flying-deer. Help me to find it.
take this my unerring bow and give me yours, and, if you find the
kill

protit.

The hunter took (^akra's bow, and the


disappeared among the trees. The divine weapon looked
a toy but, what was not his astonishment, when, despite all
not
efforts and his almost superhuman strength, he did

deer, shoot

it

down."

latter
like

his

In vain did he groan, and sw^eat and swear 7


bending it
the bow remained as rigid as the trunk of a tree centuries old.
The time went swiftly by and no animal was killed, and his

succeed

in

customers were waiting for venison. Tired, dispirited, he sat


down, ^akra, still disguised as a hunter, appeared again (a
"

him.
to

bend

to

kill

My bow
it

is

not easy to bend,

as easily as your

Well! You

is it ?

own on one

condition.

will be able

You must promise

On

only deer one day, and the day after only does.

bow, which

this

may keep my
matchless;
"
The hunter agreed, hastdy toolc
belongs to me, (^akra
the bow and went about looking for deer
but on that day, he
trifling condition, you

for

it

is

and incriptions, which I hope to be in a position to decipher before long, *will


doubtless throw a flood of light on these so important questions, as well
as on the question, no less interesting, of the relations of Cambodia with
the countries of thelrrawaddy Delta, relations absolutely ignored in
Annals.
*

The Talaing

or

Mon

language has not yet been studied

the light of comparative philology

there are

gaps

Burmese

scientifically

in the history of

in

Burma and

Pegu (Ramanna) that will be filled probably only when the Talaing chronicles
have been read and translated ; so, the affinities between the M6n and Khmer
are

still

to

be philologically established

studies of the

Mon and Cambodian


have

to

author, in the couise of his

languages has been struck by the strong

internal evidence of their relationship

family of languages will

the

the

name

"

M8n-Annam "

b abandoned, as the Annamese


-.

for this

has,

from

common with the Talaing and the Khmer.


has now a Talaing Grammar and Chrestomaty nearly completed.

internal evidence, nothing in

The writer
The enlightened

help of Government, would, in this matter, greatly facilitate


the prosecution of his studies and the early publication of their results.

found only does; on the morrow be looked for does, but perceived
deer only. He then understood ^akra's stratagem and, bound by
a solemn promise which be dared not break, he gave up hunting,

became a hermit and

retired to

hill.

From

was

that day, he

the name of Thissa ban {^^sacca, promise, and bandha,


and
bound),
consequently the hill on which he lived received the
same name. But he did not know the true religion [viz..

known under

Buddhism), and he preached

in

Sunaparanta a

false doctrine,

Uhus

causing the people to be in danger of falling into hell. Near that


spot, in the village called Vaija, lived two brothers, merchants,

Mahapu and

Here the Samo;^

Cfl/apu

gives,

more

or less faithfully, the story in the Sannyutta^Makatha.^


If, now, we compare this bgend and the translation of the Pali text

infra p 15), which is its sequel, with the story of the Divydvadana, manv points of resemblance and di\ergence become apparent.
All the long story of the two brothers up to the departure of the

{cf.

elder one to Savatthi

is

unknown

to the

Samon and

is

not given

by the commentators on the Punr\ova.da-sutta. The only point


of resemblan'. e between the legend of the Samon and that of the
Divyavadana is the hunter who becomes a hermit and subsequently
a saint {arhat); and still, neither the manner nor the instrument
But this slight resemblance is
of his conversion is the same.
enough

to

make one

think that, at a certain time, the Sanskrit

As is almost always the


version was not unknown in Burma.
case, the Pali is more sobre of miraculous happenings than the
and these happenings are precisely the very points
wh^rton the two versions differ. For instance, when, on the

Sanskrit,

Fua, Gotama goes to Vaijagama, the 499 monks


accompan}ing him are carried through the sky in kiosques the
invitation of

Divyavadana makes them go there by means


fantastic animals, and even

katha speaks
every one ol
'

Are we

a medley

of only

whom

in

pots and vases.

of wings, or riding

on

Tue Safinyutta^Ma-

one wa^a, but the Sanskrit, of five-hundred,


creates a river unto himself in order to go to

to see in this

"

false doctrine

"

a remembrance

of that religion,

Mahayanism, tantraism and Naga-worship which prevailed in the


Irrawaddy Valley before the introduction of Hinayanist Buddhism into Pagan
of

and the priests


fifteenth

beliefs
(^)

ot

century,

which were the Ari?

and has

and customs
Vide infra,

of the

p. 15,

left

This religion disappeared only in the


very deep traces, not yet obliterated, in the

Burmese.

the text

and

its

translation.

Notwithstanding these differences, the story

etc.

Surparaka,

is,

on the whole, the same, and probably originated from the same
The Sinhalese also have this legend, but they seem to
source.

know both

versions

for in the

fragments translated by Hardy,*


Surparaka, unknown to the Pali text, is mentioned, and so is the
river Narmada (Nammada), of which the Divyavadana does not
;

the two imprints of the Buddha's foot, which


appear to form the one important point in the legend, are unknown
to the compilers of the Sanskrit work.
In

speak.

My

fine,

intention

is

not to write a treatise on the ancient geography

Hurma, but merely to point out the arbitrary way in which some
Indian place-nam^^s have been transplanted in Burma, in spite
The Legend of Puwwa furnishes a very
even of explicit texts
clear example of this manner of fabricating ancient kingdoms
of

i^nd of givini^ to relatively

Mr.

Burgess" asks himself

even mere villages


(I

modern towns an

in

how

it

is

air of

towns and

one indigenous,

ed., 1853,

pages 57, 209 and

Burma have two names,

Spence Hardy, Manual of Buddhism,

hoary antiquity.

that most

259-260.
("2

(3)

Indian Antiquary^ Vol.

XXX,

Some towns have many more


names

thirteen

of

Pagan

pages 3S7-388.

than two names.

In the Pagaiirdjavan

are enumerated: Pokkarama, Arimaddana,

Puwwa-

gama, Tampavati, Siripaccaya, Sampuagama, Pa/z^upalasa, Nagaruttama, Paramapura, Tampadesa, Ve/urakama (Ve/ukarama ?), Samadhinagara, Pokkan (pron. Paukkan, from which the Burmese made Pukan

The Paganrdjavan gives

the following etymologies, which teach us


" "
"
The Buddha having in relanothing concerning the eiymology of Pugaw :

Pagan).

tion to a

pok tree (pron. pauk, buten), foretold the foundation of Pagan, the
"
"
town was called the pok garden (Pokkdrdma). It was named Arimaddana
because

its

In Pagan, Brahmins {punna)


kings always crushed their enemies.
numbers; they were traders and treasurers to the king,

lived in considerable

hence

its

name

of

PuMnagama.

called on account of

things; punna

(Another tradition says that the city was so

possessing large quantities of gold, silver and precious


of.
This derivation cannot stand; the first is probably

its

full

the true one, for the Burmese have always

known

the Brahmins under the

one of the oldest and best known names of


name of punva ; PuMagama
incontestable
an
manner, the Indian influence in the
Payan, and it shows, in
is

'city of Mien.')

It

was

called

account of the reddish colour of

Tampavati, Tampadesa and Pa;?<fupalasa on


its soil

magnificence; Sampuagam3, because


of,

sampaa)

to the three Jewels: the


'

Nagaruttama,

Siripaccaya, because of its j^lory and


its inhabitants were devoted (lit., full

Buddha, the Doctrine and the Church;


of its faith and piety.
It was

The Famous,' on account

lO

think this fictitious geography hasnational vanity, and above all, in adu-

the other Pali or Sanskrit.

had

its

origin

the

in

lation of courtiers, both

Burmi se and Indian, and

also

of

his-

torians, who could imagine nothing more likely to minis':er to the


religious bigotry of kings, than to make them rule over provinces
recalling, at every slep, the

intense

Buddha's Life and the early history of


may also have originated in the

This fabrication

Buddhism.

fervour of

religious

the two or three

centuries

which

In fact^
followed the introduction of the Hinayana into Pagan,
what more natural, at a time of the religious effervt^scence of a new

according to the holy books, and as


faith, than to re-name
occasions presented themselves, cities and villagesand in so doing
to transfer to them the numerous legends of the Atihakathds,.
sanctifying, so to say, the whole country, with the supposed presence of the Master? I think it is useless to search for more pro-

found reasons regarding the origin of this apocryphal geography.


Royal boasttulness and religious bigotry must have been, I believe^

two most powerful factors in this geographical deception.


As I have alre-ady said, the Legend of Puwwa, among a thousand

the

others, furnishes us with a convincing proof of this: for the Pali

makes

it
very clear that neither the Sunaparanta, nor the
the Vawijagama of the legend, are the places and
nor
Nammada,
the stream known under these names in Burma. The Sinhalese

text

called

hants

'

Paramapura,

On

account

the Excellent City,' because of

of its powerful kings

it

its numerous white


elepwas named Samadhinagara. The

name Ve/urakaina (Ve/ukarama) it received from the extensive bamboo


jungies whiih surrounded it. Pokkan is but an abbreviation of Pokkarama."
"
The name "Puijami in the Kalyai Inscriptions is not mentioned in the
Paganrajavan According to the rules of Burmese phonetics, Pugama
would necessarily become Pagan, long d being never pronounced and rarely
I know not
what Pugama signifies ; but
noted befo'e a final consonant.
:

am

inclined to believe that

Kirg Dhammaceti

palicizf

d the word Pugan

(Pagan). Lokananda is also given as one of the names of Pagan, and this
brings the number of its names to fourteen.

Tagoung

is

called:

Saghassara^^/ja, Sawsayapura,

Prome;

Pancala.

Crik setra, Vanavasi, Paifr/mnilpa' i, Varapati, Puwwavati. Arakan- is knownas: Rammavati, Rakkhapura, Meghavati, Dh anaavati and Dvaravati (this

na me

is also applied to the Southern Shan States an d to


Siamj Manipur
Nagasyanta and Nagnpura. Kale becomes Rajagaha. Rangoon isknown as Ukkalapa and Verikkhaya.

last

is:

having a Foot-Print, it was not proper that the Burmese should


have none. An imaginary mark on any rock, having more or less
the form of a foot, whs a sufficient reason for transplanting bodily
the scene of the story of Puwwa in a wild spot, and for making
a holy place of pilgrimage.
I do not know the exact time at which the name of
Sunaparanta
was given to the country extending behind Pagan, on the right
this spot

bank

of the

Irrawaddy

but

it

cannot be earlier than the thirteenth

century, or ptrhaps the end of the twelfth. The inscriptions of the


It is
eleventh and those of the twelfth century do not mention it.

very remarkable that the inscriptions of these two centuries and


even many belonging to the thirteenth, are composed in very sober
language, and are singularly free from those lists of kingdoms and

which the kings of the subsequent centuries, in


From,
particular those of Ava and Amarapura, so much delighted.
in

empires,

the fact that

could not find this


^

most ancient

of Sunaparanta in the

would not absolutely

inscriptions,

name

affi

that

it.

twelfth centuries), but its

did not exist at that period (eleventh


absence ai least inclines one to think so.

seem

As

to be so ancient in

Burma

as has

"This

the loxm Sondparanta:

to

This name, then, does not


been believed up to now.^
quasi-classical

name

of

Indian origin, used in the Burmese Court in State documents and


formal enumerations of the style of the king," ^ is absolutely
unknown to the fcurmese. They always write it Sunaparanta^

The most

( 1)

ancient inscription

Anorata-ma//-co, and

dated

found up to the present was engraved


by

C^a 346

It was
(984 A.D.).
engraved ona
the
of
shrine
for
a
of
hair
of
occasion
the
Buddha, brought back
building

Earnest researches

from Tha'on.

more ancient
('^)

'Ihe

Cu/apuw

is

perhaps bring to light some others-

Paganrdjavan expressly says (page 37): "The spot whereoiv


monastery of red sandalwood in Purantappa is now knowa

built the

Thus, Purantappa comprised: Ll-kow, Saku

as: I.6-k6 (coo5o86s)."

Sowsvap (godDC3^o), which are subsequently

(OOC^^,

Purantappa and

paranta.
province
to be the

the

these

first of

most ancient.

names applied
di.-tinct

will

still.

to the

provinces

The

same

it is

names

is

therefore,

in

Suna-

the

(oD^S 8), not perceiving that these two


gives them (page 23) asthe names of twa

S'ajndn

region,

located

samevery nearly unknown now, and seems-

Sunaparanta designate,

a nonsensical blunder.

P) Yule's HobsoK'Jobson, ed. 1903, page 852, col. I.

"2

and give

The

we

a very different etymology, as

it

shall presently see.

Pali text of the legend has certainly not in


of

paranta

but

Burma,

in fact, the

Burmese themselves

Aparanta, as,
the Divyavadana calls the
lanta
;

flovv^s

Mammada

the

"

Konkan

view the Suna-

Western

the Konkan, the

country

also call

Sunapa-

^roaparanta."

river (Sanskrit,

In

Narmada) which

Sunaparanta
is none else but the modern Nerbudda, which throws its waters in
The Surparaka of Dtvyavaddtt a is surely
the Gulf of Khambat.^
no other place but the Vawijagama of the Pali version. Vawija"
gama would perhaps be better translated by the town, or village,

Now, Surparaka, the Supparakapa^/ana


Makavamsa, was a great trading port and the
Western India it was then, par excellence, a

merchants."

the

of

mentioned

in

entrep-'t of

the

a vdnijagama^ a merchant's city or mercantile town.

According also to the Pali legend, Vawijagama was a sea-port,


since Cu/apu?ia embarks there to " cross the sea."
Surparaka is
situated at the estuary of the Nerbudda,
mentators on the Puovada-sutia locate

and there

also, the

Vaijagama

com-

these two

names, therefore, designate but one and the same town, situated
near the mouth of a river in the Western country.

The Nammada and

Va^zijagama of the Burmese do not


any of these conditions. Their Sunaparanta or Aparanta

fulfil

is

the

not to the West, but, according to Buddhist cosmology, to the


their Nammada is not a river flowing into the sea,

East

but

an

insignificant

hill

steam

flowing

into

river

their

Va^zijagama therefore cannot, in any possible manner, be a seaport.


The author or authors of the Sam6 have so well understood this
they make Cu/apu/2a embark at Negrais Island, in order to
As to
give to their falsification a plausible appearance of truth.
the mountain " Maku/a" or " Matula," it is with more common
tiiat

sense placed

in India

by the Monrdjavan}

(1) Cf. Burnouf, Introduction,

that Wilford, taking his

page 252

(or 225),

information from ihe

note

2,

where he says

Vardhasamhitd, jpeaks of

Aparantikas situated to the west.


(*) McCrindle, Ancient India as described by Ptolemy,

Jobson,

s.v.

Supara.

(*) McCrindle, ibid.


(*)

Rangoon, 1899, page 75.

and Yule, Hobso/t'

'3

^
However, the names of Sunaparanta and Aparanta
having
been given to a Burmese province, it became necessary to cite

authoritative texts in order,

if

possible, to legalize, so to say, this

And this, the Burmese


plagiarism by means of the sacred books.
have done, but very clumsily, for their favourite text goes directly
their assertion.

against

The Sdsanalankara^ enumerating the

the missionaries who, according to the Dipavamsd. ^


were sent to different countries during the eighteenth year of

names

of

Asoka's reign, and also the names of those countries, says that
bhikkhu Yonarakkhita was sent to Aparanta (Aparantaka)
and adds that Aparantaka is the same as Sunaparanta in Burma.

that

As a conclusive proof

this

identity he

(the

author of

the

the story of the Sakka (Sanskrit ^akra)


Mandhata had brought with him to the ^evaloka an

Sasanala/'kara) gives

Mandhata

of

inhabitant from each of three of the four great islands or continents

(mahadipa) these three unfortunate men being unable, for a very


simple reason (they did not know the way, and the Sakka
;

was dead),

to

back

go

to

their

homes,

approached

the

parinayakafatana, vis., the Sakka's eldest son, who assigned to


each of them a country corresponding, by its position at least, to
the one he had

Videha, being to the East, would, in future, be


the country of the inhabitant of Puhbavideha, tlie Eastern island ;
Kuru, in the North, would become that of the citizen of the
left

Northern Island, Uttarakuru


nadipa, the

Western

Island,

and the inhabitant

of

would have

Aparagoya-

for his country Aparanta,


Sasanalawkara here, adds " and as

The
West-country.
the son (suna) of Sakka assigned to him this country to
5

the

future,

also called Sunaparanta, " the

live in in

West Country of

See Inscriptions collected by King Boda-wpaya, Vol,

( I)

ibid,

Aparanta

is

page

page 221 :"


SoK-svap,

I, page 19, line 12;


other places.
Cf. Voharalinaif^Aadipani,
Sunaparanta, which includes: Taku, Calan, Bo-la, Lfi-k8,

43, line 5,

etc.

and

in

many

Tampadipa, which

includes

Sarekhettara, Pagan, Paw-ya,

etc."
(^)

(3)

Rangoon, 1897, page 22.


Chapter VIII ; also Mahdvawsa, Chapter XII.

The author

of the

tions, says that this story

Sdsandlankdra, generally so accurate in his quotafound in the commentary on the Mahdsatipalthd-

is

nasutta {Dtghanikdya, Mahdvagga, IX) ; it


mentary on the Mahanidanasuita {ibid., II).
(')

Mahaniddnasuttaiihakathd.

is

not so

the story

is in

the conv-

Sakka's son

Such

(!)

is,

shows

it

is then,
incontestably, in
the often recurring etymoloijy given
but the text is most flagrantly violated,

in fact,

by the Burmese to this word


for

Sunaparanta or Aparanta

"

Burma

14

Commentators place Aparanta, alias


the West and not to the East, as the Burmese

clearly that the

Sunaparanta, to

any cost have it.


From what has above been said

will at

may be gathered [a) That


the Burmese, before the eleventh century and the beginning of the
twelfth, do not seem to have known the bank of the Irrawaddy, behind and above Pagan, under the name of Aparanta or Sunaparanta.
was included

itself

Pagan

inscriptions of that period

in

it

the province of Tampadipa.^

do not mention

this

name

The

(at least, as

have been able to verify this assertion by means of the inscriptions already published), and it is remarkable that the Maharafar as

javan

in

the

Img

notice consecrated to Anorata, does not introduce

does the Paganrdfavnn ^ which places Saku,


L^kow, Sowsvap, etc. (towns alwavs enumerated as being in Suna-

this name, as also

paranta) in Purantappa, a
to be the original

name

name which

is

now

of the province later

forgotten and appears

known

as

Sunapa-

ranta.

That the form "Sonaparanta"

is not known
in Burma,
though always given by Yule, the form Sunaparanta being always
found in the inscriptions and in documents; no Burmese authority

{b)

anywhere gives

to this

word the meaning

of

the Aurea Regio

of Ptolemy, and, if the ancients knew this part of Burma


undei this appellation, it seems to have been unknown
by the
Burmese themselves, who, after having borrowed it, under another

form, from the Pali A/Makathas, do not understand

"golden

it

as meaninp-

frontier."

(c) In the A/Makathas, Aparanta or Sunaparanta does not designate Central Burma, but a country situated to the West on the
of the river
sea-shore, possessing a famous seaport at the

estuary

^Jammada

(Narmada,

Nerbudda).

identified with the

Konkan

page

13, note i.

(> )

Cf, supra,

Now,

Aparanta

has

been

Surpakara, the great trading centre

The Paganrdjavan uses the word " Sunaparanta " in the


history of the
Tcignof King Sen Lan Kro ; but the Pa^a^ra/aT/an was compiled
many
centuries after the fall of Pagan, and at a time when this name was
popular
and known to everybody it must, therefore, not be inferred from this that
the name already existed in the time of Sen Lan Kro
(2

15

with Supara and the Narmada with the


Nerbudda moreover, the Commentary on the Dighanikaya locates
Aparanta, most expressly to the west.
The Burmese, then, have renamed, from a Pali legend, a province,
a torrent and a small town of the Valley of the Irrawaddy and, to

Western

of

India,

themselves in doing so, have deliberately voilated two texts


which are most explicit and plain.

justify

EXTRACT FROM THEPLW/VOVADASUTTATT^AKATHA.


Text.(i)
" Atha kho
ayasma Puwwo'ti..."

Ko

pan'esa Pu/?o?

Kasma ca

'

eva esa,
Sunaparantavasiko
5avatthiyaw pana asappayaw viharaw sallakkhetva, tattha gantu-

gantukamo

pan'ettha

kamo

ahosi.

ahositi

atraya; anupubbikatha.
Sunaparantara^ h& kira ekasmiw vawijagame ete dve bhataro
tesu kadaci je'^^o pacasaka/asatani gahetva janapadaw gantva
Tjhawfl^aw aharati, kadaci kani/Mo.
Imasmi/w pana samav e kani/']

th^Lin

/^apelva je^Mabhatiko pawcasaka/asatani gahetva,


janauadacarikaw caranto anupubbena Savatthiw patva J^tnvanassa
ghar^'

natidure saka^asatthaw nivasetva, bhuttapataraso parij inapar vuto


^
Tena ca samayena Savatthivasino bhutnisJdi.
phasuka^^Afane

tapatarasa uposathawgani adhi/Maya suddhuttarasa;7ga gandhapup*


dihattha yena Buddho yena DhammoyenaSa^gho tanninna

pha

^
tappowa tappabbhara hutva, dakkhi wadvarena nikkhamitva Jet"
avanaw gacchanti So te disva kahaw ^ ime gacchantiti" ekaw

manussaw

"

Kin tvaw ayyo na janasi loke Buddhadhammasa^gharatanani nama uppannani iccLSO mahajano Sattliu santika; dhammakathaw sotuw
Tassa Buddho'ti
gacchaiiti."
^

pucchi.

vacanaw chavicammadini chinditva a^^/nminja^w ahacca a/Masi.


Attano
(

*) I

very

parijanaparivuto

had

tions

'"

saddhiw

parisaya

taya

viharaw

the text, two manuscripts. The first, 5,


the Bernard Free Library, Rangoon; the text is full of correc-

my disposal, to establish

at

defective,

is

in

and mistakes

the second, A,

much more correct, was lent

to

me by

the

abbot of the Mezali monastery, Rangoon; it is written very legibly and contains
but few mistakes. 1, therefore, took it as a basis, merely noting the principal

A third manuscript was sent to me when

mistakes of B.

but

it is still

mistakes

more defective than B,

of

which

did not, on that account, think

moreover, to have been copied from B,

()5puppa..
ratananaw.

it

(5)

(9)

/I

{^)

it

reproduces the majority of the


necessary to use it; it appears,

A Sunaparantare. (3)5 basuka

dakkhaa.... () 5kataw.

parivato.

l')

the work was finished ;

(7)

5manussa.

parijanaparivutaya parisaya.

(8) ^...

>6

dhammaw

th\to

pariyante

dhammaw

madhurasarena

Sattliu

gantva

sutva

'

desentassa
*

pabbajjaya

parisa^

cittaw
^

uppadesi. Atha Tathagatena kalam viditva parisaya


uyyojitaya Satthara; upasa^^kamitva vanditva svatanaya nimantetva,
dutiyadivase mafl?apaw karetva asanani pannapttva Buddhapamu-

mahadanaw

khassa sa^zghassa
7

datva, bhuttapataraso upcsathawgani


"
Ettakaw dhanaw ^
bhaw^agarikaw pakkosapetva
"
'
ettakam na
sabba; acikkhitva, "imam
vissajjitan ti
:

adhi/^/^aya

vissajjitaw,

sapateyyaw mayhas

'

thu santike pabbajitva

"

"

sabba/ niyyadetva, Satkamma^/i^anaparayano ahosi. Ath'assa

kani/'//^assa dehiti

kamma^/Aanaw manasikarontassakamma^Manaw naupa^Mati


"

cintesi

Satthu

kamma^^Aanaw

santike

's

pa/isallaa

kamma/Manam
Tena vuttaw
Kattha

galietva

Atha pubba^hasamaye

ti."

cheyyan
'*

Aya.m janapado inayha;^ asappayo

vu/Mahitva

kathapetva
"

'^

Bhagavantaw

sattaslhanade

vihasiti ?

panayaw

rsLntaraff ham tava pavisitva ca

'''

tato

gac-

sayawhe

upasawkamitva

naditva

pa

Catusu /Aanesu

yannunahaw/

sak?rattha.m (va

pvtdays. caritva

Atha kho ayasmu Punno

'^

pakkami.

viharatiti. '^"

vihasi.

Sunapa-

Appahatapabbata/;/ nama pavisitva


Atha nam kaniifMabhata sanjanitva

Vawijagamaw piw^aya pavisi.


bhikkhaw datva: " Bhante, annatthaagantva idh'tva
Tpafinnam karetva tatth'eva vasapesi.

'^

vasathati

"

Tato Samuddagirivihara/

namaagamasi; tatthaayakantapasawehi paricchindiivakatacawkamo


ca?ikamituw samattho nama n'althi tattha samud^
"
mahasaddaw

atthi; tatn koci

Thero

karonti.

hotuti

"

assa

"

Kamma/Manaw manasikarontanaw phasuviharo

tato

Tato Matulagiri2

tattha pi sakuasa;/gho ussanno "

eko bandho " va ahosi

ca saddo
ti

"
:

ayakantapasa;?esu paharitva

samudda^/i nisaddaw katva adhi^/^asi.

nama agamasi
kan

agantva

daviciyo

Paku/a

'^

ratlin

ca diva

"Idaw ihanam na phasu


karamaviharaw nama gate so Vawijagam-

natiduro naccasanno

thero

gamanagamanasampanno

vivitto

appa-

B dhamma. {') B desentassaw. {^) B dhamma. i^) A and B pappaj...


5 pariyaya. (7) 5. thagani. (8) A hat pana and
and 5 citta.
omits dhanam.
(9) B has paiia before na. (') A omits mayhaw. (") -5
^) A appayo. ('8) ^ pubbanasamaye. (') ^ Sayanhe. {}^)A...
pappaj
sallana. ('*) B Satthusihananaditva. ('7) see text of the Sannultanikaya,
{')

<5

/I

Sa/ayatana, Puwrtovadasutta ed. Feer, Volume IV, page 63. ('") B icceva.
(') A viciyo;
^..gijaciyo. (^) A agartva. () B usjano. ( bhan to,:
('3)

B Paku//za

(?)

17

"

saddo; thero:

Imaw Mana phasukan

tattha ratti^Manadiva-

vasaw upagacchi.

karetva

Manacawkamanadlni

"
ti

Evaw

catusu

ihanesu vihasi.
"

Ath'ekadivasaw tasmiw yeva antovasse pancavaijakasatani ^t


"
gacchamati
navaya hhanidRm pakkhipi?su,

Parasamudda;

Navarohanadivase therassa kani/Mabhata theraw bhojetva therassa


"
santike sikkhapadani gahetva vanditva:
Bhante,

"

'

anekantarayo avajjeyyathati

asaddheyo

samuddo nama

vatva navaw

aruhi.

gacchamana annataraw dipakaw papuwi ;


"
karissamati
Patarasaw
manussa
dipake uttia. Tasmiwj
pana dipake afinaw kinci n'atthi, candanavana/w eva ahosi.

Nava uttamajavena
"

Ath'eko vasiya rukkhaw ako^etva lohitacandanabhavazw natva aha:


''
Bho mayaw labhatthaya parasamuddaw gacchama, ito ca
!

nama

uttariw labho

saw

"

gha/essama

gha^ika satasahas-

" Imehi amhakaw;


candanavanaw nasitaw

amanussa kujjhitva:
'

caturawgulamatta

haretabbayuttakaw bha^aw haretva candanassa


Te tatha kariwsu. Candanavane adhivatttha *

agghati,

puremati.

n'atthi,

ne *ti" cintetva, "idh'eva gha^itesu sabba/wekaku^ "

bhavissati

samuddamajjhe nesawnavawosldapessamati
Atha tesaw navaw aruyha muhuttaw gatakale yeva
^
u/Mapetva sayavz pi te amanussa bhayanakani
uppa/fika^;^

wapam

aha/wsu.

Bhita manussa attano attano devatanaw


rupani dassayi;su.
Therassa kani^Mo
ku/umbiko '" :
namassanti.
Culapuo
"
Mayhaw bhata avassayo hotuti therassa namaw saramano a^Masi.

Thero
fiatva

kiratasmi/yevakhae avajjitva" tesa byasanappatiza


vehasaw/ uppatitva abhimukho a.fthsis\, Amanussa theraw

disva

pi

va apakkamiwsu
"

",

uppa^ikaw

sannisldi.

Thero

te

"
:

Ma

"

" kaha:

assasetva,
gantukam'atthati
pucchi.
'3"
"Thero
Bhante, amhakaw sakaZ/^anaw eva gacchissamati.
" " Etesaw icchita^Manaw
navagae akkamitva :
gacchatuti"
adhi/Masi. Vawija saka^/^anaw gantva taw pavattiw puttadarassa

bhayathati
"

arocetva

"Etha,

theraw sarawam

gacchamati" pancasata

pi

attano pancahi matugamasatehi saddhiw tisu saraesu pati//^aya


Tato navaya hha.ndaim otaretva
pa^ivedesuw.
upasakattaw

therass'ekaw

i^)B

ko^Masaw

pawija...

(')

^^

"

katva:

asaddvejo...

(3)

Aya.m,

bhante, tumhaka/w

utta pajagavana

(!).

(4)

C) Aghates... {) Aand B
osldissamati.
()yl uppadik... (")^ ku^umpiko. (") B bhav... (") B pakk...
attametva.
(^6) B katthakam.
(**) B navagawe
(*3) A gacchamati.
caturagula,

(*)

purethati.

{^)

..

vztto.

tiwren^^

^r%^'

"8

ko/Maso ti"

Thcro:

aha'77?u.

'

y'lsam koffMsa.k\tca.m

Mayhaw

Saltha pana tumhehi di//^apubbo'ti ?"


Na di^/Aapubbo,
*'
Tena
imina
bhante'ti."
Satthu maw</alama/aw karotha^
hi,
fi'atthi

Te "Sadhu,

Sattharaw passissathati."

evsim

'"

bhante'ti"

tena

ca ko^/^asena attano ca ko^/-^asehi ma^alainalaw ksiretum arabhi w-

Sattha

su.

kira araddhakalato

pa^Maya paribhogaw akasi.


" Mahesakkha devata
Arakkhamanussa rattiw obhasaw disva
pi

atthiti

"

'

sannawi

kariwsu.

Upasaka m^nda.lama\a.n ca bhikkhu" Kadanasambharazw

saghassa caasanani ni//Mpetva


sajjetva:
"
tam, bhante, amhehi attano kiccaw, Sattharawz pakkosathati
therassa arocesuw. Thero sayawhasamaye iddhiya Savatthiw
"

gantva:

Bhante, Vanijagamavasino tumhe da/Mukama, tesaz


"

anukampaw karothati Bhagavantawz yaci. Bhagava adliivasesi


thero saka/Manaw eva paccagato.
Bhagava pi Anandathera'
;

''

amantesi:

vana

sve

Sunaparante Va^zijagame piwaTaya


t\a.m ekQnapa^zcasatanam bhikkhuna/w salakam dehiti."
"
Sadhu, bhante'ti bhikkhusawghassa taz atthaw arocet"
va : "carikabhikkha salakaw gahantuti
aha. Tarn

carissama
Thero "
^

Ananda,

divasaw Kud?odhanathero

"Sve

jagamavasino pi:
ma.ndaTpa.m katva

paMamam
kira

danaggaw

salakaw aggahesi.

Sattha agamissati

sajjayiwsu.

Vai-

"

gamamajjhe
Bhagava pato va sarira-

katva

gandhaku/iw pavisitva phalasamapattiw


* unham
Sakkassa
ahosi.
paw^ukambalasilasana/w
appetva
" K'lm idan ti "
So:
avajjetva Satthu Sunaparantagamanawz disva
pa^ijagganawz

nisidi.

Visukammaw amantesi:

"Tata,

ajja

vojanasatani pi(^acarika? gamissati

Bhagava

tiwsaniattani

pancaku/agarasatani mapetva Jetavanadvarako/Makamatthake gamanasajjani katva ^hapehl


ti." s So tatha akasi.
Bhagavato ku^agaraw catumukhaw/ ahosi,
;

dvinnaw aggasavakana dvimukhani, sesani ekamukhani.

Sattha

gandhaku^ito nikkhamma

pa^ipa^iya thapitaku/agaresu varaku/adve


adi/ katva ekunapancabhikkhusaaggasavake
garam
"
tani pi panca
ku^agarasatani ahesuw, eka.m tucchazw ku/agaraw
ahosi pancaku/agarasatani akase uppatiwsu. Sattha Saccapavisi

bandhapabbataTW nama patva ku/agarai akase /hapesi. Tasmiwi


pabbate Saccabandho nama micchadi/Z^ikatapaSo mahajanaw?
.

micchadi^Mim uggawhapento labhaggayasaggapatto hutva


Abbhantare
()
(4)

Annam.
...B

c'

assa antoca^iyaw

{')

se.

{^)

padlpo

v*'

arahattaphalassa

arocetva navatarikabhikkhu...

silasanaJM.

(s) B. thapetiti.

viya

The two Mss. omi tpanca.

vasati.

gahantuti.

J9

upanissayo
tl

"

Taw

jalati.

gantva dhammawz

"

disva

Dhammaw

assa

kathpssaml-

tapaso dcsanapariyosane arahatabhinna


agata, ehibhikkhu hutva
papuwi, maggcn'ev'assa

fcaw

desesi

iddhimayapattacivaradharo ku/agaraw pavisi. Bhagava ku^agaragatehi pancahi bhikkhusatehi saddhiw Vawijagamafw gantva
katva Vawijagamaw pavisi, Vaija
mahadanaw datva Sattharaw?
sa^^ghassa

ku/agarani adissamanakani

Buddhapamukhassa
Maku/akaramaw nayiwsu Sattha ma^alamala pavisi. Maha"
Yava Sattha ^ gattadarathaw pa/ippassambhetiti * "
jano
patarasaw gantva uposathawgani samadaya bahuw gandhan ca
;

pupphan ca adaya dhammasavanatthaya aramaw agamasi Sattha


mahantaw
desesi, mahajanassa bandhana mokkho jato
^
ahosi. Sattha mahajanassa sawgahattha;;; *
Buddhakolahalaw
sattahaw tatth'eva vasi aruwaw pana mahagandhaku^iya; u//ha;

dhammaw

Sattahaw pi dhammadesanapariyosane caturasitiya pawasahassanaw dhammabhisamayo ahosi. Tattha sattaha/;/ ^ vasitva


"
" T\a.m idh'eva
vasahiti
PuaVawijagame piw^aya caritva
pesi.

thera/w nivattetva, antare

Nammadanadi
^

nama

atthi, tassa tira;;e

Satthu

Nammadanagaraja
paccuggamanaw katva
nagabhavanaw pavesetva iinna.m ratananaw sakkaraw? akasi.
Sattha tassa dhamma^w kathetva nagabhavana nikkhami ^
so:

agamasi.

"

Mayhaw,

bhante,

dethati

paricaritabba;;z

Nammadanaditlre padacetiyaw dassesi


^^

yati

etesaw

taw

apayamagge

mahajaro
laddhiw

^^

visajjapetva

Bhagava

yaci.

viclsu agatasu pidhi

gatasu vivariyati mahasakkarappattawt ahosi.

nikkhamitva Saccabandhapabbataw

"Taya

"

Sattha lato

gantva Saccabandhaw aha:

otarito

tvaw idh'eva vasitva

^^,

nibbanamagge

Sattha ghana

pati/^hapehlti."

^*

pi^/hipasawe allamatSo'pi paricaritabba^/z yaci.


^^
'^ lanchanaw
tika
Tato
viya padacetiyaw dassessi.
piwdfimhi
"
Ten'evantaravasJetavanaw eva gato. Etaw atthaw sandhaya ;
sen'adi

" ^^
vuttaz.

(Parinibbayiti anupadhisesaya nibbanadhatuya parinibbayi) i3. Mahajarto therassa sattadivasani sarlrapQjaw katva bahuni gandhaka/^hani lamodhanetva sarira; jhapetva

dhatuyo adaya cetiyaw akasi.


(^)
( 6)

5 dhommassa.

5...kola alam.

nanadl
(12)

i4

{^)
otarito.

(*)
(8)

omits dhamma.m.

5sagah...

Nammadananagaraja.
(13)

laddhaw.

1^^)

(3)5satta. (*)^ pa^ipas...


(8)

5 Nammada-

B Nnikkhamaw.

(11)5 viyati,

(7) 5satth'aha;.

(W)

A ghanap

..

piwiamhi.
(17) See the text of the Pu;Jovadasutta, he. laud,
commentary on the sutta.

(i^) 5... patti.

(l*)

{^^)

B...

This belongs to the

I 20

TRANSLATION.
"

Ai that time,^ are we told, the reverend Funxxa ....


who
was this Pua? and why was he desirous to go there?
But

He was

*'

a native of Sunaparanta and perceiving that the sojourn

was not suitable ^ to him, he wished to go back to


Here is the regular story.
his country.
In a certain merchants' village * in the kingdom of SunapaSometimes the elder,
ranta there lived these two brothers. ^

of Savatthi

hundred

five

taking

carts,

would go to the districts and


the younger one would go.

biiiftg

at
other times
Now
goods
on this occasion, the elder brother left the younger one at home,
took five hundred carts and went from district to district so that
;

time he reached Savatthi, and

in

made

his

caravan encamp not

from the Jetavana. Then having breakfasted, he sat down, surrounded by his retinue, in an agreeable spot. At this moment, the

far

morning meal, having resolved to


observe the Uposatha precepts were leaving the town by the
southern gate and going to the Jetavana clad all in white, carrycitizens of Savatthi, after their

ing perfumes, flowers and so forth, attracted by an invincible


inclination towards the Buddha, the Doctrine and the assembly of

"Whither are

saw them,

Pu;/a

Brethren.

the

"

these going?"

What

and asked
!

one

of

Sir, dost not thou

them

know that

the Three Jewels the Buddha, the Doctrine, and the Assembly of
the Brethen have appeared in the world ? These people are going

to the
"

dha

Buddha
thrilled

him preach the Law." The word "BudSurrounded by his retinue he repaired to

to hear

him.

the monastery with the congregation and standing behind them,


listened to the master preaching the doctrine ni a sweet voice ;

having heard the doctrine he conceived a desire for the religious


life.
When the Tathagata, knowing the moment was come, had
sent back the assembly,

Pua approached

(i) In the Sannyutta-nikaya


(2

That

is,

{pf.

the master

ed. Feer, Vol. IV,

page

and having

60).

to Sunaparanta.

For the exercise

Kamma^^/zana, or religious meditation.


(*) Vaijagama, might also be translated as a proper noun Hardy, Man*
"
ual of Buddhism, page 260, translates this word by the merchant's village."
(3)

of

(^)

That

is,

Mahapua, the

elder

and the hero

brother Cu/apua cf. page i.


"
pierced his skin and penetrated to the
(6 ) Lit.,

of the story,

marrow

and

of his bones/'

his

21

>

saluted him, invited him for the morrow.

On

the next day, he

had a pavilion built wherein he prepared seats, and gave great


then, himself
offerings to the clergy with Buddha at their head
;

morning meal, bound himself

having finished his

He then called his treasurer


eight precepts.
has
not been," and he gave
much
so
spent,

"

"Give

this

to

observe the

So much

has been

him the account

everything
msde over everything to him,
nation at the master's hands and lost himself in meditation.
;

of

"

and he
my younger brother
after which, he received ordi-

property to

But

although he devoted himself to it, he did not succeed : then, he


"
what if I were to
thought, This country is not favourable to me
;

ask for a subject for meditation from the iVIaster and go back to my
country ?" He made his morning tour for food, and, in the evenrising from

ing,

his seclusion,

having made him

approached the Blessed One and

formula for meditation, uttered seven


" At
It is
it is said

recite a

and departed.

joyful exclamations

why
Punna .... dwelt." But where did he
He first entered the kingdom of
four places.
:

that tt7ne the reverend


dwell

He

dwelt

in

Sunaparanta, went

to the Appahata mountain, and entered into the


merchants* village (Va;/ijagama) for his food. His brother recog-

nized him, fed him and told bm

"

Reverend, do not go anywheie


and
but
dwell
even
here,"
having made him promise to do so,
else,
he put him up in that place. Thence, he went to the Samuddagiri
:

where there was a cloistered walk


but nobody could walk therein (to
marked out by lodestones
the
for
billows, breaking on those stones, made a gre?t
meditate),
(the ocean mountain) monastery,
^

The thera

noise.

said

"

"

Let this be a pleasant spot for those


and, by the power of his resolution, he

given up to meditation
made the ocean quiet. Thence he repaired to the Matula mountain but there, too, were flocks of birds, making a perpetual noise,
;

''
This spot is not suitable," and
night and day the thera thought
he went to the monastery of Paku/aka. This monastery was
;

neither far from nor near the merchants' village;

it

was

in

a retired

and communications were easy. The thera, think"This


is a suitable place," had built therein for himself a
ing:
cell for the night and one for the day, a covered
walk, etc., and

spot, quiet,

1
(

names

Cf.

of

Hardy, Manual of Buddhism, page 260


Mudugiri, Mailigiri and Muluarama.

to these places he gives ihe

22

dwelt there.

Thus he

lived in four places.

Then, one day,

in"

that very period of vassa, five hundred traders, intending to cross


On the day of embarking the
the ocean, loaded a ship with goods.

thera! s younger brother, having fed the latter and received from'
him the precepts, ^ saluted him " The ocean, your reverence, is
not to be trusted; it is full of dangers; you should think (of us)."
:

Having thus spoken he went on board. The ship, going with great
" Let us
prepare breakfast," said
speed, came to a certain island
:

men and they disembarded on

the

Now, on that island,

the island.

there was nothing but a forest of sandal

one of the traders, having^

struck a tree with an axe and perceiving it was red sandal, said :
" Friends w^e cross the seas for the sake of
now, there is no
gain
^ is
four
inches
from
a
bit
worth one
then
about
this,
greater gain
!

hundred thousand

and

us

let

make

Let us get rid of all the goods w^e can


cargo of sandalwood." So they did. The-

(coins).

full

" Our
sandal
inhabiting the sandal forest were enraged
forest has been destroyed by these people, let us kill them !"
said
?

goblins

" If
we kill them here, the whole island
they; but they reflected
let us sink their vessel in mid-ocean."
will become a charnel house
:

The

caused a storm to

rise

Terrified, the

shapes.

The

few moment?, the goblins


and shewed themselves to them under fearful

traders re-embarked; but after a

thera' s brother,

men worshipped each

Cu/apua

his tutelary
deity.
the householder, thought
"Let
:

refuge!" and he mentally invoked the thera's


name. At this very moment, the thera, thinking (of the merhe rose into the sky
chants) perceived they were near their ruin
and stood before them. The goblins seeing him, fled. " Do not

my

brother be

my

fear," said the thera to the traders,

and having comforted them,

(^) The whole story, from beginning to end, occupies but one season of vassa
or " rainy season."
Mahapuwwa was looking out for a suitable spot, wherein ta
in
the
lenten
season, as is practised even now-a-da3S, and requiet,
spend,
tired at last near

(2)

It

Vaijagama

(the

Le-k6 coOOdSSs

of the

must be understood that he promises the Thera

Burmese!.

to observe the five

sila, which are binding on all good Buddhists.


(3) Burnouf, Introduction (page 258 or 230), speaks of a Tibetan measure
called pJio ; the Burmese have also a weight, now become obsdete, called po

moral precepts or

and equal

to five ticals

it is

tarajataha.

(*) a-manussa = non-men.

mentioned

in the

Burmese version

of the

Vessan-

23

he enquired whither they desired to go


rend Sir, we wish to go to our country."

and formed the mental resolution


desire

''

"
Revethey answered
The thera came on deck
:

Let this ship go where they

The merchants, having gone back to


"Come," said

!"

these events to their families:

our refuge in the thera^

"

and the

their country, told


they, ''let us take

hundred merchants, with

five

hundred wives, having been established in the Three


announced they were (now) lay disciples. They then
Refuges,
unloaded the vessel, and off^^-red one share (of the sandal cargo) tO'
their five

the thera^ saying, "


"

Reverend Sir, here is your share." But he


have
But, have yoa
answered,
personally no need of a share.
" "
ever seen the Master ?
No, Reverend Sir, we have never seen
I

him."

with this share build a pavilion, ^ and


''
see the Master."
Very well, Reverend," said they,

"Very

well, then,

you will
and with his share and
thus,

It is

said that,

theirs they

began building the pavilion^


from the time they began to build, the Master took
The watchmen, seeing in the night a light,
it.

possession of
thought that a powerful god lived there. The lay disciples having
finished the building, arranged seats for the clergy and prepared
the things intended as offerings, apprized the thera that their task

was over and

that he should invite the Master.

ning, the thera{^) went to Savatthi by

means

Early in the morof

his

superhuman
of
One:
the
Blessed
the
and
inhabitants
of
Lord,
begged
power
to
see
do
are
desirous
them
this
favour."
The
you
Vaijagama
''

Blessed One consented, and the thera came back, and the Blessed
One called the thera Ananda: "Ananda,'^ said he, "to-morrow,
we shall go to Vawijagama in Sunaparanta, for our food, give out
The thera said " Even so, Lord " and,
tickets to 499 monks."
:

having told that matter to the assembled monks, he invited those


that had to come to take their ticket.
On that day, the thera

Kuw^odhana took out

the

first ticket.

The

inhabitants of Va;?i-

jagama, knowing the Master would come on the morrow, built a


(1) That
(2)

(3)

"
is,

Let us become Buddhists and the Thera 's disciples."

The Buddha, his Doctrine and the Order.


The 5a/on says": a monastery. It is supposed

still

to exist

under the

name of Na-sa-kro ^OODCOqjDSj ), "the sandal monastery."


() Hardy, Manual of Buddhism, page 2og, translates: "the priest Suna(

parar.ta," instead of: "the priest of


(6)

Mere

allusion to an incident

Sunaparanta."
which is told in extenso

Burnouf, Introduction (page 260 or 232, note

I), tries

in the

Divydvaddna.

to find the

etymology of

=4

the middle of the village and prepired a hall for the offerThe Blessed One, having finished his ablutions early in the

shed

in

ings.

morning, entered

his

room

meditating deeply on the

(lit.,

the Perfumed Chamber) and sat,

The marble throne

fruition of the Path.

became

of Sakka (Sanskrit (^akra)


cause was, and, seeing the Master

hot-

Sakka considered what the

was about

to

go

to Sunapjiranta,

"

Dear son, to-day,


Visukamma (Sanskrit Vi^vakarman)
of
the Blessed One will go on a begging tour
thirty and one hundred
yojanas : make five iiundred kiosks and place them, ready to go,
on the portico of the Jetavana. Visukamma did so. The kiosk
of the Blessed One had four entrances, those of the two principal
^
had two, and the rest one entrance each. The Master
disciples
he called

left his

room, and, among the kiosks ranged

in

a line, entered the

most magnificent. Counting the two principal disciples, there


were four hundred and ninty-nine monks and five hundred
which one was empty. The five hundred kiosks rose
When the Master arrived at the mountain called
into the sky.
kiosks, of

Saccabandha, he stopped his kiosk


a religious

lived

known

heretic,

in the air.

On

this

as Saccabandha,

mountain

who taught

name Kuwtfopadhana it will be remarked that the pali text calls this
monk simply Kiiwrfodhana. He is also mentioned (Ekawguttara, Etadagga-

the

vaggo) as being one

of the eighty princpal disciples of the Buddha, and the


on
the
Eka'jguttara gives, to explain his name, this amusing
commentary
In
existence he had been a Bhuma-devata and committed
a
previous
story.

certnin faults, the

tence
"

fruits of

which he reaped

the commentary goes on

Bhumadevata

na muccittha

tassa

in his

subsequent states

of

exis-

kammassa nissandena ekaw buddhantaram apayato

sace pana kalenakalawz manussattaw agacchati annenakenaci

Eso amhakaw Bhagavato kale Sava^^Aiyaw*


Dhanamaavo'ti tassa nama?n akawisu. So vayappatto

kato doso tass'eva upari patati.

brahmaakule

nibbatti

tayobede uggawhitva mahaJIakakale Satthu dhammadesanaw sutva pa/'iladdhasaddho pabbajitva tassa upasa^wpannadivasato pa^^Aaya eka alawkatapar'iya^ta. itthi, tasmiwj
gamaw pavisante tena saddhi??i eva gamaw pavisati, nikkhamante nikkhamati, viharam pavisante pi pavisatiti, ti^^/iante pi tiAati. Evaw nic-

canubandha paiiuayati.
assa nissandena

Thero taw pana passati, tassa pana purimassa kamm-

upaz!('/zitva (?)

game yagubhikkhawdadamana

'

itthiyo

Bh-

ayam eko yagu u/u;zko tumhakawz, eko imissa amhakaw sahayikaya'ti '
parihasaw karonti. Therassa mahati vihesa hoti ; viharagataw pi samaera

ante,

c'eva harabhikkhu ca parivaretvS : ' Dhano konio jato'ti '


parihasam karonti.
Ath' assa ten 'eva karawena kow^fodhanathero'ti namaw
jataw."
1
(

Moggallana and Sariputta.

^5

he enjoyed the best offerings


but in his heart, like a lamp hidden in

heretical doctrines to the people

and the greatest honours

;)

a vase, shone
predestination to sanctity. Seeing this (the
Buddha thought): "I will expound the Doctrine to him" and
The monk, at the end of this
going, preached a sermon to him.
^
in the way,
obtained the
religious instruction, became a saint, and
six supernaturalfaculties, and then, having became a monk accordhis

^ "
Ehi bikkhu," he suddenly found himself
ing to the formula,
the miracarrying an alms-bowl and wearing robes created by

culous

power

of the

Buddha

and he entered

into the kiosk.

Then, the Blessed One with the five hundred monks in their kiosks,
went towards the merchants' village (Vaijagama), and having

made the

The

kiosks invisible, entered the village.


to

having given great offerings


head, took the Master to

their

merchants,

the clergy with the Buddha at


the
Makuia Monastery, and
"

Meanthe Master entered into the pavilion. The people said


his
from
the
Master rest himself
while, let
bodily fatigue," and
:

they went to their breakfast; then, they took upon themselves the
performance of the precepts and, loaded with perfumes and flowers,

went

to the

monastery to listen to the Law. The Master exand the people were freed from their bonds

his Doctrine,

pounded
and there was a great uproar caused by the Buddha's presence.
The master dwelt there for a week, for the people's spiritual
*'
Perfumed Chamber " * till the break of
benefit, sitting up in the
day. At the close of these seven days' preaching, 84,000 persons
;

attained to the understanding of the Law.


Having (then) dwelt
there for a week, he entered Vawijagama on his begging tour, and,

On
assigning it to the Thera Pua for his residence, left him.
the way there was a river called Nammada he went to the bank
;

thereof.

The king

of the

Nammada Nagas came

forth to

meet the

master, took him into the Naga-mansion and did honour to the
Three Jewels- The Master unfolded to him the Doctrine and left
his abode,

and the Naga king begged

of

him

"
;

Lord, give

me

) That is, while he was advancing towards the Buddha.


"
(2)
Ehi,bhikkhu! Come, O mendicant !" This was the usual formula
with which the Buddha received in his Order, the persons desirous of
leading
the religious life.

(3) The kiosk which had been kept empty.


(*) Thus was called his private room

Consul of the United Slates

ofAuwnca

26

^
The Blessed One impressed *
something that I may honour."
and left as a relic the mark of his foot on the bank of the river

This imprint was covered by the waves at the time of


and
uncovered when the water subsided, and it washigh water,
The Master left this spot, went to the Saccabangreatly venerated.

Nammada.

"
dha mountain and said to Saccabandha
Through thee, the people
have entered on the way to perdition stay here, make them reject
these false notions and establish them in the way to Nirvana." He,
:

too, asked of the Master something which he might revere. The


Master imprinted the mark of his foot on the solid, flat rock as
Thence, he
easily as he would have done on a lump of wet clay.
went back to the Jetavana.
It is in

connection with this matter that

it

is

said

"
:

In this

^
very season of Lent {Punna) .... attained to parinirvaa."
(By these words, it must be understood that he reached that state

wherein no traces remain of the components


(1)

To

(2)

Lit.,

wit

of corporeal

and

relic.

shewed.

(3) Vide text of the Smnytttta-mkdya already mentioned.


The two sacred foot-prints always were for the people and the kings in the
course of long centuries, a great object of veneration, up to the reign of Cacktn

Su Kyo Tan

in his time, fervour and


(
OOC^sO^CX)Gcq)5cX)6 ).
have greatly diminished ; for, from this reign, the Shwe-zetia7V (sacred foot-print) was abandoned by degrees, and then completely
be aware of the
forgotten, so that in 1590 A.D., no one in Burma seemed to

Cl

piety seem

to

existence of the sanctified spot, not even the inhabitants of the Minbu District.
This strange neglect is accounted for by the perpetual wars and revoluticns of
this

troubled period.

The

miraculous circumstances,

1648).

foot-prints

were discovered anew, amid quasiSalvan Man Tara,ODDOg$OCoOOCps

in the reign of

On a certain day, the king, hearing the story of Punna, such


PunnovadaUhakatha, which has been given above, ordered informations to be taken about those foot-prints, but nobody could give any. The
place was overgrown with thick vegetation, and no one remembered having
even heard of them. The king asked the help of the famous bishop To Bhila
This bishop is the author of the following works t
( GOOd6c8oOD ).
Vinaydlankdratikd sac, on the Vinaya ; Atthasdlini u gdthd aphvan, a commentary on the first twenty gdthd of the Atihasdlim ; Sdlvan Man Tard ame
(1629

as

it

is in

the

aphyi, answers to king Salvan Man Tara's Questions, and vessantard py6, a
He went, accompanied by four
metrical version of the Vessantarajdtaka.
other bishops and twelve monks, in search of the famous foot-prints.

The

king gave them, it is said, a guard of five thousand men to protect theni
against the Chins {written Khyaw) and the wild Karens (Karaw r6,ODQS?)..
They left Ava in 1638, carried on red palanguins, went down the
boats

Irrawaddy

in

large tree,

and

and landed

in the

at

Minbu.

The

evening recited prayers

four bishops

and

texts

camped under

from the Tipitaka.

27

mental individuality). The people paid great honours to the


remains of the thera during seven days and, having gathered a large
quantity of fragrant wood, they cremated him, took his relics and
erected a shrine {cetiya, Sanskrit caitya) over them.

To

Bhila recited long passages from the Patthana, one of the Abhidhammd
books and retired to sleep very late. At three in the morning, he had a
dream. A man holding a spear in his hand and followed by a great black
"
dog, approached him and said :
My Lord, the forests into which you are
to venture

going

panthers

tigers,

are very extensive and very wild; they swarm wtlh lions,
"
and snakes ; why do ycu come here P
The bishop

We

answered: "We are the disciples of Gotama, the Buddha.


learned
from the commentary on the Sanuyutta-nikaya that the Buddha came to this
region and impressed, at the request of a Ndga and of a hermit, two marks oi

These imprints, long adored by the Burmese people, have been,


wars and revolutions, forgotten and have at last disappeared j at least
nobody knows where they are. We have come to look for them." The man
"
said :
My Lord, follow this black dog wherever he goes," And while he was
still speaking, Ton Bhila awoke, and told his dream to the other bishops.
They
his left foot.
to

owing

took their meal early and entered the forest. And, lo before them appeared
the black dog; he conducted them to the banks of the Ma Kyow, O^gGOlDS
(Nammadanadi), and suddenly disappeared. They crossed the torrent and,
!

on the bank they saw a Hhilu {yakkha) seated on the trunk of a tree, who
asked them whither they were going; and, on hearing their object, he pointed
out to them, with a nod of his head, the hill whereon were the foot-pritits.
All of a sudden, the guardian-spirit of the hill changed himself into a crow,
and, alighting en the very spot where was the sacred relic, attracted, by his
The foot-print on
peculiar cries and cawings, the attention of the bishops.

was soon discovered, and the bishops, the monks and


profound adoration. During the following night,
To Bhila again recited the l^atthana., and the spirits of the hills and woods
came around him and listened respectfully. "Who are youl" asked the
A Nat (spirit) who was sotdpanno (who had entered the First Path)
bishop,
" "
" I am a
said
Hast thou known the Buddha !"
sotapan (sotdpanno) Nat.
"
"
Is my recitation of the Pa^^Mna," asked the
Yes," said the Nat.
the

summit

of the hill

the soldiers were

lost in

Do

pronounce as the Buddha ?" "Ahem!


guess what thou art reciting," answered
the spirit. The pious bishop was incensed; but the Nat soon consoled him
and told him to make the resolution to become a Buddha in times to come; so
did at once To Bhila. He spread his mantle on the
and said ; " If
bishop rather vainly, "good?
One can, with a deal of good

will,

foot-print

it

be true that

shall

become a Buddha,

apparent on my mantle 1"


form of a heron and, when
pressed thereon.
bbdhisatta. They

stream

mese

It is
it

The bishop

the impress of the sacred foot be


said that his mantle rose into the air in the
let

came down
has,

since

again, the divine imprint was imthat time, been considered as a

had then to look for the foot-print left on the bank of thfr
was easy enough, for it sent forth a
bright light. A cetiya (BurGOCO), was erected over each foot-print, which, since that

that

ceti,

time, attracts every year thousands of pilgrims from all parts of


G. B, C. P. O.-No. 360. Secy, 27-11.06-254-R.W.

Burma.