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Chapter 11:

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Contents
C AESAR IIUnder gr ound
Pi
p e Model
e r ----- 2
Usi
ng th e Undergr ound
Pi
p e Model
e r ----- 3
Note son t h e Soi
lModel 9
Recommende d Pr oce dur es12
Ori
gi
na lUnburi
ed Model1 3

CAESAR II Underground Pipe Modeler

CAESAR II - User Guide

CAESAR II Underground Pipe Modeler


The CAESAR II undergroundpipe model
eri
sdesi
gnedtosimpl
i
fyuseri
nputofburied
pi
pe dat
a.Toachi
eve thi
sobject
ive the M odelerperformst
he fol
lowingfuncti
onsfor
users:
Al
lowsthe di
rectinputofsoi
lpropert
ies.The M odelercont
ai
nsthe equat
ionsfor
buri
edpipe st
i
ffnessest
hatare out
li
nedlateri
nt
hi
schapt
er
.These equat
ionsare used
t
ocalculate fi
rstt
he st
iffnessesonaperl
ength ofpi
pe basis,andthengenerat
et
he
rest
raintsthatsimul
at
et
he discrete buriedpi
pe restrai
nt.
Breaksdownstrai
ghtandcurvedl
engthsofpipe tol
ocate soi
lrest
raints.CAESAR II
usesazone concepttobreakdownst
raightandcurvedsect
i
ons.W here transverse
bearingisaconcern(nearbends,t
ees,andent
ry/
exitpoi
nt
s),soilrest
raint
sare l
ocated
i
ncl
ose proxi
mit
yandwhere axiall
oaddomi
nat
es,soi
lrestrai
ntsare spacedfarapart
.
Al
lowsthe di
rectinputofuser-defi
nedsoi
lsti
ffnessesonaperl
engt
h ofpi
pe basis.
Inputparametersi
ncl
ude axi
al
,t
ransverse,upward,anddownwardsti
ffnesses,aswell
asul
ti
mat
el
oads.Userscanspecifyuser-defi
nedst
iffnessesseparat
el
y,orinconjunct
ionwit
h CAESAR IIsaut
omat
icall
ygenerat
edsoi
lsti
ffnesses.

11-2

Buried Pipe Modeling

CAESAR II - User Guide

Using the Underground Pipe Modeler

Using the Underground Pipe Modeler


Users can start the Buried Pipe Modeler by selecting an existing job, and then choosing
Input-Underground from the CAESAR II Main Menu. The Modeler is designed to read
a standard CAESAR II input data file that describes the basic layout of the piping system
as if it was not buried. From this basic input CAESAR II creates a second input data file
that contains the buried pipe model. This second input file typically contains a much larger
number of elements and restraints than the first job. The first job that serves as the pattern is termed the original job. The second file that contains the element mesh refinement
and the buried pipe restraints is termed the buried job. CAESAR II names the buried job
by appending a B to the name of the original job.
Note

The original job must already exist and serves as the pattern for the buried pipe
model building. The modeler removes any restraints in the buried section during
the process of creating the buried model. Any additional restraints can be entered
in the resulting buried model. The buried job, if it exists, is overwritten by the
successful generation of a buried pipe model. It is the buried job that is eventually
run to compute displacements and stresses.

When the Buried Pipe Modeler is initially started up, the following screen appears:

This spreadsheet is used to enter the buried element descriptions for the job. The buried
element description spreadsheet serves several functions:

Buried Pipe Modeling

11-3

Using the Underground Pipe Modeler

CAESAR II - User Guide

allows users to define which part of the piping system is buried.

allows users to define mesh spacing at specific element ends.

allows the input of user-defined soil stiffnesses

Typical buried pipe displacements are considerably different than similar above ground
displacements. Buried pipe deforms laterally in areas immediately adjacent to changes in
directions (i.e. bends and tees). In areas far removed from bends and tees the deformation
is primarily axial. The optimal size of an element (i.e. the distance between a single
FROM and a TO node) is very dependent on which of these deformation patterns is to be
modeled Not having a continuous support model, CAESAR II or the user, must locate
additional point supports along a line to simulate this continuous support. So for a given
stiffness per unit length, either many, closely spaced, low stiffness supports are added or a
few, distant and high stiffness supports are added. Where the deformation is lateral,
smaller elements are needed to properly distribute the forces from the pipe to the soil. The
length over which the pipe deflects laterally is termed the lateral bearing length and can
be calculated by the equation:
75() [4EI/Ktr] 0.25
Lb = 0.
Where:
E = Pipe modulus of elasticity
I = Pipe moment of inertia
Ktr = Transverse soil stiffness on a per length basis, (defined later)
CAESAR II places three elements in the vicinity of this bearing span to properly model
the local load distribution. The bearing span lengths in a piping system are called the Zone
1 lengths. The axial displacement lengths in a piping system are called the Zone 3lengths,
and the intermediate lengths in a piping system are called the Zone 2lengths. Zone 3element lengths (to properly transmit axial loads) are computed by 100*Do, where Do is the
outside diameter of the piping. The Zone 2mesh is comprised of up to 4elements of
increasing length;starting at 1.5times the length of a Zone 1 element at its Zone 1 end,
and progressing in equal increments to the last which is 50*Do long at the Zone 3end. A
typical piping system, and how CAESAR II views this element breakdown or mesh
distribution is illustrated on the following page.

11-4

Buried Pipe Modeling

CAESAR II - User Guide

Using the Underground Pipe Modeler

Zone Definitions

A critical part of the modeling of an underground piping system is the proper definition of
Zone 1 (or lateral) bearing regions. These regions primarily occur:

On either side of a change in direction

For all pipes framing into an intersection

At points where the pipe enters or leaves the soil

CAESAR II automatically puts a Zone 1 mesh gradient at each side of the pipe framing
into an elbow.
Note

Buried Pipe Modeling

It is the users responsibility to tell CAESAR II where the other Zone 1 areas are
located in the piping system.

11-5

Using the Underground Pipe Modeler

CAESAR II - User Guide

The left side of the Buried Element Description Spreadsheet displays below:

Buried Element Description Spreadsheet

There are 13 columns in this spreadsheet The eight not shown above carry the userdefined soil stiffnesses and ultimate loads. The first two columns contain element node
numbers for each piping element included in the original system. The second three columns are discussed in detail below:
Soil Model No.
This column is used to define which of the elements in the model
are buried. A nonzero entry in this column implies that the associated element is buried. A 1 in this column implies that the user wishes to enter user defined stiffnesses,
on a per length of pipe basis, at this point in the model. These stiffnesses must follow
in column numbers 6through 13. Any number greater than 1 in the SOIL MODEL
NO. column points to a CAESAR II soil restraint model generated using the equations outlined later under Soil Models from user entered soil data.
From/To End Mesh Type A check in either of these columns implies that a lateral
loading mesh should be placed at the corresponding element end. For example:
FROM
NODE
5

TO
NODE
10

SOIL
MODEL
2

FROM
MESH

TO
MESH

The element 5 to 10 is buried. CAESAR II will generate the soil stiffnesses from
user-defined soil dataset #2, and the node 5 end will have a fine mesh so that lateral
bearing will be properly modeled.

11-6

Buried Pipe Modeling

CAESAR II - User Guide

Using the Underground Pipe Modeler

Since CAESAR II automatically places lateral bearing meshes adjacent to all buried
elbows, the user must only be concerned with the identification of buried tees and points
of soil entry or exit. The figure below is illustrative:

Lateral Bearing Mesh Definitions

Please note the following:

The user has separated the node numbers in the original piping system by 10s or 20s
instead of the usual 5. This is so that CAESAR II can maintain the normal sequence
of node numbers for the added moves.

From/To Lateral Bearing mesh specifications are not needed for nodes 30, 110 and
130, since CAESAR II places lateral bearing meshes on each side of a bend by
default.

A lateral bearing mesh is not needed at 90 because there is no tendency for the model
to deflect in any direction NOT axial to the pipe.

The tendency for lateral deflection must be defined for each element framing into an
intersection (node 50).

Buried Pipe Modeling

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Using the Underground Pipe Modeler

CAESAR II - User Guide

Commands available in this module are


File-Open

File-OpenOpens a new piping file as the original job.

File-Change Buried Pipe Job NameRenames the buried job (in the
event that the user does not wish to use the CAESAR II default of B
appended to the original job name).

File PrintPrints the element description data spreadsheet.

Soil ModelsAllows the user to specify soil data for CAESAR II to use
in generating one or more soil restraint systems. This is described in detail
below.

Convert InputConverts the original job into the buried job by meshing the existing elements and adding soil restraints. The conversion process creates all of the necessary elements to satisfy the Zone 1, Zone 2,
and Zone 3 requirements, and places restraints on the elements in these
zones accordingly. All elbows are broken down into at least two curved
sections, and very long radius elbows are broken down into segments
whose lengths are not longer than the elements in the immediately adjacent Zone 1 pipe section. Node numbers are generated by adding 1 to
the elements FROM node number. CAESAR II checks before using a
node number to make sure that it will be unique in the model. All densities on buried pipe elements are zeroed, to simulate the continuous support of the pipe weight. A conversion log is also generated, which details
the process in full.

File Print

Soil Models

Convert

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Buried Pipe Modeling

CAESAR II - User Guide

Notes on the Soil Model

Notes on the Soil Model


The following procedures for estimating soil distributed stiffnesses and ultimate loads
should be used only when the analyst does not have better data or methods suited to the
particular site and problem. COADEs soil restraint modeling algorithm is generally based
on the ideas presented by L.C. Peng in his paper entitled Stress Analysis Methods for
Underground Pipelines, published in 1978in Pipeline Industry.
Soil supports are modeled as bi-linear springs having an initial stiffness, an ultimate load,
and a yield stiffness. The yield stiffness is typically set close to zero, i.e. once the ultimate
load on the soil is reached there is no further increase in load even though the displacement may continue. The two basic ultimate loads that must be calculated to analyze buried
pipe are the axial and transverse ultimate loads. (Many researchers differentiate between
horizontal, upward, and downward transverse loads, but when the variance in predicted
soil properties and methods are considered, this differentiation is often not warranted.
Note that CAESAR II allows the explicit entry of these data if so desired.)
Once the axial and lateral ultimate loads are known, the stiffness in these directions can be
determined by dividing the ultimate load by the yield displacement. Researchers have
found that the yield displacement is related to both the buried depth and the pipe diameter.
The ultimate loads and stiffnesses computed are on a force per unit length of pipe basis.
Soil Models

Note

The user enters soil data by executing the Soil Models Command. This option
allows the user to specify the soil properties for the CAESAR II buried pipe
equations.
Valid soil model numbers start with 2. Soil model number 1 is reserved for userdefined soil stiffnesses. Up to 15 different soil models may be entered for a single
job.

Upon entry, the soil modeler dialog appears. Either the friction coefficient or the undrained shear strength may be left blank. Typically for clays the friction coefficient would
be left blank and would be automatically estimated by CAESAR II as Su/600 psf. Both
sandy soils and clay-like soils may be defined here.

Buried Pipe Modeling

11-9

Notes on the Soil Model

CAESAR II - User Guide

The soil restraint equations use these soil properties to generate restraint ultimate loads
and stiffnesses. (The TEMPERATURE CHANGE is optional. If entered the thermal
strain is used to compute and print the theoretical virtual anchor length.)
These equations are:

Axial Ultimate Load (Fax)


Fax = D[(2sH) + (pt) + (f)(D/4) ]
Where:
=

Friction coefficient, typical values are:

.4 for silt
.5 for sand
.6 for gravel
.6 for clay or Su/600
Su = Undrained shear strength
D = Pipe diameter

s =

Soil density

Buried depth to the top of pipe

p =

Pipe density

Pipe nominal wall thickness

Fluid density

Transverse Ultimate Load (Ftr)


Ftr = (0.5)(s )(H+D)2 [tan(45+/2)]2 i OCM

Where:

= Angle of internal friction, typical values are:


27-45 for sand

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Buried Pipe Modeling

CAESAR II - User Guide

Notes on the Soil Model

26-35 for silt


0 for clay
OCM = Overburden Compaction Multiplier
If Su is given (i.e. have a clay-like soil), then Ftr as calculated above is multiplied by
Su/250psf.
Note that since in many cases the stiffer the soil, the more conservative the results, Ftr
is multiplied by the OCM as well. Many experienced pipeline engineers do not wish
to add this "extra conservatism,"and prefer to use values that are more in line with
those that have been used in the past. To do this, the OCM is the parameter that is usually adjusted.
Common practice has been to reduce it (from its default of 8) to values from 5 to 7,
depending on the degree of compaction of the backfill. Backfill efficiency can be
approximated by the Proctor Number, defined in most soils textbooks. (The Proctor
Number is a ratio of unit weights.) The standard practice when the Proctor Number is
known is to multiply the default value 8 by the Proctor Number. This result should
then be used as the compaction multiplier.

Yield Displacement (yd):


yd= Yield Displacement Factor (H+D)

Note

The Yield Displacement Factor defaults to 0.015.

Axial Stiffness (Kax) on a per length of pipe basis:


Kax=Fax / yd

Transverse Stiffness (Ktr) on a per length of pipe basis:


Ktr=Ftr / yd

Once the user clicks OK, the soil data is saved in a file entitled .SOI.

Buried Pipe Modeling

11-11

Recommended Procedures

CAESAR II - User Guide

Recommended Procedures
The recommended procedure for using the buried pipe modeler is outlined below:
1. Select the original job and enter the buried pipe modeler. The original job must
already exist, and will serve as the basis for the new buried pipe model. The original
model should only contain the basic geometry of the piping system to be buried. The
modeler will remove any existing restraints (in the buried portion). Add any underground restraints to the buried model. Rename the buried job if CAESAR II default
name is not appropriate.
2. Enter the soil data using Soil Models.
Soil Models

Convert Input

3. Describe the sections of the piping system that are buried, and define any
required fine mesh areas using the buried element data spreadsheet.
4. Convert the original model into the buried model by the activation of
option Convert Input. This step produces a detailed description of the
conversion.

5. Exit the Buried Pipe Modeler and return to the CAESAR II Main Menu. From here
the user may perform the analysis of the buried pipe job.
A fairly simple buried-pipe example problem is shown in the following section. This
example illustrates the features of the modeler and should in no-way be taken as a guide
for recommended underground piping design.

11-12

Buried Pipe Modeling

CAESAR II - User Guide

Original Unburied Model

Original Unburied Model

The following input listing represents the unburied model shown above.

Terminal nodes 100 and 1900 are above ground. Nodes 1250 and 1650 (on the sloped
runs) mark the soil entry and exit points.
Soil Model Number 2, a sandy soil, is entered.

Buried Pipe Modeling

11-13

Original Unburied Model

CAESAR II - User Guide

Elements 1250-1300 through 1600-1650 are buried using soil model number 2. Zone 1
meshing is indicated at the entry and exit points.

11-14

Buried Pipe Modeling

CAESAR II - User Guide

Original Unburied Model

Clicking Convert starts the conversion to a buried model.

The screen listing can also be printed.

Buried Pipe Modeling

11-15

Original Unburied Model

CAESAR II - User Guide

The original unburied model is shown along with the "buried" model below. Note the
added restraints around the elbows and along the straight runs.

Note the bi-linear restraints added to the buried model. The stiffness used is based upon
the distance to the next node.

11-16

Buried Pipe Modeling

CAESAR II - User Guide

Original Unburied Model

Note that the first buried element, 1250-1251, has no density.

The buried job can now be analyzed.

Buried Pipe Modeling

11-17

Original Unburied Model

11-18

CAESAR II - User Guide

Buried Pipe Modeling