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GRAMTICA INGLESA:

NIVEL B1

MIGUEL GMEZ MARN


E
IRENE GONZLEZ MORANO

Gramtica inglesa: Nivel B1

CONTENIDO
1. Presente simple ............................................................................................................ 3
1.1 El Presente simple con el verbo to be (ser o estar) ............................................. 3
1.2 El Presente simple con el verbo have got (tener) ............................................... 3
1.3 El Presente simple con verbos modales (Ejemplo Can) ...................................... 4
1.4 El presente simple con el resto de verbos .............................................................. 4
1.4.1 Reglas de la 3 persona del singular ................................................................ 4
1.5 Verbo to have (Tener o Poseer) .......................................................................... 5
1.6 Preguntas con partcula interrogativa en presente simple .................................... 5
1.7 Distintas estructuras interrogativas........................................................................ 6
1.7.1 Para preguntar la edad:.................................................................................... 6
1.7.2 Para pedir una cosa, algo: ................................................................................ 6
1.7.3 Para preguntar el precio de algo: ..................................................................... 6
1.8 Adverbios de frecuencia ......................................................................................... 7
2. Presente simple continuo ............................................................................................. 7
2.1 Reglas del gerundio ................................................................................................. 8
2.2 Action and Non-action verbs .................................................................................. 8
2.3 Gerunds and infinitives / Gerundios e infinitivos ................................................... 9
3. Imperativo .................................................................................................................. 10
3. Pasado simple ............................................................................................................. 11
3.1 Pasado simple con verbos regulares .................................................................... 11
3.2 Pasado simple con verbo to be e irregulares .................................................... 12
4. Pasado continuo ......................................................................................................... 15
5. Pasado perfecto .......................................................................................................... 15
6. Present and past habits and states ............................................................................ 16
7. Presente perfecto (present perfect)........................................................................... 17
7.1 Palabras que acompaan al presente perfecto .................................................... 18
7.1.1 Presente Perfecto con For & Since .......................................................... 18
7.1.2 Presente perfecto con Ever ........................................................................ 19
7.1.3 Presente Perfecto con Just ......................................................................... 19
7.1.4 Presente Perfecto con Already & Yet ...................................................... 19
8. Presente perfecto continuo ........................................................................................ 20
9. Futuro ......................................................................................................................... 20

Gramtica Inglesa: Nivel B1

9.1 Futuro simple Will ............................................................................................. 20


9.2 Presente continuo con idea de futuro .................................................................. 21
9.3 Futuro prximo (going to)..................................................................................... 21
10. Verbos modales ........................................................................................................ 21
11. Condicional ............................................................................................................... 23
11.1 Zero conditional .................................................................................................. 23
11.2 First conditional .................................................................................................. 23
11.3 Second conditional.............................................................................................. 23
11.4 Third conditional ................................................................................................. 24
11.5 Mixed conditionals .............................................................................................. 24
12. Otros modos de hacer condiconales ........................................................................ 24
12.1 Condicional con Wish + Sujeto + Pasado simple ............................................ 24
12.2 Condicional con Wish + Sujeto + Pasado perfecto .......................................... 24
12.3 Condicional con Wish + Would + Verbo en infinitivo sin to .............................. 25
12.4 Sustitutivos de If (Unless & As long as) ........................................................... 25
13. Pasiva ........................................................................................................................ 25
14. Estilo indirecto (Reported speech) ........................................................................... 26
14.1 Oraciones interrogativas indirectas (reported questions) ................................. 28
14.2 Otros verbos introductores del estilo indirecto ................................................. 28
15. Adjetivos Comparativos y superlativos .................................................................... 29
16. A / an, the, no artculo .............................................................................................. 31
17. There is / There are (Hay) ......................................................................................... 31
18. Quantifiers ................................................................................................................ 32
18.1 Large quantities .................................................................................................. 32
18.2 Small quantities................................................................................................... 32
18.3 More or less than you need or want .................................................................. 32
18.4 Zero quantity....................................................................................................... 33
19. Relative clauses ........................................................................................................ 33
19.1 Defining relative clauses ..................................................................................... 33
19.2 Non-defining relative clauses ............................................................................. 33
20. Questions tags .......................................................................................................... 34

Gramtica inglesa: Nivel B1

1. PRESENTE SIMPLE
Se utiliza para expresar acciones cotidianas, rutinas, etc.
Los verbos to be (ser), to have got (tener), y modales como can (saber o poder), must
(deber), etc. para negar simplemente aaden not.
Ejemplo:
-

She is not very tall / She isn't very tall


Our friends have not got a big house / Our friends haven't got a big house

Y para preguntar colocan detrs del verbo el sujeto


Ejemplo:
-

Have you got a calculator?


Is John an intelligent boy?
1.1 EL PRESENTE SIMPLE CON EL VERBO TO BE (SER O ESTAR)
AFIRMATIVA
I am
You are
He is
She is
It is
We are
You are
They are

NEGATIVA
I am not / I'm not
You are not / You aren't
He is not / He isn't
She is not / She isn't
It is not / It isn't
We are not / We aren't
You are not / You aren't
They are not / They aren't

INTERROGATIVA
Am I?
Are you?
Is he?
Is she?
Is it?
Are we?
Are you?
Are they?

1.2 EL PRESENTE SIMPLE CON EL VERBO HAVE GOT (TENER)


AFIRMATIVA
I have got
You have got
He has got
She has got
It has got
We have got
You have got
They have got

NEGATIVA
I haven't got
You haven't got
He hasn't got
She hasn't got
It hasn't got
We haven't got
You haven't got
They haven't got

INTERROGATIVA
Have I got?
Have you got?
Has he got?
Has she got?
Has it got?
Have we got?
Have you got?
Have they got?

Gramtica Inglesa: Nivel B1

1.3 EL PRESENTE SIMPLE CON VERBOS MODALES (EJEMPLO CAN)


AFIRMATIVA
I can
You can
He can
She can
It can
We can
You can
They can

NEGATIVA
I cannot / I can't
You cannot / You can't
He cannot / He can't
She cannot / She can't
It cannot / It can't
We cannot / We can't
You cannot / You can't
They cannot / They can't

INTERROGATIVA
Can I?
Can you?
Can he?
Can she?
Can it?
Can we?
Can you?
Can they?

1.4 EL PRESENTE SIMPLE CON EL RESTO DE VERBOS


AFIRMATIVA
I write
You write
He writes
She writes
It writes
We write
You write
They write

NEGATIVA
I don't write
You don't write
He doesn't write
She doesn't write
It doesn't write
We don't write
You don't write
They don't write

INTERROGATIVA
Do I write?
Do you write?
Does he write?
Does she write?
Does it write?
Do we write?
Do you write?
Do they write?

1.4.1 REGLAS DE LA 3 PERSONA DEL SINGULAR


Suelen aadir -s, excepto en los siguientes casos:
Aaden -es las que acaban en -s, -h, -x, go (ir), do (hacer)
Ejemplo:
-

watch (ver)
mix (mezclar)
go (ir)
do (hacer)

he/she watches
he/she mixes
he/she goes
he/she does

Los que acaban en consonante + -y, cambia la y por i y despus aaden -es, es decir,
se aade -ies
Ejemplo:
-

study (estudiar)
cry (llorar)

he/she studies
he/she cries

Gramtica inglesa: Nivel B1

1.5 VERBO TO HAVE (TENER O POSEER)


To have sirve tambin para otros verbos que no signifiquen tener. Ejemplo:
-

Have a bath / a shower (tomar un bao/una ducha)


Have breakfast / lunch / dinner (desayunar / comer al medioda / cenar)
Have a rest (descansar)

Cuando tenga estos significados, el verbo to have funciona como un verbo normal en
presente simple, utilizando los auxiliares Do/Does para negar o preguntar.
Ejemplo:
I have breakfast
Yo desayuno

I don't have breakfast


Yo no desayuno

Do you have breakfast?


T desayunas?

1.6 PREGUNTAS CON PARTCULA INTERROGATIVA EN PRESENTE SIMPLE


Las Partculas Interrogativas son:
What
Which
Where
When
How
Who
Why
How much
How many

Qu? o Cul?
Qu? o Cul? Se utiliza cuando se trata de elegir entre varias cosas.
Dnde?
Cundo?
Cmo?
Quin? o Quines?
Por qu?
Cunto? o Cunta? (sustantivos incontables, como la leche)
Cunto? o Cuntas? (sustantivos contables)

Con los verbos to be / have got / can Se utiliza la siguiente estructura:


WHAT
WHICH
WHERE
etc.

am/are/is
have/has
can

Sujeto

Complementos

Ejemplo:
-

Where are John and Peter?


How many cars has your father got?
What can you do?

Dnde estn John y Peter?


Cuntos coches tiene tu padre?
Qu sabes hacer t?

Gramtica Inglesa: Nivel B1

Y con los dems verbos la estructura es la siguiente:


WHAT
WHICH
WHERE
etc.

do
does
(auxiliar)

Sujeto

Verbo

Complementos

Ejemplo:
-

Where do your teachers live?

Dnde viven tus profesores?

1.7 DISTINTAS ESTRUCTURAS INTERROGATIVAS


1.7.1 PARA PREGUNTAR LA EDAD:
How old + verbo to be + sujeto + complementos?
Ejemplo:
-

How old are you? I am 23 / I'm 23


Cuntos aos tienes? Tengo 23
How old is your sister? She is 17 / She's 17 Cuntos aos tiene tu hermana?
1.7.2 PARA PEDIR UNA COSA, ALGO:

Can I have? Puede/s darme? Me da/s?


Could I have? Podra/s darme? (ms formal)
1.7.3 PARA PREGUNTAR EL PRECIO DE ALGO:
Hay dos formas:
1) Utilizando el verbo to be y la partcula How much:
How much is this sweater? It's 2 / That's 2 (Cunto cuesta este jersey? Son 2)
How much are those jeans? They are 4
How much is it? It's 2 / That's 2 (Cunto cuesta? Son 2)
How much are they? They are 4
2) Utilizando el verbo to cost (costar):
How much does this sweater cost? It costs 25 (Cunto cuesta ese jersey? Cuesta
25)

Gramtica inglesa: Nivel B1

1.8 ADVERBIOS DE FRECUENCIA


ALWAYS (100%)
USUALLY (80%)
OFTEN (75%)
SOMETIMES (50%)
SELDOM
RARELY
HARDLY EVER
NEVER

Siempre
Normalmente
A menudo / Con frecuencia
A veces
Pocas veces
Rara vez / Muy pocas veces
Casi nunca
Nunca

Los adverbios de frecuencia se colocan delante de los verbos normales en el presente


simple, pero detrs de los verbos to be / can
Ejemplo:
-

We usually go to bed at 11 o'clock/Normalmente nos vamos a la cama a las 11.


Do you always drink coffee for breakfast?/Siempre tomas caf para desayunar?
They are often tied / Ellos a menudo estn cansados

2. PRESENTE SIMPLE CONTINUO


El presente simple continuo se utiliza para expresar acciones que se estn realizando
en el momento en el que est hablando, se forma:
Sujeto +

verbo TO BE

Verbo principal terminado en -ing (gerundio)

Ejemplo
I am playing football / Yo estoy jugando a ftbol
AFIRMATIVA
I am playing
You are playing
He is playing
She is playing
It is playing
We are playing
You are playing

NEGATIVA
I'm not playing
You aren't playing
He isn't playing
She isn't playing
It isn't playing
We aren't playing
You aren't playing

INTERROGATIVA
Am I playing?
Are you playing?
Is he playing?
Is she playing?
Is it playing?
Are we playing?
Are you playing?

They are playing

They aren't playing

Are they playing?

Gramtica Inglesa: Nivel B1

2.1 REGLAS DEL GERUNDIO


Regla general: Se aade -ing al infinitivo:

play playing

Excepciones:
1. Los verbos de una slaba que acaban en consonante + vocal + consonante
duplican la ltima consonante.
Ejemplo: run running

swim swimming

2. Los verbos de 2 slabas que acaban en consonante + vocal + consonante y cuyo


acento al hablar recae en la 2 slaba, y los de dos slabas que acaben en L,
tambin duplican la consonante final.
Ejemplo: admit admitting

travel travelling

3. Los verbos que acaban en e la pierden


Ejemplo: take taking
4. Los verbos que acaban en ie cambian la ie por y y aaden -ing
Ejemplo: lie lying (echarse)

die dying (morir)

2.2 ACTION AND NON-ACTION VERBS


Los verbos que describen acciones, por ejemplo: cook (cocinar) make (hacer), pueden
ser usados en presente simple o continuo:
-

Im making the lunch / I usually make the lunch at the weekend

Los verbos que expresan estados o sentimientos, no acciones, como por ejemplo: love
(amar), need (necesitar) no se usan en presente continuo. Los Non-Action verbs ms
frecuentes son: agree, be, believe, belong, depend, forget, hate, hear, know, like, love,
matter, mean, need, prefer, realize, recognize, remember, seem, suppose.
Hay que tener en cuenta tambin, que hay ciertos verbos que pueden presentarse de
las dos maneras como por ejemplo have (tener) y think (pensar):
-

I have a cat now = posesin (non-action)


Im having lunch = accin
I think this musics great = opinion (non-action)
What are you thinking about? = accin

Gramtica inglesa: Nivel B1

2.3 GERUNDS AND INFINITIVES / GERUNDIOS E INFINITIVOS


Usamos el gerundio en los siguientes casos:
1. Despus de preposiciones y Phrasal verbs:
-

Im not very good at remembering names


Katies given up smoking

2. Cundo el verbo es el sujeto de la accin:


-

Driving at night is quite tiring


Shopping is my favourite thing to do at weekends

3. Despus de ciertos verbos:


-

I hate not being on time for things


I dont mind getting up early

Los verbos ms communes seguidos de gerundio son: admit, avoid, deny, dislike, enjoy,
feel like, finish, hate, keep, like, love, mind, miss, practise, prefer, recommend, spend
time, stop, suggest y Phrasal Verbs, give up, go on, etc.
-

I like travelling Me gusta viajar


She hates listening to the radio Ella odia escuchar la radio
Do you love swimming? Te encanta nadar?

Usamos el infinitivo con to en los siguientes casos:


1. Despus de adjetivos:
-

My flat is very easy to find

2. Para expresar causa o proposito


-

Liam is saving money to buy a new car

3. Detrs de ciertos verbos como (cant) afford, agree, decide, expect, forget, help, hope,
learn, need, offer, plan, pretend, promise, refuse, remember, seem, try, want, would
like.
-

My sister has never learned to drive

Para hacer la negacin del infitivo con to usamos la estructura not to + verbo
-

Try not to make noise

Gramtica Inglesa: Nivel B1

4. Tambin usamos el infinitivo con to despus de ciertos verbos + persona: ask, tell,
want, would like.
-

She told him not to worry


Can you ask the manager to come?
I want you to do this now
Wed really like you to come

Adems, hay ciertos verbos que pueden usar indistintamente y con el mismo significado,
el gerundio o el infinitivo con to: start, begin, continue.
-

It started to rain / It started raining

Ahora bien, del mismo modo, hay dos verbos try y remember que tambin pueden
usarse con gerundio o con el infinitivo + to, pero el significado cambia:
-

Try to be on time (hacer un esfuerzo para llegar a tiempo)


Try doing yoga (hacer yoga para ver si te gusta)
Remember to phone him (Acurdate de llamarlo)
I remember meeting him years ago (Me acuerdo de haberlo conocido)

Usamos el infinitivo sin to en los siguientes casos:


1. Despus de la mayora de verbos modales y auxiliares
-

I cant drive

2. Despus de make and let


-

She always makes me laugh


My parents didnt let me go out last night

3. IMPERATIVO
Se usa para dar rdenes, instrucciones, prohibiciones... y no lleva sujeto.
AFIRMATIVA
Listen! (escucha!)
Let's listen (escuchemos!)
Listen! (escuchad!)

NEGATIVA
Don't listen! (no escuches!)
Let's not listen! (no escuchemos!)
Don't listen! (no escuchis!)

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Gramtica inglesa: Nivel B1

3. PASADO SIMPLE
El Pasado Simple es un tiempo verbal que se utiliza para describir acciones que han
sucedido en un tiempo anterior y que ya han finalizado, por ejemplo:
-

She cleaned her house.


I broke the window.

Al expresar una oracin en Pasado Simple se entiende que la accin no guarda relacin
con el presente, como vemos en los siguientes casos:
-

He lost the keys.


She lent me a book.

Tambin es posible indicar el momento en que se desarrolla la accin para indicar el


tiempo con mayor precisin:
-

They saw the movie last night.


We went to London yesterday.

Para poder formar una oracin en tiempo pasado debemos distinguir dos tipos: Verbos
regulares e irregulares. En el primero de los casos forman su Pasado Simple aadiendo
la terminacin ED al infinitivo, mientras que los irregulares reciben ese nombre por no
seguir un patrn determinado y en este caso deben estudiarse individualmente.
3.1 PASADO SIMPLE CON VERBOS REGULARES

AFIRMATIVA
I played
You played
He played
She played
It played
We played
You played

NEGATIVA
I didnt played
You didn't played
He didn't played
She didn't played
It didn't played
We didn't played
You didn't played

INTERROGATIVA
Did I play?
Did you play?
Did he play?
Did she play?
Did it play?
Did we play?
Did you play?

They played

They didn't played

Did they play?

Tanto en la forma interrogativa como en negativa se utiliza como auxiliar DID que es la
forma pasada del verbo TO DO y acompaa al verbo principal en su forma infinitiva.
En las negaciones puede utilizarse la forma contrada de DID NOT o sea DIDNT.

Gramtica Inglesa: Nivel B1

3.2 PASADO SIMPLE CON VERBO TO BE E IRREGULARES


Ahora veremos la conjugacin del verbo TO BE en el Pasado Simple, tiempo verbal
qu corresponde al equivalente en castellano del Pretrito Imperfecto y Pretrito
Indefinido:
AFIRMATIVA
I was
You were
He was
She was
It was
We were
You were

NEGATIVA
I was not / wasnt
You were not / werent
He was not / wasnt
She was not / wasnt
It was not / wasnt
We were not / werent
You were not / werent

INTERROGATIVA
Was I?
Were you?
Was he?
Was she?
Was it?
Were we?
Were you?

They were

They were not / werent

Were they?

Un detalle a tener en cuenta, es que las contracciones generalmente se usan durante


una conversacin y no as en la escritura, salvo que se trate de un texto informal o que
transcriba un dilogo.
Ejemplo verbo irregular come / venir

come came come

AFIRMATIVA
I was playing
You were playing
He was playing
She was playing
It was playing
We were playing
You were playing

NEGATIVA
I was not / werent playing
You were not / werent playing
He was not / wasnt playing
She was not / wasnt playing
It was not /wasnt playing
We were not / werent playing
You were not / werent playing

INTERROGATIVA
Was I playing?
Were you playing?
Was he playing?
Was she playing?
Was it playing?
Were we playing?
Were you playing?

They were playing

They were not / werent playing

Were they playing?

En el siguiente cuadro aparecen algunos de los verbos irregulares del ingls utilizados
con ms frecuencia. Se denominan irregulares porque no siguen una regla determinada
para construir su pasado por lo que deben estudiarse de memoria. En este caso
aparecer de izquierda a derecha su significado en espaol, su forma en presente, su
forma en pasado simple y su participio pasado, el cual se usa para formar los tiempos
perfectos (Present Perfect & Past Perfect):

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Gramtica inglesa: Nivel B1

Espaol
ser, estar
vencer, golpear
convertirse, llegar a ser
empezar
morder
romper
llevar, traer
construir
comprar
poder
atrapar, coger
elegir
venir, entrar, acercarse
costar
cortar
hacer
pintar
beber
conducir
comer
caer
sentir
encontrar
volar
olvidar
coger, obtener, tomar
dar
ir
crecer
colgar, tender
tener, haber
escuchar
golpear
herir
mantener
conocer
aprender
dejar, abandonar

Present
am / is / are
beat
become
begin
bite
break
bring
build
buy
can
catch
choose
come
cost
cut
do / does
draw
drink
drive
eat
fall
feel
find
fly
forget
get
give
go
grow
hang
have / has
hear
hit
hurt
keep
know
learn
leave

Past
was / were
beat
became
began
bit
broke
brought
built
bought
could
caught
chose
came
cost
cut
did
drew
drank
drove
ate
fell
felt
found
flew
forgot
got
gave
went
grew
hung
had
head
hit
hurt
kept
knew
learnt
left

Participe
been
beaten
become
begun
bitten
broken
brought
built
bought
caught
chosen
come
cost
cut
done
drawn
drunk
driven
eaten
fallen
felt
found
flown
forgotten
got
given
gone
grown
hung
had
heard
hit
hurt
kept
known
learnt
left

Gramtica Inglesa: Nivel B1

Espaol
Present
prestar
lend
dejar
let
mentir
lie
perder
lose
hacer, fabricar
make
significar
mean
conocer, encontrarse
meet
pagar
pay
poner
put
leer
read
montar a, montar en
ride
sonar
ring
correr
run
decir
say
ver
see
vender
sell
enviar
send
poner, colocar
set
brillar
shine
callarse
shut
cantar
sing
sentarse
sit
dormir
sleep
hablar
speak
gastar
spend
estar de pie, mantenerse
stand
robar
steal
nadar
swim
tomar, coger
take
ensear
teach
decir, contar
tell
pensar
think
lanzar
throw
comprender
undestand
levantarse
wake
llevar puesto
wear
ganar
win
escribir
write

Past
Participe
lent
lent
let
let
lay
lain
lost
lost
made
made
meant
meant
met
met
paid
paid
put
put
read
read
rode
ridden
rang
rung
ran
run
said
said
saw
seen
sold
sold
sent
sent
set
set
shone
shone
shut
shut
sang
sung
sat
sat
slept
slept
spoke
spoken
spent
spent
stood
stood
stole
stolen
swam
swum
took
taken
taught
taught
told
told
thought
thought
threw
thrown
understood understood
woke
woken
wore
worn
won
won
wrote
written

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Gramtica inglesa: Nivel B1

4. PASADO CONTINUO
El Pasado Continuo, es un tiempo verbal que describe acciones que estaban siendo
realizadas en un momento del pasado al que se hace referencia y que luego continuaron:
-

Yesterday he was studying English.


John was playing tennis at 10 a.m.

El Pasado Continuo se construye con el verbo auxiliar to be en su forma pasada y el


verbo principal en infinitivo con la terminacin -ing
AFIRMATIVA
I was playing
You were playing
He was playing
She was playing
It was playing
We were playing
You were playing

NEGATIVA
I was not / werent playing
You were not / werent playing
He was not / wasnt playing
She was not / wasnt playing
It was not /wasnt playing
We were not / werent playing
You were not / werent playing

INTERROGATIVA
Was I playing?
Were you playing?
Was he playing?
Was she playing?
Was it playing?
Were we playing?
Were you playing?

They were playing

They were not / werent playing

Were they playing?

Tambin se puede utilizar este tiempo verbal para relatar dos acciones que sucedieron
en el pasado y que una de ellas ya se ha completado. Para ello utilizamos el Pasado
Simple para mencionar lo que ya finaliz y el Pasado Continuo para relatar lo que sigue
ejecutndose.
-

When I left, he was studying the lesson.


They were singing when I broke the window.

5. PASADO PERFECTO
El Pasado Perfecto es un tiempo verbal que se utiliza para referirnos a una accin que
tuvo lugar en un momento anterior a otra accin, aunque ambas hayan sucedido en el
pasado estableciendo un orden entre ellas, por ejemplo:
-

The film had finished when she arrived at the cinema.


La pelcula haba terminado cuando ella lleg al cine.
(Primera accin: la pelcula haba terminado
Segunda accin: ella lleg al cine)

Sarah had prepared dinner when her husband got home.


Sarah haba preparado la cena cuando su esposo lleg a casa.
(Primera accin: Sarah haba preparado la cena
Segunda accin: su esposo lleg a casa)

Gramtica Inglesa: Nivel B1

Estructura:
Had

Participio Pasado (Past Participle)

Los participios pasados de los verbos regulares tienen la misma forma que el pasado
simple (-ed). Los verbos irregulares deben ser estudiados a parte
Ejemplo verbo regular study / estudiar
AFIRMATIVA
I had studied
You had studied
He had studied
She had studied
It had studied
We had studied
You had studied
They had studied

NEGATIVA
I hadn't studied
You hadn't studied
He hadn't studied
She hadn't studied
It hadn't studied
We hadn't studied
You hadn't studied
They hadn't studied

Ejemplo verbo irregular come / venir


AFIRMATIVA
I had come
You had come
He had come
She had come
It had come
We had come
You had come
They had come

INTERROGATIVA
Had I studied?
Had you studied?
Had he studied?
Had she studied?
Had it studied?
Had we studied?
Had you studied?
Had they studied?

come came come

NEGATIVA
I hadn't come
You hadn't come
He hadn't come
She hadn't come
It hadn't come
We hadn't come
You hadn't come
They hadn't come

INTERROGATIVA
Had I come?
Had you come?
Had he come?
Had she come?
Had it come?
Had we come?
Had you come?
Had they come?

6. PRESENT AND PAST HABITS AND STATES


Para hbitos actuals usamos usually o normally + presente
-

I usually get up at 8.00 during the week.


I dont normally go out during the week.
Do you normally walk to work?

Para hbitos del pasado usamos used to o didnt used to + infinitivo


-

We used to go to France for our holidays when I was a child


He didnt used to do any exercise, but now he runs marathons

16

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Gramtica inglesa: Nivel B1

A menudo se utiliza never used to en vez de didnt used to


-

I never used to like football, but I watch it every week now

Como used to expresa una accin que solamos hacer en el pasado, pero no
actualmente, se suele enfatizar usando any more y any longer + presente simple
-

I used to go to the gym, but I dont (go) any more / any longer

Por ltimo, hay que diferenciar entre used to, be used to y get used to
Used to es lo que ya hemos dado
Be used to significa estar acostumbrado
-

I am used to getting up early every day

Get used to significa acostumbrarse


-

Lola cant get used to living in the UK

7. PRESENTE PERFECTO (PRESENT PERFECT)


Estructura:
Have / Has

Participio Pasado (Past Participle)

Y significa haber hecho algo: I have studied Yo he estudiado


Los participios pasados de los verbos regulares tienen la misma forma que el pasado
simple (-ed)
Ejemplo verbo regular study / estudiar:
AFIRMATIVA
I have studied / I've studied
You have studied
He has studied / He's studied
She has studied
It has studied
We have studied
You have studied
They have studied

NEGATIVA
I haven't studied
You haven't studied
He hasn't studied
She hasn't studied
It hasn't studied
We haven't studied
You haven't studied
They haven't studied

INTERROGATIVA
Have I studied?
Have you studied?
Has he studied?
Has she studied?
Has it studied?
Have we studied?
Have you studied?
Have they studied?

Gramtica Inglesa: Nivel B1

Ejemplo verbo irregular come / venir


AFIRMATIVA
I have come / I've come
You have come
He has come / He's come
She has come
It has come
We have come
You have come
They have come

come came come

NEGATIVA
I haven't come
You haven't come
He hasn't come
She hasn't come
It hasn't come
We haven't come
You haven't come
They haven't come

INTERROGATIVA
Have I come?
Have you come?
Has he come?
Has she come?
Has it come?
Have we come?
Have you come?
Have they come?

Se usa para hablar de cosas que han ocurrido sin mencionar el momento
Ejemplo:
-

Susan has had an accident.


Susan had an accident last year
(al mencionar cundo ocurri se usa el pasado simple)

Se usa con acciones que empezaron en el pasado y se mantienen en el presente o tienen


una consecuencia en el presente.
7.1 PALABRAS QUE ACOMPAAN AL PRESENTE PERFECTO
7.1.1 PRESENTE PERFECTO CON FOR & SINCE
How long?
For | four years
three years
eight months
five minutes

Cunto tiempo hace que?


Desde hace | cuatro aos
tres aos
ocho aos
cinco minutos

Since | 1990
last month
my birthday
Christmas
8th of April

Desde | 1990
el mes pasado
mi cumpleaos
Navidad
el 8 de Abril

Ejemplos:
How long have you lived in Plasencia? / Cunto tiempo hace que vives en Plasencia?
I have lived in Plasencia for twenty years / Vivo en Plasencia desde hace 20 aos
I have lived in Plasencia since I was born / Vivo en Plasencia desde que nac

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Gramtica inglesa: Nivel B1

7.1.2 PRESENTE PERFECTO CON EVER


Se suele usar en preguntas. Y tiene el significado de alguna vez
Ejemplo:
-

Have you ever travelled abroad? / Has viajado alguna vez al extranjero?

RESPUESTA CORTA
Yes, I have / No, I haven't
RESPUESTA LARGA (Cuando quieres dar ms informacin)
No, I've never travelled abroad
Yes, I went to Portugal last year
Yes, I was in France two years ago
-

Has he ever eatten Japanese food? No, he's never eatten it.
l ha comido alguna vez comida japonesa? No, nunca la ha comido

Have you ever been to Barcelona? No, I've never been there
Has ido alguna vez a Barcelona? No, nunca he ido (ir y volver se usa to)
7.1.3 PRESENTE PERFECTO CON JUST

Se suele usar en oraciones afirmativas, aunque tambin se puede ver en oraciones


interrogativas. Significa acabar de hacer algo.
Have / Has

Just

Participio Pasado (Past Participle)

Ejemplo:
-

I've just eatten / Yo acabo de comer


What have you just done? / Qu acabas de hacer?
I've just done my homework / Yo acabo de hacer mis deberes

7.1.4 PRESENTE PERFECTO CON ALREADY & YET


Alredy = YA. Se usa en oraciones afirmativas y SIEMPRE va entre medias del auxiliar y el
verbo en participio
I've already read the newspaper / Yo ya he ledo el perodico
Yet = Ya o Todava, an. Se usa en oraciones negativas o interrogativas y siempre al final
Have you finished yet? We haven't finished yet / Habis acabado ya? Nosotros an no.

Gramtica Inglesa: Nivel B1

8. PRESENTE PERFECTO CONTINUO


Se utiliza para enfatizar o resaltar la accin que ha ocurrido y significa:
-

haber estado haciendo algo


llevar tiempo haciendo algo

Puede utilizarse tambin para acciones inacabadas, empez en el pasado y se mantiene


en el presente o justo acaba de terminar.
Estructura:
Have / Has

Been

Verbo principal en -ing (Gerundio)

Ejemplo:
-

How long have you been waiting for the bus?


Cunto tiempo llevas esperando el autobs?

I've been waiting for the bus for 15 minutes


Llevo esperando al autobs desde hace 15 minutos

9. FUTURO
Hay tres formas verbales para expresar futuro:
9.1 FUTURO SIMPLE WILL
Se utiliza para:

Hacer promesas.
I will love you forever (te amar para siempre)
Hacer predicciones, basadas en nuestra opinin o en un clculo sin fundamento
real, sin tener en qu basarte para dar tu opinin.
Decisin tomada en el momento de hablar
What would you like to eat? I will have soup and the steak
Qu te gustara comer? Tomar sopa y el filete
Una amenaza o Un ofrecimiento

Estructura:
AFIRMATIVA:

Sujeto

will

verbo sin to

NEGATIVA:

Sujeto

wont

verbo sin to

INTERROGATIVA:

Will

Sujeto

verbo sin to

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Gramtica inglesa: Nivel B1

9.2 PRESENTE CONTINUO CON IDEA DE FUTURO


Expresar planes de tipo agenda, totalmente organizados y a muy corto plazo. Se realiza
utilizando el presente continuo seguido de un adverbio de tiempo que exprese un futuro
cercano, at 10.00 a.m., tomorrow, this weekend.
Ejemplo:
-

I'm having lunch with my cousins at 1.00 p.m.


Voy a ir a comer con mis primos a la 1
Are you going away or are you staying in Plasencia tomorrow?
I'm staying in Plasencia
Te vas a ir fuera o vas a estar en Plasencia maana? Yo voy a estar en Plasencia

9.3 FUTURO PRXIMO (GOING TO)


Se utiliza para expresar:
-

un plan o una intencin a corto plazo


una prediccin, basada en algo que est sucediendo en el momento, es decir,
con fundamento veo que hay muchas nubes y digo va a llover
una cita, una reunin

AFIRMATIVA:

Sujeto

will

verbo sin to

NEGATIVA:

Sujeto

wont

verbo sin to

INTERROGATIVA:

Will

Sujeto

verbo sin to

Ejemplo:
-

What are you going to do tonight? I'm going to see a film on TV


Qu vas a hacer esta noche? Voy a ver una pelcula en la televisn

10. VERBOS MODALES


CAN. Se ubica antes del verbo principal en infinitivo. Significa 'poder'. Se utiliza para
expresar habilidad, permiso.
COULD. El verbo 'Could' Expresa poca probabilidad o condicionalidad. Significa: podra,
pude, poda, pudiera de acuerdo con el contexto: I could dance if I could practice.
MAY. El verbo 'may' se utiliza para expresar cierto grado de probabilidad de una accin
o grado de certeza: It may rain today. Significa: podra, quizs, puede que.
MIGHT. El verbo 'might' expresa dbil probabilidad o posibilidad. Se utiliza cuando
queremos decir: podra, quizs, puede que (They might come tomorrow).

Gramtica Inglesa: Nivel B1

MUST / MUSTN'T. El verbo 'must' expresa una prohibicin u obligacin fuerte as como
cierta certeza: I must go. She must be crazy. En espaol significa debo, debo de.
SHALL. Se usa para indicar una accin futura que se debera de hacer Se suele utilizar
en la oracin con los pronombres personales YO o NOSOTROS, y normalmente se
encuentra en sugerencias: "Shall we go?" Deberamos ir?
SHOULD. Usamos 'should' para expresar grado de posibilidad o probabilidad, as como
tambin para obligacin dbil. Significa: debera, tendra que. I should study.
OUGHT TO. El verbo 'ought to' es igual al 'should' y expresa una obligacin dbil.
Significa debera, tendra que.
WILL. En ingls no existen los verbos en futuro, sino que al agregar will, convertimos en
futuro al verbo que le sigue: I will come to see you tonight. (Ir a verte esta noche)
WOULD. 'Would' es el pasado de will en algunos casos y verbo auxiliar en otros.
Convierte en potencial al verbo que le sigue y va seguido del verbo en forma base. En
espaol se corresponde con el condicional.
Para dar consejo u opinin de otra forma: You could always... / If I were you, I
would...
Would rather. se usa para expresar preferencia. Significa would prefer preferira.
Est seguido del verbo en infinitivo sin to
- I would rather go out than study / I'd rather go out than study
- Preferira salir a estudiar
Had better se usa para dar consejo. Est seguido de infinitivo sin to
- You had better eat fruit and vegetables / You'd better eat fruit and vegetables.
- Sera mejor que comieses fruta y verdura
FUNCIN
Obligacin

VERBO MODAL
Must (Have to) [Deber, tener que]

No Obligacin

Needn't (don't have to) [No es necesario, no tener que]

Prohibicin
(in) ability
Possibility / probability
Advice (consejo)
Permiso
Peticin
Ofertar

Mustn't
Can (can't) [s-puedo, no s-no puedo]
Might (may, can, could)
Should [deberas] (ought to, could)
May (can, could)
Can, could
Shall, could

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Gramtica inglesa: Nivel B1

11. CONDICIONAL
Las oraciones condicionales son oraciones subordinadas que expresan una condicin.
Teniendo en cuento el tipo de tiempos verbales que se utilizan dividimos las
condicionales en cuatro tipos:
11.1 ZERO CONDITIONAL
Se utiliza para expresar verdades universales.
Estructura:
If sentece (presente) Main sentence (presente)
-

If you heat water, it boils at 100C (Si calientas agua, hierve a los 100C)
11.2 FIRST CONDITIONAL

Probable condition: Significa que es probable que la condicin se cumpla, debido al


tiempo verbal que uses. (Si estudias, aprobars)
Estructura:
If sentence Siempre presente. Lleva Si (If) o A Menos Que (Unless)
Main sentence Siempre futuro.
-

If you study, you will pass

Condicional de imperativo:
If sentence presente
main sentence imperativo
-

If you drink, don't drive (Si bebes, no conduzcas.)


11.3 SECOND CONDITIONAL

Improbable condition: Significa que es improbable que la condicin se cumpla, debido


al tiempo verbal que usas.
Estructura:
If sentence Pretrito imperfecto de subjuntivo (en ingls, el pasado simple)
* En la 1 persona y 3 persona, se pone were If I were you... Si yo fuera t...
Main sentence Condicional simple, would + verbo en infinitivo
-

If you studied, you would pass (Si estudiaras, aprobaras)


If I were taller, I would join the army (Si fuera ms alto, me unira la armada)

Gramtica Inglesa: Nivel B1

11.4 THIRD CONDITIONAL


Impossible condition: Significa que es imposible que la condicin se cumpla, debido al
tiempo verbal que usas. (Si hubieras estudiado, habras aprobado)
Estructura
If sentence Pretrito pluscuamperfecto (en ingls, el pasado perfecto) [had +
participio]
Main sentence Condicional compuesto [would + have + participio del verbo principal]
-

If you had studied, you would have passed


11.5 MIXED CONDITIONALS

Se mezclan distintos tiempos verbales de las otras condicionales:


-

If we had taken (3) a map when we left this morning, we would know (2) the
way back home Si hubiramos cogido el mapa cuando nos fuimos esta maana,
nosostros sabramos el camino para volver a casa
If the island were (2) still a tourist attraction, last week's earthquake would
have caused (3) more deaths Si la isla fuese todava una atraccin turstica, el
terremoto de la semana pasada habra causado ms muertes.

12. OTROS MODOS DE HACER CONDICONALES


12.1 CONDICIONAL CON WISH + SUJETO + PASADO SIMPLE
Se usa para expresar un deseo sobre una situacin irreal.
-

I wish I were rich (but I am not) / Ojal fuera rico (pero no lo soy)
I wish I could fly. / Ojal pudiera volar.
I wish I spoke English more fluently. / Ojal hablara ingls ms fludamente.
I wish I didn't have to work tomorrow. / Ojal no tuviera que trabajar maana.
12.2 CONDICIONAL CON WISH + SUJETO + PASADO PERFECTO

Se usa para expresar un deseo frustrado sobre el pasado.


-

I wish I had learned English when I was younger.


Ojal hubiera aprendido ingls cuando era ms joven.
I wish I had stayed at the party.
Ojal me hubiera quedado en la fiesta.
I wish I hadn't seen Mark and Lucy together!
Ojal no hubiera visto a Mark y a Lucy juntos!

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Gramtica inglesa: Nivel B1

12.3 CONDICIONAL CON WISH + WOULD + VERBO EN INFINITIVO SIN TO


Se usa para expresar desagrado o irritacin sobre algo que pasa y que probablemente
no se pueda remediar:
-

I wish you would just shut up!


Ojal te callaras!
I wish Tom wouldn't snore so much...
Ojal Tom no roncara tanto...

*Con el verbo stop (parar) de hacer algo el verbo que va detrs va en -ing
-

I wish you would stop making that noise.


Ojal dejaras de hacer ese ruido.
I wish they would stop fighting.
Ojal dejaran de pelear.
12.4 SUSTITUTIVOS DE IF (UNLESS & AS LONG AS)

Unless - a menos que (la oracin principal debe ir en negativo)


- Unless we book now, we won't find a place to stay.
A menos que reservemos ya, no vamos a encontrar lugar donde alojarnos.
As long as - siempre y cuando
- I'll help you with Biology, as long as you help me with French.
Yo te ayudo con biologa, siempre y cuando t me ayudes con francs.

13. PASIVA
Cuestiones generales sobre la voz pasiva
-

La voz pasiva se utiliza mucho ms en ingls que en espaol.


La voz pasiva se utiliza ms en el lenguaje periodstico y cientfico.
Tambin se utiliza para poner mensajes en lugares pblicos.
Dogs are not allowed. No se permiten perros.
Algunas veces se suprime el verbo "to be".
Help wanted. Se necesitan empleados.

Para transformar una oracin activa a pasiva tenemos en cuenta los siguientes puntos:
1. El objeto de la oracin activa pasa a ser el sujeto de la pasiva.
2. El verbo principal se sustituye por el auxiliar "to be", en su mismo tiempo, junto
al verbo principal en participio.
3. El sujeto de la oracin principal pasa a ser complemento agente de la pasiva.
4. Si hacemos mencin en la oracin del sujeto que realiza la accin (sujeto agente),
este ir normalmente precedido por la preposicin "by".

Gramtica Inglesa: Nivel B1

Verbo activo
Present
He loves her
Present Continuous
They are making toys
Past Tense
He killed them
Past Continuous
They were making toys
Present Perfect
He has said it

Verbo pasivo
is/are + verbo en participio
She is loved (by him)
is/are being + verbo en participio
They (the toys) are being made (by them)
was/were + verbo en participio
They were killed (by him)
was/were being + verbo en participio
They (the toys) were being made (by them)
have/has been + verbo en participio
It has been said (by him).

La expresiones con "se" tales como: se dice, se habla, etc.; se expresan en ingls con la
voz pasiva 2. Este tipo de construccin pasiva (utilizada cada vez con mayor frecuencia
en los medios) se forma con la estructura:
It

+
-

to be

participio (participle)

It is reported (Se informa)


It is said (Se dice)
It is known (Se sabe)
It is supposed (Se supone)

Aqu hay dos ejemplos dnde podemos apreciar las dos formas de pasiva:
ACTIVE: Everybody thinks Cathy works very hard.
PASSIVE 1: Cathy is thought to work very hard. (Se piensa que Cathy...)
PASSIVE 2: It is thought that Cathy works very hard. (Se piensa que Cathy...)
ACTIVE: They believed Tom is wearing a white pullover.
PASSIVE 1: Tom was believed to be wearing a white pullover. (Se cree que...)
PASSIVE 2: It was believed that Tom is wearing a white pullover. (Se cree que...)

14. ESTILO INDIRECTO (REPORTED SPEECH)


Utilizamos el estilo directo cuando queremos comunicar a alguien lo que otra persona
ha dicho usando las palabras exactas que sta utiliz. Se caracteriza porque la
informacin va entre comillas y detrs del verbo introductor van dos puntos.
-

They say: we are hungry Ellos dicen: Tenemos hambre

Nosotros utilizamos el estilo indirecto para comunicar lo que otra persona ha dicho pero
sin usar las palabras exactas que utiliz.
-

They say that they are hungry. Ellos dicen que tienen hambre

Cuando el verbo introductor (say) del estilo indirecto est en presente, pretrito
perfecto o futuro, los tiempos verbales no cambian.

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Gramtica inglesa: Nivel B1

Sin embargo, cuando el verbo introductor est en pasado el otro verbo cambia a su
tiempo correspondiente ms pasado.
ESTILO DIRECTO
Presente Simple
He said: I live in a big house

ESTILO INDIRECTO
Pasado Simple
He said he lived in a big house.

Presente Continuo
He said: I'm doing my homework

Pasado Continuo
He said he was doing his homework.

Pretrito Perfecto (Present Perfect)


They said: We have just arrived

Pretrito Pluscuamperfecto (Past Perfect)


They said they had just arrived.

Pasado Simple
He said: I saw them at the party

Pretrito Pluscuamperfecto (Past Perfect)


He said he had seen them at the party.

Adems, algunos verbos modales y expresiones tambin varan:


ESTILO DIRECTO
Can
He said: I can play the guitar

ESTILO INDIRECTO
Could
He said he could play the guitar

Will
He said: I'll answer the phone

Would
He said he would answer the phone

Must / Have to
He said: You must be more tolerant

Had to
He said I had to be more tolerant

May
He said: It may rain
This
Here
Today
Yesterday
Tomorrow
Tonight
A week ago

Might
He said it might rain
That
There
That day
The day before / The previous day
The following day / The next day
That night
A week before

El verbo introductor en el estilo indirecto suele ser say, aunque cuando en el estilo
indirecto el verbo introductor va seguido de un pronombre objeto se utiliza tell
-

He said to me: I'm a bit sad He told me he was a bit sad

Gramtica Inglesa: Nivel B1

Los pronombres y adjetivos posesivos de primera persona cambian a tercera persona en


el estilo indirecto.
-

He said: I can't read with my glasses He said he couldn't read with his glasses.

El pronombre personal You (T o Vosotros) cambia a I o We, en el estilo indirecto.


-

He said: You are lucky He said I was lucky.

Adems de los verbos say y tell, otros verbos que pueden usarse en el estilo
indirecto son:
order (ordenar), advise (aconsejar), ask (preguntar o pedir), warn (avisar)
Al pasar una orden, un consejo, una peticin, una amenaza... empleamos la siguiente
estructura:
SUJETO + VERBO INTRODUCTOR EN PASADO + OBJETO + INFINITIVO CON TO
He said to Jack: Open the door, please He asked Jack to open the door.
He said to me: Don't talk He ordered me not to talk
My mother said to me: You should study harder She advised me to study harder
14.1 ORACIONES INTERROGATIVAS INDIRECTAS (REPORTED QUESTIONS)
Las oraciones interrogativas indirectas pueden ir introducidas por los siguientes verbos:
Ask (pedir o preguntar), Want to know (querer saber), Wonder (preguntarse)
Cuando una oracin interrogativa se pasa a estilo indirecto deja de tener el orden de las
oraciones interrogativas. Los cambios de los tiempos verbales son los mismos, se pueden
dividir las Interrogativas Indirectas en dos grupos:
a) Wh- questions (Preguntas con partcula interrogativa)
He said: Where do you live? He asked me where I lived
b) Yes/No questions (Preguntas de S o No) van introducidas por If / Whether (si..)
He said: Can you open the door? He asked if/whether I could open the door.
14.2 OTROS VERBOS INTRODUCTORES DEL ESTILO INDIRECTO
Admit (Admitir)
Explain (Explicar)
Claim (Reclamar)

Agree (Estar de acuerdo)


Insist (Insistir)
Promise (Prometer)

Complain (Quejarse)
Reply (Contestar)
Suggest (Sugerir)

Estos verbos llevan la oracin introducida con That Ejemplo:


Why don't we go to the pub, he said He suggested that we could go to the pub
He suggested that we went to the pub

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Gramtica inglesa: Nivel B1

De la lista anterior, los verbos promise y agree pueden ir seguidos tambin de infinitivo
con to:
-

I'll come back in two weeks, she said. She promised that she would come
back in two weeks
I'll come back in two weeks, she said She promised to come back in two
weeks.

Por ltimo, los siguientes verbos exigen que si va otro verbo detrs, termine en -ing:
Admit
Recommend
-

Insist on
Apologise for

Accuse someone of
Suggest

You have cheated in the exam, they said. They accused me of cheating in
the exam.
I was late for work, I know, he said. He admitted being late for work.

15. ADJETIVOS COMPARATIVOS Y SUPERLATIVOS


Los adjetivos comparativos se utilizan para comparar dos personas, lugares, cosas etc.
entre s, y los superlativos para compararlos con el resto de un grupo. Para formar el
adjetivo comparativo normalmente aadimos -er al adjetivo. Para formar el adjetivo
superlativo normalmente aadimos -est. Algunas excepciones a la regla son:
Adjetivo

Comparativo

Superlativo

Monoslabos terminados en -e.


Ejemplos: wide, fine, cute

Aaden una -r: wider,


finer, cuter

Aaden -st: widest,


finest, cutest

Monoslabos terminados en
vocal consonante. Ejemplos:
hot, big, fat

Doblan la consonante y
aaden -er: hotter,
bigger, fatter

Doblan la consonante y
aaden -est: hottest,
biggest, fattest

Monoslabos terminados en
ms de una vocal o consonante.
Ejemplo: light, neat, fast

Aaden -er: lighter,


neater, faster

Aaden -est: lightest,


neatest, fastest

Bislabos terminados en -y.


Ejemplo: happy, silly, lonely

Cambian -y por -i y
aaden -er: happier,
sillier, lonelier

Cambian -y por -i y
aaden -est: happiest,
silliest, loneliest

Palabras de dos slabas o ms


no acabadas en -y. Ejemplos:
modern, interesting, beautiful

Se coloca "more" o less


Se coloca "most" o
antes del adjetivo: more
least antes del
modern, more interesting, adjetivo: most modern,
more beautiful
most interesting, most
beautiful

Gramtica Inglesa: Nivel B1

Ahora bien, tambin hay adjetivos irregulares:


-

Good -> Better -> Best


Bad -> Worse -> Worst
Far -> Further -> Farthest

Para realizar la comparacin basta con colocar el adjetivo comparativo seguido de than
entre los sustantivos comparados:
-

My sister is a bit taller than me.


London is more expensive than Edinburgh.
This test is less difficult than the last one.
Olive oil is better for you than butter

En comparaciones negativas podemos usar (not) as + adjetivo + as:


-

The new sofa isnt as confortable as the old one.


I dont have as many books as I used to

Para indicar que dos personas, cosas, lugares, etc. son idnticos usamos the same as:
-

Her dress is the same as mine

Por ltimo, hay que tener en cuenta que despus de than o as podemos usar un
pronombre objeto (me, him, her, etc.) o un sujeto seguido verbo to be.
-

Shes taller than me / Shes taller than I am


Theyre not as busy as us / Theyre not as busy as we are

A la hora comparar un sustantivo respecto al resto de un grupo se usa the + superlativo:


-

Kevin is the tallest player in the team.


Oslo is the most expensive capital city in Europe.
The small bag is the least expensive.
Lucy is the best student in the class.
Who dresses the most stylishly in your family?

A menudo se usan los superlativos con el presente perfecto (present perfect) + ever:
-

Thats the worst weve ever played (Eso es lo peor que hemos jugado)
Its the best book Ive ever read (Es el mejor libro que he leido)

Por ltimo, hay que tener en cuenta que se utiliza in y no of antes de lugares
precedidos por un superlativo:
-

Its the longest bridge in the world (not of the wordl)


Its the best beach in England (not of England)

30

31

Gramtica inglesa: Nivel B1

16. A / AN, THE, NO ARTCULO


Se usa a / an con nombres contables singulares:
-

La primera vez que se menciona una cosa o persona:


I saw an old man with a dog
Cundo describes como es algo o lo que hace alguien:
Its a nice house. Shes a lawyer
En exclamaciones con What!
What an awful day!
En expresiones de frecuencia:
I have classes three times a week

Se usa the:
-

Cundo hablamos sobre algo que ya ha sido mencionado:


I saw an old man with a dog. The dog was barking.
Cundo est claro a lo que nos estamos refiriendo:
My father opened the door. The children are at school.
Cundo slo hay uno de algo:
The moon goes round the Earth.
Con lugares de una ciudad (cinema, theatre, etc.):
Im going to the cinema tonight
Con superlativos:
Its the best restaurant in town

No usamos artculo:
-

Cundo hablamos en general (con nombres plurales e incontables):


I love flowers (flores en general) / I love the flowers in my garden (concretas)
Con algunos nombres despus de at / to / from:
Shes not at home today. I get back from work at 5.30
Antes de las comidas, das y meses:
I never have breakfast
Antes de next / last + day, week, etc.
See you next Friday.

17. THERE IS / THERE ARE (HAY)


There is se usa con singular o con incontables (Puede escribirse There's)
-

There is a pen on the desk / Hay un bolgrafo en el escritorio (es singular)


There's some sugar in the cup / Hay algo de azcar en la copa (es incontable)

There are se usa con plural (Slo se puede escribir as)


- There are some children in the street / Hay algunos nios en la calle (es plural)

Gramtica Inglesa: Nivel B1

18. QUANTIFIERS
18.1 LARGE QUANTITIES
-

Usamos a lot of o lots of en frases afirmativas:


My uncle and aunt have a lot of money / Nina has lots of clothes
Cundo no hay sustantivo usamos a lot:
James eats a lot / He talks a lot
Much / many se usan normalmente en frases negativas e interrogativas:
There arent many cafs near here / Do you have many close friends?
I dont eat much chocolate / Do you watch much TV?
Usamos plenty of en frases afirmativas para expresar que es ms que suficiente:
Dont run. We have plenty of time
18.2 SMALL QUANTITIES

Para expresar un poco o pocos, usamos a Little + nombres incontables y a few +


nombres plurales contables.
Do you want some more ice cream? Just a little
The town only has a few cinemas.
Very little y very few = not much / many
Im so busy that I have very little time for myself.
Sarah isnt popular and she has very few friends.
18.3 MORE OR LESS THAN YOU NEED OR WANT

Para expresar que hay demasiado de algo usamos:


-

Too + adjetivo
I dont like this city. Its too big and its too noisy.
Too much + nombre incontable
Theres too much traffic and too much noise.
Too many + nombres plurales contables.
There are too many tourists and too many cars.

Para expresar que no hay suficiente de algo usamos:


-

Enough + nombre
There arent enough parks and there arent enough trees
Adjetivo + Enough
The buses arent frequent enough.
Adverbio + Enough
The buses dont run frequently enough

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Gramtica inglesa: Nivel B1

18.4 ZERO QUANTITY


-

Usamos any (+ nombre) en una negacin


There isnt any room in the car. We dont have any eggs
Usamos no + nombre en una afirmacin
Theres no room in the car. We have no eggs
Usamos none, sin ningn nombre, en respuestas cortas
How many eggs do we have? None. Ive used them all

19. RELATIVE CLAUSES


19.1 DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES
Da informacin importante sobre una persona, lugar o cosa. Podra traducirse en la
mayora de los casos por el que la que en el que
-

Usamos el pronombre relativo who para personas, which para cosas y animales
y where para lugares:
Julias the woman who Works in the office with me (Julia es la mujer que trabaja
en la oficina conmigo)
Its a self-help book which teaches you how to relax (Es un libro de autoayuda el
que te ensea como relajarte)
Thats the house where I was born (Esa es la casa en la que nac)
Usamos whose para expresar cuyo, cuya
Is Frank the man whose brother plays for Arsenal? (Es Frank el hombre cuyo
hermano juega en el Arsenal?
Its a plant whose leaves change color in spring (Es una planta cuyas flores
cambian de color en primavera).
Who y Which pueden omitirse cuando los verbos de la oracin principal y la
relativa hacen referencia a sujetos diferentes.
Ive just had a text from the girl (who) I meet on the flight to Paris
This is the new phone (which) I bought yesterday
19.2 NON-DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES

Da informacin extra y no esencial sobre una persona, lugar o cosa y puede traducirse
por el cual, la cual, los cuales, las cuales:
-

Pueden ser omitidas, y la frase seguira teniendo sentido


This painting, which was painted in 1860, is worth millions of pounds
This painting is worth millions of pounds
La oracin relative debe ir entre comas, o coma y punto y Who y Which no
pueden ser omitidos
Last week I visited my aunt, whos nearly 90 years old.
My neighbor, whose son goes to my sons school, has just remarried

Gramtica Inglesa: Nivel B1

34

20. QUESTIONS TAGS


Se utilizan para comprobar que algo que acabamos de afirmar o negar es cierto. Para
formar una Question tag hay que utilizar un verbo auxiliar correspondiente al tiempo
verbal de la frase principal y un pronombre.
En el caso de afirmaciones, el auxiliar estar en negativo. Para negaciones el auxiliar
estar en positivo
Positive verb, negative tag
It's cold today, isn't it?
You're Polish, aren't you
They live in Ankara, don't they
The match finishes at 8.00, doesn't it?
Your sister worked int he USA, did't she?
We've met before, haven't we?
You'll be OK, won't you?
You'd go on holiday with me, wouldn't you?

Negative verb, positive tag


She isn't here today, is she?
You aren't angry, are you?
They don't smoke, do they?
Lucy doesn't eat meat, does she?
You didn't like the film, did you?
Mike hasn't been to Rome before, has he?
You won't tell anyone, will you?
Sue wouldn't quit her job, would she?

35

Gramtica inglesa: Nivel B1