BRITISH STANDARD
BS 6399:
Part 2:1995
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NO COPYING 
WITHOUT 
BS1 
PERMISSION 
EXCEPT 
AS PERMITTED 
BY 
COPYRIGHI 
LAW 

— 
BS6399:Part2:
1995
‘rhe preparation of this Britiih Standard was entrusted by ‘lbchnical
Committee B/525, Buildings and civil engineering structures, to Subcommittee B/525/1, Actions (loadings) and basis of desigrr, upon which the following bodies were represented:
British Constructional Steelwork Association Ltd.
British Iron arrd Steel Producem’
British Masonry Society
Association
Concrete Society Department of the Environment (Building Research Establishment) Department of the Environment (Property and Buifdings Directorate)
Department
of Trarrsport (Highways Agency)
Institution of Structural En@reers National Housebuilding Council Royal Institute of British Architects Steel Construction Institute
This British Standard, having bee” prepared under the direction of the Building and Chil Engineering %ctor Board, was published tinder the authority of the Standards Bozwd and comes into effect on
15 Ausust 
1995 
0 BSI 1!295 
Nmt published (as CP 4) November 1944 First revision (as CP 3:
Chapter V) Ausust 1952 %rfitd second revision (as CP3:
Chapter 
V 
: Part 
1) 

Becember 1967 

Completion 
of second 
revision 

(= 
CP 
3: 
Chapter 
V 
: 
Part 
2) 

July 1970 Published as KS 6399: 
Fart 
2: 

Au@st 1995 

The following 9S1 references 

relate ro the work 
on this 

sta”dati. 

Committee 
reference 
9/525/ 
1 
Draft for comment 91 I 16625 DC
Amendments 
issued since publication 

_{A}_{m}_{d}_{.} _{N}_{o}_{.} 
_{D}_{a}_{t}_{e} 
Text affected 
I
I
ISBN06S0 23651 X
BS6299:Part2:
Committees responsible Foreword
Fage Inside front cover iv
Section 1. General 

1.1 
Scope 

1.2 
Informative references 

1.3 
Definitions 

1.4 
Main symbols 

1.5 
Outline of proceducc for calculating wirrd loads 

1.6 
Dyrramic claasiiication 

1.7 
Site exposure 

1.8 
Choice of method 

Section 2. Standard method 

2.1 
Standard wind loads 

2.2 
Standad wind speeds 

2.3 
Standard pressure coefficients 

2.4 
External pressure coefficients for walls 

2.5 
External pressure coefficients for roofs 

2.6 
Internal pressure coefficients 

2.7 
Pressure coefficients for elements 

Section 3. Directional method 

3.1 
Dwectional wind loads 

3.2 
Directional wind speeds 

3.3 
Dnctional pressure coefficients 

3.4 
Hybrid combinations of standard arrd dkectional methods 

Annexes 

A 
(normative) Necessary pruviaions for wind tunnel testing 

B 
(irrfOmative) Derivation of extreme wind information 

C 
(informative) Dynamic augmentation 

D 
(nonnative) PmbabiIity factor and seasonaf factor 

E 
(informative) ‘l&rain categories and effective height 

F 
(informative) Gust peak factor 

‘lhbles 
1 Buifdingtype faCtOr &
2 Dynamic pressure g= [in Pa)
3 Valves of dwection factor S,j
4 Factor .%,for standard methud
L ExcemaA pressure cucfficients Cw for verticaI walk
6 Frictional drag coefficients
7 External pressure Cw coefficients for walls of circulmplan buildhrgs
8 Extemaf pressure ceefficienta Cw for flat roofs of buiIdings
9 External presarrc coefficients
10 External pressure coefficients
11 External pressure coefficients
Cw for monOpirch mOfs Of buildin@
C& for duopitch roofs of build@s
Cw for hipped roofs of buildings
12 Reduction factor for multibay roofs
1
1
1
2
3
7
7
8
9
12
20
20
25
39
41
44
46
51
72
^{7}^{3}
^{7}^{3}
75
77
79
81
7
9
17
20
21
25
25
26
31
31
32
35
i
Dcr
0.s33
:

z
:
1330
Page 

Net CP for freestanding monopitch canopy roofs 
36 

Net pre~um CP for freestanding duopitch canopy roofs 
37 


37 

Internal 
CPi for enclosed build@s 
39 



opmings 
40 

_{H}_{I} _{I}_{n}_{t}_{e}_{r}_{n}_{a}_{l} pressure coefficients 
Cpi for opensided buildings 
40 

pressure coefficients 
Cpi for opentOpped vertical ~lindem 
40 

CP for long elements 
41 

CP for freestanding W* 
42 


48 


49 


50 


51 


Cp, for vertical walls of 
52 


.52 


CP, for vertical gable w~k 
adjacent tO 

nonvertical walls and roofs 
54 


Cw for windwardfacing 
nOnvefiical 

walls 
55 


59 

Reduction for zones A to 
D, H to J and Q to S of flat 
roofs 

with parapets 
60 


60 


61 


63 

CR 
for 
pitched roof zOnes K tO S 
66 

Cw 
for 
additional zones T to 
Y of 
70 

72 

D. 1 Values of seasonal factor 
78 

Figures 

Flowchart

4 

Basic deftitions 
6 


8 

effect factor Ca of standard method 
11 

Definition 
12 

Basic wind speed 
13 

Definition 
14 

of topographic
Definition 
15 

lbpogmphic
location factors 
hills and ridges 
16 

‘f@ographic
factors 
for cliffs and escarpments 
17 


19 


21 


22 
ii
Page 

14 
Examples of flush irregular walls 
23 

15 
Key for walls of inset storey 
24 

16 
Key for flat roofs 
26 

17 
Key to cave details for flat roofs 
27 

18 
Key for inset stomy 
28 

19 
Key for monopitch roofs 
29 

W 
Key for duopitch roofs 
30 

21 
Key for hipped roofs 
33 

22 
Key for mansard and multipitch roofs 
34 

22 
Key for multibay roofs 
35 

24 
Key for freestanding canopy roofs 
38 

25 
Reduction factor for length of elements 
41 

26 
Key for freestamding walls 
42 

27 
Shelter factor for fences 
43 

26 
Key for signboards 
43 

29 
Wind directions for a rectarrgulmplan building 
44 

26 
Key to overall 
load P 
46 
31 
Key for vertical walls of builrlii 
52 

32 
Key to vertical gable wrdls 
54 

23 
Key for walls of buildings with mentrant comers 
56 

24 
Key for walls of buildings with recessed bays 
57 

35 
Key to general method for flat rcofs 
58 

26 
Examples of zones of flat roof of arbM’ary Plan shape 
59 

37 
Additional 
zones around inset storey 
62 
28 
Key for monopitch 
roofs 
64 
39 
Synrmetries for pitched roofs 
65 

40 
Key for duopitch roofs 
67 

41 
Key for hipped roofs 
69 

42 
Key to multibay roofs 
71 

E. 1 
Effective 
heights br towns 
so 
F.1 
Gust peak factor gt 
82 

L&t of references 
Inside back cover 
In
This Part of this British Standard has been prepared by Subcommittee B/525/1,
Actions (loadings) and basis of design, and supersedes CP3 : Chapter V : Part 2:
1972.
‘Rds part of BS 6399 is a technical
revision of CP3
: Chapter
V
: Part 2 and
incorporates the considerable advances made and experience gained in wind engineering since that time. CP3 : Chapter V : M 2 will not be withdrawn immediately so as to allow an overlap period with this Part of BS 6399.
The b=ic wind speed in thk British Standard is given as an hourly mean value; this differs from CP3 : Chapter V : Part 2 in which it was based on a 3 s gust value. However, the hourly mean basic wind speed is subsequently converted into a gust wind speed for use in design (by a gust peak factor wh]ch takes account of gust duration time, height of structure above ground and the size of the structure). The adoption of the hourly mean value for the basic wind speed is for technical reasons. Primarily it allows a more accumte treatment of topography, but it alao provides the starting pohrt for serviceability calculations involving fatigue or dynamic response of the stmcture. Its use is akw a move towards harmonization as mean values (sometimes 10 min means) are often the basis for wind loading calculations in European and international standards.
Structure factors are used to check whether the response of the structure can be considered to be static, in which caae the use of the calculation methods in thk standard is appropriate. If the response is found to be mildly dynamic the methods can still be used but the resulting loads will need to be augmented. Structures which are dynamic will alsu be identified but their assessment is outside the scope of the standard.
TWOalternative methods are given:
a) a standard method, which uses a simplified procedure; b) a directional method, from which the simplified method was derived.
The standard method gives a conservative result within its range of applicability. Calibration haa shown that loads on typicaf buildings obtained by the standard method are around 14 % larger than obtained from the directional method. The degee of conservatism can be much larger close to the ground and in towns, but decreaaes to zero around 100 m above the gruund.
In addition to reduced conservatism, the directional method assesses the loadhg in more detail, but with the penalty of increaaed complexity and compukitional effort. Because of this it is anticipated that the standard method will be used for most handbaaed calculations and that the directional method wifl be implemented principally by computer
Procedures are alao given to enable the standard effective
wind speed to be used
with the directional pressure coefficients
and for the directional effective
wind
speeds to be used with the standard pressure coefficients.
CP3 : Chapter V : Part 2 allowed for the effect of ground roughness, building size and height above gound by a single factor. This required the calculation of separate wind speeds for every combination of reference height above gruund and the size of the loaded area. However, a simp~] cation has been introduced in the standard method which involves the calculation of only a single wind speed for each reference height. The effect of size is allowed for by a separate factor, Cc
BS 6399: Part 2 also gives values for external pressure coefficients for a greater mnge of building configurations than did CP3 : Chapter V : Part 2.
Compliance 
with 
a British 
Standard 
does not of itseff 
confer 
immunity 
from 
legaf obligations. 
iv
BS6399:Part
2:1995
1.1 
Scope 

‘lidsRut of BS 6399 gives methods for determining the gust peak wind loads on buildings and components thereof that should be taken into 

account in design using equivalent procedures. Two alternative methods are given: static 

a) 
a standard method which uses a sirnpliiled 

pnxedure to obtain a standard effective wind speed which ix uacd with standard pressure coefficients to determine the wind loads for orthogonal design cases. 

NOTE 1. This procedure 
is virtually the same 
win CP3 
: 

Chapter V 
: Parr 
2. 

b) 
a directional method in which effective wind 

s~ds ~d 
Preasurc coefficients arc determined 

to derive 
the wind loads for each wind dtiction. 

Other methods may be used in place of the two methcds given in thix standard, provided that they can be shown to be equivalent. Such methods include wind tunnel tests which should be taken as equivalent only if they meet the conditions defined in armex A. 

_{N}_{U}_{T}_{E}_{2}_{.} Wind tunnel tests are recommended when the form of 

the building is not covered 
by the data i“ this standard, when 

the form of the b.ifdimg cm be changed in response to the test 

resulf.? in order 
to give an optimized design, or when 
loading 

data are required in more 
derail than is awe” 
in this standard. 

Specialist advice should be sought for building shapes and site locations that are not covered by this standard. 

The methods given in this Part of BS 6399 do not 

apply tO bufldkgs 
which, 
by virtue of the 

structural 
properties, 
e .g, maas, stiffness, natural 

frequency or damping, are particularly susceptible to dynamic excitation. These should be asaeased using established dynamic methods or wind tunnel tests. 

NOTE 3. See references dynamic methcds. [1] 
to 14] for examples 
of established 

NUI’E 4. If a building is susceptible to excitaticm by vortex shedding or other aemelastic instability, tie maximum dynamic respome may occur at wind speeds lower than the maximum. 

1.2 
Informative 
references 
Thii British Standard refers to other publications that provide information or guidance. Editions of thexe publications current at the time of issue of this standard am listed on the inaide back cover, but reference should be made to the latest editions.
1.3 Defiitionx
For the purposes of this British Standard the following definitions apply.
1.3.1 
Wind speed 

1.3.1.1 
basic wind speed 

The hourly mean wind speed with an annual risk Q 

of being exceeded of 0.02, irrespective of wind direction, at a height of 10 m over completely flat terrain at sea Ievei that would occur if the ruughneas of the terrabr w uniform everywhere 

(inclu~l:g 
urban areas, inland lakes and the sea) 

and equwalent to typical 
open country in the 

United Kingdom. 

1.3.1.2 
site wind speed 

The basic wind speed modtiled to account for the altitude of the site arrd the direction of the wind being considered (arrd the aeaaon of exposure, if required). 

NUlll, 
In the standard metbcd 
only, effectsof topographic 
featuresareincludedintbe sitewindspeed. 

1.3.1.3 
effective wind 
speed 
The site wind speed modfied to a gust speed by taking account of the effective height, size of the building or structural element Ming considered and of permanent obstmctions upwind,
NCII’E. 1“ the direcriomd method topographic featwes are omitted
only:
from
the
effects
of
the site wind s~ed.
1.3.2
Pressure
1.3.2.1 dynamic
pressure
‘f’he potential pressure available from the kinetic
energy of the effective
wind speed.
1.3.2.2 pressrrre coefficient
The ratio of the pressure acting on a surface
_{d}_{y}_{}_{c}
pKS.SUP2.
to the
1.3.2.3 exterfud
pressrrre
The pressure acting on a.frexternal surface of a
building caused by the dmct
1.3.2.4 intemaf
pressure
action of the wind.
The preasffrc acting on an internal surface of a buildbrg caused by the action of the external pressures through porosity and openings in the external surfaces of the buildlng.
1.3.2.5 net pressure
The pressure dtiference a surface.
between
opposite faces of
BS63Y9:Part2:lYY5
Section
1
1.3.3 
Height 
1.3.5 Distance 

1.3.3.1 
altitude 
1.3.5.1 fetch 

a) 
when topography is not si@lcant: 
the height 
edge of 

above mean sea level of the ground level 
of the 
The distance from the site to the upwind each category of terrain, used to determine 
the 

site; 
effect 
of termirr roughness changes. 

b) 
when topography is significant: 
the height 

above mean sea level topographic feature, of the base of the 
1.4 Main symbols For the purposes of this Rut of BS 6399 the 

1.3.3.2 
building height 
following symbols apply. 

The height of a building or part of a building above its base. 
A 
Area 

1.3.3.3 
reference height 
a 
Largest diagonal dimension of the loaded area 

The reference height for a part 
of a structure is the 
envelope (figure 5) 

datum height above Wound for the pressure 
B 
Crosswind breadth of building (figure 2b) 

coefficients and is defined with the pressure 
b 
Scaling length used to define loaded areas for 

coefficients for that part. 
pressure coefficients (2.4.1.3, 2.5. 1.2) 

1.3.3.4 
obstruction height 
c. 
Size effect factor of standard method (2.1.3.4) 

The average height above ground of buildings, 
Cp 
Net pressure coefficient (2. 1.3.3) 

structures or other permanent obstmctions to the 
c 
External prewure coefficient (2. 1.3.1) 

wind immediately upwind of the site. 
c: 
Internal pressure coefficient (2. 1.3.2) 

1.3.3.5 
effective height 
c, 
Dynamic augmentation factor (1.6. 1) 

The height used in the calculations of the effective 
D 
Inwind depth of buifding (figure 2b) 

wind speed determined from the reference height with slfowance for the obstmction height. 
d 
Disnreter of circular cylinders 

1.3.4 
Length 
G 
gap across recessed bay or weU (figure 34) 

length 
9t 
gust peak factor 

The longer horizontal dimension of a buildhrg or 
H 
Buildhrg height (fw 2), eaves height 
or 

part of a building. 1, 
height of inset or lower storey 

width 
He 
Effective height (1.7.3) 

The shorter horizontal dimension of a building or 
H, 
Reference height (1. 7.3) 

part of a building.’) 
Ho 
Obstruction height (1. 7.3, figure 
2), or 

crosswind 
average height of roof tops upwind of the building 

The horizontal extent of a buiIding or 
part 
of a 
h 
f~re 

building norrmd to the direction of the wind. l] 
Pa.rspet height (2.5.1.4, 17), freestandhrg waif height (2.7.5.4, figure 23), 


or signboard height (2.7.6, figure 24) 

The horizontal extent of a building 
or part 
of a 
Kb 
Buildingtype factor (1.6. 1) 

building paralfel to the direction of the wind. 11 
L 
Building length (figure 2) or length of element 

diagonrd 
between free ends (2.7.3) 

The largest diagonal dimension of a loaded area, i.e. the dimension between the most distant points 
LD 
Length of downwind slope of topogmphic feature (2.2.2.2.5, figure 8) 

on the periphery of the area. 
L, 
Effective 
slope length of topographic 
feature 

length 
(2.2.2.2.4) 

A reference length determined from the 
Lu 
Length of upwind slope of topographic 
feature 

proportions of the building used to define zones 
(2.2.2.2.4, 
figure 8) 

over which the pressure coefficient is Sas”med to 
P 
Net load (2.1.3.5) 

be constant. 
P 
Net pressure (2. 1.3.3) 

P, 
Pressure on external surface (2. 1.3.1) 

l) For COmPIeXpla shaWs, these lengths 
may be detemined 
from 
the Smalleat enclming 
rectangle or circle 
2
Section 1
BSS399:Part
2:1995
Pi
Q
Pressure on intemaf surface (2.1.3.2)
Annual risk (pmbabi!lty) of the baaic wind speed being exceeded (2.2.2.4, 2.2.2. 5,)
9 Dynamic pressure
9. Dynamic pressure of directional method for external pressures (3. 1.2.2)
9i
9s
r
s,
s~
s=
s~
s~
SP
s,
st
s
T,
Tt
v~
v,
v,
w
w
Dynamic presxure of dkectional method for internal pressures (3. 1.2.2)
Dynamic pressure of standard method (2.1.2)
Radius (figure 17) Altitude factor (2.2.2.2) Terrain and building factor (2.2.3. 1) Fetch factor (3.2.3.2) Dnction factor (2.2.2.3) lbpogmphic increment (3.2.3.4) Probability factor (2.2.2. 5) Seasonal factor (2.2.2.4) Turbulence factor (3.2.3.2) lbpographic location factor (2.2.2.2) Fetch adjustment factor (3. 2.3.2) ‘fhrbulence adjustment factor (3.2.3.2) NIC wind speed (2.2.1, figure 6) Effective wind speed (2.2.3, 3.2.3) Site wind speed (2.2.2) Buildlng width (figure 2)
width of wedge in reentnmt (figure 33)
comers
x D~tance of site from crest of topographic feature (2.2.2.2.5, figure 8) or distance in wind direction for buifding spacing ( 1.7.3.3)
z
a
b
Height of crest of topographic 
feature above 

the upwind baae altitude (figure 
8) 

Pitch angfe (from horizontal) nonvertical W* (3.3.1.4) comer angle of walls (3.3.1.2) 
of roof (2.5) 
or 
AS 
.%te altitude in metres above mean sea level 

(2.2.2.2) 

AT 
Altitude 
of upwind baae of topographic 
feature in metres above mean sea level 

(2.2.2.3) 
Reduction factor for length of elements
(2.7.3) 

Average slope of the gmmnd 

Effective 
slope of topographic 
feature 
(2.2.2.2.4) 
‘fhngent of downwind slope of topographic feature (figure 7)
lkrrgent of upwind slope of topographic
feature (figure 
7, 2.2.2.2.4) 
Whfd direction in degrees eaat of north 

(2.2.2.3) 
Solidity ratio of walls or frames (2.7.5)
or
blockage ratio of canopies (2.5.9, figure 24)
Wind direction of degrees from normal to
building faces (figure
2) or angle around
periphery
of circularplan buildhrg (2.4.6)
1.5 Outline of procedure for calculating wind loads
1.5.1 The outline of procedure is illustrated in the
flow chart given in figfmc 1. This shorn the stages
of the standard method, together with the relevant clause numbem, as the boxes outlined and connected by thick lines. The stages of the directional method are shown as boxes outlined with double lines and are directly equivalent to the stages of the standard method. Various input data are shown in boxes outlined with singfe lines.
1.5.2 The wind loads should be calculated for each
of the loaded areas under consideration,
depending
on the dimensions of the building, defined in
figure
2. These
may be:
a) the structure ax a whole;
b) parts of the structure, such as walls and roofs
or
c) individual stmctural components,
including
cladding urrits arrd their ftinga.
Nc71Z. 
Wind load on a partially 
completed structure 
may he 

critical 
and will be dependent 
on the method and sequence 
of 

construction. 
3
Wstww:rartz:lxm
CSSULIU1l
1
)
Stage 
1: Dynamic 
augmentation 

_{f}_{a}_{c}_{t}_{o}_{r} 
_{C}_{,} 
_{(}_{1} _{.}_{6}_{.}_{1}_{)} 

■ 

■ 

_{S}_{t}_{a}_{g}_{e} 
_{2}_{:} _{C}_{h}_{e}_{c}_{k} 
_{l}_{i}_{m}_{i}_{t}_{s} _{o}_{f} 

_{a}_{p}_{p}_{l}_{i}_{c}_{a}_{b}_{i}_{l}_{i}_{t}_{y} 
_{C}_{,} _{<} 
_{0}_{.}_{2}_{5}_{,} 

H 
<300 
m (1.6.2) 

_{S}_{t}_{a}_{g}_{e} 
_{3}_{:} _{B}_{a}_{s}_{i}_{c} _{w}_{i}_{n}_{d} 
_{s}_{p}_{e}_{e}_{d} 
_{V}_{,} 

(2.2.1) 

I 

_{S}_{t}_{a}_{g}_{e} 
_{4}_{:} 
_{S}_{i}_{t}_{e} _{w}_{i}_{n}_{d} 
_{s}_{p}_{e}_{e}_{d} 
_{V}_{.} 

(2.2.2) 

■ 

Stage 5: Terrain 
categories, 

effective 
height 
H. 
(1.7.3) 

9 

Stage 
6: Choica 
of 
method 
(1 .8) 

9 
_{N}_{o}
Input 
building 
height 
H, input 

building type 
factor 
K, (table 
1 ) 

Building is dynamic. 
This Pert 

does 
not apply 
(see 
references 

[1] 
to [41) 

Basic 
wind speed 
map [Figure 
6) 

Altitude factor 
S,, 
directional 
factor 

S~, seaaonal factor 
S, 

Site 
terrain type, 
level 
of upwind 

rooftops Ho, separation 
of buildings 

x 

Directional and topographic 
G
Stage
_{7}_{:} _{S}_{t}_{a}_{n}_{d}_{a}_{r}_{d}
_{e}_{f}_{f}_{e}_{c}_{t}_{i}_{v}_{e}
_{w}_{i}_{n}_{d}
Directional
effective
wind
speed

Directional
pressure
coefficients
Stage
10:
Wtnd
Ioada
P
(2.1
.3)
[
Figure
L Flowchart
illustrating
outline
procedure
Directional
wind
loads
_{P} (3.1)
1
4
Section
1
BS63YY:MZ:1YY6
Notes 
to figure 
1 

_{S}_{t}_{a}_{g}_{e} _{1} 
_{D}_{e}_{t}_{e}_{r}_{m}_{i}_{n}_{e}_{s} the dynamic augmentation 
factor 

fmm 
the basic geometric 
and stnctuml 
pmpenies 
of the 

building, 

Stage 
2 
Depending 
on this value, a check is p+?rformed 

on the 
level of dynamic 
excitatim to determine: 

a) 
whether the 
methods given in this k%rt of 
ss 
6399 

aPPIY and the 
a%ew.ment may proceed; 
or 

b) 
whether the 
methcds given in this 
~ 
of 
ss 
6399 

do not 
apply and the building should 
be assessed by 

one of the methwls for dynmnic buildings (see 

references [1] 
to 
[4]) or by wind tunnel 
tesfs 

(see annex A). 

SW, 
% Determines 
the basic hourly 
mean wind 
speed 

from the 
map for the 
UK. 

Sfage 
4 
Determines 
a site wind speed, 
still 

corresponding to the 
hourly mean wind 
speeds 
at 
a 

height 
of 
10 m above 
ground in the standard 
exposure, 

from the basic wind speed by applying corrections 
for the 

site altitude, wind dbwmion and season. 
Up to 
this point, 

no allowance for the 
exposure of the 
particular 
site has 

been made and the procedure is common 
(except 
in ifs 

treafment of the effectsof topography) to both the sti”dard and dkectional metbd. 

NCflE The derivations 
of the b~ic wind speed 
map, 
the 

adjustments for site altitude, wind direction 
and season 

are given in annex B. 

Stage 
6 
.ksses.ses the exposure of the 
site in term 
of the 

terrain mugtmes 
and the effective height. llu?e 

categories 
of terrain 
roughness are used to define 
the 
site 

exposure. The effective height depends cm the degee shelfer provided by neighbo”ri”g buildings or other permanent obstmcfiom. 
of 
Stage k Having assessed the exposure
of the
site,
this
St&3e offersthe choice between the standard nwtbcd a“d the directional method. The standard method @ves
conservative values for standard orthogonal load czses, and a simplified method for buildin@ up to 1C4 m in height and for signirlcant to fmgmphy. The directional
methcd 
gives a more precise value for any given wind 

direction, particularly for sites in towns, and where 

topography is significant. A simple rule for assessing the 

significance of to fmsraphy is provided. 

Stage 
7 
Determines the effective wind W&&S required 

by either method. The effective wind speed is a gust 

wind sp+ed appropriate to the site exposure and the 

height of the building. h! the scmdard method this 

correspmds 
to a datum size of loaded area, while 
in the 

directional method this cm’resfmnds to the size of the loaded area under consideration. 

s~e 
8 
Converts the effective wind speed into an 

equwalent 
dynamic pressure. 
Stage 9 Selects pressurecoefficients corresponding to the form of the building. In the standard method these coeffkienb correspond to a number (usually two or
three) of orthogonal 
load cases, 
while in the 
directional 
methcd they correspond to the wind directions being considered (usually twelve). 

Stx. 10 Determines the wind loads from the dynamic pressure,pressurecoefficients, dynamic augmentation 

factor and, in the 
standard method, by the size effect 

factor, to gtve the design. 
characteristic 
wind load 
for static 
5
a) Fixed
dimensions
length,
width,
height
—.

k~x 

Wind D 

rml 

General caae 
Orthogonal caaas 

h) Variable dimemiom: 
crosswind 
breadth, imvind depth, 
wind angle 
Obstruction 
and upwind 
$paci”g 

Figure 2. Basic definitions 
of building dimensions 
Section
1
1.6 Dynamic classtilcation
BS 6299:
Part 2:1995
1.7 Site exposure
1.6.1 Dynamic augmentation 
factor 
1.7.1 Genersf 

The methods of this standard employ equivalent static loads to represent the effect of fluctuating 
The site wind speed V, refers to a standard open country exposure at a height of 10 m above 

ground. ‘lb obtain the effective 
wind speed the 

loads which is applicable only to buildings which are not susceptible to dynamic excitation. The standard permits equivalent static loads to be used for the design of mildly dynamic structures by the introduction of a dynamic augmentation factor. The value of this factor depends upon the actual 
effects of varying gruund roughness, the height and d~tance of obstructions upwind of the site and the effects of topography should be taken into account. 1.7.2 Ground roughness categories 

height H of the building above ground and on a buildingtype factor ~b obtained from table 1, for 
Three categories of terrain are considered: 

the form of construction of the buildlng. 
a) sea 
the sea, and inland areas of water 

extending 
more than 
1 km in the wind direction 

The dynamic augmentation factor C, is given for typical buildings in figure 3. 
when closer than 1 km 
upwind of the site; 

b) country: 
all terrain which is not defined as sea 

‘fhble 1. Buildingtype fsctor 
~b 
or town; 

_{&}_{p}_{}_{e} of 
buUdf@ 
f& 
c) bum: 
built up aress with 
an average level of 

mof tops at least Ho = 
5 m above ground level. 

Welded steel unclad frames 
?3 
NOTE 1. Permanent forest 
and 
woodland may be treated 
8 .. 
s 

Bolted steel and reinforced 
concrete 
categmy. 

unclad frames 
NUIT 2. ‘l&rain 
Categories 
are 
explained i“ more 
detail in 

annex E. 

Fortd sheds and similar light structures with few internal walls 
1.7.3 height 

Framed buildings with structural walls around M and staim only (e.g. office 
for the 

build~ 
of open plan or with 
coefficient tables and deftition figures, but can 

partitioning) 
conservatively be taken as the maximum height of 

Framed buildmf@ with structural walk 
0.5 
the building above ground level. 

around lifts and stairs with additional masonry subdivision walls (e. g. 
1.7.3.2 For buifdings in country terrain, or conservatively for buildings in town terrain, the 

aptiment 
buildings), buildings of 
effective height Ife should be taken as the 

ma.?arry construction and 
reference height HP 

timberframed housing _{:} 
1.7.3.3 For buildings in town terrain, the effective 

NOTE. Thevaluesof the facfarsKb and C, have been 
derived 
height & depends on the shelter affofied by the avemge level of the height Ho of the roof tops of 

for typical 
building structures with 
typical 
frequency 
and 

damping chamcfe!tstics, under typical UK wind speeds, without 
the buildings, or of the height of other permanent 

accounting for topogmphyor tsme.inroughness effects. More 
obstructions, upwind of the site and their upwind 

accurate values of these factam may be derived using annex C 
spacing X. These dimensions are defined in 

when tbe buifding characteristics am “ot typical, or when the 
figure 2. The effective height He should be 

effectsof topographyand terrain mugtmessneed tobe taken 
determined as follows. 

into account. 

1.6.2 Lfndts of applicability This Part of Ef3 6399 does not apply when the value of dynamic augmentation factor exceeds the 
a) Ifxs2Ho then He is the greater – He = Hr of 0.8H0 or He 
= 
0.4H,; 

limits shown in figure 3. Buildin@ 
faffing outside 
b) If X > 
6H0 

these !imk? should be assmsed using established NCllll See referemes[1] to [4] for f“rtber information o“ analysis of dynamic structures. 
tiien He is given by He 
= 
Hr; 

dynamic methods. 
c) fn the range 2Jfo < He is the greater of 
X 
c 
6H0 

He = H, 
 1.2H0 + 
0.2X 
or He = 0.4HP 

NOTE. 1. 
the absence of more 
accurate information, 
the 

obstmction 
bwgbt Ho may be estimated from the average 

number 
of storeys of .pwi”d 
buildings by raking the typical 

storey height 
as 3 m. Furrher 
guidance is given i“ annex 
E. 
7
@
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
Limits of applicability
Shaded regionoutaidescopeof this Part
0
1
10
100
Building height,
H
(m)
1000
Figure
3. Dynamic augmentation factor C,
1.8 Choice of method
1.8.1 For alf structures less than 100 m in height
and where the wind loading can be represented by
equivalent
static loads (see
1.6), the wind loading
can be otained either by the standard method described in section 2 or by the directional method given in section 3,
1.8.2 The standard method provides values of
effective wind speed to be used with the standard pressure coefficient (clauses 2.3 to 2.5) to determine orthogonal load cases, corresponding to the wind direction notionally normal or parallel to the faces of the buifding. The standard method uses a simplilled allowance for signiilcant topography, as defined in figure 7.
1.8.3 The directional method gives values of the
effective wind s~ed for different wind directions, taking into account the term.in appropriate to the wind dnction behrg considered, to be used with the directional pressure coefficients. It gives better estimates of effective wind speeds in towns and for sites affected by topography.
L 8.4 However, m the standard method gives conservative values of both effective wind speed (below 100 m) and pressure coefficient, it may sometimes be appropriate to use a hybrid combination of both methods, either
a) standard effective
wind speeds with
directional pressure coefficients;
or
b) directional effective
wind speeds with
standard pressure coefficients.
Combination a) k aurxouriate when the form of the building is‘well ‘defied, but the site is not; the caaes of relocatable buildings or standard mass pruduced designs are typical examples. Combination b) is appropriate when only the standmd orthogonal load cases are required, but a better allowance for site exposure is desired because topogmphy is signifkant and/or the site is in a town. Such hybrid combinations should be
app~ed only in accordance with 3.4.
#
BS6399:Part2:lW5
2.1 Standard wind loads
2.1.1 Wind direction
2.1.1.1 The standard method requires assessment for orthogonal load cases for wind dmections normal to the faces of the buifdmg, as shown in figure 2b. When the building is doublysymmetric, e.g. rectangularplan with flat, equal duopitch or hipped roof, the two orthogonal cases shown in figure 2b are sufficient, When the building is singlysymmetric, three orthogonal cases are required, e.g. for rectangularplan monopitch buildings: wind norrnaf to high eaves; wind normal to low eaves; wind pwallel to eaves. When the buifdlng is asymmetric, four orthogorwd cases are n?quired.
2.1.1.2 
For each orthogonal case, the range of 

wind dmctions *45” either side of the direction normal to the building face should be considered. When symmetry is used to reduce the number of orthogonal load cases, both opposing wind 

_{d}_{i}_{r}_{e}_{c}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{s}_{,} _{e}_{.}_{g}_{.} _{Q} _{=} Oormd O = 
180° should be 

considered arrd the more onerous dmction used. 

2.1.2 Dynamic prsssure 

2.1.2.1 
The value of the dynamic pressure q, of 

the standard method is given by 

q, 
= 0.613Ve2 

where 

q, is the dynamic pressure (in Pa*); 

t’, is the effective (in rots). 
wind speed from 2.2.3 

2.1.2.2 
Values of dynamic pressure 
q~ for various 

values of Ve are given 
in table 
2. 

2.1.3 Wind load 
(1)
where
_{9}_{s}
Cw
is 
the 
dynamic pressure 
from 
2.1. Z 

is the 
extemaf pressure coefficient 
for the 
buifding surface given irr 2.4 and 2.5
_{c}_{,}
is the size effect factor for external pressures defined in 2.1.3.4.
2. L3.2 Internal su~ace
prssaurvs
The pressure acting on the internal surface of a
building, pi, is given
by
_{P}_{i} _{=} 
q,cplca 
_{(}_{3}_{)} 

where 

_{9}_{,} 
is 
the 
dynamic pressure from 2.1. Z 

CPi 
is the 
internal pressure coefficient 
for the 
c,
buifding given in 2.6
is the size effect factor for internal pressures defined in 2.1.3.4.
2.1.3.3 Nst su@ace Preasurw
_{T}_{h}_{e} net
pressure
p
acting
across
a surface
by the following. a) For enclosed buildings
is given
P= 
Pe 
Pi 
(4) 

where 

pe 
is 
the external pressure given irr 2.1.3.1; 

_{P}_{i} 
is the 
internal pressure given in 2.1.3.2. 

b) For freestanding elements canopies 
and building 

P 
= 
%% G 
^{(}^{5}^{)} 
where
_{9}_{,}
is the
dynamic pressure from 2.1. Z

sueace 
prssaurw 
_{C}_{p} is the net pressure coefficient for the 

The pressure acting on the external surface of a 
canopy surface or element given in 2.5.9 

buildhg 
P, is gNen 
by 
and 2.7 

P, 
 
^{q}^{,}^{c}^{w}^{c}^{,} 
^{(}^{2}^{)} 
^{C}^{a} is the size effect factor for external pressures defined in 2.1.3.4. 

‘Ihble 2. Dyrrs ‘e mls 10 20 30 40 50 Y 60 
uc pressure _{+}_{0} _{+} 61 245 552 981 iCi30 2210 74 270 589 \2280 
q~ (in Pa) 1.0 + 2.0
1350 1470 2750 2830 2920 T+ 6.0 + 6.0 + 7.0 + 8.0 + 9.0
38 1C4 I1130 1720 2430 120
324
668 1190 17!30 I 2360 2510 2590 1920 2670
i 57 177 199
1300
1030 1590 1850 2130 1990 2060 
.lPal!J/m2
BSfX399:
F’art 2:1995
Section
2
2.1.3.4 Sue @ectfactOr
The size effect factor Ca of the standard method accounts for the nonsimultaneous action of gusts acnmsane xtemalsurfaceand for the response of internal pressures. Values of size effect factor are given in figure4, dependent onthe site exposure (see 1.’7) and the diagonal dnenaion a.
For external pressures the diagonal dimension a is the largest diagonal of the area over which load sharfng takes place, as illustrated in figure 5. For internal pressures an effective diagonal d]menaion is defined in 2.6 which is dependent on the internal volume.
For all individual stmctural components,
claddlng
units and their ftings,
the diagonal dimension
should bc taken as a = 5 m, unless there is
adequate load sharing capacity to justify the use of a diagonal length ~eater than 5 m.
2.1.3.5 Su@ace loads
The net load P on an area element is gjven by
P=PA
of a building surface or
(6)
where
_{P}
A
is the net pressure acroas the surface; is the loaded area.
Load effects, for example bending moments and shear fomes, at any level in a building should be baaed on the diagonal dimension of the loaded area above the level being considered, as illustrated in figure 5C.
2.1.3.6 Ovemll loads
The ovemfl load P on a building is taken as the sum of the loads on individual surfaces with allowances for nonsimultaneous action between faces and for mildly dynamic response.
The overall horizontal loads are given by
P = 0.85( XPfmnt  
EP,,J 
(1 
+ 
C,) 
(7) 
where 

,zPfmnt is the horizontal component of surface load summed over the windwardfacing walls and roofs; 

_{Z}_{P}_{.}_{W} is the horizontal component of surface load summed over the leewardfacing walls and roofs; 
c,
is the dynamic augmentation fmm 1.6.1;
factor
NOTE 1. The factor 0.85 accounts for the nonsimultaneous
action between faces. 

NOTE 2. As the effect of internal pressure 
on the front 
and 
rear faces is eqwd and opposite when 
they are of equal 
size, 
internal presmue can be ignored in the calculationof overall
horizontal loads on enclosed buildings on level ground.
_{W}_{h}_{e}_{r}_{e} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{c}_{o}_{m}_{b}_{i}_{n}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}
of the orthogonal loads is
critical to the design, for example in deriving stresses in comer columns, the maximum stresses caused by wind in any component may be taken as 80 % of the sum of the wind stresses resulting from each orthogonal pair of load caaes.
2.1.3.7 .@mmetric loads
Unless specific rules are given for particular forms of buifdlng (e.g. freestanding canopies (2.5.9.1) and signboards (2. 7.6)), an aUowance for aaymmetw of loading should be made, as follows.
For overalf loads on enclosed buildhga, 60 % of the load on each waif or roof pitch should be applied in turn, keeping the loads on the rest of the building at the design values.
Where the inffuence function for a structural component haa regions of negative value, 100 % of the design loads to areas contributing to the positive regions and 60 % of the design loads to areas contributing to the negative regions should be applied.
NIX!%. ‘his 
procedwe shcmld k 
used to account 
for torsional 

effecfs 
on buildings and is equivalent 
t. 
a boriz.ntal 

displacement of the force on each face 
of 
10 
% 
of 
the 
face 

width 
from the cemxe of the face. 
2.1.3.8 Fictional dmg component
When deriving overalf forces on the building (see 2.4.5 and 2.5. 10) the contribution of the
frictional 
forces 
should be taken to act in the 

direction 
of the wind and should be added 
to the 
contribution of the normal pressure forces
from 2.1.3.6 using vectorial summation.
but tafdng the inwind depth of the building, D, as the smaller of width Wor length L in the determination of Pfmntand Prem
10
I
Section 
2 
BS6299:Part2 
:1995 

1.m 

0.% 

0s0 

o.m 

am 

“7” 

_{,}_{!} 
,,, 
,,! 

0.00 

0.% 

_{1} 
_{?}_{0} 
100 
10CO 

Diagonal dimensiona (m) 

I@ 
to IInes 
on figure 
4 

Effective 
height 
Site 
In county 
closest 
distance 
to sea 
(km) 
Site 
in town: 
closest distance 
to sea 

_{H}_{,} 
(km) 

_{m} 
Oto<z 
_{Z}_{t}_{o} 
_{<}_{1}_{0} 
Iota 
<1oo 
2100 
Zto 
<10 
10 to <100 
>100 

_{5}_{2} 
_{A} 
_{B} 
B 
B 
c 
c 
c 

>2t05 
A 
B 
B 
B 
c 
c 
c 

>5 
to 
10 
A 
A 
B 
B 
A 
c 
c 

>10 
to 
15 
A 
A 
B 
B 
A 
B 
B 

>15 
to 
20 
A 
A 
B 
B 
A 
B 
B 

>20 
to 
30 
A 
A 
A 
B 
A 
A 
B 

>30 
to 
50 
A 
A 
A 
B 
A 
A 
B 

>50 
A 
A 
A 
B 
A 
A 
B 

Figure 
4. Size 
effect 
factor 
Ca of standard 
method 
BSS399:Fart2
:1995
Section
2

_{f}_{o}_{r} _{l}_{o}_{a}_{d} _{o}_{n} _{i}_{n}_{d}_{i}_{v}_{i}_{d}_{u}_{a}_{l} 
b) Diagonal 
for toti 
load on combined 
faces 
faces 
for shear at bsse of shaded parl
a
EN
C) of faces
Diagonals
for load on elementi
_{D}_{i}_{a}_{g}_{o}_{m}_{l} _{f}_{o}_{r} _{t}_{o}_{t}_{a}_{l} 
e) Diagcmal for total load 
.“ roof 
pitch 

Figure 5. Deffition 
of diagonal of losded mess 


NUl?3 
In considetig 
the range 
of wind directions 
*45”, 
in 

acccmdam?e with 2.1.1.2. 
two amxoa.hes 
are uossible: 

