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BRITISH STANDARD

Loading for buildings

BS 6399:

Part 2:1995

Part 2. Code of practice for wind loads

 

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NO COPYING

WITHOUT

BS1

PERMISSION

EXCEPT

AS PERMITTED

BY

COPYRIGHI

LAW

 

BS6399:Part2:

1995

Committees responsible for this British Standard

‘rhe preparation of this Britiih Standard was entrusted by ‘lbchnical

Committee B/525, Buildings and civil engineering structures, to Subcommittee B/525/1, Actions (loadings) and basis of desigrr, upon which the following bodies were represented:

British Constructional Steelwork Association Ltd.

British Iron arrd Steel Producem’

British Masonry Society

Association

Concrete Society Department of the Environment (Building Research Establishment) Department of the Environment (Property and Buifdings Directorate)

Department

of Trarrsport (Highways Agency)

Institution of Structural En@reers National House-building Council Royal Institute of British Architects Steel Construction Institute

This British Standard, having bee” prepared under the direction of the Building and Chil Engineering %ctor Board, was published tinder the authority of the Standards Bozwd and comes into effect on

15 Ausust

1995

0 BSI 1!295

Nmt published (as CP 4) November 1944 First revision (as CP 3:

Chapter V) Ausust 1952 %rfitd second revision (as CP3:

Chapter

 

V

: Part

1)

Becember 1967

Completion

of second

revision

(=

CP

3:

Chapter

V

:

Part

2)

July 1970 Published as KS 6399:

Fart

2:

Au@st 1995

 

The following 9S1 references

 

relate

ro the work

on this

sta”dati.

 

Committee

reference

9/525/

1

Draft for comment 91 I 16625 DC

Amendments

issued since publication

Amd. No.

Date

Text affected

I

I

Contents

BS6299:Part2:

Committees responsible Foreword

Fage Inside front cover iv

 

Section

1. General

1.1

Scope

1.2

Informative

references

1.3

Definitions

1.4

Main symbols

1.5

Outline of proceducc for calculating wirrd loads

1.6

Dyrramic claasiiication

1.7

Site exposure

1.8

Choice of method

Section

2. Standard

method

2.1

Standard wind loads

2.2

Standad

wind speeds

2.3

Standard pressure coefficients

2.4

External

pressure coefficients

for walls

2.5

External

pressure coefficients

for roofs

2.6

Internal pressure coefficients

2.7

Pressure coefficients

for elements

Section

3. Directional

method

3.1

Dwectional wind loads

3.2

Directional

wind speeds

3.3

Dnctional

pressure coefficients

3.4

Hybrid combinations

of standard arrd dkectional

methods

Annexes

A

(normative) Necessary pruviaions for wind tunnel testing

B

(irrfOmative)

Derivation

of extreme wind information

C

(informative)

Dynamic augmentation

D

(nonnative)

PmbabiIity

factor and seasonaf factor

E

(informative)

‘l&rain

categories and effective

height

F

(informative)

Gust peak factor

‘lhbles

  • 1 Buifding-type faCtOr &

  • 2 Dynamic pressure g= [in Pa)

  • 3 Valves of dwection factor S,j

  • 4 Factor .%,for standard methud

    • L ExcemaA pressure cucfficients Cw for verticaI walk

      • 6 Frictional drag coefficients

      • 7 External pressure Cw coefficients for walls of circulm-plan buildhrgs

      • 8 Extemaf pressure ceefficienta Cw for flat roofs of buiIdings

      • 9 External presarrc coefficients

  • 10 External pressure coefficients

  • 11 External pressure coefficients

Cw for monOpirch mOfs Of buildin@

C& for duopitch roofs of build@s

Cw for hipped roofs of buildings

  • 12 Reduction factor for multi-bay roofs

1

1

1

2

3

7

7

8

9

12

20

20

25

39

41

44

46

51

72

73

73

75

77

79

81

7

9

17

20

21

25

25

26

31

31

32

35

Dcr

0.s33

:

-

z

:

1330

 

Page

  • 13 pressure coefficients

Net

CP for free-standing

monopitch canopy roofs

36

  • 14 coefficients

Net pre~um

CP for free-standing

duopitch canopy roofs

37

  • 15 Reduction factors for free-standing multi-bay camopy roofs

 

37

  • 16 pressure coefficients

Internal

CPi for enclosed build@s

39

  • 17 Internal pressure coefficients Cpi for buildings with dominant

 

opmings

40

HI

Internal pressure

coefficients

Cpi for open-sided buildings

 

40

  • 19 Internal

pressure coefficients

Cpi for open-tOpped vertical ~lindem

40

  • 20 Net pressure coefficients

CP for long elements

 

41

  • 21 Net pressure coefficients

CP for free-standing W*

42

  • 22 Factom .SCind $

48

  • 23 A@stment factors I“c and Tt for sites in town terrain

 

49

  • 24 Gust peak factor gt

50

  • 25 Values of L, and .Sh

51

  • 26 External pressure coefficients rectangular-plan buildings

Cp, for vertical walls of

 

52

  • 27 Reduction factom for zone A on verticaf walls of polygon&plan buildings

.52

  • 28 External pressure coefficients

CP, for vertical gable w~k

adjacent tO

non-vertical

walls and roofs

54

  • 29 External pressure coefficients

Cw for windward-facing

nOn-vefiical

walls

55

  • 30 ExtemaJ pressure coefficients Cw for flat roofs with sharp eaves

59

  • 31 factor

Reduction

for zones

A to

D, H to J and Q to S of

flat

roofs

with parapets

60

  • 32 External pressure coefficients Cm for flat roofs with curved eaves

60

  • 33 External pressure coefficients Cw for flat roofs with mansard eaves

61

  • 34 External pressure coefficients CP, for pitched roof zones A to J

63

  • 35 Extemaf pressure coefficients

CR

for

pitched roof zOnes K tO S

66

  • 36 External pressure coefficients hipped roofs

Cw

for

additional

zones T to

Y of

70

  • 37 Intemaf pressure coefficients Cpj for open-sided buildings

72

D. 1 Values of seasonal factor

78

Figures

Flowchart

  • 1 illustrating outline procedure

 

4

  • 2 of building dimensions

Basic deftitions

6

  • 3 Dynamic augmentation factor C,

8

  • 4 Size

effect

factor Ca of standard method

 

11

  • 5 of diagonal of loaded areas

Definition

12

  • 6 Vb (in rds)

Basic wind

speed

13

  • 7 of significant topography

Definition

14

of topographic

  • 8 dimensions

Definition

 

15

lbpogmphic

  • 9 for

location factors

hills and ridges

 

16

‘f@ographic

  • 10 kxation

factors

for cliffs and escarpments

17

  • 11 Division of buildings by parts for lateral loads

19

  • 12 Key to wall pressure data

21

  • 13 Typical examples of buildhygs with m-entrant comers and recessed bays

22

 

Page

14

Examples of flush irregular walls

23

15

Key for walls of inset storey

24

16

Key for flat roofs

26

17

Key to cave details for flat roofs

27

18

Key for inset stomy

28

19

Key for monopitch roofs

29

W

Key for duopitch roofs

30

21

Key for hipped roofs

33

22

Key for mansard and multipitch roofs

34

22

Key for multi-bay roofs

35

24

Key for free-standing

canopy roofs

38

25

Reduction factor for length of elements

41

26

Key for free-stamding walls

42

27

Shelter factor for fences

43

26

Key for signboards

43

29

Wind directions for a rectarrgulm-plan building

44

26

Key to overall

load P

46

31

Key for vertical walls of builrlii

52

32

Key to vertical gable wrdls

54

23

Key for walls of buildings with m-entrant comers

56

24

Key for walls of buildings with recessed bays

57

35

Key to general method for flat

rcofs

58

26

Examples of zones of flat roof of arbM’ary Plan shape

59

37

Additional

zones around inset storey

62

28

Key for monopitch

roofs

64

39

Synrmetries for pitched roofs

65

40

Key for duopitch roofs

67

41

Key for hipped roofs

69

42

Key to multi-bay roofs

71

E. 1

Effective

heights br towns

so

F.1

Gust peak factor gt

82

L&t of references

Inside back cover

In

Foreword

This Part of this British Standard has been prepared by Subcommittee B/525/1,

Actions (loadings) and basis of design, and supersedes CP3 : Chapter V : Part 2:

1972.

‘Rds part of BS 6399 is a technical

revision of CP3

: Chapter

V

: Part 2 and

incorporates the considerable advances made and experience gained in wind engineering since that time. CP3 : Chapter V : M 2 will not be withdrawn immediately so as to allow an overlap period with this Part of BS 6399.

The b=ic wind speed in thk British Standard is given as an hourly mean value; this differs from CP3 : Chapter V : Part 2 in which it was based on a 3 s gust value. However, the hourly mean basic wind speed is subsequently converted into a gust wind speed for use in design (by a gust peak factor wh]ch takes account of gust duration time, height of structure above ground and the size of the structure). The adoption of the hourly mean value for the basic wind speed is for technical reasons. Primarily it allows a more accumte treatment of topography, but it alao provides the starting pohrt for serviceability calculations involving fatigue or dynamic response of the stmcture. Its use is akw a move towards harmonization as mean values (sometimes 10 min means) are often the basis for wind loading calculations in European and international standards.

Structure factors are used to check whether the response of the structure can be considered to be static, in which caae the use of the calculation methods in thk standard is appropriate. If the response is found to be mildly dynamic the methods can still be used but the resulting loads will need to be augmented. Structures which are dynamic will alsu be identified but their assessment is outside the scope of the standard.

TWOalternative methods are given:

a) a standard method, which uses a simplified procedure; b) a directional method, from which the simplified method was derived.

The standard method gives a conservative result within its range of applicability. Calibration haa shown that loads on typicaf buildings obtained by the standard method are around 14 % larger than obtained from the directional method. The degee of conservatism can be much larger close to the ground and in towns, but decreaaes to zero around 100 m above the gruund.

In addition to reduced conservatism, the directional method assesses the loadhg in more detail, but with the penalty of increaaed complexity and compukitional effort. Because of this it is anticipated that the standard method will be used for most hand-baaed calculations and that the directional method wifl be implemented principally by computer

Procedures are alao given to enable the standard effective

wind speed to be used

with the directional pressure coefficients

and for the directional effective

wind

speeds to be used with the standard pressure coefficients.

CP3 : Chapter V : Part 2 allowed for the effect of ground roughness, building size and height above gound by a single factor. This required the calculation of separate wind speeds for every combination of reference height above gruund and the size of the loaded area. However, a simp~] cation has been introduced in the standard method which involves the calculation of only a single wind speed for each reference height. The effect of size is allowed for by a separate factor, Cc

BS 6399: Part 2 also gives values for external pressure coefficients for a greater mnge of building configurations than did CP3 : Chapter V : Part 2.

Compliance

with

a British

Standard

does not of itseff

confer

immunity

from

legaf obligations.

 

iv

BS6399:Part

2:1995

Section 1. General

1.1

Scope

‘lidsRut of BS 6399 gives methods for determining the gust peak wind loads on buildings and components thereof that should be taken into

account in design using equivalent procedures. Two alternative methods are given:

static

 

a)

a standard method which uses a sirnpliiled

 

pnxedure to obtain a standard effective wind speed which ix uacd with standard pressure coefficients to determine the wind loads for orthogonal design cases.

NOTE 1. This procedure

is virtually

the same

win

CP3

:

Chapter

V

:

Parr

2.

b)

a directional method in which effective

wind

s~ds

~d

Preasurc coefficients

arc determined

to derive

the wind loads for each wind dtiction.

Other methods may be used in place of the two methcds given in thix standard, provided that they can be shown to be equivalent. Such methods include wind tunnel tests which should be taken as equivalent only if they meet the conditions defined in armex A.

NUTE2. Wind tunnel tests are recommended when the form of

the building is not covered

by the

data

i“ this standard,

when

the form of the b.ifdimg cm be changed in response to the test

resulf.? in order

to give an optimized

design,

or when

loading

data are

required

in more

derail

than

is awe”

in this standard.

Specialist advice should be sought for building shapes and site locations that are not covered by this standard.

The methods given in this Part of BS 6399 do not

apply tO bufldkgs

which,

by virtue

of the

structural

properties,

e .g, maas, stiffness, natural

frequency or damping, are particularly susceptible to dynamic excitation. These should be asaeased using established dynamic methods or wind tunnel tests.

NOTE 3. See references dynamic methcds.

[1]

to

14] for examples

of established

NUI’E 4. If a building is susceptible to excitaticm by vortex shedding or other aemelastic instability, tie maximum dynamic respome may occur at wind speeds lower than the maximum.

1.2

Informative

references

 

Thii British Standard refers to other publications that provide information or guidance. Editions of thexe publications current at the time of issue of this standard am listed on the inaide back cover, but reference should be made to the latest editions.

1.3 Defiitionx

For the purposes of this British Standard the following definitions apply.

1.3.1

Wind speed

1.3.1.1

basic wind

speed

The hourly mean wind speed with an annual risk Q

of being exceeded of 0.02, irrespective of wind direction, at a height of 10 m over completely flat terrain at sea Ievei that would occur if the ruughneas of the terrabr w uniform everywhere

(inclu~l:g

urban areas, inland lakes and the sea)

and equwalent

to typical

open country in the

United Kingdom.

1.3.1.2

site wind

speed

The basic wind speed modtiled to account for the altitude of the site arrd the direction of the wind being considered (arrd the aeaaon of exposure, if required).

NUlll,

In the

standard

metbcd

only, effectsof topographic

featuresareincludedintbe sitewindspeed.

1.3.1.3

effective

wind

speed

The site wind speed modfied to a gust speed by taking account of the effective height, size of the building or structural element Ming considered and of permanent obstmctions upwind,

NCII’E. 1“ the direcriomd method topographic featwes are omitted

only:

from

the

effects

of

the site wind s~ed.

1.3.2

Pressure

1.3.2.1 dynamic

pressure

‘f’he potential pressure available from the kinetic

energy of the effective

wind speed.

  • 1.3.2.2 pressrrre coefficient

The ratio of the pressure acting on a surface

dy-c

pKS.SUP2.

to the

1.3.2.3 exterfud

pressrrre

The pressure acting on a.frexternal surface of a

building caused by the dmct

1.3.2.4 intemaf

pressure

action of the wind.

The preasffrc acting on an internal surface of a buildbrg caused by the action of the external pressures through porosity and openings in the external surfaces of the buildlng.

  • 1.3.2.5 net pressure

The pressure dtiference a surface.

between

opposite faces of

BS63Y9:Part2:lYY5

Section

1

1.3.3

Height

1.3.5 Distance

 

1.3.3.1

altitude

1.3.5.1 fetch

a)

when topography

is not si@lcant:

the height

edge of

above mean sea level of the ground level

of the

The distance from the site to the upwind each category of terrain, used to determine

the

 

site;

effect

of termirr roughness changes.

 

b)

when topography is significant:

the height

 

above mean sea level topographic feature,

of the

base of the

 

1.4 Main symbols

For the purposes of this Rut of BS 6399 the

 

1.3.3.2

building

height

following symbols apply.

The height of a building or part of a building above its base.

A

Area

1.3.3.3

reference

height

a

Largest diagonal dimension of the loaded area

The reference height for a part

of a structure is the

envelope (figure 5)

datum height above Wound for the pressure

 

B

Crosswind breadth of building (figure 2b)

 

coefficients

and is defined with the pressure

b

Scaling length used to define loaded areas for

coefficients for that part.

 

pressure coefficients (2.4.1.3, 2.5. 1.2)

1.3.3.4

obstruction

height

c.

Size effect factor of standard method (2.1.3.4)

The average height above ground of buildings,

 

Cp

Net pressure coefficient (2. 1.3.3)

structures or other permanent obstmctions to the

c

External prewure coefficient (2. 1.3.1)

 

wind immediately upwind of the site.

c:

Internal pressure coefficient (2. 1.3.2)

1.3.3.5

effective

height

c,

Dynamic augmentation factor (1.6. 1)

The height used in the calculations of the effective

 

D

Inwind depth of buifding (figure 2b)

wind speed determined from the reference height with slfowance for the obstmction height.

d

Disnreter of circular cylinders

1.3.4

Length

G

gap across recessed bay or weU (figure 34)

  • 1.3.4.1 buifding

length

 

9t

gust peak factor

The longer horizontal dimension of a buildhrg or

 

H

Buildhrg height (fw

2), eaves height

or

part of a building. 1,

 

height of inset or lower storey

 
  • 1.3.4.2 building

width

 

He

Effective height (1.7.3)

The shorter horizontal dimension of a building or

 

H,

Reference height (1. 7.3)

part of a building.’)

Ho

Obstruction height (1. 7.3, figure

2),

or

  • 1.3.4.3 breadth

crosswind

 

average height of roof tops upwind of the building

The horizontal extent of a buiIding or

part

of a

h

f~re

building norrmd to the direction of the wind. l]

 

Pa.rspet height

(2.5.1.4,

17),

free-standhrg waif height (2.7.5.4, figure 23),

  • 1.3.4.4 inwind depth

 

or signboard height (2.7.6, figure 24)

 

The horizontal extent

of a building

or part

of a

Kb

Building-type factor (1.6. 1)

building paralfel to the direction of the wind. 11

 

L

Building length (figure 2) or length of element

  • 1.3.4.5 dirnenaion

diagonrd

 

between free ends (2.7.3)

The largest diagonal dimension of a loaded area, i.e. the dimension between the most distant points

LD

Length of downwind slope of topogmphic feature (2.2.2.2.5, figure 8)

on the periphery of the area.

L,

Effective

slope length of topographic

feature

  • 1.3.4.6 scaling

length

 

(2.2.2.2.4)

A reference length determined from the

 

Lu

Length of upwind slope of topographic

feature

proportions of the building used to define zones

 

(2.2.2.2.4,

figure 8)

over which the pressure coefficient is Sas”med to

 

P

Net load (2.1.3.5)

 

be constant.

P

Net pressure (2. 1.3.3)

 

P,

Pressure on external surface (2. 1.3.1)

l) For COmPIeXpla

shaWs,

these

lengths

may be detemined

from

the Smalleat enclming

rectangle

or circle

Section 1

BSS399:Part

2:1995

Pi

Q

Pressure on intemaf surface (2.1.3.2)

Annual risk (pmbabi!lty) of the baaic wind speed being exceeded (2.2.2.4, 2.2.2. 5,)

  • 9 Dynamic pressure

    • 9. Dynamic pressure of directional method for external pressures (3. 1.2.2)

9i

9s

r

s,

s~

s=

s~

s~

SP

s,

st

s

T,

Tt

v~

v,

v,

w

w

Dynamic presxure of dkectional method for internal pressures (3. 1.2.2)

Dynamic pressure of standard method (2.1.2)

Radius (figure 17) Altitude factor (2.2.2.2) Terrain and building factor (2.2.3. 1) Fetch factor (3.2.3.2) Dnction factor (2.2.2.3) lbpogmphic increment (3.2.3.4) Probability factor (2.2.2. 5) Seasonal factor (2.2.2.4) Turbulence factor (3.2.3.2) lbpographic location factor (2.2.2.2) Fetch adjustment factor (3. 2.3.2) ‘fhrbulence adjustment factor (3.2.3.2) NIC wind speed (2.2.1, figure 6) Effective wind speed (2.2.3, 3.2.3) Site wind speed (2.2.2) Buildlng width (figure 2)

width of wedge in re-entnmt (figure 33)

comers

  • x D~tance of site from crest of topographic feature (2.2.2.2.5, figure 8) or distance in wind direction for buifding spacing ( 1.7.3.3)

z

a

b

Height of crest of topographic

feature above

the upwind baae altitude (figure

8)

Pitch angfe (from horizontal) non-vertical W* (3.3.1.4) comer angle of walls (3.3.1.2)

of roof (2.5)

or

AS

.%te altitude in metres above mean sea level

(2.2.2.2)

AT

Altitude

of upwind baae of topographic

feature in metres above mean sea level

(2.2.2.3)

Reduction factor for length of elements

(2.7.3)

Average slope of the gmmnd

 

Effective

slope of topographic

feature

(2.2.2.2.4)

‘fhngent of downwind slope of topographic feature (figure 7)

lkrrgent of upwind slope of topographic

feature (figure

7, 2.2.2.2.4)

Whfd direction in degrees eaat of north

(2.2.2.3)

Solidity ratio of walls or frames (2.7.5)

or

blockage ratio of canopies (2.5.9, figure 24)

Wind direction of degrees from normal to

building faces (figure

2) or angle around

periphery

of circular-plan buildhrg (2.4.6)

1.5 Outline of procedure for calculating wind loads

  • 1.5.1 The outline of procedure is illustrated in the

flow chart given in figfmc 1. This shorn the stages

of the standard method, together with the relevant clause numbem, as the boxes outlined and connected by thick lines. The stages of the directional method are shown as boxes outlined with double lines and are directly equivalent to the stages of the standard method. Various input data are shown in boxes outlined with singfe lines.

  • 1.5.2 The wind loads should be calculated for each

of the loaded areas under consideration,

depending

on the dimensions of the building, defined in

figure

2. These

may be:

  • a) the structure ax a whole;

  • b) parts of the structure, such as walls and roofs

or

  • c) individual stmctural components,

including

cladding urrits arrd their ftinga.

Nc71Z.

Wind load on a partially

completed

structure

may he

critical

and will be dependent

on the method

and sequence

of

construction.

Wstww:rartz:lxm

CSSULIU1l

1

)

Stage

1: Dynamic

 

augmentation

factor

C,

(1 .6.1)

 

Stage

2: Check

limits

of

 

applicability

C,

<

0.25,

H

<300

m (1.6.2)

 

Stage

3: Basic wind

speed

V,

(2.2.1)

 
 

I

Stage

4:

Site

wind

speed

V.

(2.2.2)

 
 

Stage 5: Terrain

categories,

 

effective

height

H.

(1.7.3)

 

9

Stage

6: Choica

of

method

(1 .8)

 

9

No

Input

building

height

H,

input

building

type

factor

K,

(table

1 )

Building

is dynamic.

This

Pert

does

not

apply

(see

references

[1]

to

[41)

Basic

wind

speed

map

[Figure

6)

Altitude

factor

S,,

directional

factor

S~, seaaonal

factor

S,

Site

terrain

type,

level

of upwind

rooftops

Ho, separation

of buildings

x

Directional

and topographic

 

G

------’’------=

Stage

7: Standard

effective

wind

Directional

effective

wind

speed

I

--

------’:-----E=

Directional

pressure

coefficients

Stage

10:

Wtnd

Ioada

P

(2.1

.3)

[

Figure

L Flowchart

illustrating

outline

procedure

Directional

wind

loads

P (3.1)

1

Section

1

BS63YY:MZ:1YY6

Notes

to figure

 

1

Stage 1

Determines the dynamic

augmentation

factor

 

fmm

the basic geometric

and stnctuml

pmpenies

of the

building,

 

Stage

2

Depending

on this value,

a check

is p+?rformed

on the

level of dynamic

excitatim

to determine:

 

a)

whether

the

methods

given

in this k%rt of

ss

6399

aPPIY and the

a%ew.ment

may proceed;

or

b)

whether

the

methcds

given

in this

~

of

ss

6399

do not

apply and the building should

be assessed

by

 

one of the methwls for dynmnic buildings (see

 

references

[1]

to

[4])

or by wind

tunnel

tesfs

 

(see annex A).

 

SW,

% Determines

the basic

hourly

mean

wind

speed

from the

map for the

UK.

Sfage

4

Determines

a site wind speed,

still

corresponding

to the

hourly

mean

wind

speeds

at

a

height

of

10 m above

ground

in the

standard

exposure,

 

from the basic wind speed by applying corrections

for the

site altitude,

wind dbwmion and season.

Up to

this

point,

no allowance

for the

exposure

of the

particular

site has

been made and the procedure

is common

(except

in ifs

treafment of the effectsof topography) to both the sti”dard and dkectional metbd.

 

NCflE The derivations

of the

b~ic

wind speed

map,

the

adjustments

for site altitude,

wind direction

and season

are given in annex B.

 

Stage

6

.ksses.ses the exposure

of the

site in term

of the

terrain

mugtmes

and the

effective

height.

llu?e

categories

of terrain

roughness

are

used to define

the

site

exposure. The effective height depends cm the degee shelfer provided by neighbo”ri”g buildings or other permanent obstmcfiom.

of

Stage k Having assessed the exposure

of the

site,

this

St&3e offersthe choice between the standard nwtbcd a“d the directional method. The standard method @ves

conservative values for standard orthogonal load czses, and a simplified method for buildin@ up to 1C4 m in height and for signirlcant to fmgmphy. The directional

methcd

gives a more

precise

value

for any given wind

direction, particularly

for sites

in towns,

and where

 

topography is significant. A simple rule for assessing the

significance of to fmsraphy is provided.

 

Stage

7

Determines

the

effective

wind W&&S required

by either method. The effective

wind speed

is a

gust

 

wind sp+ed appropriate to the site exposure and the

height of the building. h! the scmdard

method

this

 

correspmds

to a datum

size of loaded

area,

while

in the

directional method this cm’resfmnds to the size of the loaded area under consideration.

s~e

8

Converts

the

effective

wind

speed

into an

equwalent

dynamic

pressure.

Stage 9 Selects pressurecoefficients corresponding to the form of the building. In the standard method these coeffkienb correspond to a number (usually two or

three) of orthogonal

load cases,

while

in the

directional

methcd they correspond to the wind directions being considered (usually twelve).

St-x. 10 Determines the wind loads from the dynamic pressure,pressurecoefficients, dynamic augmentation

factor and, in the

standard method, by the size effect

factor, to gtve the design.

characteristic

wind load

for static

Bsw99:Partz:lYY5 Section 1
Bsw99:Partz:lYY5
Section
1

a) Fixed

dimensions

length,

width,

height

~

—.

  • 44 B

k~x

Wind

D

rml

General

caae

Orthogonal caaas

h)

Variable dimemiom:

crosswind

breadth,

imvind depth,

wind angle

  • c) height

Obstruction

and upwind

$paci”g

Figure

2. Basic definitions

of building

dimensions

Section

1

1.6 Dynamic classtilcation

BS 6299:

Part 2:1995

1.7 Site exposure

1.6.1 Dynamic augmentation

factor

 

1.7.1

Genersf

The methods of this standard employ equivalent static loads to represent the effect of fluctuating

The site wind speed V, refers to a standard open country exposure at a height of 10 m above

 

ground.

‘lb obtain the effective

wind

speed the

loads which is applicable only to buildings which are not susceptible to dynamic excitation.

The standard permits equivalent static loads to be used for the design of mildly dynamic structures by the introduction of a dynamic augmentation factor. The value of this factor depends upon the actual

effects of varying gruund roughness, the height and d~tance of obstructions upwind of the site and the effects of topography should be taken into account.

1.7.2

Ground roughness categories

height H of the building above ground and on a building-type factor ~b obtained from table 1, for

Three categories of terrain are considered:

 

the form of construction of the buildlng.

a)

sea

the sea, and inland areas of water

extending

more than

1 km in the

wind

direction

 

The dynamic augmentation factor C, is given for typical buildings in figure 3.

when

closer than

1 km

upwind of the site;

 

b)

country:

all terrain which is

not defined as sea

‘fhble 1. Building-type

fsctor

~b

or

town;

&p-e of

buUdf@

 

f&

c)

bum:

built up aress with

an average level of

 

mof tops at least

Ho

=

5 m above ground level.

Welded steel unclad frames

 

?3

NOTE

1. Permanent

forest

and

woodland

may be treated

8

..

s

Bolted steel and reinforced

concrete

  • 4 town

categmy.

   

unclad frames

 

NUIT

2. ‘l&rain

Categories

are

explained

i“ more

detail in

 
 

annex

E.

Fort-d sheds and similar light structures with few internal walls

  • 2 Reference height and effective

1.7.3

height

 

Framed buildings with structural walls

around M-

and staim only (e.g. office

  • 1 L 7.3.1 The reference height H, is defined building form in the appropriate pressure

for the

build~

of open

plan or with

 

coefficient tables and deftition figures, but can

partitioning)

 

conservatively be taken as the maximum height of

Framed buildmf@ with structural walk

0.5

the building above ground level.

around lifts and stairs with additional masonry subdivision walls (e. g.

1.7.3.2

For buifdings in country terrain, or

conservatively for buildings in town terrain, the

 

aptiment

buildings),

buildings of

 

effective height Ife should be taken as the

ma.?arry construction

and

 

reference height HP

timber-framed housing :

 

1.7.3.3

For buildings in town terrain, the effective

NOTE. Thevaluesof the facfarsKb and C, have been

derived

height & depends on the shelter affofied by the avemge level of the height Ho of the roof tops of

 

for typical

building structures

with

typical

frequency

and

damping chamcfe!tstics, under typical UK wind speeds, without

the buildings, or of the height of other permanent

accounting for topogmphyor tsme.inroughness effects. More

obstructions, upwind of the site and their upwind

accurate values of these factam may be derived using annex C

spacing X. These dimensions are defined in

when tbe buifding characteristics am “ot typical, or when the

figure 2. The effective height He should be

effectsof topographyand terrain mugtmessneed tobe taken

determined as follows.

into account.

1.6.2 Lfndts

of applicability

This Part of Ef3 6399 does not apply when the

value of dynamic augmentation

factor exceeds the

a)

Ifxs2Ho

then He is the greater

He

=

Hr

of

0.8H0 or He

=

0.4H,;

limits shown in figure 3. Buildin@

faffing outside

b)

If X

>

6H0

these !imk? should be assmsed using established

NCllll See referemes[1] to [4] for f“rtber information o“

analysis of dynamic structures.

tiien

He is given

by He

=

Hr;

dynamic methods.

c)

fn the range

2Jfo <

He is the greater

of

X

c

6H0

He

=

H,

-

1.2H0 +

0.2X

or He

=

0.4HP

NOTE.

1.

the absence

of more

accurate

information,

the

obstmction

bwgbt

Ho may be estimated

from the

average

number

of storeys

of .pwi”d

buildings

by raking

the typical

 

storey

height

as

3

m.

Furrher

guidance

is given

i“ annex

E.

BsfxfYY: I’artz:lYY5 section 1
BsfxfYY:
I’artz:lYY5
section 1

“-)

@

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

Limits of applicability

Shaded regionoutaidescopeof this Part

0

1

10

100

Building height,

H

(m)

1000

Figure

3. Dynamic augmentation factor C,

1.8 Choice of method

  • 1.8.1 For alf structures less than 100 m in height

and where the wind loading can be represented by

equivalent

static loads (see

1.6), the wind loading

can be otained either by the standard method described in section 2 or by the directional method given in section 3,

  • 1.8.2 The standard method provides values of

effective wind speed to be used with the standard pressure coefficient (clauses 2.3 to 2.5) to determine orthogonal load cases, corresponding to the wind direction notionally normal or parallel to the faces of the buifding. The standard method uses a simplilled allowance for signiilcant topography, as defined in figure 7.

  • 1.8.3 The directional method gives values of the

effective wind s~ed for different wind directions, taking into account the term.in appropriate to the wind dnction behrg considered, to be used with the directional pressure coefficients. It gives better estimates of effective wind speeds in towns and for sites affected by topography.

L 8.4 However, m the standard method gives conservative values of both effective wind speed (below 100 m) and pressure coefficient, it may sometimes be appropriate to use a hybrid combination of both methods, either

  • a) standard effective

wind speeds with

directional pressure coefficients;

or

  • b) directional effective

wind speeds with

standard pressure coefficients.

Combination a) k aurxouriate when the form of the building is‘well ‘defied, but the site is not; the caaes of relocatable buildings or standard mass- pruduced designs are typical examples. Combination b) is appropriate when only the standmd orthogonal load cases are required, but a better allowance for site exposure is desired because topogmphy is signifkant and/or the site is in a town. Such hybrid combinations should be

app~ed only in accordance with 3.4.

Section 2. Standard

method

#

BS6399:Part2:lW5

2.1 Standard wind loads

2.1.1 Wind direction

2.1.1.1 The standard method requires assessment for orthogonal load cases for wind dmections normal to the faces of the buifdmg, as shown in figure 2b. When the building is doubly-symmetric, e.g. rectangular-plan with flat, equal- duopitch or hipped roof, the two orthogonal cases shown in figure 2b are sufficient, When the building is singly-symmetric, three orthogonal cases are required, e.g. for rectangular-plan monopitch buildings: wind norrnaf to high eaves; wind normal to low eaves; wind pwallel to eaves. When the buifdlng is asymmetric, four orthogorwd cases are n?quired.

2.1.1.2

For each orthogonal case, the range of

wind dmctions *45” either side of the direction normal to the building face should be considered. When symmetry is used to reduce the number of orthogonal load cases, both opposing wind

directions, e.g. Q = Oormd O =

180° should be

considered

arrd the more onerous dmction used.

2.1.2 Dynamic prsssure

 

2.1.2.1

The value of the dynamic

pressure q, of

the standard method is given by

 

q,

=

0.613Ve2

where

q, is the dynamic pressure (in Pa*);

 

t’, is the effective (in rots).

wind speed from 2.2.3

2.1.2.2

Values of dynamic pressure

q~ for various

values of Ve are given

in table

2.

2.1.3 Wind load

 

(1)

where

9s

Cw

is

the

dynamic pressure

from

2.1. Z

is the

extemaf

pressure coefficient

for the

buifding surface given irr 2.4 and 2.5

c,

is the size effect factor for external pressures defined in 2.1.3.4.

2. L3.2 Internal su~ace

prssaurvs

The pressure acting on the internal surface of a

building, pi, is given

by

Pi =

q,cplca

 

(3)

where

9,

is

the

dynamic pressure from 2.1. Z

CPi

is the

internal pressure coefficient

for the

c,

buifding given in 2.6

is the size effect factor for internal pressures defined in 2.1.3.4.

2.1.3.3 Nst su@ace Preasurw

The net

pressure

p

acting

across

a surface

by the following. a) For enclosed buildings

is given

P=

Pe

-Pi

(4)

where

 

pe

is

the external pressure given irr 2.1.3.1;

 

Pi

is the

internal pressure given in 2.1.3.2.

b) For free-standing elements

canopies

and building

P

=

%%

G

 

(5)

where

9,

is the

dynamic pressure from 2.1. Z

  • 2.1.3.1 Ertemal

sueace

prssaurw

Cp

is the net pressure coefficient for the

The pressure acting on the external surface of a

canopy surface or element given in 2.5.9

buildhg

P,

is gNen

by

and 2.7

P,

-

q,cwc,

(2)

Ca

is the size effect factor for external pressures defined in 2.1.3.4.

‘Ihble 2. Dyrrs

‘e

mls

10

20

30

40

50

Y 60

uc pressure

+0

+

61

245

552

981

iCi30

2210

74

270

589

\2280

q~ (in Pa)

1.0

+

2.0

  • 447 a 839

1350

1470

2750

2830

2920

T

+

6.0

+

6.0

+

7.0

+

8.0

+

9.0

  • 1080 T
    1660

38

1C4

I

1130

1720

2430

120

  • 297 353

324

  • 628 709

668

1190

17!30

I 2360

2510

2590

1920

2670

  • 136 221

i 57

177

199

  • 383 516

    • 414 481

  • 751 885

    • 1240 1410

1300

  • 794 932

1030

1590

1850 2130

1990

2060

.lPa-l!J/m2

BSfX399:

F’art 2:1995

Section

2

2.1.3.4 Sue @ectfactOr

The size effect factor Ca of the standard method accounts for the non-simultaneous action of gusts acnmsane xtemalsurfaceand for the response of internal pressures. Values of size effect factor are given in figure4, dependent onthe site exposure (see 1.’7) and the diagonal dnenaion a.

For external pressures the diagonal dimension a is the largest diagonal of the area over which load sharfng takes place, as illustrated in figure 5. For internal pressures an effective diagonal d]menaion is defined in 2.6 which is dependent on the internal volume.

For all individual stmctural components,

claddlng

units and their ftings,

the diagonal dimension

should bc taken as a = 5 m, unless there is

adequate load sharing capacity to justify the use of a diagonal length ~eater than 5 m.

2.1.3.5 Su@ace loads

The net load P on an area element is gjven by

P=PA

of a building surface or

(6)

where

P

A

is the net pressure acroas the surface; is the loaded area.

Load effects, for example bending moments and shear fomes, at any level in a building should be baaed on the diagonal dimension of the loaded area above the level being considered, as illustrated in figure 5C.

2.1.3.6 Ovemll loads

The ovemfl load P on a building is taken as the sum of the loads on individual surfaces with allowances for non-simultaneous action between faces and for mildly dynamic response.

The overall horizontal loads are given by

P

= 0.85( XPfmnt -

EP,,J

(1

+

C,)

(7)

where

,zPfmnt

is the horizontal component of surface load summed over the windward-facing walls and roofs;

ZP.W

is the horizontal component of surface load summed over the leeward-facing walls and roofs;

c,

is the dynamic augmentation fmm 1.6.1;

factor

NOTE 1. The factor 0.85 accounts for the non-simultaneous

action between faces.

NOTE 2.

As the effect

of internal

pressure

on the front

and

rear faces is eqwd

and opposite

when

they are of equal

size,

internal presmue can be ignored in the calculation-of overall

horizontal loads on enclosed buildings on level ground.

Where the combination

of the orthogonal loads is

critical to the design, for example in deriving stresses in comer columns, the maximum stresses caused by wind in any component may be taken as 80 % of the sum of the wind stresses resulting from each orthogonal pair of load caaes.

2.1.3.7 .@mmetric loads

Unless specific rules are given for particular forms of buifdlng (e.g. free-standing canopies (2.5.9.1) and signboards (2. 7.6)), an aUowance for aaymmetw of loading should be made, as follows.

For overalf loads on enclosed buildhga, 60 % of the load on each waif or roof pitch should be applied in turn, keeping the loads on the rest of the building at the design values.

Where the inffuence function for a structural component haa regions of negative value, 100 % of the design loads to areas contributing to the positive regions and 60 % of the design loads to areas contributing to the negative regions should be applied.

NIX!%. ‘his

procedwe

shcmld k

used to account

for torsional

effecfs

on buildings

and is equivalent

t.

a boriz.ntal

 

displacement

of the force

on each

face

of

10

%

of

the

face

width

from the cemxe

of

the face.

2.1.3.8 Fictional dmg component

When deriving overalf forces on the building (see 2.4.5 and 2.5. 10) the contribution of the

frictional

forces

should be taken

to act in the

direction

of the wind and should be added

to the

contribution of the normal pressure forces

from 2.1.3.6 using vectorial summation.

but tafdng the inwind depth of the building, D, as the smaller of width Wor length L in the determination of Pfmntand Prem

I

Section

2

BS6299:Part2

 

:1995

1.m

0.%

0s0

o.m

am

“7”

 

,!

,,,

,,!

 

0.00

0.%

 

1

?0

100

10CO

 

Diagonal dimensiona (m)

 

I@

to IInes

on figure

4

Effective

height

Site

In county

closest

distance

to sea

(km)

Site

in town:

closest

distance

to sea

H,

(km)

m

Oto<z

Zto

<10

Iota

<1oo

2100

Zto

<10

10 to <100

>100

 

52

A

B

B

B

c

c

c

>2t05

 

A

B

B

B

c

c

c

>5

to

10

A

A

B

B

A

c

c

>10

to

15

A

A

B

B

A

B

B

>15

to

20

A

A

B

B

A

B

B

>20

to

30

A

A

A

B

A

A

B

>30

to

50

A

A

A

B

A

A

B

>50

A

A

A

B

A

A

B

Figure

4. Size

effect

factor

Ca of standard

method

 

BSS399:Fart2

:1995

&a A

Section

2

-

  • a) Diagonals

for load on individual

b) Diagonal

for toti

load on combined

faces

faces

for shear at bsse of shaded parl

a

EN

A+i2!xf0rc1add

  • C) of faces

Diagonals

for load on elementi

 
  • d) load on gable

Diagoml

for total

e) Diagcmal for total

load

 

.“

roof

pitch

Figure 5. Deffition

of diagonal of losded mess

 
  • 2.2 Standard wind speeds

 

NUl?3

In considetig

the range

of wind directions

*45”,

in

acccmdam?e with 2.1.1.2.

two amxoa.hes

are uossible: