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DESIGN OF A HYBRID INTEGRATED

INTELLIGENT TRAIN SYSTEM


ABSTRACT :
Travelling is an integral part of life. Train travelling is the one of most prominent,
efficient, cost effective and simple means of transport. Railways are facing
increasing needs in term of safety, survives to passengers and operational efficiency.
In spite of all the technical advancements in railways, which are eminent inside the
trains and in the management systems, accidents claiming humongous amounts of
life and property are still a common place
The growth of the railways was one of the most dramatic developments of the
nineteenth century. Rail transport refers to the land transport of passengers and
goods along railways or railroads. These consist of two parallel rails, usually of
steel, generally mounted upon cross-sectional beams of timber, concrete or other
material. The underlying support maintains the rails at a fixed distance (gauge)
apart. Usually vehicles running on the rails are arranged in a train
The system, which we are going to develop, reduces the work driver and automates
most of the processes in a train by which major accidents can be controlled.
Addressing the Requirements & Service Needs of the Railway Sector, we are
providing a consistent, timely and cost effective services & solutions which makes
the Train Travelling and journey more enjoyable and trust the System completely
Railways are facing increasing needs in term of safety, survives to passengers and
operational efficiency
Addressing the Requirements & Service Needs of the Railway Sector, we are providing a
consistent, timely and cost effective services & solutions which makes the Train
Travelling and journey more enjoyable and trust the System completely
The Objective of this Project is to Design a Hybrid Integrated intelligent Train
System and this system consists of Embedded Systems, Sensors. The proposed
Embedded System performs tasks using the sensors

The growth of the railways was one of the most dramatic developments of the nineteenth
century. Rail transport refers to the land transport of passengers and goods along railways
or railroads. These consist of two parallel rails, usually of steel, generally mounted upon
cross-sectional beams of timber, concrete or other material. The underlying support
maintains the rails at a fixed distance (gauge) apart. Usually vehicles running on the rails
are arranged in a train
Modern embedded system will has transformed entire sectors like automobiles,
biomedical, RFID, industrial automation, big machinery and etc. Now more than ever,
embedded systems designers are recognizing the value of wireless. From home light
switches and entertainment systems to industrial controls to remote monitoring and
communications, wireless is permeating an increasing variety of applications that might
once have been thought of as either standalone or otherwise happily tethered to a wire of
some sort.
In this project we are going to use embedded system for train station indication
purpose, all the passenger are not aware of all the places so they enquire other person to
know about station where they are going to step-down.
Our project Automatic station indication display will reduce tension from
station awareness. The RF transmitter placed at each and every station has unique binary
value (assume T nagar will take 0001) this data will be continuously transmitted. When
the train reaches the station that signal will be detected and microcontroller is
programmed to display the station and give a voice alert regarding which station is
reached.
Automation is the art of making processes or machines self-acting or self-moving.
Also pertains to the technique of making a device, machine, process or procedure
more fully automatic
In the system, every seat is fitted with a vibrator. Every time when the train
approaches to the station the vibrator will vibrate for the passenger for his station
approaching, next station etc. and the display system is equipped in the train will

receive data. The intelligent control system makes the display board fool proof and
safe.
This system is very useful for passengers during night, rain, or even travelling
unknown places. Digitally coded system makes the technology up-to-date and
reliable.

IMPLEMENTATION OF CRACK DETECTION


The

current

state

of

the

art

in detecting immediate

and

long-

term railway track problems involves both inspectors walking the track lines
and train cars instrumented with accelerometers and ultrasonic sensors that
are capable of detecting wear of the rail and breakages. Additionally, a
widespread practice of sensing rail continuity by using the tracks to complete
simple circuits is in place. In this paper, we propose a fundamentally different
approach to improve the current practices in railway operations using
wireless sensor network (WSN). The primary technical and scientific
objectives of the system introduced in this paper are to generate innovative
solutions for a number of the issues facing the railroad community through
the development of a system basedon WSN. The objectives from a railroad
perspective include finding new approaches to reduce the occurrence rate of
accidents and improving the efficiency of railroad maintenance activities

PROJECT DESCRIPTION :
The main aim of the project is to identify the cracks in rails. In order
to find the cracks in rails we have chosen a technique using zigbee
communication,intiatly track is connected to the ADC interface ,then output
of the ADC is connected to the port pin of the atmel 89c51 8 -bit
microcontroller, output of the microcontroller is connected to traffic light in
order to control the light signals and to stop the train. Transmission and
receive section is possible through zigbee communication,there by UART is
allow for serial transmission of zigbee signals..thereby utilizing it we can
easily find the crack and stop the train.

THE FEATURES ARE AS FOLLOWS


The vibrator vibrates to the passenger for his next station.
In case of fire accidents the compartment which Is on fire will automatically
detach from rest of the train.
The smoke detection system will raise the alarm when the train detected with
smoke.
Cracks in the railway tracks are automatically detected send the signals to
train and brakes are applied automatically.
Existing system:
In the present system the passengers do not get intimation about the current location of
train and they will not be intimated if the train approaching the station.
NO MEASURES FOR FIRE TAKEN SO FAR
Eg 1

Eg 2:

NO MEASURES TAKEN FOR CRACK DETECTION

NO MEASURES TAKEN FOR DERAILMENT

Proposed system:
In this system the passengers will get the information regarding train location via gsm
service. Whenever the train reaches the particular station the server will send sms to
passengers of other station about the trains current location.

SMOKE INDICATOR
smoke detectors warn of fire when the gas level in the area reaches a certain level. Heat
detectors do not notice smoke. A gas detector is a valuable additional protection in areas
where heat detectors are not recommended. The gas of a particular area is monitored,
indicated with different set points and the Data will be transmitted to MCU and alarm is
raised
FIRE DETECTION & ALARM SYSTEM
Fire / Flame Identification system is implemented in this project to identify the fire /
flame in the Train and if any unwanted incident happens the Train will be stopped
and the message will sent to the Main station and alarm will be given. The
compartment which is on fire shall automatically be detached from the engine to
stop fire spreading to other compartments. And passengers can easily get out of the
train once it is halted.
READ SWITCH MAGNETIC CONTACT SWITCH
Read switch will be installed in the station, which will sense once the train enters
the station. Once it sensed it will alarm output, displays the station name and with
the help of stepper motor the doors will be automatically opens
Once the train leaves the stations, with the help of stepper motor the doors will be
automatically closed

EMBEDDED MICRO CONTROLLER SYSTEM


This is the board, which contains Microcontroller Chip as well as the clock
Circuitry, Reset Circuit and Power Supply for the Microcontroller.
A microcontroller is a highly integrated chip, which includes, on one chip, all or
most of the parts needed for a controller. The microcontroller could be called a
``ONE-CHIP SOLUTION''.
It typically includes: CPU (central processing unit) RAM (Random Access Memory)
EPROM/PROM/ROM (Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory) I/O
(input/output) - serial and parallel timers interrupt controller By only including the
features specific to the task (control), cost is relatively low.
A typical microcontroller has bit manipulation instructions, easy and direct access to
I/O (input/output), and quick and efficient interrupt processing. Microcontrollers are
a ``one-chip solution, which drastically reduces parts count, and design costs

LCD UNIT
LCD - Liquid Crystal Display is a display that consists of two polarizing transparent
panels and a liquid crystal surface sandwiched in between
BUZZER FOR ALARM INDICATION
Alarm system to give the alarm warning early to alert the concerned people
STEPPER MOTOR & STEPPER POWER SUPPLY
Motion Control, in electronic terms, means to accurately control the movement of an
object based on either speed, distance, load, inertia or a combination of all these
factors. There are numerous types of motion control systems, including; Stepper
Motor, Linear Step Motor, DC Brush, Brushless, Servo, Brushless Servo and more.
This document will concentrate on Step Motor technology.
In Theory, a Stepper motor is a marvel in simplicity. It has no brushes, or contacts.
Basically it's a synchronous motor with the magnetic field electronically switched to
rotate the armature magnet around.
A Stepping Motor System consists of three basic elements, often combined with
some type of user interface (Host Computer, PLC or Dumb Terminal. This board
contains the power Supply for the stepper motor and relay driver.
TYPES OF STEPPER MOTORS - There are basically three types of stepping
motors; variable reluctance, permanent magnet and hybrid. They differ in terms of
construction based on the use of permanent magnets and/or iron rotors with
laminated steel stators

SPECIAL FEATURES & POWERS OF THE DESIGN


OBSTACLE SENSING AND COLLISION AVOIDANCE
SENSORS TEMPERATURE & FIRE
MICROCONTROLLER FLASH & EEPROM
MECHANICAL MODEL FOR REAL TIME OPERATIONS
STEPPER MOTOR, STEPPER DRIVEER With POWER SUPPLY BOARD

OPTOCOUPLER WITH STEPPER DRIVER BOARD


RS 232 CONVERTERS
POWER SOURCE
WIRELESS SOLUTIONS

ZIGBEE TRANSRECEIVER MODULE - 433.92 MHZ (FT-COM-RX2),


BANDWIDTH 4MHz

Hardware and the Software Requirements:


Hardware:
Microcontroller - AT89C51RD2BN

LCD - 16 x 2
Rs232 - MAX232
SCR Relays circuit
GSM Modem [RS232 based]
7812/ 7805 voltage regulators for power supply
Power supply circuit
ZIGBEE

Software:
Embedded c
Keil-c compiler
Flash magic burner software.
Technical specifications:
Operating voltage of embedded circuitry is 5vdc
Current consumption of device in active mode 200mill amp
Operating frequency of device is 11.0592MHZ
Advantages:

Low cost

Highly efficient

Easily implemented

User friendly

References:
Microcontroller Muhammad Ali Mazadi book
www.microdiditaled.com
www.8052.com

www.keil.com
www.fsinc.com
http://developer.intel.com/design/mcs51/doc_mcs51.htm
BLOCK DIAGRAM
Transmitter Section (In Station) :
CRACK
DETECTION
IR SENSORS

Power
Supply

ZIGBEE

PHILIPS
NXP
RD25

Transmitt
er

Receiver Section (In Train) :


STEPPER
MOTOR

AUTO
BRACKING
SYSTEM

ULN
ZIGBEE

LCD

Receiver

Display
Micro
Controlle
r
Power
Supply

VIBRATO
R
Unit

RF
READER

FIRE
SENSOR
SMOKE
SENSOR

ALARM