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PBR VISVODAYA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

AND SCIENCE

Course File
II Year B.Tech (EEE) I Semester
Contents
1.

Syllabus

2.

Objective

3.

Lesson Plan

4.

5.

Question Bank

6.

Previous years question papers JNTUA

ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS

Syllabus
JAWAHARLAL NEHRU
TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY ANANTAPUR
B.Tech II-I Sem. (E.E.E)

(9A02305) ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS

Objective :
This course introduces the basic concepts of circuit analysis which is the foundation for all subjects of the
Electrical Engineering discipline. The emphasis of this course is laid on the basic analysis of circuits
which includes Single phase circuits, magnetic circuits, theorems, transient analysis and network
topology.
UNIT I
Introduction to Electrical Circuits
Circuit Concept R-L-C parameters Voltage and Current sources Independent and dependent
sources-Source transformation Voltage Current relationship for passive elements (for different input
signals-square, ramp, saw tooth, triangular)
UNIT II
Network Analysis
Kirchhoffs laws network reduction techniques series, parallel, series parallel, star-to-delta or deltato-star transformation, Nodal analysis, mesh analysis, super node and super mesh for D.C excitations.
UNIT III Single Phase A.C Circuits
R.M.S, Average values and form factor for different periodic wave forms- sinusoidal alternating
quantities - Phase and Phase difference Complex and polar forms of representations, J-notation, Steady
state analysis of R, L and C (in series, parallel and series parallel combinations) with sinusoidal excitation
concept of power factor - Concept of Reactance, Impedance, Susceptance

and Admittance , Real and Reactive powers Complex power

UNIT IV
Locus diagrams & Resonance
Locus diagrams series R-L, R-C, R-L-C and parallel combination with variation of various parameters
Resonance series, parallel circuits, concept of band width and Q factor.
UNIT V
Magnetic Circuits
Magnetic Circuits Faradays laws of electromagnetic induction concept of self and mutual inductance
dot convention coefficient of coupling composite magnetic circuit - Analysis of series and parallel
magnetic circuits
UNIT VI Network topology
Definitions Graph Tree, Basic cutset and Basic Tieset matrices for planar networks Loop and Nodal
methods of analysis of Networks with dependent & independent voltage and current sources - Duality &
Dual networks.

UNIT VII Network theorems-I

Thevenins, Nortons, Maximum Power transfer and Millmans theorems for D.C and sinusoidal
excitations.
UNIT VIII Network theorems-II
Tellegens, Superposition, Reciprocity and compensation theorems for D.C and sinusoidal excitations.
TEXT BOOKS:
1. Circuits & networks by A. Sudhakar and shyammohan SPalli, Tata McGraw- Hill.
2. Electrical Circuits by N. Srinivasulu, REEM Publications.
3. Electric Circuits by Schuam Series.
REFERENCE BOOKS:
1. Network Analysis by Vanvalkenburg, PHI.
2. Network Theory: - N.C. Jagan & C.Lakshminarayana, B.S Publications.
3. Electrical Circuits: S.Sudhakar, P.S.M.Satyanarayana, TMH Publication.
4. Electric Circuits by A. Chakrabarthy, Dhanipat Rai & Co.
5. Engineering circuit analysis by William Hayt and Jack E. Kimmerly, Mc Graw Hill Company, 6th
edition.

Course Objective
This course introduces the basic concepts of circuit analysis which is the foundation for all
subjects of the Electrical Engineering discipline. The emphasis of this course is laid on the basic
analysis of circuits which includes Single phase circuits, magnetic circuits, theorems, transient
analysis and network topology.

PBR VISVODAYA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY AND SCIENCE::KAVALI

DEPARTMENT OF EEE
LESSON PLAN

S.No

Dates

Periods

Subject: Electrical Circuits

Topic to be covered

In week

No. of

Periods

Periods

Per unit

Requd.
Unit I: Introduction to electrical circuits
1

4
2

Kirchhoffs laws

Problems

5
3

10

5
5

Unit IV:
7

Locus diagrams-s RL, RC, RLC parallel .Resonance-series,

parallel circuits

4
8
5

I MID EXAMINATIONS (03-09-2012 to 05-09-2012)

Unit V: Magnetic Circuits
10
3

11

induction-concept of self and mutual inductances

Circuits

2
8

12

13

4
14

voltage sources

Duality

Unit VII: Network theorems-I

Theveniens theorem

Millmans theorem for both ac and dc

problems
15

8
Unit VIII: Network Theorems-II

16

Tellegens theorem

Super position theorem for both ac and dc

Reciprocity theorem

compensation theorems for both dc and

sinusoidal excitations

17

18
2

Total Available

75

Total Required

75

PBR VISVODAYA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY AND SCIENCE: KAVALI

II. B.Tech, I-Sem, I-Mid Examinations, September - 2012
Branch: EEE
SUB: Electrical Circuits

Date: 04/08/2012(FN)
Time: 90 Min

Maximum Marks 30
***All questions carry equal marks
1. (a) Differentiate between ideal sources and practical sources.
(b) An inductor shown in fig1(a) is supplied with a current wave from given in fig1(b) Draw
the wave forms for the voltage and energy in the inductor .

2. (a) Stats and explain Kirchhoffs laws.

(b) Determine the current drawn by the circuit shown in fig

3. (a) Define the following

i. RMS value
ii. Average value
iii. Form factor of an alternating quantity
(b) A series circuit consisting of a 10 resistor, a 100F capacitor and a 10 mH inductor is
driven by a 50 Hz a.c. voltage source of maximum value 100 volts. Calculate the equivalent
Impedance, current in the circuit, the power factor and power dissipated in the circuit.
4. Show that the locus of the current in an R-L circuit with XL variable is a semicircle. Find
the radius and the center of the circle.
5. (a) Derive an expression for the energy stored in an inductor and a capacitor.
(b) Find the node voltages V1,V2 and V3 in the network of fig, And find the current Ix.

PBR VISVODAYA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY AND SCIENCE: KAVALI

II. B.Tech, I-Sem, I-Mid Examinations, September - 2012
Branch: EEE
SUB: Electrical Circuits

Date: 04/08/2012(FN)
Time: 20 Min

1. Determine the current if a 10 coulomb charge passes a point in 0.5 sec.

a) 10A
b) 30A
c) 20A
d) 40A

2. Determine the Leq of a parallel combination of 100 mH, 50mH and 10mH..
a) 7.69 mH
b) 8mH
c) 6.9mH
d) 7.2mH

3. If a resistor has 5.5 V across it and 3mA flowing through it, what is the power [
a) 19mW
b) 16.5mW
c) 18.5mW
d) 15.5 mW

a) 0.035J
b) 0.045J
c) 0.055J
d) 0.025J

5. The nodal method of circuit analysis is based on

a) kirchoffs current law b) kirchoffs voltage law c) Ohms law

[
d) voltage division

6. If a network contains B branches, and N nodes, then the number of mesh current
Equations should be
[
a) B-(N+1)
b) B-(N-1)
c) B+(N-1)
d) B+(N+1)
7. If R1 and R2 are in series to the voltage of V volts, then drop across R2 is
[
a) V. R2/(R1+R2)
b) V. R2/(R1-R2)
c) V/(R1+R2)
d) V. R2/(R1R2)
8. The total power in a series circuit is 10W. there are five equal valve resistors in
the circuit. How much power does each resistor dissipates
[
a) 6W
b) 5W
c) 4W
d) 2W
9. Apparent power expressed in
a) KW
b) KVAR

[
c) VA

d) no units

10. A sinusoidal current has peak value of 12A. what is its average value [
a) 8.65A
b) 6.94A
c) 5.39A
d) 7.64A

11. How many cycles a sine wave go through in 10 sec, if frequency is s60 Hz
[
a) 600 cycles
b) 500 cycles
c) 400 cycles
d) 700 cycles

12. What is the average value of a sine wave over a full cycle

a) 0.66

b) 1.775

c) zero

d) .735

13. In pure inductive circuit, relation between voltage and current are
a) Current leads voltage by 90o
b) Current lags voltage by 90o
c) Current and voltage in phase
c) Current lags voltage by 25o

14. What is the total reactance of a series RLC circuit at resonance..

a) XL
b) XC
c) R
d) 0

15. In a series RLC circuit operating below the resonant frequency, the current
[
]
a) I lags Vs
c) I and Vs are in phase
d) none of the above
16. In a certain series resonant circuit, VC =150V, VL = 150V and VR = 50V.
what is the valve of source voltage.
a) 60V
b) 70V
c) 50V
d) 100V

Ans:

18. What is the value of R.

Ans:
19. The power consumed in the circuit element will be least when the phase difference
between the current and voltage is
Ans:

20. Draw the current and impedance characteristics of the RLC series circuit at resonance?
Ans:

PBR VISVODAYA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY AND SCIENCE: KAVALI

II. B.Tech, I-Sem, II Mid-Examinations, Octomber-2012
Branch: EEE
Max. Marks: 30
Time: 1:30 Mins
Subject: Electrical Circuits
*** All questions carry equal marks.
Max. Marks: 30
1. (a) Define MMF, Flux and Reluctance
(b) What is a magnetic circuit? Compare magnetic circuit with an electric circuit.
(c) Find the total inductance of the three series connected coupled coils as shown in gure.

2. For the circuit shown in fig find the voltage across the 4ohm resistor by using nodal analysis.

3. (a) State and explain maximum power transfer Theorem.

(b) In the network shown in the Fig. find the value of ZL so that the power transfer from the source
is maximum. Also find Pmax.

4. (a) State and explain Reciprocity theorem.

(b) Find the current i in the circuit shown in g, given below using superposition theorem.

5. (a) State and explain Thevinins and Nortons theorems

(b) Find the current through load resistance RL and also find the voltage drop across load using
Millmans theorem for the network as shown in g

PBR VISVODAYA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY AND SCIENCE: KAVALI

II. B.Tech, I-Sem, II Mid-Examinations, Octomber-2011
Branch: EEE
Max. Marks: 20
Time: 20 Mins
Subject: Electrical Circuits
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1. Mutual inductance is a property associated with
[
]
a) Only one
b) two or more coils c) two or more coils with magnetic coupling d) none
2. The case for which the coefficient of coupling is perfectly coupled
a) K=0.5
b) K=0.8
c) K=0
d) K=1

3. Two coils connected series have an equivalent inductance of 0.4H when connected in aiding,
and an equivalent inductance 0.2H when the connection is opposing. Calculate the mutual
inductance of the coils
[
]
a) 0.05H
b) 0.02H
c) 0.04H
d) 0.06H
4. Dot convention in coupled circuits is used to determine the
a) polarity of the mutually induced voltage in coils. b) mutual inductance
c) self induced voltages in the coils
d) coefficient of coupling

5. The tie set schedule gives the relation between

a) branch currents and Link voltages
c) loop voltages and link voltages

6. A network has 10 nodes and 17 branches the number of different mode pair voltages would be [

a) 45

b) 25

b) branch currents and link currents.

d) all of the above

c) 35

d) 55

7. The number of branches in a tree is . than the number of branches in a graph.

less than
b) greater than
c) equal to
d) all of the above

] a)

8. Nortons theorem is the dual of

[
]
a) tellegans theorem b) millmans theorem c) thevenins theorem d) maximum power theorem
9. Maximum power is transferred when load impedance is equal to
a) source impedance.

b) source current

10. Thevenins equivalent circuit consists of

c) source voltage

d) source power

a) current source with parallel resistance

c) current source with series resistance

b) voltage source with series resistance

d) voltage source with parallel resistance

11. The power dissipation in each of three parallel branches is 1w. What is the total power
dissipation of the circuit is
[
a) 2W
b) 3W
c) 4W
d) 5W

12. Super position theorem is valid only for

a) non linear

b) linear circuits

[
c) both

13. Reciprocity theorem is applicable only to

a) multi source circuits
b) non linear circuits

[
c) Single source circuits. d) all of the above

14. Tellegans theorem is based on

a) ohms law
b) kirchhoffs laws

[
c) conservation of energy d) faradays law

15.super position theorem is not valid for .calculation

a) voltage
b) current
d) power
16. The cut set schedule gives the relation between
a) branch voltages and tree branch voltages
c) branch voltages and tree currents

[
d) all of the above
[

b) branch current and tree currents

d) none of the above

17. Define the magnetic leakage factor?

Ans:

18. Writre the incidence matrix for the following oriented network

19. Maximum power transfer occurs at a

a) 100% efficiency
b) 50%efficiency

c) 25% efficiency

Ans:

d) 75%efficiency

PBR VISVODAYA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY AND SCIENCE: KAVALI

DEPARTMANT OF EEE
SUB: Electrical Circuits
ASSIGNMENT-1
STAFF: A. BHAKTHAVATSALA
DATE: 15/07/2012
1. (a) Draw the volt-current characteristic of practical voltage source.
(b) Calculate the voltage that is to be connected across terminal x-y in figure such that the
voltage across the 2ohms resistor is 5V. Also find Ia and Ib. what is the total-power loss

2. (a) Write a note on resistance and V-I relationship with suitable examples.
(b) A saw tooth voltage as shown in figure is applied to a capacitor of C= 30micro Farad.
Find the capacitor current.

3. (a) Differentiate between ideal sources and practical sources.

(b) An inductor shown in fig1(a) is supplied with a current wave from given in fig1(b) Draw
the wave forms for the voltage and energy in the inductor .

4. (a) Derive an expression for the energy stored in an inductor and a capacitor.
(b) When a dc voltage is applied to a capacitor, the voltage across its terminals is found to build
up in accordance with VC = 50(1-e-100t). After a lapse of 0.01 s, the current flow is equal to
2 mA.
i. Find the value of capacitance in microfarads
ii. How much energy is stored in the electric field at this time?
5. (a) Explain about the source transformation techniques.
(b) Find the equivalent voltage and current source representation of the following network across
AB.

Objective Questions:
1. Determine the voltage of 100J/25C.[4v]
2. Determine the current if a 10 coulomb charge passes a point in 0.5 sec.[ 20 A ]
3. Identify the passive element among the following[ Inductor ]
4. Determine the total inductance of a parallel combination of 100 mH, 50mH and 10mH..
Ans: 7.69 mH
5. Determine the charge when C = 0.001 F and v = 1 kV[ 1c ]
6. If the voltage across a given capacitor is increased, does the amount of stored energy
Ans: increases
7. How much energy is stored by a 0.05F capacitor with a voltage of 100V.. [0.025J ]
8. Which of the following is an ideal voltage source?
Ans: voltage Independent of current.
9. How much energy is stored by a 100mH inductance with a current of 1A?
Ans:0.05 J
10. If a resistor has 5.5 V across it and 3mA flowing through it, what is the power?
Ans:16.5mWs

Question Bank

PBR VISVODAYA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY AND SCIENCE: KAVALI

DEPARTMANT OF EEE
SUB: Electrical Circuits
ASSIGNMENT-II
STAFF: A. BHAKTHAVATSALA
DATE:30/07/2012
1. (a) With three mesh general circuits explain the mesh analysis to find the loop currents.
(b) Determine the current through 6ohm resistor and the power supplied by the current
source for the circuit shown in the figure.

2. (a) Stats and explain Kirchhoffs laws.

(b) Find the power delivered by the source in the circuit shown in the following figure.

3. Find the node voltages V1,V2 and V3 in the network of fig, And find the current Ix.

4. (a) Two resistances when they are in series have an equivalent resistance of 9 ohms and when
Connected in parallel have an equivalent resistance of 2 ohms. Find the resistance and the
ratio of the voltage and current sharing between these elements if supply voltage is 100v.
(b) Find the equivalent resistance between the terminals AB in the network shown in the
figure, if each has a resistance of R ohms and hence find the total current, current through
each element if the voltage is 45v.

5. Determine the current drawn by the circuit shown in fig

Objective questions:
1. Mesh analysis is based on ..[ kirchoffs voltage law ]
2. The nodal method of circuit analysis is based on [ kirchoffcurrent law ]
3. The network has 10 nodes and 17 branches. The number of different node pair voltage
would be
Ans: 45
4. If a network contains B branches, and N nodes, then the number of mesh current equations
should be
Ans: B-(N-1)
5. A network has seven nodes and five independent loops. The number of branches in the
network is
Ans: 11
6. If one of the resistors in a parallel circuit is removed, what happens to the total resistance
Ans: Increases
7. The total power in a series circuit is 10W. there are five equal valve resistors in the circuit.
How much power does each resistor dissipates
Ans: 2 W
8. Six light bulbs are connected in parallel across 110V. Each bulb is related at 75 W. How much
current flows through each bulb.
Ans: 0.682 A
9. If R1 and R2 are connected in series to the voltage of V volts, then drop across R2 is
Ans: R2 = V . R2/(R1+R2)
10. If R1 and R2 are connected in paralell to the voltage of V volts, then current through R2 is

Ans: I2 = I . R1/(R1+R2)

PBR VISVODAYA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY AND SCIENCE: KAVALI

DEPARTMANT OF EEE
SUB: Electrical Circuits
ASSIGNMENT-III
STAFF: A. BHAKTHAVATSALA
DATE: 15/08/2012
1. (a) Show that average power consumed by pure inductor and capacitor is zero.
(b) A resistance of 16ohms is connected in parallel to an inductance of 20mH and the
parallel combination is connected to an ac supply of 230V, 50Hz. Determine the current
through the elements and power delivered by the source, draw the phasor diagram.
2. (a) Define power factor. What is its Importance in a.c. Circuits?
(b) The impedances of a parallel circuit are Z1=(6+j8) and Z2 =(8-j6) . If the applied
voltage is 120V, find
i. current and power factor of each branch
ii. overall current and power factor of the circuit
iii. Power Consumed by each impedance. Draw phasor diagram.
3. (a) Derive the expression for power in 1- A.C. Circuits.
(b) A sinusoidal 50Hz voltage of 200v supplies the three parallel circuits as shown in figure
Find the current in each circuit and the total current. Draw the vector diagram.

4. (a) Define the following

i. RMS value
ii. Average value
iii. Form factor of an alternating quantity
(b) A series circuit consisting of a 10 resistor, a 100F capacitor and a 10 mH inductor is
driven by a 50 Hz a.c. voltage source of maximum value 100 volts. Calculate the equivalent
Impedance, current in the circuit, the power factor and power dissipated in the circuit.
5. (a) Derive the basic equation of an alternating quantity. Hence state its various forms.
(b) A 50Hz sinusoidal voltage applied to a single phase circuit has its RMS value of 200V.
its value at t=0 is 28.3 volt positive. The current drawn by the circuit is 5A RMS and

lags behind the voltage by one sixth of a cycle. Write the expressions for instantaneous
values of voltage and current.

Objective Questions:
1. How many cycles does a sine wave go through in 10 sec when its frequency is 60 Hz.
Ans: 600 cycles
2. If the peak value of a certain sine wave voltage is 10 V, What is the peak to peak value.
Ans: 20V
3. If the peak value of a certain sine wave voltage is 5 V, What is the RMS value.
Ans: 3.535V
4. What is the average value of a sine wave over a full cycle?
Ans: Zero
5. A sinusoidal current has peak value of 12A. what is its average value
Ans: 7.64 A
6. In a pure resistor, the voltage and current are
Ans: in phase
7. The rms current through a 10 k resistor is 5mA. What is the rms voltage drop across the
Resistor
Ans: 50 V
8. When the frequency of applied voltage in a series RL circuit is increased, what happens to the
Inductive reactance?
Ans: Increases
9. What is the phase angle between the inductor current and the applied voltage in a parallel
RL circuit?
Ans: 90o
10. The phasor combination of resistive power and reactive power is called
Ans: Apparent power
11. Apparent power expressed in
Ans: volt-amperes
13. A power factor of 0 indicates
Ans:purely resistive element

PBR VISVODAYA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY AND SCIENCE: KAVALI

DEPARTMANT OF EEE
SUB: Electrical Circuits
ASSIGNMENT-IV
STAFF: A. BHAKTHAVATSALA
DATE: 30/08/2012
1. (a) Show that the locus of the current in an R-L circuit with XL variable is a semicircle. Find
the radius and the center of the circle.
2. A series RLC circuit has R= 10-, L=0.5 H, and C= 40 F. The applied voltage is 100V. Find
(a) Resonant frequency
(b) Quality factor of coil.
(c) Upper and lower half power frequencies
(d) Band width
(e) Current at half power points.
(f) Voltage across inductance at resonance.
3. (a) Give the expression for frequency and current at resonance in parallel resonance circuit.
(b) A RLC series circuit consists of R=50 ohms L=0.16H and C= 4micro farads. Calculate
resonant frequency, quality factor, band width and half power frequencies.
4. (a) Derive the expressions of quality factor using the general definition and show that
greater the quality smaller the band width, using current vs. angular frequency plot for
various values.
(b) For the RLC series circuit R=5ohms, L=0.03H, C=100 micro farads. Determine the
Frequency at which the circuit resonates. Also find the quality factor, voltage across the
inductance, voltage across capacitance, at resonance.
5. (a) What is resonance? Sketch the resonance curves for a series resonant circuit with variable
frequency and constant R, L and C.
(b) A series circuit comprising R, L and C is supplied at 220V, 50 HZ. At resonance, the
voltage across the capacitor is 550V. The current at resonance is 1A. Determine the circuit
parameters R, L and C.

Objective Questions:
1. What is the use of locus diagram?
Ans: Determining the response of RLC circuit when one of its parameter is varied while the
frequency and voltage kept constant.
2. In pure inductive circuit, relation between voltage and current are
Ans: Current lags voltage by 90o
3. The frequency at which resonance occurs is called.Resonant Frequency
4. The formula for resonant frequency fr = 1/(2

5. What is the total reactance of a series RLC circuit at resonance..ZERO

6. What is the phase angle of a series RLC circuit at resonanceZERO
7. In a series RLC circuit operating below the resonant frequency, the current
8. In order to tune a parallel resonant circuit to a lower frequency, the capacitance must
Ans: be increased
9. What is the impedance of an ideal parallel resonant circuit without resistance in either branch
Ans: Infinite
10. In a certain series resonant circuit, VC =150V, VL = 150V and VR = 50V. what is the valve
Of source voltage.
Ans:50V

PBR VISVODAYA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY AND SCIENCE: KAVALI

DEPARTMANT OF EEE
SUB: Electrical Circuits
STAFF: A. BHAKTHAVATSALA

ASSIGNMENT-V
DATE: 15/09/2012

1. (a) Dene magnetizing force and ux density.

(b) Compare magnetic circuit with electric circuit.
(c) For the circuit shown in g. nd input impedance, assume load impedance to be ZL

2. (a) Explain the terms magnetic eld strength, magnetic ux and magnetic ux density.
(b) Dene coecient of coupling. What is its range of vasiatim? In which type of circuits it is
minimum and which type of circuits it is maximum?
(c) The combined inductance of two coils connected in series are 0.6 H and 0.1 H in series aiding and
Series opposing connections. If the self inductance of each coil is 0.2H, nd the coecient of
coupling
3. (a) write a short note on dot convention used in magnetically coupled coils.
(b) In the network shown in Fig. 5, L1=1H, L2=2H, M=1.2 H. Assuming the inductance coils to be
ideal nd the amount of energy stored after 0.1 sec of the circuit connected to a d.c. source of 10v.
4. (a) Define MMF, Flux and Reluctance
(b) What is a magnetic circuit? Compare magnetic circuit with an electric circuit.
(c) Find the total inductance of the three series connected coupled coils as shown in gure

Objective questions:
1. Mutual inductance is a property associated with two or more magnetic coupling.
2. The maximum value of the coefficient of coupling is 100%
3. The maximum possible mutual inductance of two inductively coupled coils with self inductances
L1=25mH and L2=100mH is 50mH.
4. The case for which the coefficient of coupling K=1 is called perfect coupling (true/false).
5. The value of coefficient of coupling is less for air cored coupled circuits compared to the iron cored
coupled circuits.
6. Dot convention in coupled circuits is used to determine the polarity of the mutually induced voltage in coils.
7. Two coils connected in series have an equivalent inductance of 3H when connected in aiding .If the self
inductance of first coil is 1H,the self inductance of second coil(assume M=0.5H) is 1H.
8. Mutually induced voltage is present independently of, and in addition to, the voltage due to self
induction.(True/false)
9. Give the relation between flux and reluctance and mmf. Ans: Reluctance=mmf/flux
10. Two coils connected series have an equivalent inductance of 0.4H when connected in aiding, and an
equivalent inductance 0.2H when the connection is opposing. Calculate the mutual inductance of the coils
Ans: m=0.05H

PBR VISVODAYA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY AND SCIENCE: KAVALI

DEPARTMANT OF EEE
SUB: Electrical Circuits
ASSIGNMENT-VI
STAFF: A.
BHAKTHAVATSALA
30/08/2012
1. Using nodal analysis, find the
in the 6 resistor for the circuit

DATE:
power dissipated
shown in fig

2. For the circuit shown in fig find the voltage across the 4ohm resistor by using nodal analysis.

3. (a) Explain the procedure for obtaining fundamental tie set matrix of given network.
(b) For the circuit shown in fig given below drawn the graph and tree.

4. Determine the voltages at each node for the circuit shown in fig

Objective questions:

1.The number of branches in atree is less than the number of branches in a graph.
2.The tie set schedule gives the relation between branch currents and link currents.
3.Mesh analysis is based on Kirchhoff s voltage law.
4.If a network contain B branches,N nodes,then the number of mesh current equations would be B-(N-1).
5.Anetwork has 10 nodes and 17 branches.the number of different mode pair voltages would be 45.
6.The nodal method of circuit analysis is based on KCL and ohms law.
7.A network has seven nodes and five independent loops.The number of branches in the network is 11.
8.Apractical voltage source consists of an ideal voltage source in series with an internal resistance.
9.The cut set schedule gives the relation between branch voltages and tree branch voltages.
10.Apractical current source consists of an ideal current source in parallel with an impedance.

PBR VISVODAYA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY AND SCIENCE: KAVALI

DEPARTMANT OF EEE
SUB: Electrical Circuits
STAFF: A. BHAKTHAVATSALA

ASSIGNMENT-VII
DATE: 30/08/2012

1. (a) State and explain maximum power transfer Theorem

(b) In the network shown in the Fig. nd the value of ZL so that the power transfer from the source
is maximum. Also nd Pmax

2. (a) State and explain Nortons theorem.

(b) Find the current through load resistance RL and also nd the voltage drop across load using
Millmans theorem for the network as shown in g

3. (a) State and explain Thevinins and Nortons theorems

(b) Calculate the current I shown in g. using Millmans theorem.

4. (a) State and explain Millmans theorem.

(b) Determine the Thevinins and Nortons equivalent circuits across AB for the circuit shown in g

Objective questions:
1. If a resistor has 5.5V across it and 3mA flowing through it, what is the power 16.5mW

2. A 100 ohm resistor is connected across the terminals of a 2.5V battery. The power dissipation
in the resistor is 100W.
3. If the voltage across capacitor is increased, does the amount of stored charge increases
4. If one of the resistors in parallel circuit is removed, total resistance increases.
5. The power dissipation in each of three parallel branches is 1w. What is the total power
dissipation of the circuit is 3W
6. A When a 1.2kohm resistor, 100 ohm resistor and 50 ohm resistor are in parallel, the total
resistance is less than 50 ohm.
7. Certain series has a100 ohm, a 270 ohm, and a 330 ohm resistor in series .If the 270 ohm
resistor is removed, the current increases.
8. Total inductance of parallel combination of 100mH, 50mH and 10Mh is 7.69mH
9. Kircoffs law is valid for Both Dc and AC circuits.
10. The current if a10coulomb charge passes a point in 0.5 seconds is 20A.

PBR VISVODAYA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY AND SCIENCE: KAVALI

DEPARTMANT OF EEE
SUB: Electrical Circuits
STAFF: A. BHAKTHAVATSALA

ASSIGNMENT-VIII
DATE: 30/08/2012

1. (a) State and explain Tellegens Theorem.

(b) For the resistive network shown in g. nd the current in each resistor, using the superposition
principle.

2.. (a) State and explain Reciprocity theorem.

(b) Find the current i in the circuit shown in g. given below using superposition theorem.

3. (a) State and explain compensation theorem.

(b) verify the Reciprocity theorem for the network shown in g. given below.

4. 3. (a) State and explain compensation theorem.

(b) verify the Reciprocity theorem for the network shown in g. given below.

Obective questions:
1. Three equal resistances of 3 ohm are connected in star . The resistance in one of the arms in equivalent
delta circuit is 9 ohm.
2. Super position theorem is valid only for linear circuits.
3. Nortons equivalent circuit consists of current source in parallel with impedance .
4. Maximum power is transferred when load impedance is equal to source impedance.
5. When the superposition theorem is applied to any circuit,the dependent voltage source in that
circuit is always active.
6. Super position theorem is not applicable to networks containing non linear elements.
7. Nortons theorem is the dual of Thevenins theorem.
8. Reciprocity theorem is applicable only to Single source circuits.
9. Tellegans theorem is based on Conservation of energy.
10. The reciprocity theorem is applicable to Linear and bilateral networks only.

Previous years question papers JNTUA

B.Tech II Year I Semester (R09) Regular and Supplementary Examinations, November 2012
ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS
(Common to EEE, EIE, E.Con.E, ECE and ECC)
Time: 3 hours
Max Marks: 70
All questions carry equal marks
*****
1 (a)
(b)

What are the passive and active elements? Explain the volt-current relationship of
passive elements with examples.
Find the source current in figure below.

2 (a)
(b)

The expressions for n resistances connected in parallel.

A 20 V battery with an internal resistance of 5 ohms is connected to a resistor of x
ohms. If an additional resistance of 6 ohms is connected across the battery, find the
value of x so that the external power supplied by the battery remains the same.

3 (a)
(b)

Show that current lags voltage in RL series circuit.

A series circuit having pure resistance of 40 ohms, pure inductance of 50.07 mH and
a capacitor is connected across a 400 V, 50 Hz ac supply. This RLC combination
draws a current of 10 A. Calculate (i) Power factor of the circuit. (ii) Capacitor value.

4 (a)
(b)

Derive the expression for figure of merit in terms of inductance and capacitance.
A coil of inductance 0.1H and resistance 10 ohms is connected in series with a
capacitor of 0.1 micro farads. Find frequency of resonance of the circuit, also find
quality factor of the circuit at resonance.

5 (a)
(b)

Define: (i) Flux. (ii) mmf (iii) Reluctance. (iv) Magnetic field intensity.
A coil is wound uniformly with 400 turns over an iron ring having a mean
Circumference of 50 c.m and a cross section of 0.4 cm2. If the coil has resistance of
10 and is connected across a 50 V D.C supply, Calculate the mmf of the coil,
magnetic field strength, magnetic field density, total flux and reluctance of the ring.
Contd. in Page 2

6 (a)
(b)

Explain the procedure to draw a dual network.

Develop the fundamental tie-set matrix for the circuit shown.

Find the current through 12 resistor using superposition theorem.

*****

Page 2 of 2

Code: 9A02305

B.Tech II Year I Semester (R09) Regular and Supplementary Examinations, November 2012
ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS
(Common to EEE, EIE, E.Con.E, ECE and ECC)
Time: 3 hours
Max Marks: 70
All questions carry equal marks
*****
1 (a)
(b)

Explain the difference between active elements and passive elements with suitable examples.
Find the condition when the circuit current is maximum in figure below.

2 (a)
(b)

Derive the expressions for n capacitors connected in series.

Calculate the voltage across branch AB in circuit shown, by using loop analysis.

3 (a)
(b)

Derive the basic equation of an alternating quantity. Hence state its various forms
A 50 Hz sinusoidal voltage applied to a single phase circuit has its RMS value of 200 V its
value at t = 0 is 28.3 volt positive. The current drawn by the circuit is 5A RMS and lags behind
the voltage by one sixth of a cycle. Write the expressions for instantaneous values of voltage
and current.

4 (a)
(b)

Derive the expressions for selectivity and bandwidth of anti resonant circuit.
A parallel circuit has a fixed capacitor and variable inductor having constant quality factor of 4.
Find the value of inductance and capacitance for circuit impedance of 1000 ohms at
resonating frequency 2.4 MHz What is the band width of the circuit?
Contd. in page 2

Page 1 of 2

Code: 9A02305
5 (a)
(b)
(c)

Explain ohms law for magnetic circuits.

Explain Lenzs law.
Two coils A&B are wound on same iron core and have 1000 turns on A and 3000 turns on
B.A current of 8 A through A gives rise to 1.6 m wb flux in the core. If the current in the coils
is reversed in 0.25 sec, find the average emf induced in A&B.

6 (a)
(b)

Write the properties of tie-set matrix and cut-set matrix.

For the network shown in figure, Obtain cut-set matrix.

In the circuit shown, find voltage across terminals A and B using Nortons theorem.

8 (a)
(b)

State and explain reciprocity theorem.

Verify Tellegens theorem for the circuit shown in figure.

***** Page

2 of 2

Code: 9A02305

B.Tech II Year I Semester (R09) Regular and Supplementary Examinations, November 2012
ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS
(Common to EEE, EIE, E.Con.E, ECE and ECC)
Time: 3 hours
Max Marks: 70
All questions carry equal marks
*****
1 (a)
(b)

Define the following: (i) Resistance. (ii) Inductance. (iii) Capacitance.

Also give the V-I relationship For the above elements.
Find the equivalent capacitance across x y (M).

2 (a)
(b)

Explain the voltage division in series circuit of the resistors.

In the figure below, find Vs using Kirchoff's laws.

3 (a)
(b)

Define the following terms: (i) Admittance. (ii) Conductance. (iii) Susceptence.
In a particular circuit a voltage of 10 V at 25 Hz produces 100 mA while the same voltage at
75 Hz produces 60 mA draw the circuit diagram and insert the values of the constants. At
what frequency will the value of impedance be twice as that 25 Hz.

4 (a)
(b)

List the characteristics of RLC series resonant circuits?

A coil with resistance of 10 ohm and inductance of 0.5 H is connected in parallel with a 400
micro Farads capacitor. Calculate the frequency at which the circuit will act as a noninductive resistance. Find its value.

5 (a)
(b)

Derive the expression for equivalent inductance of two coils connected in parallel opposing.
Two coupled coils with respect to self inductances L1 = 0.6 H, L2 = 0.4 H having a k = 0.4.Coil
2 has 100 turns. The current in coil 1 is I1 = 10sin200t A. determine the voltage at coil 2 and
maximum flux set up by coil 1.
Contd. in Page 2

Page 1 of 2

Code: 9A02305

6 (a)
(b)

Write the properties of tree with example.

Determine power supplied by source using nodal analysis for the circuit shown.

7 (a)
(b)

State & explain Millmans theorem.

For the circuit shown in fig: what will be the value of RL to get the maximum power? What is
the maximum power delivered to the load?

8 (a)
(b)

Write limitations of reciprocity theorem.

Calculate the change in current of the network given below using compensation theorem
when the load resistor changes to 10 .

*****

Page 2 of 2

Code: 9A02305

B.Tech II Year I Semester (R09) Regular and Supplementary Examinations, November 2012
ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS
(Common to EEE, EIE, E.Con.E, ECE and ECC)
Time: 3 hours
Max Marks: 70
All questions carry equal marks
*****
1 (a)
(b)

Define ideal and practical voltage and current sources

In the figure below find the value of R such that the power dissipated in the 5 ohm
resistor is 100 W. Assume the internal resistance of the battery of 50 V to be 1 ohm.

2 (a)
(b)

With three mesh general circuits explain the mesh analysis to find the loop currents.
Determine the current through 6 ohm resistor and the power supplied by the current
source for the circuit shown in the figure.

3 (a)

Define and explain the following terms related to an alternating quantity:

(i) Instantaneous value. (ii) Time period. (iii) Frequency,
(iv) Amplitude. (v) Cycle. (vi) Angle of frequency.
A 50 Hz sinusoidal current has peak factor 1.4 and form factor 1.1. Its average value
is 20 A. The instantaneous value of current is 15 A at t = 0 sec. Write the equation of
current and draw its wave form.

(b)

4 (a)
(b)

Derive the expressions for bandwidth, resonant frequency, quality factor and half
power frequency of RLC parallel circuits.
A variable frequency constant voltage signal generator supplies a RLC circuit at
sinusoidal mode. Find the frequency at which maximum voltage across the inductor
should appear.
Contd. in Page 2

Page 1 of 2

Code: 9A02305

5 (a)
(b)

Derive expression for coefficient of coupling.

Explain statically induced emf and dynamically induced emf and also derive
expression for self inductance and mutual inductance in terms of flux and current.

6 (a)
(b)

Write the properties of a tree with an example.

Write the cut set matrix for the graph shown below and also write the relation
between branch voltages and tree branch voltages.

7 (a)
(b)

State and explain Nortons theorem.

Find Current through 15 resistor using Thevenins theorem.

8 (a)
(b)

Write steps to apply Tellegens theorem to the given network.

Verify reciprocity theorem for the circuit shown below.

Code: 9A02305

Electrical Machines-I

Syllabus
ELECTRICAL MACHINES-1

Unit-1 Electromechanical Energy Conversion

Electromechanical energy conversion-forces and torque in magnetic field systems Energy balance ,energy and
force in a singly exited magnetic field system, Determination of magnetic force - Co-energy & multi excited
magnetic field systems

Unit:2 DC Generators Construction & Operation

DC generators - Principle of Operation Action of Commutator - Constructional features - Armature windings Lap & Wave Windings- Simplex & Multiplex windings - Use of laminated armature E.M.F Equation Problems

Unit-3: Armature Reaction in D.C.Generator

Armature Reaction - Cross & Demagnetizing AT/pole - Compensating winding Commutation - Reactance voltage
- Methods of improving commutation

Unit 4: Types of DC Generators

Methods of excitation Separately Excited and Self Excited Generators build up of EMF - Critical field Resistance
& Critical speed - Causes for failure to self excite and remedial measures

Code: 9A02305

Load characteristic of shunt, series & compound generators - Parallel operation of dc series generators
Use of equalizer bar & cross connection of field windings - Load sharing

Unit-6: DC Motors
DC Motors Principle of operation - Back EMF - Torque equation - Characteristics and application of shunt, series
and compound motors Armature Reaction and commutation.

Unit 7: Speed Control of Dc Motors

speed control of dc motors : Armature voltage and field flux control methods.
Ward leonard system.
Principle of 3 point and 4 point starters protective devices

Unit-8:Testing Of Dc Machines
Testing of Dc Machines : Losses Contant & Variable losses calculation of Efficiency
condition for maximum efficiency - Methods of testing-direct, indirect and regenerative testing
brake test - swinburnes test hopkinsons test Fields test Retardation test
Separation of stray losses in dc motor test

TEXT BOOKS:
1.Electrical Machines P.S.Bimbra,Khanna Publishers
2.Fundamentals of Electrical Machines By B.R. Gupta,Vandana Singhal,3rd Edition ,New Age International
Publishers.
REFERENCE BOOKS:
1.Performance And Design Of Dc Machines By Clayton & Hancock,BPB Publishers

Code: 9A02305
2.Electrical Machinery A E Fitzgerald, C.Kingsley And S.Umans,Mc Graw-Hill Companies,5th Edition
3.Electrical Machines By I.J. Nagrath & D.P. Kothari, Tata Mc Graw Hill Publishers,3rd Edition,2004

Code: 9A02305

Objective
Objective

Electrical machines course is one of the important courses of the

Electrical discipline.In this course different types of DC generators and motors which are
widely used in industry are covered and their performance aspects will be studied and
also it covers Constructional details, principle of operation, Performance, starters and
speed control of DC Machines.

Code: 9A02305

Code: 9A02305

Lesson Plan
PBR VISVODAYA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY AND SCIENCE

LESSON PLAN
YEAR: 2012 2013

BRANCH: EEE

S.No

Dates

Y. VAMSI BABU

No.of
periods

Subject : ELECTRICAL MACHINES-I

No.of
Topic to be covered

In week

Periods
required

No of
periods
/ unit

1
Introduction to Unit-1

Electromechanical energy conversion-force

and torque in magnetic field systems

Energy, Co-energy &Energy balance

2
Single and multi excited magnetic field
system

Determination of magnetic force, co-energy

problems

2
1

10

Code: 9A02305

Unit:2 Dc generators:

Operating principle

5
Constructional features

2

Emf equation - Problem

4
10

Unit-3:
2
armature reaction

2
Cross & demagnetizing AT/pole
1
problems

1
Compensating winding

2
Methods of improving commutation
1
Problems solved

Reactance voltage

Problems

Slip test-1

1
13

Unit 4:

Introduction & Types of dc generators

Methods of excitation

Code: 9A02305

Characteristics of DC Generators

Causes of failures of Self Excited Generators

Critical speed , Critical field Resistance and
its Determination

2
1
2

Problems on Critical speed & Critical field

Resistance
2

10

11

5
Unit-5:load characteristic of generatorshunt, series& compound

1
Parallel operation of dc series generator

11

field winding

2

12

2
12
Unit-6:

13

Operating & working Principle of DC Motor

Types of DC Motors

Torque equation

Code: 9A02305

Characteristics and application of motors

14

4
Problems on shaft and arm.torque
2

09

Unit 7:

15

Ward leonard system

problems

2
Principle of 3 point starters
1
Principle of 4 point starters

16

09

Problems
Unit-8:testing of dc machines
1

17

Losses & efficiency problems

1
Methods of testing-direct, indirect
regenerative Break test, swinburens,

hopkinsons, Field, retardation

18

3
separation of stray losses in dc motor test

1
Total

Faculty Signature

06

80

HOD Signature

Code: 9A02305

Question Papers Mid-semester

examinations
PBR VISVODAYA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY AND SCIENCE:KAVALI
II B.Tech -ISEM

DEPT. OF EEE

DATE:5/9/12[AN]

MID-I (DESCRIPTIVE)

Name: ________

SUB: EM-1
Time:1hr 30min.

Branch ________

1.a) Derive the emf equation of a DC Generator.

b) A lap-wound DC shunt generator having 80 slots with 10 conductors per slot generates at
no load an emf of 400 V, when running at 1000 rpm. At what speed should it be rotated to
generate a voltage of 220 V on open circuit?
2.What are the different types of self excited generators?obtain the terminal voltage and
current expressions from the equivalent ckt representations of them.
3.Discuss the following methods of improving commutation
i)Iincreasing the brush contact resistance ii)by using interpoles
4. a) Explain the effects of armature reaction in DC generators.
b)Define the following terminology of armature winding of a dc machine
(i) Conductor. (ii) Turn. (iii) Coil & Coil-side. (iv) Coil Span.
5.a)Discuss the process of self-excitation in a dc machine.What conditions must be fulfilled
for self-excitation?

PBR VISVODAYA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY AND SCIENCE:KAVALI

II B.Tech ISEM Time: 20min. SUB: Electrical machines -1 DATE:05/9/12[AN

Code: 9A02305
Name: _______________________ Roll number ______________Branch
__________________________________________________________________________

1..EMF induced in a coil rotating in a uniform magnetic field will be maximum when the
a) flux linking with the coil is maximum

b) rate of change of flux linkage is minimum

c) rate of change of flux linkage is maximum
d) rate of cutting flux by the coil sides is minimum
2.The d.c. armature winding in which coil sides are a pole pitch apart is called ............ winding.
(a) multiplex (b) fractional-pitch (c) full-pitch (d) pole-pitch

3.In small DC machines, armature slots are sometimes not made axial but are skewed, results
a)quiter operation b)slight decrease in losses c)saving of copper d)both a & b [

4.A 4-pole, 12-slot lap-wound d.c. armature has two coil-sides/slot. Assuming single turn coils and progressive
winding, the back pitch would be
[
]
(a) 5 (b) 7 (c) 3 (d) 6
5. Lap winding is suitable for ............ current, ............ voltage d.c. generators. [

(a) high, low (b) low, high (c) low, low (d) high, high
6.The critical resistance of the d.c. generator is the resistance of

(a) armature (b) field (c) load (d) brushes

7.In a d.c. generator, the generated e.m.f. is directly proportional to the

(a) field current (b) pole flux (c) number of armature parallel paths
(d) number of dummy coils
8..In a dc machine ,the armature reaction and the inductance of commutating coils results in
a)over commutation

b)under commutation

c)linear commutation

d)sinusoidal commutation

Code: 9A02305
9. If the applied voltage to dc machine is 230V, then back emf for max power
developed is
a)200V

[
b) 230V c) 115V

d) 460V

10.The load characteristics of shunt generator are drooping in nature.(True/ False)

11. A dc series generator is used as variable voltage generator (True./ False)
12.For same voltage rating,load sharing is power rating (True./ False)
13.Magnetisation characteristic is the plot between _________&____________
14.____________ is essential for building up of voltage in self excited generator.
15.In a cumulative compound generator ,series field flux _________ the shunt filed flux.
16.The direction of rotation of dc shunt machine can be reversed by interchanging
__________________________
17.The armature mmf wave in dc machine is _________
18.The main reason for providing compensating winding in a dc generator is to __________________
19.The purpose of brush in a dc machine is to _____________
20.The armature of a dc machine is laminated to reduce ____________

PBR VISVODAYA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY AND SCIENCE:KAVALI

II B.Tech -ISEM
DATE:3/11/12[AN]
Name: ________

DEPT. OF EEE
MID-II (DESCRIPTIVE)
Roll number __________

SUB: EM-1
Time:1hr 30min.
Branch ________

Code: 9A02305

1 .a)What is a starter?Explain the necessity of starters in DC motors?

b)Explain the Ward Leonard system of speed control of DC motors?

2. a)Explain the scheme to control the speed of a DC shunt motor below its rated speed?

b)A 200v shunt motor has armature and field resistances of 0.1 and 240 respectively.The rotational losses
are equal to 236w.Determine the mechanical power developed and the full load efficiency when the machine is
on full load taking a line current of 9.8A and running at 1450 rpm.

3.Explain Hopkinsons test with neat sketch and derive the relations for efficiency of motor and also the machine
which is acting as generator?
4. a) A 250v DC shunt machine has a line current of 80A,it has armature and field resistances of 0.1 & 125
respectively.Calculate the power developed in armature when running as
1)generator 2)motor

b)list the applications of varios types of DC motors and also its characteristics?

5. a)A 200v Dc shunt machine has armature and field resistances of 0.2 and 200 respectively.
The line current is 40A.Find
1)output as generator 2)input as motor 3)power developed in armature

b)A 440v Dc shunt motor takes a no load current of 25A.The resistance of the shunt field and the armature are
550 and 1.2 respectively . The full load line current is 32A.Find the full load output and efficiency of the
motor.

Code: 9A02305

PBR VISVODAYA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY AND SCIENCE:KAVALI

II B.Tech- ISEM Time: 20min. SUB: Electrical machines-1 DATE:03/11/12[AN]
Name: _________________ Roll number ____________Branch__________________
__________________________________________________________________________

a) increases b) decreases c) remains constant d) none

2. A cumulatively compounded motor does not run at dangerous speed at light loads because of the
of

a) series wdg b) shunt wdg c) both shunt & series d) none

3. which motor is used to start heavy loads
a) series

b) shunt

c) compound

d) all

a) series b) compoud c) shunt d)none

5. In an unsaturated DC series motor

a) torque Ia2 b) torque Ia c) torque 1/Ia d) none

6. Retardation test is carried out to determine
a) Frictional losses

b) Iron losses

c) stray losses

d) copper losses

7.The economical method for finding no load losses of a large DC shunt motor is
a)retardation test b) hopkinsons test c) brake test d) swinburnes test

presence

Code: 9A02305
8. If the applied voltage to dc machine is 230V, then back emf for max power developed [
a)200V

b) 230V c) 115V

d) 460V

a) Constant torque b) Variable torque c) Variable power d) Constant power

10. A DC shunt motor is running at light load, if field winding opens

a) Motor will burn b) Motor will make noise c)Motor will stop d) motor will pick up high speed
11. For a given DC motor, the speed depends upon

a) compound

b) series

c) shunt

[ ]
d) none

a) its flux

b) armature ckt resistance

c)applied voltage

d) all

14. over heating of DC motor is due to ____________________________

15. The developed electromagnetic force in electromechanical energy conversion system
Act in a direction that tends to decrease the stored energy at constant flux (True/False)
16. motor starters are essential for avoiding ___________
17. The current drawn by a 220V DC motor of armature resistance 0.5 ohm and back emf 200V is__.
18. Condition for maximum efficiency is ___________
19. In a d.c machine the losses which vary with load are ___________
20. In flux control method of speed control of dc shunt motor, speeds above rated speeds is
possible(T/F)

Code: 9A02305

Question Bank
ELECTRICAL MACHINES -1
UNIT-1
DESCRIPTIVE
1.a) Distinguish between singly excited and multi excited magnetic field systems.
b) Define field energy and co-energy. Give the significance of co-energy. Give the
significance of co-energy in the derivation of torque or force in an electro mechanical
energy conversion device.

2.State and explain the basic phenomena which are responsible for energy conversion in an
electromechanical energy conversion device.
3.a) Mention the advantages of analyzing energy conversion devices by field-energy concept.
b) With neat relevant diagrams derive the expression for mechanical force of a singly-excited
system when it is controlled by current.
4.a) An exciting coil of a rectangular electromagnetic relay has 2000 turns. The cross-section of
the core is 6 x 6 cm2. Neglecting fringing effect and reluctance of magnetic circuit, calculate the
maximum force acting on the armature if the flux density in the core is 0.6 T.
b)With neat sketch & explain the multiple-excited magnetic field system in electromechanical
energy conversion systems. Also obtain the expression for field energy in the system.

OBJECTIVE
1. For a linear electromagnetic circuit field energy isco-energy
a) equal

2. In an electromechanical energy conversion device, the torque developed depends

a)stator and rotor field

b) stator field only c) stator, rotor field strength and torque angle

Code: 9A02305

3. The developed electromagnetic force in electromechanical energy conversion system

Act in a direction that tends to decrease the stored energy at constant flux (True/False)
4. Examples of singly excited electro mechanical energy conversion devices are_____________
5. For a linear electromagnetic circuit field energy isco-energy
a) equal

b) Greater than c) Less Than d) none

6.The developed electro-magnetic force and/or torque in electro-mechanical energy conversion system act in
a direction that tends
[
]
a)to increase the stored energy at const flux b) to decrease the stored energy at const flux
c) to decrease the co-energy at const. mmf d) to decrease the stored energy at const mmf
7.In eletromechanical energy conversion devices(eg. Generators and motors),a small airgap is left between
the stator and the rotor in order to
[
]
a)reduce the reluctance of the magnetic path b)increase the flux density in the airgap
c)permit mechanical clearance

a)air gap is not uniform b)reluctance seen by stator mmf varies

c) reluctance seen by rotor mmf varies d)reluctance seen by the working mmf varies
9.what is electro-mechanical energy conversion______
10.A rotating electrical machine having its self inductances of both the stator and the rotor
independent of rotor position will definitely not develop
[
]

windings,

a)starting torque b)synchronising torque c)hysteresis torque d)reluctance torque

UNIT-2
DESCRIPTIVE
1.a)Derive the emf equation of a DC Generator.
b) A lap-wound DC shunt generator having 80 slots with 10 conductors per slot generates at
no load an emf of 400 V, when running at 1000 rpm. At what speed should it be rotated to
generate a voltage of 220 V on open circuit?

Code: 9A02305

2.a) Define the following terminology of armature winding of a dc machine

(i) Conductor. (ii) Turn. (iii) Coil & Coil-side. (iv) Coil Span.
b) An 8-pole armature consists of 720 conductors. The average emf generated in each conductor is 1.5 V.
Each conductor is capable of carrying a current of 8 A. Calculate the following when the machine is both
lap-wound:
3.a) Show the neat sketches of progressive and retrogressive simplex wave windings. Define the different
winding pitches.
b) The armature of a 4-pole dc generator having 520 conductors generates an induced emf of 520 V, when
running at a speed of 1200 rpm. The flux per pole being 50 mWb. What is the type of the simplex
winding used?
4.a) Develop from the first principles an expression for emf of a dc generator.
b) An 8-pole, lap-connected dc generator has 12 coils with 8 turns per coil. It is driven at 1500 rpm. If the
flux per pole is 30 mWb, calculate the emf generated. If the machine is wave-connected, find the speed at
which it is to be driven to generate the same emf as calculated with lap connection.

OBJECTIVE
1.DC generator operates on the principle

a)electro magnetic induction b) Lenz's law c) Biov Savart's law d) none of these
2.EMF induced in a coil rotating in a uniform magnetic field will be maximum when the
a) flux linking with the coil is maximum

b) rate of change of flux linkage is minimum

c) rate of change of flux linkage is maximum
d) rate of cutting flux by the coil sides is

minimum

3.A wave winding must go at least ............ around the armature before it closes back where it started.
[
]
(a) once (b) twice (c) thrice (d) four times

Code: 9A02305

4.The d.c. armature winding in which coil sides are a pole pitch apart is called ............ winding.
(a) multiplex (b) fractional-pitch (c) full-pitch (d) pole-pitch

5.In small DC machines, armature slots are sometimes not made axial but are skewed, results
a)quiter operation b)slight decrease in losses c)saving of copper d)both a & b [

6.A 4-pole, 12-slot lap-wound d.c. armature has two coil-sides/slot. Assuming single turn coils and
progressive winding, the back pitch would be
[
]
(a) 5 (b) 7 (c) 3 (d) 6
7. Lap winding is suitable for ............ current, ............ voltage d.c. generators. [

(a) high, low (b) low, high (c) low, low (d) high, high
8.The critical resistance of the d.c. generator is the resistance of

(a) armature (b) field (c) load (d) brushes

9.In a d.c. generator, the generated e.m.f. is directly proportional to the
(a) field current (b) pole flux (c) number of armature parallel paths
(d) number of dummy coils
10.The purpose of brush in a dc machine is to _____________

UNIT-3
DESCRIPTIVE
1.a) What is the purpose of compensating winding? Explain in detail.
b) Explain the effects of armature reaction in DC generators.
2.a)Explain why in dc generators, the polarity of inter-pole must be the same as that of the
main pole ahead of it in the direction of rotation.
b)A 4-pole dc generator supplies a current of 143 A. It has 492 armature conductors
connected in lap method. Calculate the de-magnetizing ampere turns per pole. The field
winding is connected in shunt and takes 2 A. Find the number of extra shunt field turns
necessary to neutralize this de-magnetisation. When delivering full-load, the brushes are given

Code: 9A02305

3.a)Discuss how reactance voltage causes under-commutation in dc machines.

b)A 4-pole, 30kW, 230V, wave-wound, shunt generator has 400 armature conductors.
Brushes are given a lead of 3 commutator segments. Calculate the de-magnetizing ampere
turns per pole if shunt field resistance is 150 . Also calculate extra shunt field turns per pole
required to neutralize the de-magnetization.
4) What is Armature reaction? Explain in detail the phenomenon of armature reaction in a 2-pole
pole dc generator with the help of neat sketches of flux distribution in space and relevant ector
diagrams, before and a ter the armature reaction.

OBJECTIVE
1.Define commutation_____________
2.The armature of a dc machine is laminated to reduce ____________
3.To have sparkless commutation armature reaction effect in dc machine is neutralised by
_____________
4.In a 6 pole dc machine 90 elec deg correspond to ____mech deg
5.The armature mmf wave in dc machine is _________
6.If armature current in a dc machine is increased to double its previous value and time of commutation is
halved ,the reactance voltage will be_________
7.The main reason for providing compensating winding in a dc generator is to __________________
8.what is the purpose of commutator in a dc machine_____________
9.write down the methods to improve commutation____________
10.In a dc machine ,the armature reaction and the inductance of commutating coils results in
a)over commutation

b)under commutation

c)linear commutation

d)sinusoidal commutation

UNIT-4

Code: 9A02305

DESCRIPTIVE
1.a)Explain how will you determine critical speed of a DC machine with a neat circuit
diagram.
b)Explain the following with the help of neat diagrams:
(i) Cumulative compounding and (ii) Differential compounding of dc machines.
2.Explain how the magnetization characteristic of a dc machine can be obtained
experimentally. Explain the procedure to obtain critical values of field resistance and speed
3.a) Discuss the process of self-excitation in a dc machine.
What conditions must be fulfilled for self-excitation?
b) A short-shunt compound generator has armature, series-field and shunt-field resistances of
0.8 , 0.6 and 45 respectively. The machine supplies a load of 5 kW at 250 V.
Calculate the emf generated in the armature and armature current.
4.a)What are the methods of excitation of dc generators? Explain with the help of diagrams.
b) A 6-pole generator has 1000 armature conductors and is wave-wound. If the flux per pole is
0.02 Wb and the speed is 500 rpm, calculate the emf generated. If the above machine is selfexcited, and the armature and field resistances are 0.5 and 250 respectively, calculate the
output current when the armature current is 40 A.
OBJECTIVE
1.The critical resistance of the d.c. generator is the resistance of

(a) shunt (b) armature (c) load (d) external

3.____________ is essential for building up of voltage in self excited generator.
4.In a cumulative compound generator ,series field flux _________ the shunt filed flux.
5.In a 230v dc machine ,the brushes are made up of ___________
6.A dc generator beyond critical resistance will generate _____________
7.The direction of rotation of dc shunt machine can be reversed by interchanging
__________________________
8.The possible arm.ckt resistance of a shunt field wdg is ____

Code: 9A02305

9. DC motors can be easily recognized by

a) armature b) Commutator

c) lap and wave winding d) none

10. If the applied voltage to dc machine is 230V, then back emf for max power
developed is
a)200V

[
b) 230V

c) 115V

d) 460V

UNIT-5
DESCRIPTIVE
1.a) Draw and explain the load characteristics of dc shunt generator.
b) Eight shunt generators are running in parallel. Each generator supplies a load current of
400A
at 310V. The field current of each generator is 4A and the armature resistance is 0.04 . If one generator
is suddenly switched off, determine the percentage change of terminal voltage, the total load current being
kept unchanged
2.a)Discuss the need for parallel operation of generators. Explain the load sharing of DC shunt
generators operating in parallel.
b)Sketch and explain the load characteristics of DC generators, also give their fields of
application.
3.What is the experimental procedure to obtain the load characteristics of dc compound
generator? Explain.
4.a)Explain the parallel operation of two dc series generators with equalizer-bar connection
and hence narrate the necessity of equalizer-bar connection.
b)Two dc shunt generators operating in parallel. The generator-1 and generator-2 are
inducing emfs of 220 V and 210 V, and have armature resistances of 0.7 and 0.5
respectively. The common load is 30kW.Calculate the load sharing between the generators.

OBJECTIVE
1.The load characteristics of shunt generator are drooping in nature.(True/ False)
2. A dc series generator is used as variable voltage generator (True./ False)

Code: 9A02305

3. The generator used in electric arc welding is__________________

5.For same voltage rating,load sharing is power rating (True./ False)
6.______________generator is a variable voltage generator.
7.Magnetisation characteristic is the plot between _________&____________
8. Equaliser bars are used in parallel operation of _________generators.
9.What is the essential condition for parallel operation.
10.Open circuit characteristic is the plot between _______&________.
UNIT-6
DESCRIPTIVE
1.a) Explain the principle of operation of dc motor.
b) A 200V dc series motor runs at 1000rpm when operating at its full load current of 30A. R a + R se =0.5
. Neglecting saturation what will be speed if i) Load torque is increased by 44% ii) Motor current is
20A.
b)A 440V dc shunt motor takes no load current of 2.5A. The resistance of shunt field and armature are
550 and 1.2 respectively. The full load line current is 32A. Find full load output and efficiency of the
motor.
2.a) Explain the significance of back emf in DC motors.
b) List the applications of various types of DC motors and also its characteristics?
3. A 250 V, 4-pole shunt motor has two-circuit armature winding with 550 conductors. The
armature circuit resistance is 0.35 , field resistance is 145 and the flux per pole is 0.03
Wb. Neglect the armature reaction. Find the speed and torque developed, if the motor draws
15 A from the mains.
4. What is Armature reaction? Explain in detail the phenomenon of armature reaction in a 2pole dc motor with the help of neat sketches of flux distribution and flux density waveforms
before and after the armature reaction.

Code: 9A02305

OBJECTIVE
1. When the speed of a DC motor increases,its armature current
a) increases

b) decreases

c) remains constant d) none

2. A cumulatively compounded motor does not run at dangerous speed at light loads because of the
presence of

a) series wdg b) shunt wdg c) both shunt & series d) none

3. which motor is used to start heavy loads
a) series

b) shunt

c) compound

d) all

4. which motor should not be used for centrifugal pumps

a) series b) compoud c) shunt d)none
5. In an unsaturated DC series motor
a) torque Ia2

b) torque Ia

a) compound

b) series

c) shunt

d) none

7.A DC shunt motor is running at light load, if field winding opens

a) Motor will burn b) Motor will make noise c)Motor will stop d) motor will pick up high speed
8.Over heating of DC motor is due to ____________________________
9. The current drawn by a 220V DC motor of armature resistance 0.5 ohm and back emf 200V
is_____________________
10.Large variable speed dc motors are fitted with compensating windings to ______
UNIT-7
DESCRIPTIVE
1 .a)What is a starter?Explain the necessity of starters in DC motors?

Code: 9A02305

b)Explain the Ward Leonard system of speed control of DC motors?

2. a)Explain the scheme to control the speed of a DC shunt motor below its rated speed?
3. a) A 250v DC shunt machine has a line current of 80A,it has armature and field resistances
of 0.1 & 125 respectively.Calculate the power developed in armature when running as
1)generator

2)motor

b) What are the different speed control methods of DC shunt motor? Explain each method

4. A 200V dc shunt motor takes 22A at rated voltage and run at 1000rpm.
R sh =100, Ra=0.1.Calculate extra resistance in armature circuit to reduce speed to

OBJECTIVE
1.The speed of a DC motor can be controlled by changing
a) its flux

b) armature ckt resistance

c)applied voltage

2.Speed control by variation of field flux results indrive.

a) Constant torque b) Variable torque c) Variable power

d) all
[

d) Constant power

3.For a given DC motor, the speed depends upon

a) back emf alone b) back emf and flux c) flux only

d) applied voltage only

4. In flux control method of speed control of dc shunt motor, speeds above rated speeds is
possible(T/F)
5.Motor starters are essential for avoiding ___________
6. In a d.c machine the losses which vary with load are ___________
7.A cumulatively compounded motor does not run at dangerous speed at light loads because of the

Code: 9A02305

presence of
a) series wdg

[
b) shunt wdg

d) none

a) series b) compoud c) shunt d)none

10. Plugging means __________________
UNIT-8
DESCRIPTIVE
1)A 200v shunt motor has armature and field resistances of 0.1 and 240 respectively.The rotational
losses are equal to 236w.Determine the mechanical power developed and the full load efficiency when the
machine is on full load taking a line current of 9.8A and running at 1450 rpm.
2.Explain Hopkinsons test with neat sketch and derive the relations for efficiency of motor and also the
machine which is acting as generator?
3. Explain the various losses that occur in a DC machine and also derive the condition for
maximum efficiency.
4. a)A 200v Dc shunt machine has armature and field resistances of 0.2 and 200 respectively.The
line current is 40A.Find 1)output as generator 2)input as motor 3)power developed in armature
b)A 440v Dc shunt motor takes a no load current of 25A.The resistance of the shunt field and the
armature are 550 and 1.2 respectively . The full load line current is 32A.Find the full load output and
efficiency of the motor.
OBJECTIVE
1. The economical method for finding no load losses of a large dc shunt motor is
a) Fields test

b) Retardation test

b) Retardation test

a) Fields test

Code: 9A02305

3. Retardation test is carried out to determine

a) Frictional losses

b) Iron losses

c) stray losses

d) copper losses

a) Not economical b) motor to be loaded c) iron losses are assumed constant

5. In the Rheostatic method of speed control for a d.c. shunt motor, use of armature divertor makes the
method
(a) less wasteful (b) less expensive (c) unsuitable for changing loads (d) suitable for rapidly changing
6. The chief advantage of Ward-Leonard system of d.c. motor speed control is that it
(a) can be used even for small motors (b) has high overall efficiency at all speeds
(c) gives smooth, sensitive and wide speed control (d) uses a flywheel to reduce fluctuations in power
demand
7.Condition for max efficiency of a dc machine is______________
8. To save energy during braking ______________ braking is used
9.Which of the following tests can be conducted on other than shunt machines

a)Swinburnes test b)Retardation test c)Fields test d)Back to back test

10.Why Swinburnes test can not be performed on dc series machines______________

Code: 9A02305

Previous years question papers JNTUA

avunu

B.Tech II Year I Semester (R09) Regular and Supplementary Examinations, November 2012
ELECTRICAL MACHINES -
(Electrical & Electronics Engineering)
Time: 3 hours
Max Marks: 70
All questions carry equal marks
*****
1 (a)
(b)

2 (a)
(b)

With neat relevant diagrams derive the expression for mechanical force of a singly-excited
system when it is controlled by current.
An exciting coil of a rectangular electromagnetic relay has 2000 turns. The cross-section
of the core is 6 x 6 cm2. Neglecting fringing effect and reluctance of magnetic circuit,
calculate the maximum force acting on the armature if the flux density in the core is 0.6 T.
Explain the action of commutator of a dc machine with the help of neat diagram. Why the
carbon or graphite brushes preferred over copper brushes for use in dc machines?
The armature of a 4-pole dc generator has wave winding with 660 conductors. Calculate
the generated emf when flux per pole is 50 mWb and the speed is 1500 rpm.

What is Armature reaction? Explain in detail the phenomenon of armature reaction in a 2pole dc generator with the help of neat sketches of flux distribution in space and relevant
vector diagrams, before and after the armature reaction.

4 (a)
(b)

What are the methods of excitation of dc generators? Explain with the help of diagrams.
A 6-pole generator has 1000 armature conductors and is wave-wound. If the flux per pole
is 0.02 Wb and the speed is 500 rpm, calculate the emf generated. If the above machine
is self-excited, and the armature and field resistances are 0.5 and 250 respectively,
calculate the output current when the armature current is 40 A.

What is the experimental procedure to obtain the load characteristics of dc shunt

generator? Explain.

Code: 9A02305

6
(a)
(b)

A 10 kW, 200 V, dc series motor runs at 900 rpm when operating at its full-load. The
motor resistance is 0.4 and magnetic circuit can be assumed unsaturated. What will be
the speed if
The load torque is increased by 75 %.
The motor current is reduced to half of the full-load value.
Contd. in Page 2

Code: 9A02305

7 (a)
(b)

Explain Ward-Leonard system of speed control of dc motor.

A shunt motor is developing a torque of 130 N-m at speed n rpm. Find the current at
speed 2n rpm (a) with field control and (b) with armature voltage control when
(i) Output is constant and (ii) Torque is constant. Neglect losses.

The Hopkinsons test on two similar machines gave the following results at full-load.
Line current = 50 A
Line voltage = 120 V
Motor armature current = 220 A
The field currents are 3 A and 3.5 A. Armature resistance of each machine is 0.025 .
Calculate the efficiency of each machine assuming brush contact drop of 1 V per brush.

*****

Code: 9A02308

B.Tech II Year I Semester (R09) Regular and Supplementary Examinations, November 2012
ELECTRICAL MACHINES -
(Electrical & Electronics Engineering)
Time: 3 hours
Max Marks: 70
All questions carry equal marks
*****
1

State and explain the basic phenomena which are responsible for energy conversion in
an electromechanical energy conversion device.

2 (a)

Define the following terminology of armature winding of a dc machine

(i) Conductor. (ii) Turn. (iii) Coil & Coil-side. (iv) Coil Span.
An 8-pole armature consists of 720 conductors. The average emf generated in each
conductor is 1.5 V. Each conductor is capable of carrying a current of 8 A. Calculate
the following when the machine is both lap-wound:

(b)

3 (a)
(b)

Explain why in dc generators, the polarity of inter-pole must be the same as that of the
main pole ahead of it in the direction of rotation.
A 4-pole dc generator supplies a current of 143 A. It has 492 armature conductors
connected in lap method. Calculate the de-magnetizing ampere turns per pole. The
field winding is connected in shunt and takes 2 A. Find the number of extra shunt field
turns necessary to neutralize this de-magnetisation. When delivering full-load, the
brushes are given a lead of 100 mechanical.

Explain how the magnetization characteristic of a dc machine can be obtained

experimentally. Explain the procedure to obtain critical values of field resistance and
speed.

What is the experimental procedure to obtain the load characteristics of dc compound

generator? Explain.

What is Armature reaction? Explain in detail the phenomenon of armature reaction in a

2-pole dc motor with the help of neat sketches of flux distribution and flux density
waveforms before and after the armature reaction.
Contd. in Page 2

Code: 9A02308
7 (a)
(b)

What are the advantages and disadvantages of rheostatic control method of speed
control?
A 220 V, dc series motor takes 40 A and runs at 750 rpm while driving a fan load. The
load varies as the square of the speed. The resistance between the terminals is 1.5 .
To run the machine at 800 rpm, at what voltage we have to supply energy to the motor.
Assume that the flux is directly proportional to the armature current.
A 50 kW, 440 V dc shunt generator with an armature circuit resistance including interpole winding of 0.25 at normal working temperature was run as a shunt motor on noload at rated voltage and speed. The total current drawn by the motor = 3 A including
shunt field current of 0.7 A. Calculate the efficiency of the shunt generator at th fullload.

*****

Code: 9A02308
B.Tech II Year I Semester (R09) Regular and Supplementary Examinations, November 2012
ELECTRICAL MACHINES -
(Electrical & Electronics Engineering)
Time: 3 hours
Max Marks: 70
All questions carry equal marks
*****
1 (a)
(b)
2 (a)
(b)

Define field energy and co-energy. Give significance of co-energy in the derivation of
force in an electromechanical energy conversion device.
Mention the advantages of analyzing energy conversion devices by field-energy concept.
Show the neat sketches of progressive and retrogressive simplex wave windings. Define
the different winding pitches.
The armature of a 4-pole dc generator having 520 conductors generates an induced emf
of 520 V, when running at a speed of 1200 rpm. The flux per pole being 50 mWb. What is
the type of the simplex winding used?

3 (a)
(b)

Discuss how reactance voltage causes under-commutation in dc machines.

A 4-pole, 30kW, 230V, wave-wound, shunt generator has 400 armature conductors.
Brushes are given a lead of 3 commutator segments. Calculate the de-magnetizing
ampere turns per pole if shunt field resistance is 150 . Also calculate extra shunt field
turns per pole required to neutralize the de-magnetization.

4 (a)

Discuss the process of self-excitation in a dc machine. What conditions must be fulfilled

for self-excitation?
A short-shunt compound generator has armature, series-field and shunt-field resistances
of 0.8 , 0.6 and 45 respectively. The machine supplies a load of 5 kW at 250 V.
Calculate the emf generated in the armature and armature current.

(b)

5 (a)
(b)

Explain the parallel operation of two dc series generators with equalizer-bar connection
and hence narrate the necessity of equalizer-bar connection.
Two dc shunt generators operating in parallel. The generator-1 and generator-2 are
inducing emfs of 220 V and 210 V, and have armature resistances of 0.7 and 0.5
respectively. The common load is 30 kW. Calculate the load sharing between the
generators.
Contd. in Page 2

Page 1 of 2

Code: 9A02308
6

A 4-pole, 250 V, dc shunt motor takes 2 A on no-load, when running at 1200 rpm. The
armature and field resistances are 0.15 and 150 respectively. The brush drop is 2 V.
If the motor takes total current of 60 A at full-load, calculate its full-load speed. Assume
that the flux gets weakened by 5% under full-load condition due to armature reaction.

A 250 V, dc shunt motor has an armature current of 16 A when running at 900 rpm
against full-load torque. The armature resistance is 0.5 . What resistance must be
inserted in series with the armature to reduce the speed to 550 rpm at the same torque?
What will be the speed if the load torque is halved with this resistance in the circuit?
Assume the flux to remain constant.

A 15 kW, 900 rpm, 400 V dc shunt motor has armature circuit resistance (including
brushes) of 0.9 and shunt field resistance of 300 . If efficiency at rated load is 90 %,
then calculate by assuming that the flux remains constant;
The speed when motor draws 25 A from the mains and
The armature current, when the internal torque developed is 98.5 N-m.

(a)
(b)
(c)

*****

Page 2 of 2

4
B.Tech II Year I Semester (R09) Regular and Supplementary Examinations, November 2012
ELECTRICAL MACHINES -
(Electrical & Electronics Engineering)
Time: 3 hours
Max Marks: 70
All questions carry equal marks
*****
1

With neat sketch explain the multiple-excited magnetic field system in electromechanical
energy conversion systems. Also obtain the expression for field energy in the system.

2 (a)
(b)

Develop from the first principles an expression for emf of a dc generator.

An 8-pole, lap-connected dc generator has 12 coils with 8 turns per coil. It is driven at
1500 rpm. If the flux per pole is 30 mWb, calculate the emf generated. If the machine is
wave-connected, find the speed at which it is to be driven to generate the same emf as
calculated with lap connection.

3 (a)

What is the purpose of Compensating Winding and explain its operation with the help of
diagram.
A 500 V, 1000 A, lap-wound, 8-pole dc generator has 1260 armature conductors.
Calculate the number of conductors in the pole face to give full compensation if the pole
face covers 80% of pole-span.

(b)

4 (a)

(b)

Explain the following with the help of neat diagrams:

(i) Cumulative compounding and
(ii) Differential compounding of dc machines.
A 4-pole, lap-wound long-shunt dc compound generator has 1250 armature conductors.
The armature, series-field and shunt-field resistances are respectively 0.6 , 0.75 and
225 . If the shunt field flux and series field flux per pole are respectively 0.075 Wb and
0.0025 Wb, calculate the speed at which the machine has rotate to deliver a load of 120
A at 450 V. Consider the total brush drop as 2 V.
Two shunt generators are operating in parallel. The Generator-1 and Generator-2 are
inducing emfs 120 V and 115 V, the armature resistances are 0.05 and 0.04 , the
field resistances are 20 and 25 respectively. The load supplying by both generators
is 35 kW. How do they share load?
Contd. in Page 2

Page 1 of 2

A 250 V, 4-pole shunt motor has two-circuit armature winding with 550 conductors. The
armature circuit resistance is 0.35 , field resistance is 145 and the flux per pole is
0.03 Wb. Neglect the armature reaction. Find the speed and torque developed, if the
motor draws 15 A from the mains.

Design a starter with five resistor sections for a 5 kW, 200 V, dc shunt motor. The fullload efficiency is 86 %. The lower current limit is to be full-load current. The total copper
losses are 3.7 % of the input power and the field resistance is 250 .

8 (a)
(b)

Explain effect of excitation, speed and load on the losses of a dc machine?

A 230 V dc shunt motor is taking 5 A when running light. The armature resistance is 0.2
and field circuit resistance is 115 . For an input current of 72 A, calculate the shaft
output and efficiency. Also calculate the armature current at which machine works at its
maximum efficiency.

Page 1 of 2

Environmental Science

Syllabus
2009-10
67
JAWAHARLAL NEHRU TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY ANANTAPUR
B.Tech. II-II Sem (M.E) T P C
404
(9ABS303) ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE
UNIT I
MULTIDISCIPLINARY NATURE OF ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES : Definition,
Scope and Importance Need for Public Awareness.
UNIT II
NATURAL RESOURCES : Renewable and non-renewable resources Natural
resources and associated problems Forest resources Use and over exploitation,
deforestation, case studies Timber extraction Mining, dams and other effects on
forest and tribal people Water resources Use and over utilization of surface and
ground water Floods, drought, conflicts over water, dams benefits and problems
Mineral resources: Use and exploitation, environmental effects of extracting and using
mineral resources, case studies Food resources: World food problems, changes
caused by agriculture and overgrazing, effects of modern agriculture, fertilizer-pesticide
problems, water logging, salinity, case studies. Energy resources:
UNIT III
ECOSYSTEMS : Concept of an ecosystem. Structure and function of an ecosystem
Page 1 of 2
Producers, consumers and decomposers Energy flow in the ecosystem Ecological
sucession Food chains, food webs and ecological pyramids Introduction, types,
characteristic features, structure and function of the following ecosystem:
a. Forest ecosystem.
b. Grassland ecosystem

c. Desert ecosystem
d. Aquatic ecosystems (ponds, streams, lakes, rivers, oceans, estuaries)
UNIT IV
BIODIVERSITY AND ITS CONSERVATION : Introduction 0 Definition: genetic, species
and ecosystem diversity Bio-geographical classification of India Value of
biodiversity: consumptive use, Productive use, social, ethical, aesthetic and option
values Biodiversity at global, National and local levels India as a mega-diversity
nation Hot-soports of biodiversity Threats to biodiversity: habitat loss, poaching of
wildlife, man-wildlife conflicts Endangered and endemic species of India
Conservation of biodiversity: In-situ and Ex-situ conservation of biodiversity.
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________________________________________________2009-10
68
UNIT V
ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION : Definition, Cause, effects and control measures of :
a. Air Pollution.
b. Water pollution
c. Soil pollution
d. Marine pollution
e. Noise pollution
f. Thermal pollution
g. Nuclear hazards
SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT : Causes, effects and control measures of urban and
Page 1 of 2
industrial wates Role of an individual in prevention of pollution Pollution case
studies Disaster management: floods, earthquake, cyclone and landslides.
UNIT VI
SOCIAL ISSUES AND THE ENVIRONMENT: From Unsustainable to Sustainable
development Urban problems related to energy Water conservation, rain water

harvesting, watershed management Resettlement and rehabilitation of people; its

problems and concerns. Case studies Environmental ethics: Issues and possible
solutions Climate change, global warming, acid rain, ozone layer depletion, nuclear
accidents and holocaust. Case Studies Wasteland reclamation. Consumerism and
waste products. Environment Protection Act. Air (Prevention and Control of
Pollution) Act. Water (Prevention and control of Pollution) Act Wildlife Protection
Act Forest Conservation Act Issues involved in enforcement of environmental
legislation Public awareness.
UNIT VII
HUMAN POPULATION AND THE ENVIRONMENT : Population growth, variation
among nations. Population explosion Family Welfare Proggramme. Environment
and human health Human Rights Value Education HIV/AIDS Women and Child
Welfare Role of information Technology in Environment and human health Case
studies.
UNIT VIII
FIELD WORK : Visit to a local area to document environmental assets River/forest
grassland/hill/mountain Visit to a local polluted site-Urban/Rural/Industrial/Agricultural
Study of common plants, insects, birds river, hill slopes, etc..
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2009-10________________________________________________
69
TEXT BOOKS :
1. Text book of Environmental Studies for Undergraduate Courses by Erach
Page 1 of 2
Bharucha for University Grants Commission, Universities Press.
2. Environmental Studies by R.Rajagopalan, Oxford University Press.
3. Environmental Studies by Benny Joseph,Mc.graHill Publications.
REFERENCES :
1. Text book of Environmental Sciences and Technology by M.Anji Reddy, BS

Publication.
2. Comprehensive Environmental studies by J.P.Sharma, Laxmi publications.
3. Environmental sciences and engineering J. Glynn Henry and Gary W.
Heinke Printice hall of India Private limited.
4. Introduction to Environmental engineering and science by Gilbert M. Masters
and Wendell P. Ela - Printice hall of India Private limited.
5. Environmental Studies by Anindita Basak Pearson Education.
Question Paper Pattern : 5 questions to be answered out of 8 questions. Each
question should not have more than 3 bits.

Objective
OBJECTIVE OF ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES
Environment is not a single subject. It is an integration of several subjects that include
both Science and Social Studies. To understand all the different aspects of our environment we need to
understand biology, chemistry, physics, geography, resource management, economics and population
issues.
Thus the scope of environmental studies is extremely wide and covers some aspects of
nearly every major discipline We live in a world in which natural resources are limited. Water, air, soil,
minerals, oil, the products we get from forests, grasslands, oceans and from agriculture and livestock, are
all a part of our life support systems. Without them, life itself would be impossible. As we keep
increasing in numbers and the quantity of resources each of us uses also increases, the earths resource
base must inevitably shrink. The earth cannot be expected to sustain this expanding level of utilization of
resources. Added to this is misuse of resources.
We waste or pollute large amounts of natures clean water; we create more and more
material like plastic that we discard after a single use; and we waste colossal amounts of food, which is
discarded as garbage. Manufacturing processes create solid waste byproducts that are discarded, as well
Page
1 of 2water, and gases that pollute the air. Increasing
as chemicals that flow out as liquid waste and
pollute
amounts of waste cannot be managed by natural processes. These accumulate in our environment,
leading to a variety of diseases and other adverse environmental impacts now seriously affecting all our
lives. Air pollution leads to respiratory diseases, water pollution to gastro-intestinal diseases, and many
pollutants are known to cause cancer Improving this situation will only happen if each of us begins to
take actions in our daily lives that will help preserve our environmental resources.

We cannot expect Governments alone to manage the safeguarding of the environment, nor
can we expect other people to prevent environmental damage. We need to do it ourselves. It is a
responsibility that each of us must take on as ones own.

Lesson Plan
P.B.R. VISVODAYA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY & SCIENCE
Class : II B.Tech.
Semester - II
Date
&
Week

Branch : ME
Sub: Environmental Studies
Year : 2012-'13

Topic

No. of Periods per

Week

No. of
Periods
per
Unit

UNIT - I
Multidisciplinary nature of Environmental Studies
Introduction, Segments of Environment

5
10

Impact of Man over environment and vice versa, Multidisciplinary

nature Need for public awareness

Introduction, Renewable and Non-renewable resourses, Forest

Resourses,Water Resources, Mineral Resources

Food Resources, Hydal Energy, Bio Energy,Geothermal energy,

Solar energy, Wind energy Ocen energy

Introduction, Types and organisation of ecosystems. Functions of

Ecosystem, Energy flow

Food chains, Food Webs, Food Pyramids, Ecological successions.

Various types of Ecosystems

Page 1 of 2
Introduction, Types and measuring the Biodiversity, Values of
Biodiversity

Biodiversity at Global, National and Local levels. Hot spots,

Threats,Conservation and conservation stratagies of Biodiversity

REVISION

10

10

10

Intrasemester Break & Supply Exams

UNIT - V
Environmental Pollution
Introduction, Air pollution - classification control.

Sources, Sinks, effects and control of various kinds of Air

pollutionsWater pollution, classification, Waste water analysis,
soil pollution and marine pollution.

Noise pollution, Thermal and Nuclear pollution, Solid waste

management, disaster management

15

UNIT - VI
Social issues and the Environment
Introduction, Sustainable development Urban energy problems,
Global warming, Greenhouse effect, Acid rains, Nuclear accidents
Waste lands, Environmental, Laws water, wild life and forest acts,
public awareness
UNIT - VII
Human population and the Environment
Introduction, Population growth, Family welfare programmes.
Value education, HIV / AIDS, Human rights, Role of IT in Human
health
UNIT - VIII
Field Work on Environment
Study of Poluted Sites, Biosphere and Simple Ecosystems submission of Field Report

5
10
5

Total :

85

Text Books
1
Text book of Environmental Studies for Undergraduate Courses
by Erach Bharucha for University Grants Commission, Universities
Press.
2
3

Environmental Studies by R. Rajagopalan, Oxford University Press

Environmental Studies by Benny Joseph, Mc. Gra Hill Publications
Page 1 of 2

SIGNATURE OF THE
H.O.D.

Question Papers Mid-semester

examinations

Page 1 of 2

Page 1 of 2
NAME_________________________________ROLL NO_______________________
PBR VISVODAYA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY & SCIENCE, KAVALI
II B.Tech; II Sem;MEC Branch,II QUIZ Examination;Dated: 08-03-2013(FN)
Time: 20 min
ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES
Marks:20
________________________________________________________________________
1)The decomposition carbonaceous organic matter in presence of oxygen leads to the

formation of the gas called

a) CO2
b) O3
c) H2S

d) NO2

2) The spillage of oil from oil shops into the sea causes
[
a) Marine pollution b)Air pollution c)Nuclear pollution d)Eutrification

3) Liquid waste originates from sanitary convenience of domestic area is called [

a) Garbage
b) Rubbish c) Sewage d) Scrape

4) The bacterial action over the biodegradable organic matter in the presence of oxygen is
called
[
]
a) Aerobic decomposition b) Anaerobic decomposition c) Parolysis d) Pulverization
5) The pollution that termed when excess heat exists in water
a) Nuclear pollution b) Thermal pollution c) Air pollution

[
]
d) Chemical pollution

6) The bacterial action over the biodegradable organic matter in the absence of oxygen is
called
[
]
a) Aerobic decomposition b) Anaerobic decomposition c) Parolysis d) Pulverization
7)The process of the burning of the solid wastages in the properly constructed hearth or
furnace, the method is called
[
]
a) Incineration b) Composting c) Pulverization
d) Autolysis
8) The unit of frequency of sound is
a) Dynes b) Hertz c) Poise d) Echoes

9) Clogging of Stomata of the plant leaves is observed due to

a) Ozone b) Green house gases
c) Dust particles d) CO

10) Dust particles can cause dust specific respiratory diseases, such as
a) Typhoid b) Hepatitis c) Silicosis d) Malaria

11)Amount of oxygen required for the Aerobic decomposition of organic matter [

a) Chemical oxygen demand
b) Oxygen value
c) Biological oxygen demand
d) Oxygen number

12) The combination of Information technology and Biology is termed as

[
]
a) Informational Biology b) Bioinformatics c) Microbiology d) Biotechnology
Page 1 of 2
13) Dry deposition and Wet deposition are found in the following process *
+
a) Global warming b) Acid rain c) Ozone layer depletion d) El Nino effect
14) The combination of Information technology and Biology is termed as
[
a) Informational Biology b) Bioinformatics c) Microbiology d) Biotechnology

15)The chief green house gas that causes Global warming is __________________
16) Expansion of term HIV is

a) Human immuno deficiency Virus b) Human immunology deficiency Virus

c) Human immunity deficiency Virus c) Human immuno difference Virus
17) The currents that carry cold and nutrient waters from Antarctica region to Western
Coast of South Africa is Hamboldt currents.
(YES/NO)
18) The society in which both environment protection and economic improvement are
considered, then the development is called _____________________________
19) Ozone is the gas that exists in more volumes in
a)Troposphere b)Stratosphere c)Mesosphere

d)Thermosphere

20) The name of the gas caused Bhopal Gas Tragedy is

a) CO2 b) O3 c)H2S d) NO2
&&&&&&

PBR VISVODAYA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY AND SCIENCE, KAVALI

II B .Tech ; II SEM; MEC Branch; II MID Examination ; Date: 08-03-2013(FN)
Time; 90 min
ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES
Marks: 20
(Descriptive)
ANSWER ANY THREE OF THE FOLLOING
1) What is Water pollution? Classify and Discuss various effects of Water pollutants.
2) Write short notes on
a) Acid rains
b) Global warming
3) Discuss various methods of Solid waste disposal.
4) Write a detailed notes on Aerobic and Anaerobic decomposition of Organic matter.
s) What is AIDS? What are the sources, mode of transition and major precautions to
avoid AIDS?
&&&&&&
Page 1 of 2

properly

Question Bank
ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE
QUESTIONS:

Unit-I

Science

1. What is an environment? Enumerate and discuss the various segments of

environment.
2. Name and describe the four major layers of atmosphere. What are the important
chemical species in each layer and mention the functions performed by each
layer.
3. Discuss the impact of human beings an environment.
4. Write an explanatory note on the multidisciplinary nature of environmental
science.
5. How the individuals can involve themselves in the process of improving
environment?

Unit-II Natural Resources

1. What is deforestation? Discuss the various causes of deforestation.
2. Discuss the importance of water in man`s life Fresh water is the biggest
crisis facing the world today. Comment.
3. Write short notes on
(a)
Under nourishment
(b)
Malnourishment
(c)
Over nutrition
(d)
Balanced diet
4. Write short notes on the following problems of modern agriculture
(a)
Fertilizers
(b)
Pesticides
(c)
Water logging
(d)
Salination Page 1 of 2
5. Classify and briefly discuss the various energy resources.

Unit-III Ecosystem
1. Define ecosystem. Give an account of the structure and function of an
ecosystem.

2. Explain the flow of energy through the atmosphere and its utilization in an
ecosystem.
3. Write short notes on
(a)
Food chain
(b)
Tropic level
(c)
Food web
4. Define ecological pyramid and its various types.
5. What is ecological succession? Give an account of general process of
succession in nature.

Unit-IV Biodiversity and its conservation

1. Write short notes on
(a) Genetic diversity
(b) Species diversity
(c) Ecosystem diversity
2. What is biodiversity? Write detailed notes on values of biodiversity.
3. Name and show the biological zones of
India on a physical map of
India.
4. Write detailed notes on
(a) Endangered species and vulnerable species
(b) Threats to biodiversity
5. What are the main objectives of
conversation of biodiversity and
explain In-site and Ex-site conversation along with their merits and
limitations.

BITS:
1. Stratosphere is the atmosphere layer in which ozone exists in abundant
volumes.
Page 1 of 2
2. Ground water is harder than the surface water because of the presence of
various salts.
3. In the biosphere all the life forms of earth including man life.
4. Natural resources are the components of the environment.
5. Human resources refer to human wisdom, experience, skill, labour and
enterprise.
6. Sunlight is a renewable resource.

7. Fossil fuels are non-renewable resources.

8. Forests provide opportunities for economic growth, availability of
consumer goods for recreation and for spiritual renewal.
9. Shifting cultivation is practical by the landless poor people foe their
livelihood.
10.
Hydrosphere comprises all the water bodies surface an ground water
bodies.
11.
Geological layer that contains water are known as Aquifer.
12.
Lack of specific components of food such as proteins, vitamins or
essential chemical elements is termed as malnourishment.
13.
Mineral elements are essential for the formation and functioning of
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.

21.
22.
23.

24.
25.

the body of all live forms.

Pests are undesirable competitors,
Parasites or predators.
Water logging arises either due to surface flooding or due to high
water table.
The project which is in progress to make remote and for flung rural
areas to be self sufficient in energy is urjagam project.
A hydro electric power plant harness power from water flowing under
pressure.
Thermal conversion and Pluto conversion are the two phenomenonss
connected to solar energy.
Energy released during a reaction in accordance with the mass energy
equation is called nuclear energy.
The biotic community and its physical environmental in which matter
cycles and energy flows is called ecosystem.

In heterotrophic component utilization, rearrangement and

decomposition of complex organic substances predominates.
The saprotrops feed on organic compounds of dead or living protoplasm
of plants and animals for their food energy.
In each ecosystem, among all the different life forms, the existence
of chains of eating and being eaten away relationships are termed as
food chain.
Page 1 ofstatus
2
Tropic level is the feeding
of an organism in an ecosystem.
Individual food chain in the ecosystem becomes interconnected to form
food webs.

26.
27.

28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.

35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.

The graphical representation of tropic structures and tropic

functions is called ecological representation.
The process by which organisms occupy a site and gradually change
environmental conditions so that other species can replace the
original inhabitants is called ecological succession.
Biodiversity means the large variety of flora and fauna on this
planet earth.
When a community begins to develop in a site previously unoccupied by
any living organism is called primary secession.
Genetic diversity refers to the number of different kinds of organism
of a species.
Alpha diversity refers to number of species present in a community.
Beta diversity refers to the degree to which species composition
Gamma diversity refers to the species turnover rates with expending
geographical areas.
Indirect values of biodiversity are assigned to benefits provided by
biodiversity that do not involve harvesting or destroying the natural
resource.
Extinction is the elimination of a species is a normal process in
nature.
Endangered species are considered in imminent danger of extinction if
factors causing their decline continue to operate.
In-site conservation of species in its natural and native ecosystem.
Ex-site conservation of species particularly endangered species away
from their natural habits under human supervision.
The food chain that starts with a dead material is called detritus
food chain.
The United Nations food and agricultural organization (FAO) estimates
that forest and woodland accounts for 30% in the world land area as
of 1994.

Page 1 of 2

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES 2013

II Mid syllabus
OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
9)
10)
11)
12)
13)
14)
15)
16)
17)
18)
19)
20)
21)
22)
23)
24)
25)
26)
27)
28)
29)
30)
31)
32)
33)
34)
35)
36)
37)

The presence of foreign substances in air in excess concentrations is calledAir pollution.

The gas which caused the death of thousands of people inBhopal gas tragedy isMethyl isocyanate.
Dust particles can cause dust specific respiratory diseases, such as Silicosis.
Spillage from oil tankers into the sea will cause Marine pollution.
In chemical oxidation ferrous salts will be converted into ferric salts.
The pollution is harmful if the amounts of pollution exceeds Threshold limit value.
The abnormal rise of nutrients in the water bodies is called Eutrification.
The liquid waste that originates from sanitary convenience of domestic areas is called Sewage.
The organic matter which can be decomposed by bacteria under bacterial action is called Biodegradable organic
matter.
The bacterial action over the biodegradable organic matter in the presence of oxygen is calledAerobic
decomposition.
The decomposition of organic matter in water by bacteria in the absence of oxygen is Anaerobic decomposition.
The gas that is absolutely vital for the support of fish and other aquatic life in water bodies is Dissolved oxygen.
The amount of oxygen used for aerobic decomposition of organic matter is Biological oxygen demand.
The removal of upper most layer of soils by water, wind or gravity is known as Soil erosion.
Acid deposition in air either in dry form or wet form leads to Acid rains.
The unit for frequency of sound is Hertz.
Road traffic, railway traffic, air traffic are mainly considered as mobile noise source.
Coal fired thermal plants constitute major sources of Thermal pollution.
The emission of energy from radio active substances in the environment is called as Radio active pollution.
The process of burning of solid wastes in properly constructed hearth or furnace is Incirination.
The digestion of organic material anaerobically and converting to humus and stable mineral compounds is called
Composting.
In the society where both economic improvement and conservation of environment are equally considered is
known as sustainable development.
The energies like sunlight, wind, biomass and tidal energy are considered as renewable energy sources.
Micro catchment and macro catchment of water are the methods followed to achieve water conservation.
The presence of excess amounts of green house gases in the atmosphere causes Global warming
The chief green house gas that causes global warming is Carbon dioxide.
Due to the effect of global warming, the volumes of water in the oceans and other water bodies increase and low
lying areas get submerged.
The water current that carries the cold water from Antarctica to Western coast of South America is called
Humboldt currents.
The previous term called Computational Molecular Biology is now been termed into Bioinformatics.
The winds that get disturbed during period ofPage
El Nino
effect
1 of
The effective organization, direction and utilization of available Counter disaster resources is called as Disaster
management.
National day for Disaster reduction is observed every year on 29 October.
Declaration of human rights are proposed by United Nations Organization.
Corrosion of materials take place because of the occurrence of Acid rains.
The Ozone is found excess volumes in Stratosphere.
Energy released during a nuclear reaction in accordance with the Mass energy equation is called Nuclear
energy.
Expansion of the term AIDS is Acquired immuno deficiency syndrome.

38) The green houses suppress the long wave radiation from not being escaped back to atmosphere.
39) The waste lands may be categorized as culturable and nonculturable waste lands.
40) The demand for energy will be more in Urban areas than the demand in rural area.

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES
2nd MID SYLLABUS
DESCRIPTIVE QUESTION
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
9)
10)
11)

Define air pollution. Briefly explain the effects of air pollution on humans, plants and property.
What is water pollution? Classify and discuss in brief the various types of water pollutants.
What is Thermal pollution? State and explain various sources and causes of Thermal pollution.
Discuss the sources of soil pollution and the methods to control this pollution.
What is sold waste?Discuss the various methods of Solid-waste disposal.
How will you define Disaster management? Briefly describe the role of the Disaster manager in
countering the situation.
What is a) Sustainable development b) Integrated energy management
What is Rain water harvesting? Discuss the types of Rain water harvesting.
a) Global warming b) Ozone layer depletion c) Acid rains d) El Nino Effect
a) Industrial economy b) Green marketing c) Pigouvian Taxes d) Ecolabelling
What are Wastelands? Discuss the various methods of Wasteland reclamation.

12) Ecomark&Environmental laws are crucial for environmental management

13) a) Population explosion and its effects b) Population variation among the nations
14) Discuss the Family welfare programmes and problems in implementation.
15)What is AIDS? Sources, transmission and major precautions to avoid AIDS.
16) Write an explanatory note on HUMAN RIGHTS.
17) Briefly describe various schemes launched for woman and child ware in India.
18) What is Value education. Discuss the concept, strategies and best references.

Page 1 of 2

Previous years question papers JNTUA

Code: 9ABS402/9ABS303

II B.Tech II Semester (R09) Regular & Supplementary April/May 2012 Examinations

ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE
(Common to Civil Engineering,Mechanical Engineering,Information Technology,Computer
Science & Engineering, Aeronautical Engineering and Bio Technology)
Time: 3 hours
Max Marks: 70
All Questions carry equal marks
*****
1. (a) Define environmental studies. Give the scope and importance of studying environmental
science.
(b) Discuss the need for public awareness on environmental hazards.
2. (a) Define energy. Discuss the different types of energy.
(b) What is sustainable agriculture? Write short notes on integrated crop management.
3. (a) Write about concept of an ecosystem.
(b) What is a grassland ecosystem? Write about the different types of grasslands in India.
4. (a) Give the biogeographic classification of India.
(b) Write about in-situ and ex-situ conservation of biodiversity.
5. (a) Discuss the effects of air pollution on the following
I.
Human beings
II.
Plants
(b) Give concepts that help individuals contribute towards a better quality of our
environment and human life.
6

(a) Give the classification of wastelands. Write about the need for wasteland development.
(b) Write notes on global warming and its effects on temperature and rainfall.

7. (a) Discuss how environmental issues are closely linked to human rights.
(b) What is the nature of population growth? Discuss its variation among nations.
8. (a) Prepare a proforma for fieldwork
environmental assets of river
Pageon
1 ofdocumenting
2
ecosystem.
(b) Write the general guidelines for study of common plants, insects and birds.

*****

II B.Tech II Semester (R09) Regular & Supplementary April/May 2012 Examinations

ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE
(Common to Civil Engineering,Mechanical Engineering,Information Technology,Computer
Science & Engineering, Aeronautical Engineering and Bio Technology)
Time: 3 hours
Max Marks: 70
All Questions carry equal marks
*****
1. (a) Define environmental studies. Give the scope and importance of studying environmental
science.
(b) Discuss the need for public awareness on environmental hazards.
Write about the following earths resources:
2. (a) Atmosphere
(b) Biosphere
3. (a) Write about concept of an ecosystem.
(b) What is a desert ecosystem? Write about the structure and functions of the desert
ecosystem.
4. (a) What is a biodiversity hot spot? Explain giving examples.
(b) Discuss the different threats to biodiversity.
5. (a) What is marine pollution? Give the different pathways of marine pollution.
(b) Discuss disaster management. What are different phases and professional activities
associated to disaster management?
6. (a) Discuss the different functions of watershed management
(b) What is climate change? What are the causes for climate change?
7. (a) Discuss how environmental issues are closely linked to human rights.
(b) What is value education? Discuss its importance in the present day context.
8. (a) Prepare a proforma for fieldwork on documenting environmental assets of forest
ecosystem.
(b) Write the general guidelines for study of common plants, insects and birds.

*****

Page 1 of 2

Code: 9ABS402/9ABS303

II B.Tech II Semester (R09) Regular & Supplementary April/May 2012 Examinations

ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE
(Common to Civil Engineering,Mechanical Engineering,Information Technology,Computer
Science & Engineering, Aeronautical Engineering and Bio Technology)
Time: 3 hours
Max Marks: 70
All Questions carry equal marks
*****
1. (a) Discuss the multidisciplinary nature of environmental studies.
(b) Discuss the need for public awareness on environmental hazards.
2. (a) List the available energy sources for the world today and 40 years from now in order of
decreasing importance in accordance to your perception.
(b) Discuss the environmental consequences of mining industry.
3. (a) Define an ecosystem. Discuss about energy flow in ecosystems.
(b) Cite three examples of large diversified ecosystems and note the factors threatening
their existence.
4. (a) Define biodiversity. Discuss the human benefits of biodiversity.
(b) What is a biodiversity hot spot? Explain with examples.
5. (a) Discuss the effects of presence of the following contaminants in water
I.
pathogens
II.
organic matter
III.
Inorganic nutrients
IV.
Toxic and hazardous substances.
(b) Describe an integrated urban and industrial waste management strategy.
6. (a) What is an acid rain? What are the effects of acid rain on aquatic and terrestrial
ecosystems?
(b) Define sustainable development. How can one ensure sustainable development?
7. (a) Write about family welfare programs taken up by our country in response to phenomenal
population growth.
(b) What are values? Discuss the role of value education in the context of environment.
8. (a) Prepare a proforma for fieldwork to study the cause and effects of pollution at a local
polluted site.
(b) Write the general guidelines on aspects that can be observed and documented during
ecosystem field studies.
Page *****
1 of 2

www.jntuworld.com

www.jwjobs.net

Code: 9A01308

II B.Tech II Semester (R09) Regular & Supplementary April/May 2012 Examinations

ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE
(Common to Civil Engineering,Mechanical Engineering,Information Technology,Computer
Science & Engineering, Aeronautical Engineering and Bio Technology)
Time: 3 hours
Max Marks: 70
All Questions carry equal marks
*****
1. (a) Define environmental studies. Give the scope and importance of studying environmental
science.
(b) Discuss the need for public awareness on environmental hazards.
2.

What is sustainable lifestyle? Discuss the equitable use of resources for sustainable
lifestyle.

3. (a) Write about concept of an ecosystem.

(b) What is an aquatic ecosystem? Write about the structure and functions of the desert
ecosystem.
4. (a) Write short notes on conservation of biodiversity.
(b) What are the human benefits of biodiversity.
5. (a) Discuss the effects of soil pollution on the following
I.
Health
II.
Ecosystem
(b) Give concepts that help individuals contribute towards a better quality of our
environment and human life.
6. (a) Give the classification of wastelands. Write about the need for wasteland development.
(b) Write notes on consumerism and its effect on society and environment.
7. (a) Discuss how environmental issues are closely linked to human rights.
(b) What is population explosion? Discuss its effect on environment and human health.
8. (a) Prepare a proforma for fieldwork on documenting environmental assets of grassland
ecosystem.
(b) Write the general guidelines for study of common plants, insects and birds.

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Code: 9A01308

Syllabus

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Code: 9A01308

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Code: 9A01308

Objective

Lesson Plan

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Code: 9A01308
No. of
S.NO

DATE

TOPIC
Classes

No. of
periods
per week

No. of
periods per
unit

14
4

Piezometer,

Simple U-tube Manometer

Differential Manometers

PBR VISVODAYA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY AND SCIENCE, KAVALI

Department of Mechanical Engineering 2012-2013

10

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Code: 9A01308
FLUID DYNAMICS: Eulers equation Bernoullis equation for flow

along a stream line

5

5
Momentum equation and its application on pipe bend
2

3
3

flat, inclined and curved vanes

8

5
Hydrodynamic force of jets on moving flat, inclined and curved
vanes

&efficiency

3
1

MID I EXAMS

10

plant

2
2

Concept of pumped storage plants & Storage Requirements

9
3
Mass curve, Estimation of power from a given catchment
11

5
2
HYDRAULIC TURBINES: Classification of turbines impulse

reaction turbines- Pelton Wheel

12

08

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Code: 9A01308
Francis & Kaplan Turbine Draft tube problems

- functions-efficiency

13

14

Geometric Similarity, Unit and

LESSON PLAN

Specific quantities

Characteristic curves

Surge tank, Water hammer.

15

10

CENTRIFUGAL PUMP:

16

17

BRANCH: EEE
SUBJECT: FM&HM

5

Performance characteristic curves,

Question
2

09

Papers Mid18

2
NPSH, Reciprocating Pump

TEXTBOOKS:

NPSH

semester

2
TOTAL NO. OF HOURS: 76

examinations

FLUID MECHANICS&HYDRADUALIC MACHINES BY D.S KUMAR

PBR
SIGNATURE OF STAFF

VISVODAYA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY&

SCIENCE: KAVALI
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
II MID EXAMINATION(DESCRIPTIVE)

BRANCH: EEE
MARKS: 20M

TIME: 90 MINUTES
SUBJECT: FLUID MECHANICS &HYDRAULIC MACHINERY

DATE: 03/11/2012(FN)

1. A jet of water having a velocity of 30m/s strikes a series of radial curved vanes mounted on a wheel which
is rotating at 200 r.p.m. The jet makes an angle of 200 with the tangent to the wheel at inlet and leaves the
wheel with a velocity of 5m/s at an angle of 1300 to the tangent to the wheel at outlet. Water is flowing from
outward in a radial direction. The outer and inner radii of the wheel are 0.5m and 0.25m respectively.
Determine vane angles at inlet and outlet, workdone per unit weight of water and efficiency of the wheel.
2. (A) Explain the various elements of hydro electric power plants?
(B) At the site where hydroelectric plant is proposed the following details are
Available. Calculate the power that can be developed.
Catchment area = 420 Km2
Yearly rainfall = 140 cm
Rainfall utilization rate = 68%

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Penstock efficiency = 94%
Turbine efficiency = 80%
Generator efficiency = 84%

3. (A) Explain the various efficiencies in a hydraulic turbine.

(B) A Kaplan turbine runner is to be designed to develop 7357.5 kW S.P. The net available head is10 m.
Assume that the speed ratio as 1.8 and flow ratio 0.6. If the overall efficiency is 70% and diameter of the
boss is 0.4 times the diameter of the runner, find the diameter of the runner, its speed and specific speed.

4.(A) A Pelton wheel is having a mean bucket diameter of 1m and is running at 1000r.p.m The net head on
the pelton wheel is 700m. If the side clearance angle is 150 and discharge through nozzle is 0.1m3/s, find the
power available at the nozzle and hydraulic efficiency of the turbine.
(B) Explain the classification of hydraulic Turbines.
5. (A) Explain the characteristic curves of a turbine.

(B) A three stage centrifugal pump has impellers 40cm in diameter and 2cm wide at outlet. The vanes are
curved back at the outlet at 45o and reduce the circumferential area by 10%. The manometric efficiency is
90% and the overall efficiency is 80%. Find the head generated by the pump when running at 1000 r.p.m
delivering 50lps. What should be the shaft horse power?

NAME:_____________________

PBR VISVODAYA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY& SCIENCE: KAVALI

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING
I MID EXAMINATION
BRANCH: EEE
MARKS: 10M

ROLL NO:__________________________

(OBJECTIVE)

TIME: 20MINUTES

SUBJECT: FLUID MECHANICS &HYDRAULIC MACHINARY

DATE: 05/09/2012(FN)

(a)Pressure, velocity and viscosity

(b) Shear stress, temperature, velocity and viscosity
(c) Shear stress and rate of angular deformation in a fluid
(d) Pressure, viscosity and rate of angular deformation in a fluid
2. Capillarity is due to ____________

(b) Cohesion

(d) neither a nor b

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3. The viscosity of a gases______________

(a)Increases with decrease in temperature.

(b)Doesnt change with change in temperature
(c) Increases up to certain temperature than decreases
(d) Increases with increase in temperature
4. Poise is the unit of ___________
(a) Mass density (b) kinematic viscosity (c) dynamic viscosity (d) Relative density
5. Surface tension is expressed in_____________
(a)N/m2

(b) N2/m

(c) N/m3

(d) N/m

6. The Bernoullis equation is based on law of conservation of

(a) Energy

(b) mass

(c) Pressure

(d) momentum

7. If no fluid is added or removed from a pipe in any length then the mass passing across different section shall be
____________
[
]
(a) Double

(b) different

(c) same

(d) cannot be determine

8. The flow in which the velocity at any given point changes w.r.t space is

(a) Steady flow (b) uniform flow (c) unsteady flow (d) non uniform flow
9. The total energy represented by Bernoullis equation has units of ______
(a)N-m/s

(b) N-m/N

(c) N-s/m

(d) N-m/m

(a) Rate of flow

(b) velocity

(c) pressure

(d) viscosity

11. The force exerted by a jet of water on a stationary inclined plate in

The direction of jet________________________
(a) aV2 sin

(b) aV sin

(a) H

(b) H

(c) H3/2

(d) H5/2

13. Reynolds number is the ratio of________________

(a) Inertia force to surface tension force

FILL IN THE BLANKS:

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14. When the fluid is at rest, the shear stress is_________________

15. The force exerted by a jet of water of diameter 60mm on a stationary vertical flat plate strikes at a velocity 15m/s
is_________________
16. Continuity equation for incompressible flow is________________________
17. ___________________________ is defined as quantity of liquid flowing per second through a pipe.
18. The difference in pressure head measured by mercury oil differential manometer for 40cm difference of mercury
level will be (sp.gravity of oil = 0.76) is ______________________
19. An oil having dynamic viscosity is 0.037poise with the relative density 0.867 then the kinematic viscosity
is______________________ stokes.

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Question Bank
Unit I
FLUID STATICS

1. (A) Explain absolute and gauge pressures in detail.

(b) Calculate the specific weight, specific mass, and specific volume and specific gravity of a liquid
having a volume of 6m3 and weight of 44KN.
2.A 120mm disc rotates on a table separated by an oil film of 1.8mm thickness. Find the viscosity of oil if the torque

required to rotate the disc at 60 r.p.m is 3.6X10-4Nm. Assume the velocity gradient in the oil film to be linear.
3.(a) what is surface Tension? Explain in brief.
(b) U-Tube Manometer containing mercury was used to find the negative pressure in the pipe
containing water. The right limb was open to the atmosphere. Find the vacuum pressure in the
pipe if the difference of mercury level in the two limbs was 100mm and height of water in the left
limb from the centre of the pipe was found to be 40mm below.

4.A thin plate of very large area is placed in a gap of height h with oils of viscosities 1and 2on two sides of the
plate. The plate is pulled at a constant velocity v. Calculate the position of the plate so that the force required to
drag the plate is minimum. Assume the flow is viscous and neglect all end effects.
5 (a).A piston 9.95 cm diameter works in a cylinder 10 cm diameter, 12 cm long. The space between the two is
filled with a lubricating oil of viscosity 0.65 poise. Calculate the speed of the pistonthrough the cylinder
under the action of an axial force of 5.0 N.
(b)Estimate the pressure inside a water droplet of size of 0.3mm. Assume sigma=0.073N/m.
6. (a) Define dynamic viscosity and kinematic viscosity. What are their units? Explain the significance of viscosity on

fluid motion.
(b)State Newtons equation of viscosity and give examples of its application.

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UNIT 2
FLUID KINEMATICS AND FLUID DYNAMICS
1.(A)360lps of water is owing in a pipe. The pipe is bent by 120 0 . The pipes bend measures 360mmX240mm and volume of
the bend is 0:14m3. The pressure at the entrance is 70KN/m2 and the exit is 2.4m above the entrance section. Find the force
exerted on the bend.
(B). what is continuity equation? Derive the equation.
2.
(a) Derive the Darcy-weisbach equation for friction head loss in a pipe.
(b) Water is flowing through a horizontal pipe line 1500m long and 200mm in
diameter. Pressures at the two ends of the pope line are respectively 12Kpa
and 2Kpa. If f = 0.015, determine the discharge through the pipe in LPM
. Consider only frictional loss.)
3. (a) Derive Dupuit's Equation.
(b) Explain hydraulic gradient and total energy lines.
4. (a) Explain the principle and working of venturimeter with the help of a neat sketch.
(b) List the various minor energy losses. Also give the formula for each .
5.(a) Explain the classification of flows in detail.
. (b) A pipe line carrying oil (G=0.8) changes in diameter from 300mm at position 1 to
600mmdiameter at position 2 which is 5 meters at a higher level. If the pressures at positions 1
and 2are 100KN/m2 and 60KN/m2 respectively and the discharge is 300lps, find loss of head
and direction of flow .
6.(a) List the various minor energy losses. Also give the formula for each
(b) State and prove Bernoulli's theorem. Mention its limitations.
7. (a)Differentiate between venturimeter and orifice meter.
(b) A venturimeter has its axis vertical and carries petrol of specific gravity 0.78. The inlet and
throat diameters are 150mm and 75 mm respectively. The pressure connection at throat 150 mm above that at inlet
and actual discharge is 40 lit/sec and cd=0.96. Calculate pressure difference at inlet and throat in N/m2

UNIT III
FLOW THROUGH CONDUITES

1. (a) What are the construction details of a pitot tube and explain how it works?
(b) An oil of relative density 0.90 flows through a vertical pipe of diameter 20cm.The flow is measured by a 20cm 10cm
venturimeter. The throat is 30cm above the inlet section. A differential U tube manometer containing mercury is connected to the
throat and the inlet. If coefficient of discharge is 0.99. what is the manometer reading for a flow of 50 lit/sec.

2. Two reservoirs are connected by a pipeline consisting of two pipes in series, one of 15 cm diameter and 6m long and another of
22.5 cm diameter and 15m long. If the difference in water levels of the reservoirs is 6m, calculate the discharge by considering all
the losses. Assume f = 0.02 for both the pipes.

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3. A venturimeter of throat diameter 5cm is fitted into a 12.5 cm diameter waterpipe line. The coefficient of discharge is 0.96.
Calculate the flow in the pipe linewhen the reading on a mercury water differential U tube manometer connectedto the upstream
and throat sections shows a reading of 20 cm.
4. (a) Explain how do you measure the velocity of flowing water in a stream using pitot tube.
(b) Define Major Energy Loss and Minor Energy Loss.

UNIT 4
TURBO MACHINARY
1. (A)Derive the expressions for force and work done per second by the jet when it strikes a flat vertical plate moving in the
direction of the jet and away from the jet.
(B) A 10cm diameter jet of water exerts a force of 2 KN in the direction of flow against a stationary flat plate which is inclined
at an angle of 300 with the axis of the stream. Find
i. Force normal to the plate
ii. velocity of the jet
iii. mass flow rate of water Kg/sec.
2.(a)Derive the expressions for force and work done per second by the jet when it strikes a curved plate moving
in the direction of the jet.
(b)A jet of water 20cm in diameter and moving with a velocity of 20m/sec impinges normally on a series of flat vanes mounted
on the periphery of a wheel.If the velocity of the vanes is 8m/sec, determine
i. the force exerted by the jet on the wheel
ii. work done by the jet on the wheel per second and
iii. hydraulic efficiency.
3 Explain how the following flow problems are analyzed.
i. Series pipe connection
ii. Parallel pipe connection
iii. Equivalent pipe connection.
(b)Prove that the force exerted by a jet of water on a fixed hemispherical curved vane when the jet strikes at the centre is F =
av2 where
= Mass density of water
a = Area of cross section of the jet
v = Velocity of the jet..
4.(a) Derive an expression for force exerted by the jet on a stationary vertical plate.
(b) A 10cm diameter jet of water exerts a force of 2 KN in the direction of flow against a stationary flat plate which is inclined at
an angle of 300 with the axis of the stream. Find
i. Force normal to the plate
ii. velocity of the jet
iii. mass flow rate of water Kg/sec.
unit 5

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HYDRO ELECTRIC POWER PLANT
1. (a) What are valves used in a penstock. Explain with neat sketches, various types of valves with their suitability under various
conditions.
(b) What is an intake structure. Explain different types with the help of neat sketches.
2. (a) List and write elaborately about the elements of Hydroelectric station with neat sketches .
(b) The head and discharge of a hydro electric plant are 28m and 330m3/sec respectively. The installed turbine works with
an efficiency of 86%. Find the power developed.
3.(a) Define mass curve. Explain how the storage capacity of a reservoir is estimated using a mass curve.
(b) Differentiate between net head and gross head of a turbine with a neat sketch.List out the efficiencies of a turbine and
define them.

(a) What are penstocks? What is meant by economical diameter of a penstock. How can it be found.
(b) What are the functions of a surge tank. Describe with neat sketches, the behavior of various
types of surge tanks.

UNIT 6
1. (a)Draw a neat sketch of Pelton wheel and explain the constructional details andworking.
(b)State the momentum equation and derive the equation for hydraulic efficiencyof Pelton wheel using this
equation.
2. (a)Define and explain hydraulic efficiency, mechanical efficiency and overall efficiency of aturbine.
(b) A Kaplan turbine runner is to be designed to develop 7357.5 kW S.P. The net available head is10 m. Assume that the speed
ratio as 1.8 and flow ratio 0.6. If the overall efficiency is 70% anddiameter of the boss is 0.4 times the diameter of the runner,
find the diameter of the runner, itsspeed and specific speed.
3. (a) What do you mean by gross head, net head and efficiency of a turbine? Explain the different types of the
efficiencies of a turbine.
(b) The following data is given for a Francis turbine: Net head = 70 m, speed = 600 r.p.m., shaft power= 367.875
kW, 0 = 85%, h =95%, flow ratio = 0.25, breadth ratio = 0.1, outer diameter of therunner = 2 X inner iameter
of runner. The thickness of vanes occupy 10% of the circumferentialarea of the runner. Velocity of flow is
constant at inlet and outlet and discharge is radial at outlet.
Determine:
ii. Runner vane angles at inlet and outlet,
iii. Diameters of runner at inlet and outlet, and
iv. Width of wheel at inlet.
3. (a) Explain the various efficiencies in a hydraulic turbine.
(b) Explain the classification of hydraulic Turbines.

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4. (a) An inward flow reaction turbine has external and internal diameters as 1m and 0.5m respectively. The velocity of flow
through the runner is constant and is equal to 1.5m/s.Find discharge through the runner and width of the turbine at outlet if the
width of theturbine at inlet = 200mm.
(b) Explain pelton wheel with a neat sketch.
Unit 7
1. Explain the characteristic curves of a turbine.
2. (a) What is meant by governing of turbines?
(b) A turbine is to operate under a head of 25m at 200r.p.m The discharge is 9 Cumecs. If the efficiency is 90%
determine specific speed of the machine, power generated and typeof turbine.
3. (a) Explain the necessity of unit quantities with reference to turbines.
(b)What is meant by specific speed. Also derive the expression for specific speed of a turbine.
4. (a) A turbine develops 7357.5 kW S.P. when running at 200 r.p.m. The head on the turbine is 40 m.If the head on
the turbine is reduced to 25 m, determine the speed and power developed by theturbine.

(b) What is governing and how it is accomplished for different types of water turbines?

Unit 8
1.
(a)What is priming? Why is it necessary? Explain how it is done.
(b) Find the number of pumps required to take water from a deep well under a total head of 156 m.
Also, the pumps are identical and are running at 1000 r.p.m. The specific speed of each pump is
given as 20 while the rated capacity of each pump is 150 lit/s.
2.
(a) Define a centrifugal pump. Explain the working of a single-stage centrifugal pump with sketches.
(b) A centrifugal pump impeller whose external and internal diameters are 400 mmand 200 mm respectively is running at 950
r.p.m. The rate of flow through thepump is 0.035 m3/s. the suction and delivery heads are 5 m 25 m respectively. The
diameters of the suction and delivery pipes are 120 mm and 80 mmrespectively. If the outlet vane angle is 450, the flow
velocity is constant andequal to 1.8 m/s and power required to drive the pump is 15 kW, determine:
i. Inlet vane angle
ii. The overall efficiency, and
iii. The manometric efficiency.
3.
(a) The internal and external diameters of the impeller of a centrifugal pump are 30 cm and 60 cm
respectivelyThe pump is running at 1000 r.p.m. The vane angles at inlet and outlet are 200 and 300 respectively. Thewater enters
the impeller radially and velocity of flow is constant. Determine the work done by the impeller
per unit weight of water.
(b) What is priming? Why is it necessary? Explain how it is done.
4.

(a) What do you understand by characteristic curves of a pump? What is thesignificance of the
characteristic curves? Explain them in detail.

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(b) The diameter of a centrifugal pump, which is discharging 0.035 m3/s of wateragainst a total head of 25 m is 0.05m. The
pump is running at 1200 r.p.m.Find the head, discharge and ratio of powers of a geometrically similar pumpof diameter 0.3 m
when it is running at 2000 r.p.m.

Unit 1
1. The mass of an object is 10 kg. The gravitational acceleration at a location is 5 m/s2. The specificweight is
(a) 2 N (b) 15 N (c) 5 N (d) 50 N
2.The dynamic viscosity is 1.2 104 Ns/m2. The density is 600 kg/m3. The kinematic viscosity inm2/s is
(a) 72 103 (b) 20 108 (c) 7.2 103 (d) 70 106
3. The velocity gradient is 1000/s. The viscosity is 1.2 104 Ns/m2. The shear stress is
(a) 1.2 101 N/m (b) 1.2 107 N/m2 (c) 1.2 102 N/m2(d) 1.2 1010 N/m2
4.The excess pressure in a droplet of 0.002 m dia a fluid with surface tension of 0.01 N/m is
(a) 10(b) 20 c)4 d) 0.00004
5. Viscosity of liquids ____________________ increase of temperature.
6. Bulk modulus of liquids _________ ___________with increase in pressure at constant temperature
7. Capillary rise is caused by ____________________ forces
8. A Newtonian fluid is defined as one having _____________________.
9.Viscosity is defined as _______________________.
10. Kinematic viscosity is defined as ______________________.
11. The difference between liquids and gases is _________.

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12.Density is defined as _________.

13. Specific weight is defined as _________.

UNIT 2
1.Pressure is defined as ____________________________________
2. Pascals law states ___________________________
3.The gravity at a location is 5 m/s2. The density of fluid was 2000 kg/m3. The pressure exerted bya column of 1 m of the fluid will be
(a) 400 N/m2 (b) 10,000 N/m2(c) 2000 N/m2 (d) 5 N/m2
4.In a forced vortex
(a) the fluid velocity is inversely proportional to the radius
(b) the fluid rotates without any relative velocity
(c) the rise depends on the specific weight
(d) the rise is proportional to the cube of angular velocity

5.The specific weight of a fluid is 20,000 N/m3. The pressure (above atmosphere) in a tank bottomcontaining the fluid
to a height of 0.2 m is
(a) 40,000 N/m2 (b) 2000 N/m2(c) 4000 N/m2 (d) 20,000 N/m2
6.In a differential manometer a head of 0.6 m of fluid A in limb 1 is found to balance a head of 0.3m of fluid B in limb 2. The ratio of
specific gravities of A to B is
(a) 2 (b) 0.5(c) cannot be determined (d) 0.18
7.In a static fluid, with y as the vertical direction, the pressure variation is given by
(a)dp/dy = (b)dp/dy = (c)dp/dy = (d)dp/dy =
8.Bernoulli equation is applicable for
9. Eulers equation is applicable for flow along a
10. Potential energy of a fluid element in head of fluid is given by .
UNIT 3
1.The friction factor in pipe flow at near critical conditions is around
(a) 0.064 (b) 0.025 (c) 0.64 (d) 0.032.
2.Reynolds number is given by
(a) u/D, (b) D/u, (c) u/D (d) uD/.
3.In laminar pipe flow for a given flow rate Q, the power required to overcome friction will beproportional to
(a) Q(b) Q2(c) Q1/2(d) Q3/2

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4.With constant flow rate if the diameter is doubled in laminar flow in pipes, the frictional dropwill change by a factor of
(a) 2 (b) 0.5 (c) 1/32 (d) 1/16.
5.The entry length in pipe flow will be higher for
(a) highly viscous fluids (b) low viscosity fluid
(c) high velocity of flow (d) small diameters
6. As Reynolds number decreases in laminar flow in pipes, the friction factor .e
7.When two pipes in parallel flow are replaced by a single pipe with its area equal to the sum of theareas of the two
pipes, the flow rate will _________
8.The Chezy coefficient C is a variable with its value depending on the flow __________ numberand the __________
9.

UNIT 4
1.The force exerted by a fluid jet on a stationary flat plate is____________________________
2.The force exerted by a fuid jet on a flat plate is ________________________
3.the force exerted by a fluid jet on a stationary curved plated is _________________________
4.the force exerted jet striking an unsymmetrical curved vane tangentially at one of its tips____________________
5.The force exerted by a fluid jet on a moving curved vane is _________________________
6.the torque exerted on a wheel with radial curved vanes is____________________________
7.

Unit 5
1.The head available at its entrance to the turbine is ___________________________.
2.The overall efficiency is defined as________________________________
3.The volumetric efficiency is defined as ______________________________
4.The mechanical efficiency is defined as ________________________________
5.The hydraulic efficiency is defined as_______________________________
6.

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Previous years question papers JNTUA

B.Tech II Year I Semester (R09) Regular and Supplementary Examinations, November 2012
FLUID MECHANICS & HYDRAULIC MACHINERY
(Electrical and Electronics Engineering)
Time: 3 hours
Max Marks: 70

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Code: 9A01308
All questions carry equal marks
*****
1 (a) Define the following fluid properties: Density, weight density, specific volume and
specific gravity of a fluid.
(b) An oil film of thickness 1.5 mm is used for lubrication between a square plate of size
0.9 m 0.9 m and an inclined plane having an angle of inclination 200. The weight of
the square plate is 392.4 N and it slides down the plane with a uniform velocity of 0.2
m/s. Find the dynamic viscosity of the oil.
2 (a)
(b)

3 (a)
(b)

4 (a)
(b)

Cite two examples of unsteady, non-uniform flow. How can the unsteady flow be
A pipe of diameter 30 cm carries water at a velocity of 20 m/sec. The pressures at the
points A and B are given as 34.335 N/cm2 and 29.43 N/cm2 respectively. While the
datum head at A and B are 25 m and 28 m, find the loss of head between A and B.
What is a pitot-tube? How will you determine the velocity at any point with the help of
pitot-tube?
A 30 cm x 15 cm venturimeter is inserted in a vertical pipe carrying water, flowing in
the upward direction. A differential mercury-manometer connected to the inlet and
throat gives a reading of 30 cm. Find the discharge. Take C = 0.98.
Derive an expression for the force exerted by a jet of water on an inclined fixed plate
in the direction of the jet.
A jet of water of diameter 50 mm moving with a velocity of 20 m/sec strikes a fixed
plate in such a way that the angle between the jet and the plate is 600.Find the force
exerted by the jet on the plate.
(i) In the direction normal to the plate
(ii) In the direction of the jet.
Contd. in Page 2

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Code: 9A01308
5 (a)
(b)

Discuss critically the economics of a hydal power plant for power generation.
What is a flow mass curve? Explain how it is constructed.

6 (a)
(b)

What are the design specifications of a Kaplan turbine? Explain.

An outward flow reaction turbine has inner and outer diameter of the wheel as 1000
mm and 2000 mm respectively. The water enters the vane at an angle of 200 and
leaves the vane radially. If the velocity of flow remains constant at 10 m/sec and the
speed of the wheel is 300 rpm, find the vane angles at inlet and outlet.

7 (a)

A hydraulic turbine develops 120 KW under a head of 10 m at a speed of 90 rpm and

gives an efficiency of 92%. Find the water consumption and the specific speed. If a
model of scale 1:30 is constructed to operate under a head of 8 m what must be its
speed, power and water consumption to run under the conditions similar to prototype.
What are the constant head characteristic curves of a turbine? What is the purpose of
developing them?

(b)

8 (a)
(b)

Why centrifugal pumps are less efficient as compared to turbines.

A centrifugal pump has an impeller diameter 25 cm, outlet width 5 cm, 1100 rpm,
working against a head of 11 m. Vane angle at outlet 300. Manometric efficiency = 90%.
Calculate the discharge.

*****

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Code: 9A01308
B.Tech II Year I Semester (R09) Regular and Supplementary Examinations, November 2012
FLUID MECHANICS & HYDRAULIC MACHINERY
(Electrical and Electronics Engineering)
Time: 3 hours
Max Marks: 70
All questions carry equal marks
*****

1 (a) Distinguish between ideal fluids and real fluids. Explain the importance of compressibility
in fluid flow.
(b) A shaft of diameter 120 mm is rotating inside a journal bearing of diameter122 mm at a
speed of 360 r.p.m. The space between the shaft and the bearing is filled with a
lubricating oil of viscosity 6 poise. Find the power absorbed in oil if the length of bearing
is 100 mm.
2 (a)
(b)

Explain the terms: (i) Path line (ii) Streak line (iii) Stream line, and (iv) Stream tube.
A 40 cm diameter pipe, conveying water, branches into two pipes of diameter 30 cm and
20 cm respectively. If the average velocity in the 40 cm diameter pipe is 3 m/s. Find the
discharge in this pipe. Also determine the velocity in 20 cm pipe if the average velocity in
30 cm diameter pipe is 2 m/s.

3 (a)
(b)

Explain the term co-efficient of friction. On what factors does this co-efficient depend.
An orifice-meter with orifice diameter 15 cm is inserted in a pipe of 30 cm diameter. The
pressure gauges fitted upstream and downstream of the orifice meter give readings of
14.715 N/cm2 and 9.81 N/cm2 respectively. Find the rate of flow of water through the pipe
in liters/s. Take C = 0.6.

4 (a)

Derive an expression for the hydraulic efficiency when a liquid jet strikes a single moving
curved vane.
A jet of water of diameter 100 mm strikes a curved plate at its centre with a velocity of 15
m/s. The curved plate is moving with a velocity of 7 m/s in the direction of the jet. The jet
is deflected through an angle of 1500. Assuming the plate smooth find:
(i) Force exerted on the plate in the direction of the jet.
(ii) Power of the jet and iii. Efficiency.
Contd. in Page 2

(b)

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Code: 9A01308
5 (a)
(b)

Explain how the load factor, capacity factor and utilization factor are interrelated.
What is the significance of diversity factor?
For a hydropower plant, the design capacity is 150 MW. If the generated power is 125
MW, determine the efficiency of the plant. If the peak discharge is 1.5 times the average
discharge, determine the plant capacity and the plant factor.

6 (a) The head on a Francis turbine is 25 m. The outer and inner diameters of runner
are 1.25 m and 0.9 m respectively. The guide vane angle is 150 and the runner
vanes are radial at inlet. Determine the speed of runner in rpm and vane angle at
outlet. If the power output is 365 MHP, what is the specific speed?
(b) A Kaplan runner has outer and inner diameters of 4.5 m and 2m respectively. It
develops 30,000 MHP at 150 rpm under a head of 20 m. The hydraulic and
overall efficiencies are 96% and 89% respectively. Determine the runner blade
angles at hub periphery, outer periphery and mean diameter.
7 (a)
(b)

Describe different types of surge tanks with neat sketches.

A Kaplan turbine model built to a reduced scale of 1:10 develops 25 MHP when run at
400 rpm under a head of 6 m. If its overall efficiency is 85%, what flow rate should be
supplied to the model? If the prototype machine works under a head of 40 m, compute
the speed, power output and discharge of the machine. Assume the same overall
efficiency for the model and prototype.

Explain how the discharge, head and power of a pump vary as the speed of the pump is
varied.
A centrifugal pump discharges 0.153 m/s of water against a head of 12.5 m, the speed of
the impeller being 600 rpm. The outer and inner diameters of the impellers are 500 mm
and 250 mm respectively. The vanes are bent back at 350 to the tangent of the exit. If
the flow area remains 0.07 m2 from inlet to outlet, find:
(i) The manometric efficiency of the pump.
(ii) The vane angle at inlet.
*****

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Code: 9A01308
B.Tech II Year I Semester (R09) Regular and Supplementary Examinations, November 2012
FLUID MECHANICS & HYDRAULIC MACHINERY
(Electrical and Electronics Engineering)
Time: 3 hours
Max Marks: 70
All questions carry equal marks
*****

1 (a) What is the difference between dynamic viscosity and kinematic viscosity? State their
units of measurements.
(b) Two plates are placed at a distance of 0.15 mm apart. The lower plate is fixed while the
upper plate having surface area 1.0 m2 is pulled at 0.3 m/s. Find the force and power
required to maintain this speed, if the fluid separating them is having viscosity of 1.5
poise.
2 (a) Define the equation of continuity. Obtain an express for continuity equation for a one
dimensional flow.
(b) Water is flowing through a pipe having diameters 30 cm and 15 cm at the bottom and
upper end respectively. The intensity of pressure at the bottom end is 29.43 N/cm2 and
the pressure at the upper end is 14.715 N/cm2. Determine the difference in datum head
if the rate of flow through pipe is 50 lit/s.
3 (a) Define and explain the terms:
(ii) Total energy line.
(b) An oil of kinematic viscosity 0.5 stoke is flowing through a pipe of diameter 300 mm at
the rate of 320 litres per sec. Find the head lost due to friction for a length of 60 m of the
pipe.
4 (a) Find the expression for the force exerted by the jet on a flat vertical plate moving in the
direction of the jet.
(b) A jet of diameter 150 mm strikes a flat plate normally with a velocity of 20 m/sec. The
plate is moving with a velocity of 5 m/sec in the direction of the jet and away from the jet.
Find
(i) The force exerted by the jet on the plate.
(ii) Work done by the jet on the plate per second.
Contd. in Page 2

Page 1 of 2

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Code: 9A01308

5 (a) Sketch and explain relative arrangement of different structures of a low head hydro
power development.
(b) The load on a hydel plant varies from a minimum of 10,000 KW to a maximum of 35,000
KW. Two turbo generators of capacities 22,000 KW each have been installed. Calculate
(i) Total installed capacity of the plant.
(ii) Plant factor.
(iv) Utilization factor.
6 (a)

(b)

7 (a)

(b)
8 (a)
(b)
(c)

With the help of velocity diagrams, derive the equations of theoretical power developed
by a Pelton wheel and its hydraulic efficiency. Obtain the conditions for maximum
hydraulic efficiency.
A Pelton wheel has to be designed to develop 12,000 KW of power at an overall
efficiency of 86%.The speed is 520 rpm and the head is 400 m. The wheel velocity is
0.46 times the jet velocity. Assuming a nozzle coefficient of 0.975 and an approximate
jet ratio of 10, calculate the wheel diameter, number of jets, diameter of each jet and the
number of buckets.
Tests were conducted on a Francis turbine of 0.8 m diameter under a head of 9 m. The
turbine developed 115 KW running at 240 rpm and consuming1.2 m3/sec. If the same
turbine is operated under a head of 16 m, predict its new speed, discharge and power.
What are the requirements of a governor in hydropower installation? Explain.
How are large pumps primed?
What are the different devices that are employed to convert high velocity into high
pressure? Sketch and explain.
How does the specific speed help the choice of a correct pump for a given duty?

*****

Page 2 of 2

B.Tech II Year I Semester (R09) Regular and Supplementary Examinations, November 2012
FLUID MECHANICS & HYDRAULIC MACHINERY
(Electrical and Electronics Engineering)
Time: 3 hours
Max Marks: 70
All questions carry equal marks
*****
1 (a) What is a manometer? How are they classified? Explain with sketches.
(b) The pressure intensity at a point in a fluid is given as 4.9 N/cm2. Find the corresponding
height of fluid when it is: (i) Water, and (ii) An oil of sp.gr.0.8.
2 (a) What is Eulers equation of motion? How will you obtain Bernoullis equation from it?
(b) A pipe line carrying oil of specific gravity 0.8, changes in diameter from 300 mm at a
position A to 500 mm diameter to a position B which is 5 m at a higher level. If the
pressures at A and B are 19.62 N/cm2 and 14.91 N/cm2 respectively, and the discharge
is 150 liters/s. Determine the loss of head and direction of flow.
3 (a) What is a venturimeter? Derive an expression for the discharge through a venturimeter.
(b) A horizontal venturimeter with inlet and throat diameters 30 cm and 15 cm respectively is
used to measure the flow of water. The reading of differential manometer connected to
inlet and throat is 10 cm of mercury. Determine the rate of flow. Take C = 0.98.
4

A jet of water of 20 mm diameter and moving at 15 m/s, strikes upon the center of a
symmetrical vane. After impingement, the jet gets deflected through 1600 by the vane.
Presuming vane to be smooth determine:
(a) The force exerted by jet on the vane, and
(b) The ration of velocity at outlet to that at inlet if actual reaction of the vane is 127 N.

5 (a)

Discuss the factors that should be considered while selecting the turbine for a particular
power plant.
(b) Where do you provide pumped storage plants? Explain the working of a pumped storage
plant.
Contd. in page 2

Page 1 of 2

6 (a) Compare the Pelton, Francis and Kaplan turbines on the basis of head and discharge.
Also specify the ranges of them for these turbines.
(b) A Pelton wheel is required to develop 12000 KW when working under a head of 300 m.
It rotates at a speed of 540 rpm. Assuming the jet ratio as 10 and overall efficiency as
84%, calculate:
(i) The diameter of the wheel.
(ii) The quantity of water required and
(iii) The number of jets.
7 (a) What do you understand by specific speed of a turbine? What is its use?
(b) What is the necessity of governing the turbines?
(c) How do you say that geometrically similar velocity triangles assure kinematic similarity?
8 (a) Differentiate between the volute casing and vortex casing for the centrifugal pump.
(b) Write short notes on NPSH in centrifugal pumps.
(c) A multistage centrifugal pump is required to lift 1820 liters of water per minute. From a
mine, the total head including friction being 672 m. If the speed of the pump is 2920 rpm,
how many stages are required? Ns for impeller = 600.

MATHEMATICS II

Syllabus
Syllabus of JNTU BTech Common Syllabus - MA05363 / MA05361 / MA07361
Mathematical Methods
MATHEMATICAL METHODS
UNIT I
Matrices and Linear systems of equations: Elementary row transformations-Rank-Echelon form, Normal form Solution
of Linear Systems Direct Methods- LU Decomposition- LU Decomposition from Gauss Elimination Solution of
Tridiagonal Systems-Solution of Linear Systems

UNIT II
Eigen values, eigen vectors properties Cayley-Hamilton Theorem - Inverse and powers of a matrix by CayleyHamilton theorem Diagonolization of matrix. Calculation of powers of matrix Modal and spectral matrices.

UNIT III
Real matrices Symmetric, skew - symmetric, orthogonal, Linear Transformation Orthogonal Transformation.
Complex matrices: Hermitian, Skew-Hermitian and Unitary Eigen values and eigen vectors of complex matrices and
their properties. Quadratic forms- Reduction of quadratic form to canonical form Rank - Positive, negative definite semi definite - index - signature - Sylvester law.

UNIT IV
Solution of Algebraic and Transcendental Equations: Introduction The Bisection Method The Method of False Position
The Iteration Method Newton-Raphson Method.
Interpolation: Introduction- Errors in Polynomial Interpolation Finite differences- Forward Differences- Backward
differences Central differences Symbolic relations and separation of symbols-Differences of a polynomial-Newtons
formulae for interpolation Central difference interpolation Formulae Gauss Central Difference Formulae
Interpolation with unevenly spaced points-Lagranges Interpolation formula.

UNIT V
Curve fitting: Fitting a straight line Second degree curve-exponentional curve-power curve by method of least squares.
Numerical Differentiation and Integration Trapezoidal rule Simpsons 1/3 Rule Simpsons 3/8 Rule.

UNIT VI
Numerical solution of Ordinary Differential equations: Solution by Taylors series-Picards Method of successive
Approximations-Eulers Method-Runge-Kutta Methods Predictor-Corrector Methods- Adams- Moulton Method Milnes
Method.

UNIT VII

Fourier Series: Determination of Fourier coefficients Fourier series even and odd functions Fourier series in an
arbitrary interval even and odd periodic continuation Half-range Fourier sine and cosine expansions. Fourier integral
theorem (only statement) Fourier sine and cosine integrals. Fourier transform Fourier sine and cosine transforms
properties inverse transforms Finite Fourier transforms.

UNIT VIII
Formation of partial differential equations by elimination of arbitrary constants and arbitrary functions solutions of first
order linear (Lagrange) equation and nonlinear (standard type) equations. Method of separation of variables. ztransform inverse z-transform - properties Damping rule Shifting rule Initial and final value theorems.
Convolution theorem Solution of difference equation by z-transforms.

Text Books:
1. Mathematical Methods, T. K. V. Iyengar, B. Krishna Gandhi and Others, S. Chand & Company.
2. Mathematical Methods, C. Sankaraiah, V. G. S. Book Links.
3. A text book of Mathematical Methods, V. Ravindranath, A. Vijayalaxmi, Himalaya Publishers.
4. A text book of Mathematical Methods, Shahnaz Bathul, Right Publisshers.

References:
1. A text Book of Engineering Mathematics, B. V. Raman, Tata Mc Graw Hill.
2. Advanced Engineering Mathematics, Irvin Kreyszig, Wiley India Pvt. Ltd.
3. Numerical Methods for Scientific and Engineering Computation, M. K. Jain, S. R. K. Iyengar & R. K. Jain, New Age
International Publishers.
4. Elementary Numerical Analysis, Aitkinson & Han, Wiely India, 3rd Edition, 2006

Objective
MATHEMATICAL METHODS
IMPORTANCE OF THE SUBJECT
I .Matrices:- Matrix theory is a Powerful tool in several branches of Engineering and it is the study of many subjects like Physics,
Mechanics, statistics, Electronics ,Circuits and Computers.

2. Real and Complex Matrices, Quadratic forms:We introduce matrices with Complex elements which are called Complex matrices and define three important types of
matrices which will be used in many areas like Quantum Mechanics. The Quadratic form is used in different branches of engineering
to get the roots.
.

3. Solution of Algebraic and Transcendental equations, Interpolation:The Determination of roots of an equation of the form f(x)=0 has great importance in the fields of Science and
Engineering. Interpolation is used in different fields of engineering and science to find forward differences, Backward differences,
differences of a polynomial, errors in Polynomial Interpolation, extrapolation, Central differences etc.

4. Curve fitting and Numerical differentiation & Integration:Engineers and Scientists are frequently faced with the problem of differentiation (or) Integration of some functions. If the functions
have a closed form representation and are amenable for standard calculus methods, then differentiation and Integration can be
carried out.

5. Numerical Solutions of Ordinary Differential equations:Many problems in Science and Engineering can be formulated into Ordinary differential equations. These Numerical solutions
of ODE are used in different fields of engineering & sciences in Mechanics, Physics, Electronics Circuits etc.

6. Fourier series:
In this chapter we discuss the application of finite and infinite Fourier integral transforms which are mathematical devices from
which we obtain solutions of boundary value problems related to Engineering for example :- Conduction of heat ,free and force
vibrations of a membranes, transverse vibrations of a string, transverse oscillations of an elastic beam etc.

7. Partial differential eqns:-

Partial differential equations are a powerful tool used in several branches of engineering and sciences. The equation which
contain one or more partial derivatives are called partial differential equations, the different applications of PDE are used in engineering

8 .Z-Transforms:The Introduction of computer control into system design has led to modelling of discrete time systems through difference eqns .The
technique of Z-Transforms is useful in solving difference eqns. This technique is in particular useful in the area of digital signal
processing and digital filters.
Z-Transforms have properties similar to that of Laplace transforms .It is used in many fields of engineering and sciences.

Lesson Plan
PBR VISVODAYA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY & SCIENCE KAVALI.
LECTURE SCHEDULE - 2012

SUBJECT : MATHEMATICS-II
BRANCH: M.E
DATE

YEAR: II B.TECH, I SEM

FACULTY: P.RAMAKRISHNA REDDY
TOPIC TO BE COVERED

NO. OF
PERIODS
UNITI:Matrices: Elementary row transformations Rank Normal form
18
Echelon form Consistency Solution of system of simultaneous
linear homogeneous and non-homogeneous equations. Eigen values,
Eigen vectors Properties Cayley-Hamilton Theorem Inverse and
powers of a matrix by Cayley-Hamilton theorem.

UNITII:Symmetric, skew Symmetric, Orthogonal, Hermitian, Skew

Hermitian and unitary matrices and their properties - Quadratic forms
Reduction of quadratic forms to canonical form and their nature.

11

UNITIII:Symmetric, skew Symmetric, Orthogonal, Hermitian, Skew

Hermitian and unitary matrices and their properties - Quadratic forms
Reduction of quadratic forms to canonical form and their nature.

08

UNIT IV:Fourier integral theorem Fourier sine and cosine integrals.

Fourier transforms Fourier sine and cosine transforms Properties
Inverse transforms Finite Fourier transforms.

07

UNITV:Formation of partial differential equations by elimination of

arbitrary constants and arbitrary functions Method of separation of
variables Solutions of one dimensional wave equation, heat equation
and two-dimensional Laplaces equation.

07

UNITVI:Solution of Algebraic and Transcendental Equations:

Introduction The Bisection Method The Method of False Position
The Iteration Method Newton-Raphson Method.Interpolation:

08

Introduction Newtons forward and backward interpolation formulae

Lagranges Interpolation formula.
UNITVII:Curve fitting: Fitting a straight line Second degree curve
Exponentional curve-Power curve by method of least squares.
Numerical Differentiation and Integration Trapezoidal rule
Simpsons 1/3 Rule Simpsons 3/8 Rule.

09

UNITVIII:Numerical solution of Ordinary Differential equations:

Solution by Taylors series-Eulers Method-Runge-Kutta Method
Predictor-Corrector Method Milnes Method.

08

Total no. of periods

1 MID EXAMS FROM 03/09/2012 TO 05/09/2012
II MID EXAMS FROM 01/11/2012 TO 03/11/2012

76

ST

TEXT BOOK: A Text Book of Engineering Mathematics, VolII, T.K.V. Iyengar, B. Krishna Gandhi and Others.

S. Chand & Company.

REFERENCE: A Text Book of Engineering Mathematics, B.V. Raman, Tata Mc Graw Hill.

Question Papers Mid-semester examinations

PBR VISVODAYA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY & SCIENCE, KAVALI.
I.B.Tech.

Branch: ECE,CSE, EEE.

MiD- I(Subjective).

Date:07/12/2012(AN).

Time: 90 min.
MATHEMATICAL METHODS
Max.marks:20.
***************************************************************************************
ANSWER ANY THREE OF THE FOLLOWING

4
1. a) Find the Rank of the Matrix A=
8

3
By reducing it in Echelon form.
4 7 13

4 3 1

1
2

3
1

8 6 2

b) Find the Eigen values and Eigen vectors of the matrix A = 6 7 4 .

2 4 3
2. a) Find the non-singular matrices P and Q so that PAQ is of the normal form where

1 2 3 2

A= 2 2 1 3 .

3 0 4 1

8 8 2

b) Verify Cayley -Hamilton theorem for the matrix A = 4 3 2 and find A-1 & A4.

3 4 1
0 1
1

3. a) Find the Inverse of A= 2 1 0 using elementary Row operations by Gauss-Jordan method.

0 1 1
b) Prove that the following set of equations are Consistent and solve them
3x + 3y+2z = 1,
x+2y = 4,
10y+3z = -2,
2x -3y - z = 5.

4. a)

5.

Prove that a every square matrix can be uniquely expressed as sum of symmetric and skew

b) Prove that sum of the eigen values of matrix A is equal to trace of A.

Find the Orthogonal transformation which transforms the quadratic form x12 + 3x22+ 3x32- 2x2x3
to canonical form by Orthogonalization also find Rank Index, signature and its nature.

symmetric.

I.B.Tech;

Branch: ECE ,CSE.EEE;

Time 20min.

MID-I(Objective);

MATHEMATICAL METHODS

a) 1

b) 0

c) 1

a) A T = A

b) AT = A

a) 1/1, ,1/3

c) AT = - A

1 2 5
0 2 6

0 0 3

b) 1,-2, -3

b) 1 , 2

c) 2

c) 1,2,3

d)0, 1, 2

d) AT .A = 0

are -------

d)2,3

a) 0

d) 2

2. A square matrix A is Symmetric if ------------

3.

Date:03/12/2012.

x 2 x y 0 3
=
then x,y,z and a values are ---------- z 3 4a 8 4 12

5. If

a) 2,1,7,5

b) -2,1,7,5

c) 2, -1, 7, -5

d) 2 , 1, -7, 5

6. If I is a unitmatrix of order n then | I| =

a) 0

b) 1

c) 2

d)3

1 1
is --------------------------------------------------2 5

a) 2+6 - 3=0

b) 2-6 = 3

c) 2-6 = -3

a) 2, 3

b) 7, 5

d) -2- 6 -3 =0

2 2 1
1 3 1

3x3
1 2 2

c) -7, -5

10. If A =

a) -1,1/2,1/3

d)Polynomial.

b) 1,1/2,1/3

c) 1,1/2,3

11. A square matrix A is said to be Urinary .If ------------

a) AA = -I

b) equation.

c) Characteristic equation.

1 2 3
0 2 5

0 0 3

d)1/7, 1/5

9. Cayley Hamilton theorem states that every square matrix satisfies its own ----a) Characteristic root.

b) ATA = I

c) AA- = I

d)-1,-1/2,-1/3
[

d) AA = I

12. The symmetric matrix associated with the quadratic form x2-18xy+5y2 is --------

9
1

2 / 9 5

a)

1 9

9 5

9 1

5 9

b)

c)

1 9

9 5

d)

13. A Homogeneous expression of the second degree in any number of variables is called ..
a)Unit matrix

a) Nilpotent

d) Homogeneous expression

1 1 i 1 i
is..
2 1 i 1 i
b) Orthogonal

c) Symmetric

a) Null matix

b) Sparse Matrix

c) Rectangular Matrix

d) Unit Matrix

b) Rank of ARank of *AB+

c) Rank of A=0

c) Nilpotent Matrix

[
b)Involutory Matrix
d) Periodic Matrix

d) r < n

18.A matrix A such that A2 = I is called

a) Idempotent matix

17. The System of equations AX=B is inconsistent if ____________

a) r = n

d) Unitary

15. If the most of a elements of a Matrix are zero then the matrix is called as --------------

(a) 2+A1 - a2 =0

14. The Matrix A=

19.The number of positive terms in the canonical form is known as -----------

a) Rank

b) Index

c) Signature

d) Semi definite

20. The Difference between positive and negative terms in the canonical form is called -----

a) Rank

b) Signature

c) Index

d) definite

I B. Tech;

Time: 90 min.

Sub: Mathematical Methods .

Date: 02/02/12(AN).
Max.marks:30.

*********************************************************************
ANSWER ANY THREE OF THE FOLLOWING; EACH QUESTION CARRIES 10 MARKS

-4x+9=0 by using Bisection method.

(b) Find the positive root of the equation cosx-2x+3=0 by using Iteration method.
2. (a) The population of a town in the decimal census was given below. Estimate the population for the
Year 1895 and 1925.
Year(x)

1891

1901

1911

1921

1931

Population(Y)

46

66

81

93

101

In thousands

(b) Given 1 =22, 2=30, 4 =82, 7=106, 8=206. Find 6 use Lagranges Interpolation formula.
3. (a) Derive the Normal Equations for II degree parabola y=a+bx+cx2 by using method of least squares.
(b) Fit the curve of the form y=a

4. (a) Evaluate

77

100

185

239

285

2.4

3.4

7.0

11.1

19.6

and find the Relative and

Absolute error.
(b) Find the 1st and 2nd derivatives for the function y at x=1.5 and x=4.0.
X

1.5

2.

2.5

3.5

3.375

13.625

24

38.87

59

5. Using Modified
approximate value of y when x=0.4.Given that

Eulers method find an

=x+y,y(0)=1.with h=0.1.
***Good Luck***

Roll No.
Name: ________________________,
Marks:

10

PBR VISVODAYA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY & SCIENCE: KAVALI.

I B.Tech(2011-12); Branch: ECE &EEE&CSE; MID-II (Objective);
Time: 20 min.

Sub: Mathematical Methods.

Date: 27/02/2013(AN).
Max.marks:20 =10.

***************************************************************************
1. Example for Transcendental equation is -------------------a)X2-logX-12=0
b)X3+2X2+X+1=0
c)X3-3X-5=0

[
d)X3-5X+1=0

2. The Newton Raphson method fails when--------a)f1 (X) is too large

b) f1 (X) is negative
c) f1 (X) is zero

[
d)never fails

b)3

[
d) Very slow

4. According to Principal of Least Squares --------------------[

]
a)Sum of Squares of each error is maximizing c)Sum of Squares of each error is Zero
b)Sum of Squares of each error is minimizing d)Sum of Squares of each error is Infinite
5. What is the Condition for the convergence of successive approximation method [
a) 1(X)1 for all X I
b)I1(x)I<1for all X I
c) 1(X)>1 for all X I
d) I1(x)I>1for all X I
6. The formula for [f(x)]=-----------------------a)f(x)-f(x-h)
b)f(x)+f(x+h)

c)f(x+h)-f(x)

d)f(x-h)

7. The nth difference of a polynomial of degree n is ---------------A) Zero

b) 1
c) Constant
d) n
8. A polynomial in X of degree n when equated to zero is called as -----------[
a)Polynomial b)Algebraic equation c) Transcendental equation d) Interpolation
9. What is the Approximation formula for Newton Raphson method
a)X1=

ab
2

b) X1=

af (b) bf (a)
f (b) f (a)

c)Xn+1=Xn-

f ( xn )
f 1( xn )

10. If f(a)<0 and f(b)>0 then f(a). f(b)--------------------a)>0

b)<0
c)0

]
con
]

d) X1=(x0)

[
d)0

11. The process of finding the function value outside the given range is called as -----[
]
a)Interpolation
b)Extrapolation
c) Inverse Interpolation
d) Regression
12. The formula for Shift operator is -------------------a)Ef(x)=f(x+h)
b)Ef(x)=f(x-h)
c)Ef(x)=f(x+2h)

[
]
d)Ef(x)=f(x-2h)

13. If X3-9x+1=0, the first approximations x0 and x1 are 0 and 1 by

Bisection method then X2 is
a)0.5
b)0.25
c)0.125

a) y(x1)=y1

b) y(x0)= y0

c) y(x2)= y2

d)1

d) None

15.The Normal Equations for II degree parabola are

..
16. Simpsons Th Rule is......................................................................................................................
..
17. Write the formula for R-k method is................................................................................................
.
18. States that Taylors series
..
19.The general formula for Eulers method is.
20. Intermediate value theorem states that....................................................................................

Question Bank
VISVODAYA TECHNICAL ACADEMY(PBR VITS & VEC) ,KAVALI.
MODEL QUESTIONS FOR MID-I,II,III EXAMINATIONS
SUB:MATHEMATICAL METHODS (MM)
UNIT-I

BRANCH: ECE,CSE&EEE.

1 2 3

2 0 4

2 3 4

3 2 1

1 1 1

3 2 3

1 2 3

b) Find the value of k such that the Rank of 2 k 7 is 2.

3 6 10

2 3 1

1 1 2
3.a) Find the Rank of a matrix A=
3 1 3

6 3 0

-1

-4
by using Row-Echelon method
-2

-7
4 3 2
3 1 4

2
b) Reduce in to Row-Echelon form & find the Rank of a matrix A=
1

0
4.a) Find the Rank 0f
2

6
3

7
6

2
6

3
9

12

1
by reducing it into Normal form
3 7 5

5 11 6

1
3

3
4

b)Find the constants l,m such that the Rank of matrix 2

6

2 3
1 1
2

2
m

5.a) Test for Consistency of the following system of equations and solve
X+y+2z=4,2x-y+3z=9,3x-y-z=2.

is (I)3 (II)2

b) Find the values of , for which the system of equations x+y+z=6,x+2y+3z=10,x+2y+ z=

has (I)no solution(II)unique solution(III)Infinite no. of solutions
c) For what values of the following system has Non-trivial solutions and find the solution
in each case. 3x1 x2 x3 0 ,4 x1 2 x2 3x3 0 , 2 x1 4 x2 x3 0.
6.a) If 1, 2, 3, . n are the Eigen values of A then 1/ 1, 1/ 2 ,1/ 3 , . . . 1/n are Eigen
Values of

1 2 1

b) State Cayley-Hamilton theorem and verify Cayley-Hamilton theorem for A = 2 1 2

2 2 1

******************************************************************************

UNIT-II
1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1 1
1.a) show that the matrix A=
is the Orthogonal matrix .
2 1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1
b) Every square matrix is uniquely expressed as the sum of symmetric & skew symmetric.
c) The Inverse of orthogonal matrix is orthogonal.

4 2 3

5 0 7

and hence find

1 3i
4
b) Define Hermitian matrix and find Eigen values of a matrix A=

7
1 3i
3.a) Prove that the Eigen values of Hermitian matrix are Real.
b) Prove that the Eigen values of Skew-Hermitian matrix are purely Imaginary or zero.
4.a) Find the Quadratic form corresponding the matrix
b) Reduce the Q.F x12 + x22 + x32 -2x1x2 + 10 x2x3 +2 x1x3 to Canonical form by Lagranges reduction
5) Find the Canonical form corresponding Q.F 2x2 +2y2+2z2-2xy-2yz-2zx also find Rank,Index,
Signature and Nature of a Quadratic form.
6) Find the Canonical form corresponding Q.F 6x12+3x22+3x32-4x1x2-2x2x3+4x1x3 by
Diagonalization.

******************************************************************************

UNIT-III

1. (a) Find a real root of the equation x = e-x, using the Newton-Raphson method.
(b) Consider the following data for g(x) = (sin x) / x2
Calculate g(0.25) accurately using Newtons Forward method of interpolation.

x
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
g(x) 9.9833 4.9696 3.2836 2.4339 1.9177

2. (a) Find the root of the equation x3-5x+1=0 Using the Bisection method in 5 stages.
x
(b) Find the root of the equation x log10
1.2 Using False position method.
3. (a) Find an approximate root of the equation -4x+9=0 by using Bisection method.
(b) Find the positive root of the equation cosx-2x+3=0 by using Iteration method.
4.

(a) The population of a town in the decimal census was given below. Estimate the
population for the Year 1895 and 1925.
Year(x)
1891
1901
1911
1921
1931

Population(Y)
46
66
81
93
101
In thousands
(b) Given 1 =22, 2=30, 4 =82, 7=106, 8=206. Find 6 use Lagranges Interpolation formula
5.

6.

a) Find a real root of the equation

-x-1=0,using Bisection method.
b) Find a real root of the equation xlogx=1.2 , using Falsi Position method.
a) Find a real root of the equation xtanx+1=0 , using Newton-Raphson method
b) Find the unique polynomial p(x) 0f degree 2 or less such that (1)=1,p(3)=27,p(4)=64
using Lagranges interpolation formula.
c) Find a real root of the equation x =cosx , using Regula False method correct to
four decimals.

******************************************************************************

UNIT-IV
1.

(a) Fit a second degree parabola following data by the method of least squares.
X
10
12
15
23
20
Y
(b) Evaluate

14

17
23
25
21
by Trapezoidal, Simpsons 1/3 rd , Simpsons 3/8 th rules

2. (a) For the following data find I st and II nd derivative at x=1.2.

X
1.0
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
2.0
Y
2.7183
3.3201
4.0552
4.9530
6.0496
7.3891
(b) A curve is drawn to pass through the points by the following table:
X
7.47
7.48
7.49
7.50
7.51
Y
1.93
1.95
1.98
2.01
2.03
Find the area bounded by the curve, x-axis , and the lines x=7.47,x=7.52.

3.

2.2
9.0256
7.52
2.06

X
Y

0
1.0

1
1.8

2
1.3

3
2.5

4
6.3

4.

Evaluate

5.

6.

dx by i) Trapezoidal Rule ii) Simpsons Rule iii) Simsons

x
y

/2

(b)Evaluate

sin x dx

0
1
2
3
4
1.0 1.8 1.3 2.5 6.3

by Simpsons rule.

*****************************************************************************

UNIT-V
1. Using Eulers method, solve for y at x=0.1from

2. Using the Taylors series method solve

dy
x y xy ,y(0)=1 with h=0.025.
dx

dy
xy y 2 , with y (0) =1 at x=0.1.
dx

dy y 2 x 2

dx y 2 x 2

4. Solve
5. Solve

Rule.

with y (0) =1 at x=0.2, 0.4.

y(0)=2.

= 1-y , y(0)=0 in the range 0 x 0.3 by taking h=0.1 by Modified Eulers method.
= (y-x)/(y+x) , y(0)=1 by Picards method method.

6. write formulae for Milnes P-C formula.

********************************************************************************

UNIT-VI
1.a) Obtain the Fourier series to represent f(x)=
b) Find Fourier series of f(X)=

in 0<x<2

in 0<x<2

2.a) Find Fourier series to represent f(x)=x-x2 in [-,+ Hence show that
b) Find Fourier series of f(x)=

,0<x<2 and deduce that

1 1 1
2

.........

12 22 32
6
3.a) Expand f(x)=xsinx , 0<x<2 as a Fourier series
b) Find the Fourier series expansion of
4.a) Obtain the Fourier series for the function f(x)=
b) Find Fourier series of f(x)=

in [-,+

from 0<x<2

1 1 1
2

.........

12 22 32
12

in [-,+ and deduce that the value of

1 1 1
2

.........

12 32 52
8
5.a) If f(x)=IcosxI , Expand f(x) as a fourier series in the interval [-,+
b) Find the Half-Range cosine and sine series for the function f(x)=x in *0,2+.
6.a) Find Fourier series to represent f(x)= x2-2 in (-2,2).
b) Express f(x)=x as a series Half-Range cosine series in the interval 0<x<2.

FOURIER TRANSFORMS:
1.a) Using Fourier Integral show that

2(b2 a 2 )

(1 cos x)sin x

sin x
dxd
a 2 )( 2 b2 )

e ax
(a>0)
x

b) Find the Fourier cosine transform of e ax cosax, e ax sinax.

3.a) If F(s) and G(s) are Fourier transform of f(x) and g(x) respectively then
F[af(x)+bg(x)]=aF(s)+bF(s)
b) If F(s) is the complex Fourier transform of f(x) then Fourier transform of f(ax) is

1 s
F
a a

4.a) If F(s) is the complex Fourier transform of f(x) then Fourier transform of f(x-a) is eisa F ( s)
b) If F(s) is the complex Fourier transform of f(x) then Fourier transform of f(x)cosax is
1
f ( s a) f ( s a)
2

5. Find Fourier sine transform of f(x)=

1
and hence deduce cosine transform of
x( x a 2 )
2

1
( x a2 )
2

UNIT-VII

Form a P.D.E by Elimination Of Arbitrary Constants for the following relations

i)Z=ax+by+a2+b2 ii)

1)
Z=ax+by+(a/b)-b.
2)
3)

(x-h)2+(y-k)2+Z2=r2.
Z=logb((y-1)/(x-1)).

4)

x2 y2 z2

1
a2 b2 c2

Form a P.D.E by Elimination Of Arbitrary Functions for the following relations

1)

MODEL BITS FOR MID-I EXAMINATION
SUB:MATHEMATICS-II
1 0
1) If A-B=
and A+B=
0 1

BRANCH: C.E

3 4
4 10

then AB=
.
2 5
3 8

3
2) If A=[1 2 3] and B= 2 then AB=[10]
1
1 3
3) The Inverse of the matrix
is It has no inverse
2 6
4) If I is a unit matrix of order n then |I|= 1
5) The Rank of a singular matrix of order n is <n
6) If A is a order of 3 non singular matrix ,then its rank is 3
7) The number of non zero rows in Echelon form is called Rank of a matrix
I 0
8) Thae general form of Normal form is r

0 0
9) The rank of a unit matrix of order 4 is 4
10) If A and B are matrices and if AB is defined ,then the rank of AB is min rankA, rankB

1 1
2
11) The characteristic equation of
is 6 3 0
2 5
1 1
12) If 1,2,3 are the Eigen values of the matrix A then the Eigen values of A1 are 1, ,
2 3

13) Rank of A =Rank of AT

14) If 1 , 2 , 3 are the Eigen values of a matrix A then A2 has Eigen values 12 , 22 , 32

a h g

o o c

16) If the square matrix A is symmetric ,if AT A

17) If the square matrix A is skew-symmetric ,if AT A
18) If the square matrix A is orthogonal ,if AT A AAT I
19) The determinant of an orthogonal matrix is 1

cos sin
20) The matrix A=
is orthogonal
sin cos
21) The diagonal elements of a skew-symmetric matrix are all zero
22) The transpose of an orthogonal matrix is orthogonal
23) The matrix A is Hermitian if A A

i
2 3i
24) The conjugate of

2 3i
i

i
2 3i
is

2 3i
i

25) The Eigen values of skew-Hermitian matrix are purely imaginary or zero
26) The matrix A is unitary if A A AA I
27) The function f(x) is an Even if f(-x)=f(x)
28) The function f(x) is an Odd if f(-x)=-f(x)
29) The Fourier series of f(x) in the interval (c,c+2)is f(x)=

a0
an cos nx bn sin nx
2 n1

30) If x=a is a point of discontinuity then the Fourier series of f(X) at x=a is given by f x

1
f (a 0) f (a 0)
2

Previous years question

papers
JNTUA
4
2
3
1 (a)

4
6 by reducing it to echelon form.

3
2 1 2

Determine the rank of the matrix 8

B.Tech II Year I Semester (R09) Regular and Supplementary Examinations, November 2012
MATHEMATICS -
1 2 3 2
(Common
2 3 5 1to AE, BT, CE and ME)
Find
the
rank
of
the
matrix
(b)
Time: 3 hours
Max Marks: 70

FIVE questions
3 4 5any
All questions carry equal marks
*****
2 (a)

(b)

2 i
3i
is skew Hermitian. Find its eigen values.
2 i i

Show that B =

(i) If A ix a Hermitian, then prove that iA is skew-Hermitian.

(ii) If A is a Skew-Hermitian, they prove that iA is Hermitian.

3 (a)
(b)
4 (a)
(b)
5 (a)
(b)

Find the Fourier expansion of f ( x) x in (c , c)

Obtain half-range sine series for f ( x) e in (0 ,1)
x

Find finite Fourier sine and cosine transform f ( x) x 2 , 0 x 4

Form the partial differential equation by eliminating the arbitrary function from z = y f(x2 + z2).
Solve by method of separation of variables u x = 2u t + u where u(x, 0) = 6e-3x

6 (a)
(b)

Find an approximate value of the real root of x3 x 1 = 0 by bisection method.

Contd. in Page 2
Find a root of ex sinx = 1 using Newton-Raphson Method.

7 (a)

2.0

(b)

Evaluate

ydx using Trapezoidal rule.

0.6

Solve

dy
= y + x2, y(0) = 2 for y at x = 0.4 by obtaining initial solutions from Runge Kutta method.
dx

*****

Page 2 of 2

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Code: 9ABS301
B.Tech II Year I Semester (R09) Regular and Supplementary Examinations, November 2012
MATHEMATICS -
(Common to AE, BT, CE and ME)
Time: 3 hours
Max Marks: 70
All questions carry equal marks
*****

2 1 1

1 0 2
2 1

4 5

(b)

2 (a)

Define the following:

(i) Hermitian matrix. (ii) Skew-Hermitian matrix.
(iii) Unitary matrix. (iv) Orthogonal matrix

(b)

3 (a)
(b)

2i 3i

3i 0

Expand f ( x) cos x as a Fourier series in (, )

Find the Fourier expansion of the function f ( x) x x 2 in (1,1)

4 (a)
(b)

State and prove Linear property and change of scale property of Fourier transform.

Find the steady state temperature in a rectangular plate 0 x a, 0 y b, when the sides
x = 0, x = a, y = b are insulated while the edge y = 0 is kept at temperature k
.

Find f ( x) if F

f (x) e as c

Contd. in Page 2

Page 1 of 2

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Code: 9ABS301

Express the function

x 2 6x 1
as a sum of partial fractions, using Lagranges
( x 2 1)( x 4)( x 6)

formula.
7 (a)

(b)

Fit an exponential curve of the form y(x) = a ebx to the following data.
X 1
2
3
4
5
Y 2.6 3.3 4.2 5.4 6.9
Find

d2y
dy
and
at x = 1.1 from the following data
dx 2
dx
x
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
2
y 2.72 3.32 4.06 4.95 6.05 7.39

'
Apply Milne Predictor Corrector method to find y(0.8), y(1.0) from the equation y = y x2,
y(0) = 1 by obtaining the starting values by Euler method.

*****

Page 2 of 2

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Code: 9ABS301
B.Tech II Year I Semester (R09) Regular and Supplementary Examinations, November 2012
MATHEMATICS -
(Common to AE, BT, CE and ME)
Time: 3 hours
Max Marks: 70
All questions carry equal marks
*****
1 (a)
(b)

2 (a)
(b)

3 (a)
(b)

4 (a)
(b)

Show that the equations x + y + z = 4; 2x + 5y 2z = 3; x + 7y - 7z = 5 are not consistent.

Solve the equations: x +y + z = 9; 2x + 5y + 7z = 52 and 2x + y - z = 8.

Find the rank and signature of the quadratic form x 1 x 2 - 4x 1 x 4 - 2x 2 x 3 + 12x 3 x 4 .

Find the nature of the quadratic form 2x 1 3x 2 4x 3 2x1 x2 .
2

Find half range cosine series for f ( x) x in ( 0 , )

Find half range sine series for f ( x) x in (0 , )

1 if 0 x 1
x 1
0 if

Find the Fourier sine and cosine transform of f ( x) 2e

3 x

3e 2 x

5 (a)
(b)

Form the partial differential equation by eliminating the arbitrary function from z = y f(x2 + z2).
Solve by method of separation of variables u x = 2u t + u where u(x, 0) = 6e-3x

6 (a)
(b)

Find an approximate value of the real root of x3 x 1 = 0 by bisection method.

Find a root of ex sinx = 1 using Newton-Raphson Method.

7 (a)

2.0

(b)

Evaluate

ydx using Trapezoidal rule.

0.6

Solve

dy
= y + x2, y (0) = 2 for y at x = 0.4 by obtaining initial solutions from Runge Kutta method.
dx
*****

B.Tech II Year I Semester (R09) Regular and Supplementary Examinations, November 2012
MATHEMATICS -
(Common to AE, BT, CE and ME)
Time: 3 hours
Max Marks: 70
All questions carry equal marks
*****

1 (a) Show that the matrix A = c

b

(b)

2 (a)

(b)

3 (a)
(b)

4 (a)
(b)

b
a satisfies Cayley Hamilton theorem.
a 0
c
0

3
1 2

State Cayley Hamilton theorem and use it to find the inverse of the matrix A = 2 1 4

3 1 1

i 0
with X=
0 i

1
i

2 i 1 i
3

2 i 4 2i

Find the Fourier series expansion of f ( x) x x 3 in 1 x 1

Show that when 0 x , x

2
1
2
3

Find the finite Fourier sine transform of f ( x) 2 x, 0 x 4

Find f(x) if its finite sine transform is given by

Fs (s)

1 cos s
, where 0 x , S 1,2,3....
s
Contd. in Page 2

Page 1 of 2

Find the steady state temperature in a rectangular plate 0 x a, 0 y b, when the sides x = 0,

x = a, y = b are insulated while the edge y = 0 is kept at temperature k

x 2 6x 1
as a sum of partial fractions, using Lagranges formula.
( x 2 1)( x 4)( x 6)

Express the function

7 (a)

Fit an exponential curve of the form y(x) = a ebx to the following data.
x
1
2
3
4
5
y 2.6 3.3 4.2 5.4 6.9

(b)

Find

d2y
dy
at x = 1.1 from the following data
and
dx 2
dx
x
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
2
y 2.72 3.32 4.06 4.95 6.05 7.39
'

Apply Milne Predictor Corrector method to find y(0.8), y(1.0) from the equation y = y x2, y(0) = 1
by obtaining the starting values by Euler method.