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Wear, 85 (1983)

29

29 - 42

COMPREHENSIVE
DESIGN DATA FOR CENTRALLY
LOADED
PARTIAL BEARINGS IN LAMINAR AND TURBULENT
REGIMES
S. C. JAIN, M. MALIK

and R. SINHASAN

Department of Mechanical
24 76 72 (India)
(Received

January

and Industrial Engineering,

19, 1982; in revised

University of Roorkee,

Roorkee

form Jufy 1, 1932)

Summary
Design data obtained by theoretical analysis of the modified Reynolds
equation based on the linearized turbulent lubrication theory of Ng and Pan
are presented. The nondimensional
data are in the form of charts and provide complete information
on static and dynamic characteristics required for
the design of hydrodynamic
bearings.

I. Introduction
Most available design data on hydrodynamic
bearings are for laminar
flow conditions because this assumption is involved in the classical Reynolds
equation. However, bearings used in many modern high speed applications
operate
in superlaminar
and turbulent
regimes. Thus bearing designers
require design data in a wide range of flow conditions.
The present work
attempts to provide design data for partial bearings covering both the laminar and the turbulent regimes of operation.
Comprehensive
data for the static ch~a~te~stics
of partial bearings for
laminar flow conditions
are available [l - 41. The analysis for the elastic
and damping coefficients
of partial bearings in the laminar regime was given
by Warner [5] who used an approximate
solution of Reynolds equation.
Li et al. [6] gave a method of calculation of the dynamic coefficients
of
partial bearings using a variational approach for the solution of Reynolds
equation.
The design data in the present paper were obtained by the theoretical
analysis of the modified Reynolds equation based on the linearized turbulent
lubrication
theory of Ng and Pan [7 ] which is applicable to both laminar
and turbulent regimes. Excellent agreement between this theory and experiments has been demonstrated
[S - 10 J .
In the present work a solution of the modified Reynolds equation
was obtained by a weighted residual finite element method. The design
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30

data include both static and dynamic characteristics


and are for bearings
with arc lengths of 60 and 120 and aspect ratios of l/2 and 1.

2. Analysis
With reference to the bearing
dimensional film thickness is

with fixed x-y

h=h,--Xcos8-Ysin8

axes (Fig. l), the non(1)

where
h,=l-XX,cos8-YJsin6
is the steady state film thickness.
(X,, YJ) = (e sin J/, --f cos $) are the
steady state journal centre coordinates.
(X, Y) are the disturbed coordinates of the journal executing translatory whirl; they are measured from the
steady state position (X,, YJ).
The pressure-governing
equation is the modified Reynolds equation
;(!?E,+_C(!??)=;~+~

(2)

where G0 and G, are the turbulence


coefficients
based on the linearized
theory of Ng and Pan [7]. The coefficients
G0 and G, are functions of the
local Reynolds number UCh/v and their values are taken from ref. 11.
The weighted residual principle of eqn. (2) with Galerkins criterion
[ 121 may be expressed as

Fig. 1. Partial

bearing

geometry

and coordinate

axes.

31
Ni

is the interpolation
sure in the eth element

function relating the nodal pressures pi to the presof the discretized pressure field of N, finite elements,

i.e.
Pe = 5

Nipi

(4)

i= 1

where N is the number of nodes in the element.


With some simplifications,
eqns. (3) and (4) give the element

equations

as

[FelNXN(Pe~NXl= {ve~Nx,+

(5)

where
h3 aNi aNj
---+Go ae
ae

F e, 11
..=JJ(
A,
Ve,i=

JJh$

h3

G,

de dc

-4,
Ni de dr

Q,,i

se

dS+

h3 ap,
Jc
FNide
r
SC?

where A, and S, denote the area and boundary of the element.


The assembly of eqn. (5) over the entire domain of the pressure
results in the global linear equations

[Fl N,XN,CPIN,XI= {VIN,XI + {%,X I-

(41~~x1

field
(6)

involving two sets of nodal variables, the pressure (PI and the flow (4).
Equations (6) can be solved to give both pressure and flow simultaneously
because at each node one of the two variables is known.
To describe the bearing performance
characteristics,
the pressure and
the components
of the film force on the journal are expressed, to a firstorder approximation,
as
p =po+pxx

+pyY

+p$

+pJ1 I;

W, = W,o-S,,X-SS,,Y-BB,.~-BB,,~

(7)

W, = WYO-SyxX-SyyY-BByxJi-Byy~

where the subscript


equations

0 refers

[Fl cPo>= {VI - 141


for h = ho.

to the steady

state. p. is the solution

of the

(8)

32

px, pr, pi and pJ; may be described as dynamic components


of the
pressure. The equations governing these components
are obtained by differentiating eqn. (6) partially with respect to X, Y, X and Y respectively,
i.e.

y' =

(9)

In eqns. (8) and


in eqn. (6) and
tion of X and
components
are
centre.
The steady

(9) the global fluidity matrix [F] is the same as that defined
[aF/i_V?] = [ llF/a?] = 0 because h is not an explicit func9. Also X = Y = 0 signifies that the dynamic pressure
to be computed at the steady state position of the journal
state film force components

The stiffness and damping


the equations

coefficients

are given by

Sj, and Bjk 0, k = x, y) are given by

Other performance
characteristics
required in bearing design are the power
loss, the oil requirements
and the margins of stability. The bearing power
loss is given by

PL=-xJwyo+YJwxo+2x7~

e2 1

h de
.I0,
O

+ 2hrc

03hov2)

J
02

ho2 de

(13)

33

where the third term gives the velocity-induced


shear in the cavitated region
19~> 8 > 0,. Also, rc is the Couette flow coefficient based on the linearized
theory [ 7-111 ofNgandPan.
The oil inflow &in and side flow QS of the bearing are obtained by
summing the nodal flows at the boundary 8 = 8, and the boundaries 5 =
*h respectively.
The stability margin in terms of the critical mass parameter M, can
be computed
once the dynamic coefficients
Sj, and Bjk of the bearing are
known [ 131.

3. The design data


Based on the analysis presented,
non-dimensional
design data were
developed
for centrally
loaded partial bearings with arc lengths of 60
and 120 and aspect ratios of l/2 and 1. The data are for both laminar and
turbulent
regimes covering a range of global Reynolds number UC/v from
2500 to 12 500.
Four-noded
rectangular
isoparametric
elements
were used for the
computation.
Where cavitation boundaries existed, the Reynolds condition
was closely approximated
by taking the pressure-induced
flow to be less
than 0.1% of the velocity-induced
flow at the trailing edge boundary OZ.
In all the results the load line differs from verticality (negative y axis) by
less than 0.001. The validity of the analysis and the accuracy of computation were checked by comparison
with existing data on partial bearings
]2,6,91.
The design data are presented in the form of charts in Figs. 2 - 25.
These charts provide complete
information
for the static and dynamic
performance
characteristics
required for the design of hydrodynamic
journal
bearings.
The minimum film thickness h,i, is a basic design constraint.
This
additional
information
is not provided. In most cases, except for low eccentricities,
the line of centres crosses the partial pad (i.e. $ < p/2) and
h . is given directly
by 1 - E. When the line of centres is beyond the
trzing
edge of the partial pad ($ > p/2), the minimum film thickness
would be at the trailing edge itself. The information
whether $ < /3/2 or
J/ > /I/2 is obtained from Figs. 4 and 5. It is necessary for the designer
to decide the operating eccentricity
E on the basis of hmh. Once e is known,
all the bearing characteristics may be obtained directly from the charts.
The effect of turbulence
on the bearing performance
characteristics
is significant. However, with increasing Reynolds numbers the oil requirements and power loss tend to stabilize and thus the charts of these characteristics do not include all values of the Reynolds number.

Fig. 2. Partial bearing load capacity.

Fig. 3. Partial bearing load capacity.

Fig. 4. Journal centre loci for partial bearings.


Fig. 5. Journal centre loci for partial bearings.

%I-1 d

J-

36

a
a
w

2
8

37

Fig. 12, Cross-coupled stiffness coefficient S,,.

f
Fig. 13. Crass-coupled stiffness coefficient S,,.

38

Fig. 14. Cross-coupled stiffness coefficient


Fig. 15. Cross-coupled stiffness coefficient

500

100

50

z.

t
5

0.5

0.06
00

02

0-L

0.6

0.8

10

Fig. 16. Direct stiffness coefficient S,,.

0.1
0.0

t ai
0.2

0.4

0.8

0.8

1.0

Fig. 17. Direct stiffness coefficient SYY.

0.2
0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.6

1.0

0.0

02

0.6

04

06

Fig. 18. Direct damp:ng coefficient I?,..

10

Fig. 19. Direct damping coefficient B,,.

Rc=l.?500

50-

5-----

I-

:
a
f

_
0.5-

a.1

3
_#
I

6
:

0.05 -

0.011/
0.0

,I

0.2

. _....
-

1.0

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6
6

Fig. 20. Cross-coupled damping coefficients B,,

and B,,.

Fig. 21. Cross-coupled damping coefficients B,,

and Byx.

CL6

40

50

500

10

5
100

50

::
QA

10
5

0.

1
0.0

0.2

0.4
B

Fig. 22. Direct damping coefficient B,,.

Fig. 23. Direct damping coefficient B,,.

1000

500

100

50

0.5

01

0.0

0.4

0.6

0.5

1.0

Fig. 24. Critical mass parameter for partial bearings.


Fig. 25. Critical mass parameter for partial bearings.

41

References
1 J. J. OConner and J. Boyd (eds.), Standard Handbook of Lubrication Engineering,
McGraw-Hill, New York, 1968.
2 0. Pinkus and B. Sternlicht,
Theory of Hydrodynamic
Lubrication, McGraw-Hill,
New York, 1961.
3 A. Cameron, Principles of Lubrication, Longmans, London, 1966.
4 J. W. Lund, Rotor bearing dynamics design technology,
Design Handbook for Fluid
Film Type Bearings, Tech. Rep. AFAPL-TR-65-45,
Part III, 1965 (Air Force Aero
Propulsion
Laboratory,
Research and Technology
Division, Air Force Systems Command, Wright-Patterson
Air Force Base, OH).
5 P. C. Warner, Static and dynamic
properties
of partial journal bearings, J. Basic
Eng., 85 (1963;) 247 - 257.
6 D. F. Li, P. E. Allaire and L. E. Barrett, Analytical
dynamics of partial journal bearings with applications,
ASLE Trans., 22 (2) (1979) 99 - 112.
7 C. W. Ng and C. H. T. Pan, A linearized turbulent
lubrication
theory, J. Basic Eng.,
87 (1965) 675 - 688.
8 F. W. Orcutt,
Investigation
of a partial arc pad bearing in the superlaminar
flow
regime, J. Basic Eng., 87 (1965) 145 - 152.
9 F. K. Orcutt and E. B. Arwas, The steady state and dynamic characteristics
of a full
circular bearing and a partial arc bearing in the laminar and turbulent
flow regimes,
J. Lubr. Technol., 89 (1967) 143 - 152.
10 G. G. Hirs, A bulk flow theory for turbulence
in lubricant films, J. Lubr. Technot.,
95 (2) (1973) 137 - 146.
11 C. M. Taylor and D. Dowson, Turbulent
lubrication
theory - application
to design,
J. Lubr. Technol., 96 (1974) 36 - 47.
12 K. H. Huebner, The Finite Element Method for Engineers, Wiley, New York, 1975.
13 J. W. Lund and K. K. Thomsen,
A calculation
method
and data for the dynamic
coefficients
of oil-lubricated
journal bearings,
Topics in Fluid Film Bearing and
Rotor Bearing System Design and Optimization, ASME Design Engineering Conf.,
American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York, 1978, pp. 1 - 29.

Appendix A: nomenclature
Re
t

Y
r)
x
V

UC/v, global Reynolds number


time (non-dimensional)
peripheral speed of the journal (m S-K)
axial coordinate
measured from the bearing midspan
by R (non-dimensional)
absolute viscosity of the lubricant (N s mP2)
aspect ratio (ratio of bearing length to journal diameter)
kinematic viscosity of the lubricant (m2 s-l)

divided

Normalizing terms
The terms given below on the left-hand side are to be multiplied by the
nondimensional
quantities given on the right-hand side to obtain the corresponding dimensional values.

42

h, h, (film thickness);
nates)
p (pressure)
W (film force)
P, (power loss)

E, XJ, YJ, X, Y (journal

Qin, Q, (oil flow)


t (time)
(stiffness coefficients)
Bij (damping coefficients)
M, (journal critical mass parameter)
Sij

centre

coordi-