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The Grand Tour


The Grand Tour represents 100 of the greatest architectural

achievements of

time.

all

In twelve elegant volumes, the splendor

and magnificence of each

edifice

ex-

is

plored through spectacular, full-color pho-

tographs and authoritative yet lively

text. It

spans thousands of years, from ancient civ-

Here are

ilizations to the twentieth century.

wood,

the creations in stone,


that

endure as the

steel,

and

glass

reaUzation of human

full

genius.
In total, the twelve

volumes of The Grand

Tour library present a panorama of photographic

art,

adventure, and history. You'll enjoy

through

an unforgettable journey

time

and

space.

Homes

of Kings

France /The Forbidden City. People's


Republic of China/Persepolis. Iran/The Kremlin.
U.S.S.R./Wawel Castle. Poland The Tower of

Versailles.

London. England /Palace of Knossos.


Crete /Hradeany Castle. Czechoslovakia

Shrines of Power

The Roman Forum. Italy/The Alhambra

at

Granada, Spain/The Imperial Palace of Kyoto.


Japan/St. Peter's Cathedral. Vatican City Karnak.
Egypt/Heidelberg Castle. West Germany/

Edinburgh Castle. Scotland /The Binnenhof of The


Hague, the Netherlands
Individual Creations

The

Escorial.

Spain/Sagrada Familia Church of

Barcelona. Spain/The Taj Mahal. India/Taivallahii

Church of Helsinki. Finland/Le Corbusier's


Chapel at Ronchamp. France/Fontainebleau,
France/Belvedere Castle

in

Vienna. Austria/

Guggenheim Museum. New York, New York

The Splendor of the Gods


Cathedral of Milan, Italy/Cathedral of Mexico

Mexico/Blue Mosque of Isfahan.


Iran/Temple of Nara. Japan/Kandariya

City,

Mahadevaof Khajuraho, India/Cathedral of


Chartres, France/Westminster Abbey,

England/Cathedral of

St.

Stephen, Austria

Architecture as Environment

The Marrakesh Casbah, Morocco /The French


Quarter of New Orleans, Louisiana/Plaza Mayor

at

Salamanca, Spain/Machu Picchu, Peru/The Bazaar


in Damascus, Syria/James Joyce Street of Dublin,
Ireland /The Old City in Dubrovnik, Yugoslavia/
The Wailing Wall, Israel/The Kaaba at Mecca,

Saudi Arabia/The

Mosque of Cordoba, Spain

Individual
Creations

The Grand Tour

Individual
Creations
Flavio Conti
Translated by Patrick Creagh

HBJ
New

Press
York

HBJ

Photoj;raphy Credits:

Press

President, Robert

J.

George

Vice President, Richard

Managing

AInnisv:

Kemp

Publisher, Giles

S.

Perkins,

Director, Valerie S.

Hopkins

Special Projects Editor, Carolyn Hall

Text Editors: Karen E. English,

26 top.

botlom

p.

Amanda

Pope

Editorial Staff: Betsie Brownell, Chris Heath,

Ann McGrath

23 top, pp. 24-25, p. 26 center & bottom, p. 27 bottom, pp.


28-32/ Code: p. 46/ Hassmann: pp. 73-96/
Phololeca Inlenwlioiuil: pp. 41-45, pp. 47-49, p. 52, pp.

106-116/ Magnum/ Marc RihoucI: pp. 121-132/ Oronoz:


pp. 50-51/ Phoiri: p. 157 bottom, p. 158 bottom right/
Radici: p. 169/ Re: p. 60 top right, p. 65 bottom Rizzoli:
pp. 57-59, p. 60 left, p. 60 bottom right, pp. 61-64. p. 65
top left. p. 65 top right, pp. 66-68/ Sheridan: p. 16 bottom
left, p. 20 top, p. 21, p. 23 bottom/ S. Visalli: pp. 153-156.
p. 157 lop, p. 158 top & bottom left. pp. 159-164/
ZuAovusAri.' pp. 137-148.

1977 by Rizzoli Editore-lnternational Division


Copyright 1978 by HBJ Press. Inc.
-'

Project Coordinator, Linda S. Behrens

All rights reserved.

Architectural Consultant, Dennis

J.

DeWitt

Text Consultants: Janet Adams, Elizabeth R.

Ann

S.

Moore

!SBN:'0-15-003726-0

Rizzoli Editore
Italian Edition:

Gian

Maria Tabarelli
Idea and Realization. Harry C. Lindinger

General Supervisor, Luigi U. Re

Graphic Designer, Gerry Valsecchi


Coordinator, Vilma Maggioni
Editorial Supervisor,

Gianfranco Malafarina

Research Organizer,

Germane

Facetti

U.S. Edition Coordinator, Natahe Danesi

Murray

in

may

be

any form or by any means,

or any inforination storage and retrieval system, without

Printed in Italy

Dr. Flavio Conti, Paolo Savole, Dr.

part of this publication

from the publisher.

Librarv of Congress Catalog Card

Design Implementation, Designworks

Authors of the

No

reproduced or transmitted

electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording,

permi.ssion in writing

DeWitt, Perween Hasan


Project Consultant,

27 lop/ Ccimhciier: pp. 9-15. p. 16


20 bollom, p. 22, p.

right, pp. 17-19. p.

M& W

Jr.

Text Director, Marcia Heath

Heller, Victoria

p.

lop, p. 16

Number: 77-94394

Contents

Chateau of Fontainebleau, France

The Escorial Spain


Taj Mahal, India

41

57

The Belvedere, Austria


Sagrada Familia, Spain
Chapel

at

73

105

Ronchamp, France

Taivallahti Church, Finland

Guggenheim Museum, U.S.A.

121

137
153

Preface
Individual Creations

men are

any architect could possibly

equal before the law, or so the

reers

that

theory goes. In the history of architecture,

hope

for.

some names shine more

Chicago where, through

All

others; but architecture

is

brightly

than

democratic

art

honoring individual talent over ancestral

young man, he went

aptitude, he soon

began

and

his industry

to

make

way
moved

his

world. After a few years, he

in the

to

in

on

into private practice

volume the obstinate son of a Swiss

his

mentor, Louis Sullivan. By the time he

and inherited reputations. Thus,

titles

this

As

watchcase-engraver stands alongside an

Hapsburg monarch. Here,

all-powerful

both the strong-willed offspring of

too, are

a midwestern preacher

and that "Most

Christian King" of France who, having

but his honor, attempted to regain

lost all

some of his

prestige by building

what he

tect in

America. In his middle years

seemed

as

though he had

direction, but the last third

it

sense of

lost his

of his long

life

witnessed an unforeseen florescence that

even today

is

not fully appreciated.

and greatest works

his last

is

One of

the wonder-

immense

seashell in reinforced concrete

apply such an enlightened remedy

that rose

on

He was

neither the

first

volume stands the powerful, shap-

ing personality of a single individual


usually

the

royal client.
the character

architect,

but sometimes a

Each building

and

testifies to

effort

of

its

the integrity

marked by

is

builder,

ways, they reflect the


expressed

spirit

by

and

and persever-

ance of individual creation. In their

people,

own

of an era and a

the

ability and

often the sheer obstinacyof a single man.

one was more stubborn, nor more

able, than

Frank Lloyd Wright, who used

his talents

(about which he had a monu-

mental lack of modesty) to

Avenue

in

New

York

start

from

whose commercial buildings had

city,

creasingly

resemble huge

to

first

and

say

last

heim Museum,

insisting

the pictures

it

considered solely as a

regarded

as

for their work."

They had

experience,

As

Wright would undoubtedly have

any

countered

brusquely that
there,

by

criticism
if

for the pic-

suggesting

they did not look good

then they could always be hung

somewhere

else.

The work of Le Corbusier,

the other

master architect of our era, also shows


exalting

the

"architecture

artistic gift

other free

men can

man

of one free
be.

how

democ-

of

Speaking of

conception of the Chapel at

to

his

Ronchamp

him when he

first

he said:

architec-

An

idea crystallizes: here in these con-

ditions at the top of a lonely

hill,

we must have one all-embracing

Wright seemed

team of men working

at times to regard

himself

nique and intention,

god than prophet.

According

to

Wright, one day he

had

to

choose between "a

that he

his

tures.

justified.

tureby which he meant himself. Indeed,

as

is

it is

not, in his

and only prophet of modern

more

if

is

racy" the

opinion, listened to the voice of truth, the


first

building

museum. But

visited the site,

much

to exhibit.

if the

spatial

amply

in

it

but eclipsed

choice

in-

can't say as

all

was created

Maybe he was wrong,

added

on building

the shape of a spiral, which

vision that occurred to

regretfully, "It's a pity

And

everything.

Wright was intransigent over the Guggen-

filing

to love dearly

Wright the

to allow
in

the architects of these buildings, but he

felt

false

and

masters

as

one

men who

of their

trade.

here

craft,

in tech-

are free

Bonne

chance!

modesty and a healthy pride," and he


chose pride. Those
this

most

appeared

dramatic, and enduring ca-

come

Wright claimed

cabinets.

nothing and build for himself one of the


brilliant,

Fifth

City despite the opposition of the entire

problems.

Behind each of the eight achievements

No

he was the most famous archi-

forty,

nor the

in this

each

of

of the Guggenheim Museum, an

palaces.

to his

offices

ful spiral

intended to be the most magnificent of

last to

was

from the

who had

books, but

who

bravura were his


regularly

paid the price for

Poetic rapture ran strong in this Swiss

whose homes

who became more French than Parisian,


who eulogized the right angle and took

clients,

in

magazines

and

Cartesian

delight

came from

freedom

the

in

the rigorous

One

mathematics.

critic,

that

of this preoccupation with

apphcation of

is

writing of Le

tion to

and

a large

total

symmetry

totally superfluous construc-

one side of the Taj Mahal which


counterpoint to the mosque

Corbusier, stated that "only the French

was

make revolutions,
know how to
write the necessary manifestoes." The poetic manifesto of the Chapel at Ronchamp

on the opposite

was

Jahan himself was no romantic innocent.

should be allowed to

and cement,

and

steel

lishment to

The

His Chapel at Ron-

to his will.

champ brought

the architectural estabfeet,

its

he

us,

shouting, "scandal!"

so-called experts could not accept that

what they disparagingly referred

to as a

mushroom, a cave, and even a baroque


was

troglodyte

work of

fact the

in

fierce polemicist

torily

declared that "a house

to live in."

It

that

who once peremp-

same

is

a machine

seemed inconceivable

that

it

had been designed by the same "functionalist" architect

to

who

invited his colleagues

admire and imitate the cabins of ocean

liners, in

which "the most

the least,"

contained

is

and who designed

his

houses

with corridors as narrow as those of

way coaches. But

champ

is

the

also "functional" in

as a house of prayer.
hill is,

its

rail-

Ron-

at

own way,

The church on

the

as the architect wished, "a place of

silence,

of prayer, of peace, of inner joy," a

place where "all those


will

Chapel

in

who

climb the

hill

be able to find an echo of everything

we intended
ularly

for

Corbu, as he was pop-

it."

known, died

in 1965,

but his

transmuted into concrete form,


to us

from that hilltop

The Taj Mahal

is

in the

.still

Mahal, a lament for a

the throne, he

wife

his

away

in

Mumtaz

lost love. Yet,

indi-

and

make

would

feel

and assorted persecutions.

when Mumtaz Mahal

monument

its

to her

memory

proportions so perfect and

anyone who saw

some small

it

part of the tran-

scendent love that had united their two

No

souls.

of

witnesses can testify to the truth

this story,

but nonetheless the monu-

ment was constructed and

is

one of the

most beautiful and melancholy buildings


of

time the triumph, through

all

of

art,

The EscoriaL on

built

to

itself,

a royal palace

II

of Spain.

good Catho-

and moreover a Spanish Catholic

champion of
Philip
trait

death

is

around a royal mausoleum erected

by King Philip
lic,

the other hand,

the

Counter Reformation.

immortalized in a wonderful por-

is

by Pantoja de

dressed

in

la

Cruz.

He

shown

penitent black from his hat to

his boots, the long chin inherited

beard that

is

falls to his

from

his

skimpy blond

starched lace collar,

whole

the plan of the

form of a gridiron, the

instrument used

martyr that heroic

to

saint.

The

Escorial

also perhaps the only

is

Europe

royal palace in

mon-

to contain a

be a monastery

first

and

Philip but also nearly

Spanish monarchs after him are buried

all

in its vaults. If

made

France, Philip
St.

Louis XIV, the Sun King,

bedchamber

his

II

made

himself in

contrast

to

of

center

the

the great

Church of

Lawrence the pivot of his empire.

ip

Phil-

father,

his

Charles V, whose insistence on etiquette

and refinement

recalls the civilization

Byzantium was content with

of

a few bare,

whitewashed rooms, devoid of any deco-

When

ration but his paintings.

he died,

it

was on a simple bed, decorated with one


beautiful Flemish tapestry, in the smallest

and simplest of

love over death.

monument

and

in the

Not only

to erect a

to

is

foremost.

lines so pure- that

its

building

mention other sundry cruel-

was on her deathbed, she asked her hus-

band

Saint Lawrence,

fact, to

that,

at the pre-

of the architectural complex of

cise center

astery-in

it

to the saint in

kingdom. Thus,

of two

tortures,

Legend has

monastery

to erect a

the heart of his

had defeated one of

rectly responsible for the deaths

ties,

Shah

open warfare and was

his brothers in

others, not to

Shah

erected by

father adorned with a rather

Vosges.

half a world

space and immeasurably far

spirit,

speaks

memory of

in

To gain

glass.

Le Corbusier not only convinces


bends us

Jahan

vowed

the Escorial stands a church dedicated to

side.

The Taj Mahal was

because only they really

finally realized in stone

built as a

ardy. In gratitude for this victory, the king

his

chambers from which

he could see the altar of the church as he


lay confined to his bed.

The

dreamlike
the

It

lacks

that

fantastic,

expression in

spirit that finds

work of another great Spaniard, AnGaudi. Barcelona, the Catalan

toni
that

much, but not

Escorial represents

of Spain.

all,

spawned

most

Picasso,

is

and

personal

city

dominated by the

overwhelming

of

churches: the Sagrada Familia, or Expiatory

Temple of the Holy Family. As

stands, the

Sagrada Familia

is

not so

now
much

it

the foreshadowing of a

while his eyes are cold and distant, and his

a church as

and philosophy from the small but monu-

mouth

church to come, for Gaudi was only able

mental French chapel. Strangely enough,

cation to duty, he

in

conception

set in disdain. In his utter dedi-

was dubbed the

"first

it

is

to build the apse, the crypt,

and a

single

West

bureaucrat of the empire." Austere and

facade. However, about twenty years ago,

imaginative and unpredictable, while

deeply religious, he built the Escorial as a

construction was taken up again in ac-

the product of the rational, prismatic


is

is

the ver)'

symbol of the mysterious and

turbulent East

is

a study in absolute

sym-

metry and geometric grace. Symptomatic

votive act.

gust

2,

On

Saint Lawrence's Day,

1557, the Spanish

Au-

army defeated

the French troops at St.-Quentin in Pic-

cordance with the plans


But

if

Gaudi had

left

lived,

by the master.

he would have

undoubtedly modified the plans

still

fur-

ther.

Gaudi was never content merely

send

his

site;

he spent

drawings along

to

to the building

days there, anxiously

his

No

watching over the construction.

draw-

Fontainebleau, Gilles Le Breton, was cer-

be

tainly considered to
ful.

King Francis

occasion

lost

I,

than success-

less

who on one

the king

everything except his honor,

Le

commissioned

Breton

king who by then had moved

the

to Ver-

company

saillesand asked to be given a

His Majesty's army. Ridiculed, he

in

for Austria,

where he ofiered

Emperor Leopold

left

his services

He was

to

become

in

history,

ing could translate the wealth and beauty

had

of the decorative effects he envisioned:

modelin

sohd masses of stone metamorphosed into

royal castle, but he decided that the de-

Prinz Eiigen, der edle Rilter ("Prince Eu-

flowing vines and leaves, fluid parabolic

signs of the master builder

were altogether

gene, the noble chevalier"), as his troops

and

arches,

of

intricate tableaux

An

human

efl'ect,

to totally

and unassuming

too modest

to

re-

rebuild his old

for the palace

to

I.

one of the greatest generals

On

eulogized him in song.

the battlefield

extravagant and

of the "Most Christian King." Le Breton's

he repeatedly blunted the ambitions of the

fascinating fragment, the Sagrada Familia

building followed the fashionable style of

Sun King. But he was

and animal

is

figures.

the Gothic expression of Gaudi's in-

tensely personal religious fervor

cation to his craft.

and dedi-

Gaudi constructed

his

extraordinary church in the middle of


Barcelona, with the approval and contri-

butions of his fellow citizens,

whom

he

in

turn rewarded with one of the most inarchitectural

triguing

achievements

to

the

Renaissance,

Italian

wanted

an innovator rather than a

to be

For

his glory, Francis

worthy of

artists

turned to the

"home of the

which he had admired so much

Leonardo da

his last years in a castle

subconscious

is

human

the church recently built

or rather excavated in Taivallahti Square


in

Helsinki by

lainen,

two

tects. It is

ferent,
It

Timo and Tuomo Suoma-

brilliant

young Finnish

the expression of

a,

archi-

rather dif-

almost subliminal, consciousness.

could even be likened to a kind of "ra-

cial

memory" of the time when rough

man's only protection

walls constituted

from nature. But there

is

like or surrealistic in the


this precisely

rock

nothing dream-

appearance of

achieved work. The church

was excavated from the heart of a rock


mass because

this

was the solution most

appropriate to the conditions of the

site: in

other words, for a rational rather than a

romantic reason. Although


called geometric,
logical

cannot be

can be seen to foUow a

and mathematical design. But most

important of
to

it

it

all,

the church

is

conducive

prayer and shows that the language of

contemporary architecture can be an


fecting

Not

af-

means of expression.
all

integrity.

in

his

was already the patron of

quer. Francis
the aging

the

arts," the Italy

youth and, indeed, had attempted to con-

modern consciousness.
to

who

Vinci,

close friend

deed, Leibnitz admired him so

he

left

him

all

was well versed

would

much

in art

intelligently

that

Eugene

his manuscripts.

and architecture and


criticize

the

whole

business of war, while personally practic-

one of the

ing

it

To

his

good

as

fine arts.

when he

taste

He

exercised

built his

summer

he employed other

residence outside Vienna, for he chose one

renowned masters, among them Primatic-

of the best architects of the day, Johann

work on

cio

and

his palace,

II

Rosso Fiorentino, as well as a

who would

few, such as Vignola,

later

win

Louis

XIV

did any French sovereign

eminent architect of the Austrian Ba-

The group of

quest.

artists

he gath-

ered at Fontainebleau lifted France out of


the Gothic era

Renaissance.

and

into the full light of the

The works of these

artists

the First School of Fontainebleau can


visitors

much about

the ruler

who

small castle and transformed

it

of

tell

took a

into the

setting for a magnificent court.

Many

years later, a

sickly

and

ill-favored

youth

named Eugene of Savoy. Because of his


health

roque, Bernhard Fisher von Eriach, whose

son installed a steam engine in the palace

gardens capable of throwing


seventy feet into the
military capabilities

Eugene, whose
battles

was

ill

and unattractive appearance, Eufor life in a semi-

had no vo-

buildings achieve such unity and

nary. However, feeling that he

cation for the priesthood, he approached

tural

is

of water
to his

and successes. Prince

name

linked with the

is

Malplaquet,

one of the most

finally able to build

Such

jets

Thanks

air.

of Oudenarde and

beautiful

young lady named

Olympe Mancini spent her adolescence at


Fontainebleau. Olympe, who was the first
love of the Sun King, was to become the
mother of a

a free hand. This palace, called the

Belvedere, was finished by the other pre-

his

in

carve such a niche for himself in the history of art.

rig-

Not

Francis succeeded
until

Lucas von Hildebrandt. After giving

orous instructions, he allowed his chosen

man

wide acclaim.

gene seemed destined

architect of

intellectual, alert,

and well-educated man, and a

spent

by the Loire.

The work of the

first

also that rarity in

House of Savoy, an

the

of the renowned philosopher Leibnitz. In-

conformist.

have emerged from the depths of the

Also subtly responsive

Francis

but

and peaceful of residences.

way of the

the

world. Architec-

masterpieces are not conjured out

of a void. But for the individual

who

the will power, tenacity, intelligence,


vision, as well as the

may be Ronchamp
Sagrada

Familia

Museum. The
admire.

And

rest

this

precisely that end.

has

and

means, the reward

or the Belvedere, the


or

Guggenheim

the

of us can look on and

volume

is

dedicated to

Fontainebleau
w^5r

I..JLJL
li

^^

8;;^

if''!''

% i f

\\\Utm^\\\\{{ii\%m\\\\

111

imuiii'iitu.fc.s.?'!':,'

rii^

France

Shii

r'/^Sk

/^!^

fO^ <S^

tf fiff^ff If^ifif
rj

I!

;i!i:i!iiililf

The Wing of the Ministers (preceding page), us


came to be known under Napoleon, was built

it

in

a somewhat understated Renaissance stvie by

Gilles

Left
ion

Le Breton during the

reign of Francis

I.

and above left, the roof of the central pavilof the Wing of the Ministers, showing the

monogram and

the salamander,

symbol of Francis

1.

the heraldic

f|y'|i'-'iiiHirii

Above, the Wing of the Ministers. Right, a view

of the Wing of the Ministers from the great


double horseshoe staircase, completed in 1634 by

Du

Jean Androuet
widely

imitated

Cerceau.

The staircase
throughout

chateaux

in

France is the central focus of the huge Cour du


Cheval Blanc ("Court of the White Horse")
which was

named for

the equestrian statue of

.Marcus Aurelius that once stood in

its

center.

After his abdication. Napoleon bade farewell lo


his

Old Guard

also been

here.

known

Since then, the court has

as the

Cour des

Adieu.x.

5 VVBSPl,

^^
^l^
^^j
'''^^"i.ii

:-Jk-:S^.

*V-iW!?
'%,

t'ji.

BiiMf

^6ove,

//if groilu uf ihe Jardin des Pins ("Garden of I he Pines"). This small, ivpicallv Man-

nerist

building often found in

gardens dates from about 1543.

It

Renaissance

was probably

designed by Primaticcio; the figures are thought


be the work of Antoine Jacquet. The garden
was laid out by the Italian for Francis 1. Facing

to

page and right,

details

of the

grotto,

showing the

figures carved in gres, a local sandstone that.

though particularly
used

difficult to

at Foniainehleau.

work, was widely

The Pone d'Oree (above) is one of the oldest


pans of the palace. Commissioned bv Francis I
in 1528, it was constructed bv Gilles Le Breton
before the king began to relv upon Italian architects. Its design is

modeled after the faqade of


The Porte d'Oree.

the ducal palace in Urbino.

the original entrance to the chateau, leads to the

Cour Ovale ("Oval Court"). Left and below,


details

of the lower portal.

The

irregularly

shaped Cour Ovale (abuve

was constructed hv Francis


the original castle. It

is

primarily the work of

Gilles

Le Breton but was

Serlio

and

also

Philiberl Delorme.

were made

to the

right)

on foundations of

worked on by

Some

alterations

courtyard during the reign of

King Henry IV.

Immediately above, the portico attributed

to

Serlio.

Center and

named after

right, the

Francis

I.

entrance to the staircase

surmounted by a bust nf

Francis I flanked by classical gods.

3*
-

Among

the most beautiful

works

al Fontaine-

hleau are the decorations (below and right) carried out under the direction

and

lino

Priinaticcio,

artists

em-

The supreme example of


heir achievement is probably the bedchamber of

ployed bv Francis
I

of II Rosso Fioren-

two Italian

the

I.

Duchesse d'Etatnpes. Typical features are

the eighteen slender stucco female figures that

support the plaster frames of the frescoes. The


frescoes
I

themselves

represent

the

history

of

lexander the Great. This room was drastically

littered

during the reign of Louis XV, when Ga-

briel converted

monial

it

staircase.

into the top landing of a cereAlthough the staircase itself is

splendid and the original decorations remain,


the space has been irremediably changed.

Left,

a great

mask of Hercules on a doorway.

.4I

,/

\ M

^v-H

.^

^^^teSfefc*-""^!*!^

TVje Gallerv

of Francis

(facing page)

showpiece of Fontatnebteau.

The

is

gallerv.

the

forerunner of the famous Hall of Mirrors at


Versailles, is the

most complete and significant

achievement of the First School of Fontaine-

group of artists who introduced the art


of the Italian Renaissance into France. The
building itself is the work of Gilles Le Breton,
bleau. the

but the splendid interior, a masterful blend of


frescoes, stucco,

of

II

and woodwork,

is

the creation

Rosso Fiorentino, Primaticcio, and their

pupils.

The overall theme of this decorative work

(above and

left) is the glorification of the king,


whose monogram and name are used as motifs

thrnughoul.

<^

^\)

V<

^^V^^^V"^

.^^^

Preceding page, the dramatic double horseshoe


leading

staircase,

Blanc

from

to the Gallery

This page,

the

Cour du Cheval

of Francis

I.

and of

views of the staircase

courtyard. Originallv built in about

place for tournaments,


nies, the

courtyard

Napoleon

I.

vi>as

During

festivities,

the

1540 as a

and ceremo-

substantially altered by

his restoration

of the cha-

teau after the Revolution, Napoleon demolished


the buildings on the side
site

the staircase.

Far

right, the

of the courtyard oppo-

Pavilion of Arms.

HJin**''

Left, the

Porte d'Oree (to the rear

photo)

left in

linked bv the arched windows of the ballroom to


the

Chapel of Francis

I,

bevond which

is

the

Pavilion of the Dauphin. The variety of brick

chimneys provides a picturesque quality

to the

and service buildings on the south

side oj

offices

the

Cour Ovale (below

created bv the architect


1

The simple, almost

These wings were

left).

Remi

Collin for

Henrv

rustic, style is well suited

to their function.

Right, the
Pool.

Grand Pavilion, overlooking

Completed

in 1 748,

it

the Carp

reflects the

coming

maturity of French Neoclassic architecture.

^^*}\m\\m%m\m{{w
^'

M^ y

Ihove, the
iiiine.

On

I'avilion,
I'lus
(

Carp Fool and ihe Cuur de

or

VII.

Wing of

On

the

la

Fon-

Grand
Queen and of Pope

the near side of the court

the far side

Omedie, so called because

it

is

the

of the fountain of Diana


in

the

Originally, four bronze dogs surrounded the

once contained a

tury bather along the Great Canal. Far right, a

commissioned during the reign of Louis


but destroyed in 1856. It is also known by its

decorative sphinx.

Following page, the Great Canal

which derives from a huge fireplace once deco-

constructed in the time of Henry IV.

rated with a life-size equestrian statue of Henry

A one
t

with a

time the Carp Pool was embellished

little

temple, but has lung since been

demolished.

At any of the statues commissioned for Fontainehlcau- including Cellini's Nymph of Fontainelileau. originally

intended for the Porte d'Oree

have been removed. Others, like the equestrian


sialue from the

1603)

statue of the huntress. Right, a seventeenth-cen-

the

previous name, L'Aile de la Belle Cheminee,

I V.

fca.

north garden.

Ancienne

is

llieater

Left, detail

by Barthelemy Prieur,

Cour du Cheval Blanc or

ualue of the Tiber which once stood


Parterre du Tibre, have been destroyed.

in

the
the

in the

park,

\7
V,

'*fi

'4

Chateau of Fontainebleau

Fontainebleau dates

Chateau of
Fontainebleau
France

bears

137

document dated
"apud foniem

legend

the

from the

at least

reign of Louis VII.

Bleaudi in palatio nostra" ("in our palace

near the spring of Bliaud"). This palace

was probably a tower erected by the


father. Louis VI.

Some

the spring of Bliaud


belle eaii ("beautiful

spring

this

steeped

far as to declare:
.to

"The peasant has

property before God, and

his

above that of the king himsejf."


Despite this early setback, the castle

scholars claim that

Saint Louis added to the original tower

was

also

known

as

water") and that from

Fontainebleau

received

its

and

built

Holy

an abbey for the monks of the


In succeeding years,

Trinity.

Saint Saturnin.

it

to the Virgin

and

to

The chapel was conse-

and used the

castle as a royal

hunting

lodge and palace. Some, such as Philip IV


(Philip

the

Fair),

were born and died

"the true residence of kings, a house that

Thomas a Becket,
archbishop of Canterbury, who was at

belongs to the centuries." Tradition holds

time a political refugee in France. Only a

tions of the

Carp Pool (Etang

year after consecrating King Louis' chapel

Isabella hated her son Charles VII so

in history

that even the fish in the

it

des Carpes) are hundreds of years old.


Unfortunately, this story

is

more

poetic

than precise. The royal carp survived the

Revolution and prospered under the


pire but

fell

Em-

crated in 1169 by

Fontainebleau,

at

the

kings of France hunted frequently in the

already famous forest of Fontainebleau

tower and dedicated


is

.so

a right

grew. In 1359, Louis IX-later canonized

Louis VII added a chapel to the original

and legend. Napoleon called

ing to a contemporary account, he even

went

king's

name.

The Chateau of Fontainebleau

33

Becket

there. Isabella

the

of buildings that today form the founda-

returned

Canterbury, where he was murdered

to

in his

cathedral.

victim to the Restoration.

names

to

first

of

many famous

be linked with Fontainebleau. At

Cour Ovale ("Oval Court").

that she falsely claimed to have

much

committed

adultery for the perverse pleasure of calling

Becket's was the

of Bavaria added the series

the

him a bastard. Charles VII whose ap-

pellation

changed from "the Indecisive"

to

"the Victorious"

when Joan of Arc had


Reims

They

finished

up on

the table of the gen-

the start, though, the willfulness of an

him crowned

erals

who.

1815, reinstated the Bour-

anonymous peasant had a considerable

standably disliked his mother's chateau

and allowed

in

bons on the French throne. The pool was

influence on the chateau. In fact, the site

restocked, b,ut a similar fate befell the sec-

had

ond dynasty of carp. They were devoured

his field,

by the high

command
War II.

of the Wehrmacht

during World

An

eighleenlh-ct'iutirv view

of the chateau and

the parterre, with the canal in the

background

to

be changed

when he

refused to

sell

which was within the area chosen

at

it

map and made

have been a remarkable king, for instead

ner of Versailles.

of exercising the usual prerogative, he had

gouleme

that's

how

down. At

legend would have

it.

least

Accord-

sophisticated king

put Fontainebleau back on the

by the royal architects. Louis VII must

the "illegal" chateau torn

1429-under-

to fall into decay.

The flamboyant and


Francis

in

in

it

the magnificent forerun-

Bom

the

Comte d'An-

1494, Francis succeeded his

cousin and father-in-law Louis XII

had no male

heirs.

who

The pope gave Francis

li^
"mim^%

xm
^V..'i

*r

34

Individual Creations

the

title

of "Most Christian King," a

became hereditary

that later

monarchs. Francis celebrated


tion

for
his

title

French

nomina-

by making an alliance with the Mus-

lim Turks to the detriment of the Holy

Roman

Emperor.

northern

in

trous battles in

all is lost

in

tagesthan

two young sons as hos-

resumed

he

against his bitter

emperor,

Charles

the

struggle

enemy, the Hapsburg


V.

Francis

was well

Fontainebleau was not the king's only


building venture, but
urious, the

was the most

it

to his heart. In 1528, after returning


his

lux-

most famous, and the dearest

wretched imprisonment

from

in Spain, the

aware that the power of a king was dem-

king adopted

He commissioned

abroad but also by a splendid court

at

builder Gilles Le Breton to rebuild the ex-

campaigns

in

isting

history,

he

message commu-

to his

mother: "Mad-

except honor.

Madrid

rulers,

onstrated not only by military strength

."
.

for Francis.

home. During
Italy,

his military

which was then the center of Ren-

aissance civilization, he

The defeat meant two years of imprisonment

was customary among warring

defeated at Pavia

for his

news

nicating the

medieval

one of the most disas-

French military

became famous
ame,

When

Italy, in

hind, as

But no

sooner had he been released leaving be-

had learned

appreciate artistic excellence.

He was

to

de-

termined to spare no expense in enlarging

and decorating

his

own

palaces.

as his favorite residence.

it

medieval

saving

castle,

than the foundations. In


tions of

Queen
Cour

the

still

more

medieval struc-

form of Le Breton's

The

Ovale.

around the court

little

the founda-

fact,

Isabella's

tures determined the

irregular

master

Parisian

the

remain

buildings

at the core

of

whole complex.

Despite his reputation as an accomplished Renaissance architect, Le Breton

was more a master builder


was then

tradition that
alive

in

France.

in the

medieval

much

very

still

Francis probably had

rather vague notions about the rationale

behind the new Italian


terpreted

more

philosophical
ful

style,

which he

in-

as a set of rules than as a

movement. Thus, the

care-

proportions of the Porte d'Oree, the

great "golden" entrance portal to his Fon-

tainebleau,

show an understanding of the

aims of Italian Renaissance architecture.

The

are

and medieval

in spirit.

name from
Italian

Above, a delailed plan of llw chateau,

mack

during the ancien regime. Notice the moat thai

once surrounded the central complex of buildings, even cutting through the Cour du Cheval
Blanc,
the

and

the square island, since removed, in

Carp Pool.

Right, a plan for the improvement

of the Cour de

la Fontaine. It

of the fac^ade
was never used.

however, that complete the

tall roofs,

composition

the

gilt

unequivocally

French

This portal takes

its

ornament added by the

Francesco Primaticcio

in

1535 to

Chateau of Fontainebleau

1536.

form, which consists of three

lis

Above, a meeting between

XIV and

Cardinal

porches, one above the other, appears to

Louis

be based rather freely on the then

Chigi at Fontainebleau

nowned ducal palace

at

re-

Urbino. But

common

to

it

displays an

by Le Brun.

awkwardness

Le Breton's buildings. The


windows,

of certain

for

in

1664, as depicted in the Goin


belin Tapestry

several details

35

example,

sills

Left.

Louis VII, and far

Francis

rest

I,

the king

left,

who made

oddly on the pediments of the windows

Fontainebleau into a Ren-

below them.

aissance masterpiece.

Lc Breton did preserve


palace

the

the

original

in this part

of

twelfth-century

Ma-!v_i

At/

keep, or tower, which was the residence of


the chatelain, or master of the palace.

he added in

known

1531

long gallery,

as the Gallery of Francis

I.

It

To it
now
con-

statue of

Marcus Aurelius.

Niccolo

But Le Breton's work did not

He wanted

Francis.

the exteriors of his

nected the Cour Ovale with the abbey

palace to achieve the

founded by Saint Louis. The monks, how-

excellence as the interiors.

ever,
to

were soon evicted from

make room

for a

their quarters

huge courtyard which

was surrounded by two-storv buildings and


eventually

became

the scene of tourna-

ments and pageants. This splendid courtyard, the


the

Cour du Cheval Blanc ("Court of

White Horse"), was so named

plaster cast of a

for a

famous Roman equestrian

Francis

1530.

Florentine

artist.

II

on the

interiors.

by

ticcio, to

nal

same standard of
As

early

as

had employed a noted


Giovanni

Battista

Rosso

Rosso, "the Redhead") to work

(called

later

.satisfy

his

He was

joined two years

countryman Francesco Prima-

oversee the decoration and inter-

arrangement of the new buildings.

They were aided

in this

by others, notably

dell'Abbate,

grino, Jean

Francesco

Pelle-

Cousin the Elder, and Geof-

frey Dumoutier.

They formed

the nucleus

of a group of artists that became famous as


the First School of Fontainebleau.

The work of these

artists

is

exceptional.

Although the Gallery of Francis

is

unre-

markable on the outside, the interior


marvelous

example

of decorative

is

art.

With paintings by Primaticcio and woodcarvings by Scibecco da Carpi,

compared

to

the

it

has been

more famous Hall of

Mirrors at Versailles.

36

Individual Creations

Above,

an eighteenth-century

from the Cour de


of Louis

for

left

X V,

la

looking

view,

Fontaine toward the Wing

which was not completed.

Rome

to

make

a series of plaster

French

casts of classical sculptures for the

On

chateau.

foundry
chitect

he installed a

Fontainebleau, where the ar-

at

Giacomo da Vignola began

by helping

reer

return,

his

to

cast

the

his ca-

statues

in

bronze. Another arrival at the court was

Benvenuto
tiful

the

fashioned a beau-

intended for the

Porte

d'Oree,

ended up instead on the portal of the

Medicis. whose apariments

cJe

who

famous Nymph of Fontainebleau. This

statue,

Above, Catherine

Cellini,

gold saltcellar for the king as well as

were replaced bv the Wing of Louis XV. and her

Chateau d'Anet a

husband. Henry II

Henry

(right).

W'nmnwi'vrmwiwf^i

II,

gift

to his mistress

from Francis' son,

Diane de

Poitiers.

Also dating from the reign of Francis


are

At that time, the royal picture


tions

in

France included

masterpieces, including the

collec-

many Italian
Mona Lisa and

Rome and

then pursued a career in Ven-

noted for helping to popular-

ice.

Serlio

ize

the so-called

is

Palladian

window an

works by Raphael and Andrea del Sarto.

arched central window flanked by two

Experience with the work of the greatest

smaller flat-topped windows.

As

it

turned

had created a refined

out. Serlio did not leave a significant per-

1540 the

sonal stamp on the construction at Fon-

king looked to Italy for an architect to

tainebleau apart from the Cour Ovale,

Renaissance

artists

taste for the style. Inevitably, in

replace Le Breton

moted

to a

more

who would

then be de-

technical post.

His choice was Sebastiano Serlio, a Bolognese

who had

studied with Peruzzi in

where there

is

a portico

named

after him.

Nevertheless, his arrival in 1540 coincided

with the beginning of drastic Italianization


at

Fontainebleau. That year, Primaticcio

the

d'Ulysse

splendidly

and

the

decorated

bedchamber of

Duchesse d'Etampes, which was


verted into the upper end of a
tal staircase.

Galerie
the

later con-

monumen-

In addition, an Italian-style

garden was begun, and workshops for

weaving tapestries were opened.

The death of Francis

in

547 did not

end the construction. Only the architect

was changed. The Frenchman

Philibcrt

Delorme, who enjoyed the patronage of

Diane de

Poitiers,

was appointed. Under

Delorme's direction, the arches of the

Chateau of Fontainebleau

ballroom (originally an open loggia) were


enclosed with huge windows.

Delorme

was an exceptionally talented

architect,

but on Henn.

death in 1559, he. too.

ll's

was replaced. Primaticcio was chosen


succeed him. not only because of his

to

artis-

but also because he enjoyed the

tic ability

favor of the Italian Catherine de Medicis.

who had become

regent

son

her

for

end of the

at the

wing and a block of

abutted on the Cour Ovale.

Fontainebleau. In

1601

the heir to the

throne, the dauphin-later Louis

was born

at

Fontainebleau. In 1606 he was

baptized at the

new outer main

The gateway has

as the Porte

tistery, in

For nearly

was no more

thirty years there

building at Fontainebleau, as the wars of

work on

religion took priority over

Henry

chateau.

Finally,

emerged

victorious

the

Bourbon

of

from these wars and

was crowned King Henry IV of France

He proceeded

1589.

heritage with

its

bleau.

and

As Henry

three things that

been

honor of the event.

spent long periods at the chateau,

main residence outside

it

Paris.

However, under Louis XIV, the Sun

King,

it

the

new

was relegated
architectural

to

second rank by

wonder at

Versailles.

Fontainebleau was used for only a month


or two each

autumn during

the hunting

season. In 1657, during one of these so-

journs, the chateau

was

her throne to

become a

deschi,

the scene of a

had been unfaithful

had him assassinated

to her.

cuckoldry. This
the reign of

immense

Henry

hundreds of pairs of

many

trace,

him

to

said of himself:

sit

ill

with avarice:

do

"I

make

Henry was an

ac-

his mis-

and

tresses included Gabrielle d'Estr^es

young Henriette d'Entragues.

on Fontainebleau was

sum

compared

a trifle

grandson Louis XIV was


Nevertheless,

was the

it

to

spend

to

larg-

spent by a French king on a cha-

teau up to that time.

Henry IV increased

Fontainebleau to

present

tered the

Canal

its

size.

Cour Ovale and dug

in the park.

He

He

the

Cour du Che-

val Blanc. His

French and Flemish

ists-including

Martin

Dubois,

Freminet.

Antoine

Toussaint Dubreuil-are
the

al-

the Great

also designed the

Carp Pool and modified

broise

Caron,

art-

Amand

now known

as

Second School of Fontainebleau.

The palace
tered

at the time

of Henry IV cen-

around the Cour Ovale and the

large, rectangular

Henry

also

to

antlers, the trophies

walls.

its

own enemies had been

disappear suddenly without a

declared that the business struck

bad

as being "in very

was soon arranged

that

taste,"

Queen

and

it

Christina

leave France.

Ninety years later another famous person was to offend the court with his bad
taste.

The

culprit

Arouet, better

was Francois Marie

known

as Voltaire. In

Oc-

Far

left,

Francis

Henry IV,
Bourbon

II. Left,

first

of the
Below,

kings.

one of the magnificent


ceremonies of the time,
Paris of

Cardinal Farnese.

Fon-

tainebleau was often the

scene of such spectacles.

The amount of money Henry lavished

at Versailles.

during

name

its

royal deer hunts, along

Louis XIV, whose

known

hall, built

owes

IV,

the entry into

est

of

Stags presumably a deUberate allusion to

on

livres

Fontaine-

enlarging

knowledged military hero, and

his

She

in the Gallery

Gascon

to belie his

this characterization.

what

out

Giovanni Monal-

in

war, love, and palaces." History bears out

the

was a

Catholic,

when she found

that her Itahan lover,

of

Anne of Aus-

using

as their

queen who had given up

the Protestant

tradition of miserliness by

spending two and a half million


embellishing

gate of the

since

Dauphine, or the Bap-

Louis XIII and his wife,


tria,

XIII

37

scandalous murder. Christina of Sweden,

guest at the palace

This period was the splendid heyday of

known

The Heyday of the Chateau

Cour des

one of the short sides of which

Princes,

chateau.

Charles IX.

east

buildings around the

service

Cour du Cheval Blanc.

added a new rectangular court

38

Individual Creations

XV, the

whose home he had

Above, the Great Canal of Fontainebleau, a

Louis

precursor of the canal at Versailles.

Gabriel rebuilt the right wing of the Cour

inherited.

du Cheval Blanc and erected a

spected the decorations of his predeces-

architect

tober 1757, he was received at Fontaine-

viUon in the Cour de

bleau along with his protectress of the

all,

Madame

time,

de Chatelet. This lady had

a single passion gambling. She indulged


this

passion at the table of the queen and

soon

lost

sum, part of

a considerable

which she had borrowed from Voltaire.


Livid with rage, the writer whispered to

"But don't you realize you're playing

her:

Though

with rabble!"

uttered in a whisper,
that,

it

was no

less

his

judgment was

and

in English at

harsh for being true.

Cheating was the norm


court.

Only a

at

swift flight in a

the

French

coach saved

la

Jacques-Ange

large pa-

Fontaine. Worst of

rebuilt in the style of the empire, while the

king's

bedchamber of the Duchesse d'Etampes

room.

make way

for the top landing of a great

During the reign of Louis XVI, a new


wing was erected adjacent
of Francis

I,

made

in

its

windows.
were

chateau

to

the

honor of a

visit

Marie Antoinette,
lution

to the Gallery

blocking half

Other alterations

the

Du

Cerceau, placed within

Cour du Cheval Blanc

a great,

if

cessively exuberant, staircase in the

ex-

form

of a double horseshoe, which was widely

now

by his queen,

in 1786, but the

Revo-

was imminent, and because of the

called

stripped of

its

"nest

of tyrants,"

was

valuable furnishings and

for his mistress

Madame

First, the

military-minded

Napoleon turned the Cour du Cheval


Blanc into a parade ground by demolishing

its

western side, which was then re-

placed with

iron

railings.

The second

change, although attributed to Napoleon,

was almost

certainly

commissioned by

his

wife Josephine de Beauharnais.

Empress Josephine had two passions:

There was no connection between the two,


though when she died, the Bourbon police

pubhshed an obituary

that read:

observed

The death of Mme. de Beauharnais has


caused general mourning. Desperately

little,"

one commentator, "but

it

lot.")

The empty building was used

as a prison

and partly

partly

as a school. There-

when Napoleon Bonaparte,

fore in 1804,

Fontainebleau as his residence,

it

was

XIV

necessary to restore and furnish virtually

de Maintenon

the entire palace. Ironically, the revolu-

was decidedly a mistake. Then, under

His two most important modifications

has stolen a

Revolution has destroyed

newly crowned emperor, decided to use

For example, the apartment in the

throne

decorations, which were then sold. ("The

other changes were artistically less suc-

Porte d'Oree commissioned by Louis

the

her husband and the study of botany.

imitated throughout France. Most of the

cessful.

bedchamber became

were external.

ceremonial stairway.

During the Revolution, the chateau,

Jean Androuet

gallery overlooking the Jar-

and

and he altered the

the Galerie d'Ulysse,

never actually saw them.

part of the chateau. Louis XIII's architect,

re-

destroyed the Baths of Francis

briel

to

he

din de Diane ("Garden of Diana") was

widespread confusion of the times, she

every

Only the

possible,

Ga-

wrath of the queen herself

made unfortunate changes in almost

sors.

Whenever

following orders from the king,

the philosopher and his lady from the

The kings who succeeded Henry IV

vative than the kings

tionary general proved to be

more conser-

unhappy during her husband's

reign,

she sought refuge from his brutality and


neglect in the study of botany.

She used her


second.
part

From

first

passion to satisfy the

1809 to 1812, the western

of the garden

of Fontainebleau,

which contained the ancient spring of

Chateau of Fontainebleau

Above, the Carp Pool, with the Cour de

la

Fon-

taine in the background.

39

was transformed by the

"beautiful water,"
architect

Heurtaut into a romantic English

garden.

of Sweden, who had her unfaithful lover murdered at Fontainebleau.


Left. Christina

Fontainebleau

is

range of styles of
Below
right,

left,

Madame de Moniespan and below


Du Barry, two of the royal fa-

Comtesse

vorites

whose

stories are linked to the chateau.

famous

justly

for the

gardens, which re-

its

cords more than three centuries of fashions


in

landscaping. There

Napoleon and

is

Carp Pool

Josephine's Jardin Anglais; the

of Henry IV (later embellished by Napoleon with a pretty Neoclassic temple on an


island); a fine Italian
laid out for

Henry

garden (the parterre

IV);

and a large park

the French style, designed

great landscape gardener

There

named

is

in

by Louis XIV's

Andre Le Notre.

also the elegant Jardin de Diane,

for

its

statue of the goddess.

Decline in Political Prominence

Napoleon did much more than

restore the

appearance of Fontainebleau. Under him


the palace

was the scene of several


There,

political confrontations.

Napoleon welcomed Pope Pius


had come
years

later.

to

crown him.

And

historic

1804,

in

VII.

who

there, eight

Napoleon imprisoned the pope

after His Holiness

had not taken kindly

the suggestion that he

become

to

a sort of

private chaplain to the Master of Europe.


Finally, after

more than a year of

incar-

40

Individual Creations

ceration, the

pope acceded

On

25, 1813,

Januaiy

cordat, by

it

emperor.

which he relinquished

powers but

poral

to the

he agreed to a contem-

his

venture that had spilled

Europe and had

down

a path

it

set that

the

blood of

continent moving

has followed ever since.

for a very short time, as

turned out.
It

was

at

Fontainebleau, too, that Na-

poleon abdicated
of France and

hogany

1814 from the thrones

in

(The

Italy.

table at

little

round ma-

which he wrote can

still

be

seen in the former library of Louis XVI,

now known

as the Abdication

Chamber.)

The Russian steppes had swallowed

Grand Armee;

the

the

armies were

allied

converging on Paris. Napoleon's marshals,

and

his relatives,

his friends

doning him. Even


suicide

had

his

Banished

failed.

bade an emotional farewell

Old Guard on April

to Elba,

known

he

to his faithful

20, 1814, in the

du Cheval Blanc. Since


courtyard has been

were aban-

attempt to commit

that

Cour

day,

as the

the

Cour des

Adieux.
After the Restoration, Louis XVIII and

Louis Philippe initiated some mediocre


restorations that are

still

partially evident.

But with the departure of Napoleon, Fontainebleau's six


political

hundred and

years of

fifty

prominence were ended. The

glorious old palace

still

stands, however, a

magnificent expression of France's


cultural,

today

day

and

much

in

marked

political

as

heritage.

artistic,

It

looks

Above. Pope Pius VII and (center) Napoleon


Bonaparte.

them

at

dramatic confrontation between

Fontainebleau resulted in Napoleon

taking the pope prisoner.


it

did on that windy April

1814 which save for Waterloo-

Below, an eighteenth -century view of the Cour

the conclusion of

Ovale.

its

last

epic ad-

The Esconal
'h.!

^ ^

Spain

Wc'

-^'"L

^^-^^^m^

'

'^,fl!

^
"

'"'!

ij-4iUii

.-Xll^Ul

>^j^^r>-^-\^"^

Preceding page, reflected

in

a reservoir,

the

southern fafade of the Escorial, which overlooks


the slopes of the Sierra de Guadarrama.
left is

Above and
tery,

To the

the Convalescents' Gallery.

left,

main facade of the monas-

the

facing west, attributed to Juan de Herrera,

who began working on

it

in

about 1576. The

fagade marks the introduction of the Baroque


Spanish architecture.

Far

right,

the two niches above the

trance, containing

and

the

in

main en-

a statue of Saint Lawrence

arms of Philip II surmounted by the

royal crown.

Right,

the symmetrical northern fafade.

four square towers

at the corners

(seen also above right) are reminiscent


alcazar, or

Moorish

fortress.

The

of the palace
of an

R -I

* -I

nTTnTunTnTn

a*.

-'-*>

ft

^ T
Facing page, one oflhefour corners oflhe Escorial. The mighlv square
corner lowers
design

is

reflect the austere, rigidly

geometric concept on which the

Bautista Monegro, they are

dome and one of the

hell towers

of the church

seen above the dormered southern faqade.

Below

right, the

the statues

in fire-gill bronze,

southwest tower, which looms above the upper level of

the Convalescents' Gallery.

Escorial" because
left,

except for their nuirhte

are the work of Sebastian Fernandez.

based.

Above, the Renaissance

Below

made of granite

heads and hands. The scepters, crowns, and insignia,

of David and Solomon in the Patio de los Reyes


The work of a sculptor from Toledo. Juan

("Court oflhe Kings")

fac,ade.

it

The gallery

is

called the

"smile of the

has the effect of enlivening the otherwise somber

'

'

'

--K.

flMJili'ii

[Ming page, above and below


characterized by a
basilica,
this

strict

right, the

southern arcade of the palace.

geometric restraint. Below

left, the apse of the


which protrudes through the eastern facade of the Escorial. On

one side

at least, the dignified serenity

of the exterior

is

relieved both

by the fragmented blocks of the royal apartments surrounding

it

and by

the relative richness of the dome. The dome, normally obscured by sur-

rounding buildings, can only be seen properly from

this point.

Above, the lower arcaded loggia of the Convalescents' Gallery.


loggia (right) overlooks the gardens

and

Its

upper

the surrounding countryside.

The

interior

of the Escorial is austere, as

building planned as a monastery. But


contains rooms oj singular beauty.

befits
it

aho

A bove center,

of the Battles. Above right, the


Rubens Room; Rubens made the cartoons fur

the great Gallery

the tapestries on the walls. Below, the hall con-

taining Charles V's campaign stool, which was

used as a throne by his son Philip

bedchamber of King Charles

the

II.

A bove

left.

IV of Spain.

Below right, the richly evocative Pantheon de


Reyes. Here, one above the other,

lie

los

the marble

sarcophagi containing the remains of the Spanish

sovereigns

Pantheon

in the

and

their

queens.

Above

the

church proper are two remark

able groups of sculptures, one portraying Philip


II

and

his

Charles

family

(left),

the other representing

V and his family.

Following page, view of the Escorial and the

surrounding country of the Sierra de Guadar-

rama near Madrid.

The

The

kings of Spain. Philip chose a

Escorial

Spain

Escorial

the

struction of the Escorial, the genius gov-

erning the project was that of the king

site in

among moun-

himself. Philip followed with close interest

tains as austere as the character of the king

every detail of the design and construc-

rama, near Madrid. Here,

among

forests

abounding

in

tion,

always inspecting, correcting, and

streams and game, he built the Escorial,

improving

one of the most formidable of

temporary standards, the work was done

all

Spanish

buildings.

quickly.

It

has been said that the Escorial was an

attempt to "baptize the Renaissance." The

the

troops of

King

August

Philip

2,

1557,

of Spain

II

style

of the Escorial echoes the classical

spirit

of the time, epitomized by the work

of the Italian architects Bramante and

achieved a long-awaited victory. They de-

Vignola.

feated the French forces at St.-Quentin in

the influence of the medieval religious be-

Picardy. Hardly a year later, Philip's fa-

liefs

ther, the

emperor Charles V who had ab-

burial place.

son build him a

his

However, Philip conceived a

grander idea to construct a

honor both

and

his father

monument

to

and Saint Lawrence,


empire

also the vast Spanish

Planning began immediately.


23, 1563, Philip laid the

On

Escorial also incorporates

The

Escorial

was completed

unknown

On

pert in stonework

miera, where this art


for

generations.

called in from

him

called

"the

site virtually

I
1

W*

'

J*

1567, he

all

ex-

had been cultivated

miniaturists, sculptors,

and organ builders were


over Europe. In time, the

became

a school of the fine

The

E.scorial

is

Though many had

Day

its

construction,

and by the

design and appearance.

austerity of

Few

eral layout

exact,

hand

in the

con-

only ornamentation

..AVa

in

in

the

worked with the utmost mastery.

The ground plan

is

an enormous grid-

iron covering 500,000 square feet. Philip

himself

is

thought to have been responsi-

ble for the gridiron plan, which supposgrill

Lawrence was roasted

_\-.X

lies

careful choice of the materials that are

M.JBL :j[I]^[E[jm'LJC~T^
A^;/;
.^- i'C:'i:jinQapnaaL'i^,^:Lm-'
L^'J
.

^#.

__\'i

and

the play of the proportions,

on which Saint

alive.

A ho vc.

jiiuni

an

mathematical

of the restrained moldings,

._]L_i)'( j/HJi

The gen-

details are rooted in

obsessive,

logic. In fact, the

in the details

own

decorative elements soften

and the

almost

its

overall con-

Its

ception reflects the severity of Philip's


character.

ab-

its

symmetry of

solute unity, by the geometric

Left,

But the plan

I'hilip II

-Jo/

in 1586.

characterized by

edly symbolizes the

arts.

throned monk"), and a mausoleum for the

,-/]

in

Carpenters, goldsmiths

and metalworkers,

to serve as a church, a royal palace,

monastery to which he could retreat (Phil-

death

from the valley of Tras-

April

painters, masons,

contemporaries

his

direc-

was succeeded by Juan de Herrera, an

of the Escorial. This somber complex was

ip's

was appointed

architect,

tor of works.

relatively

in

work was

begun. The church was consecrated on the


eve of Saint Lawrence's

the stern aspect of the building.

Juan Bautista de Toledo, a

itself

foundation stone

end

that prospered in Spain until the

of the eighteenth century.

dicated in his son's favor, died leaving a

modest request: that

The

By con-

his architects' plans.

1584, twenty-one years after the

Saint Lawrence's Day,

53

harsh country of the Sierra de Guadar-

himself,

On

poll rait

by

of

Tilian.

view

of the

Escorial in a sixieenth-

cenlury print. The gridiron pattern

divides

it

into sections facing spa-

cious court vards.

54

Individual Creations

Right, longitudinal

and

cross sections through

the church.

pl-vt

^iii^iippMi.|
iliwrniiwill]

?i!r""*^-*'^!"--Ui-ni"3
a -^ ^i

[,J_-U'

fc

a'

I
I

iniiirlriii

Above, floor plan showing

how

the Escorial

is

laid out in the form

used

to

of a gridiron, the instrument


martyr Saint Lawrence. In the center is

the church, in the form


right

is

school; bottom right

is

the bottom

the library

also practical since

it

sierras.

On

the

of Flanders and Burgundy,

left is

the

and Conva-

helps differentiate

which were

at that

time domains of the

king of Spain.

The

rows of identical windows

smooth

walls,

vary in

interest.

set in

The

three

at the center

monastery

the center and rear.

south;

the

to the north;

and

to
it

An

the

extension of the

imposing dome, which

southern

to the

work of Donato Bra-

Gallery, the only external loggia of the

elements that compose the

rest

of the

building.

faqade

Escorial.

The

firmary

and

is

the

Convalescents'

gallery, situated

sheltered

sive structure with

its

aspects.

The mas-

four square towers,

may be considered

the last of

near the

from

mountain winds, was used as

Escorial also reveals certain Arabic

for example,

the

Its

mante, dominates the hnear and symmet-

The church

and engineer Pa-

itself is in the

the

in-

cold

a solarium

by convalescing monks.

St.

Lawrence occupies a

sult,

to

is

end of the church but


in the nave.

As

a re-

from the outside the church appears

form a Latin

cross,

with the nave longer

than the apse and transepts. Yet, from the


inside

it

seems

to

be a Greek

cross,

with

all

four arms stretching an equal distance

from the dome.


In front of the church, immediately inside the central gate of the Escorial,
large courtyard called the

is

Patio de los

Reyes ("Court of the Kings"). This court-

At the heart of the immense palace, the

Church of

form of a cross

customary Spanish fashion, the choir

on a raised platform

the complex of church and royal palace in

The

The

attributed

with enormous frescoed barrel vaults. In

the three principal divisions of the build-

school, symmetric to

and northern European

is

thought to have been interpreted and re-

situated not at the

church, the monastery, and the schools.

rical

at Versailles.

da Urbino, whose drawings are

ciotto

great doors of the western faqade lead to

of the buildings: the royal palace, the

owes much

to the ItaHan architect

faqades, impressive with their re-

lentless

ing:

of the complex.

bedchamber

vised by Herrera.

the spaces devoted to the diverse functions

The church, of course, stands

the king's

original design for the church

left,

lescents' Gallery.

is

fortresses that often

other hand, the steep roofs of the towers


recall the roofs

of the Bourbons; bottom center

the Patio de los Reyes.

Arab

cross; to the

the Patio of the Evangelists; to the

the royal palace


is

of a Greek

the alcazars, the

crowned the tops of the

posi-

tion in the Escorial equivalent to that

of

yard

is

named

for the six large statues

Old Testament kings that overlook


the faqade of the church.

it

of

from

"

The

Philip

II

showed

usually

excellent dis-

crimination in his choice of

though

al-

artists,

appointment of Luca Cam-

his

biaso to fresco the vaults of the church

He had

proved unfortunate.

When

Venetian

the

lected

originally se-

Paolo

Veronese.

Veronese declined the invitation,

Philip

had

biaso,

who had

to settle for the

Cam-

Ligurian

good reputation

as a

perspective painter. But the middle-aged

Cambiaso's ceaseless amorous entangle-

ments robbed him of time and energy,

making

it

impossible for him to devote

sufficient attention

Ironically,

Charles

II, last

to the

was the

it

king's palace.
sickly

of the Spanish Hapsburgs

who

(he ruled from 1665 to 1700),


ally

and

dull

discovered a more capable

eventuartist to

was Luca

fresco the Escorial. His choice

Giordano of Naples, one of the leading


decorative artists of the day.

named Luca Fa

He was

nick-

Presto ("Speedy Luke")

because of the incredible swiftness with

which he carried out


If Philip

his

commissions.

was disappointed with Cam-

biaso. he was,

on one occasion,

by

skillful in

would sometimes

the use of stone, Herrera

try his expertise to its limits.


in

terrified

Extremely

his architect Herrera.

For example,

the monastery he built a choir that

stood over an almost

flat

and

granite arch,

on the keystone of the arch he calmly


placed

an

heavy

extremely

lectern

marble and bronze. The king did not

of

trust

the stability of the structure

and

that the arch be supported

by a sturdy

column. After

that,

insisted

whenever he passed

beneath the arch. Philip was reassured by


the presence of the mighty support. But
the

column was actually nothing but pa-

pier-mache

When

construction was

fin-

Ahove. the interior of the church in an eighteenth-century engraving by Alegre.

It is

Holy

and hundreds of candles have been


lighted before the main altar.
Week,

Right. Pellegrino Tibaldi.


tects to

one

Herrera, perhaps the best


tects

oj the /irsi archi-

work on the monastery. Center, Juan de

of the Escorial. Far

known of the

right,

ther Jose de Siguenza, poet

and historian, whom

Philip II considered to he "one


the Escorial.

archi-

a portrait of Faof the wonders of

Escorial

55

56

Individual Creations

main

corridor in the

of the Escorial,
depicted in an eighcloister

The building

holds

1598, in these austere

II,

which

collection

of

the medieval notions of royal

way

bons,

remained the

it

Under

the Bour-

royal resi-

official

dence, but the rulers abandoned

books.

age and

power gave

to less rigorous attitudes, the Escorial

declined in importance.

4,742 rare manuscripts

and over 40,000 printed

modem

As Spain entered the

still

contains the library be-

gun by Philip

13,

surroundings.

engrav-

teenth-century
ing.

on September

as often

it

gloomy palaces of

as possible for the less

Granja or Afanjuez. The Escorial came


back into favor during the reign of Charles
III in

the late eighteenth century,

Age of Reason

when

the

reinstated a taste for clas-

sical restraint.

Charles

had been Duke of Parma

III

and king of Naples before becoming king

He had been

of Spain.
city

in

Naples when the

of Pompeii was discovered, an event

depicted in the tapestries in his apart-

philosopher-king ruled dur-

ments.

If this

ing the

Age of Reason, he

also ruled dur-

ing the "age of bureaucracy." In fact, he

considered the vast Escorial far too small


to

accommodate

had

ished, Herrera

demolished before

it

place reminded

the very eyes of his uneasy sovereign.

The king entrusted

be the most powerful on earth,

the Italian sculptors

them

Juan de Villanueva

were noth-

the huge complex: the casita of the prince

pomp and

splendor

and

to

merous

vine grace and ultimately transitory, a

main

mere

original

and funerary

religious

statues.

groups of their figures, those of the

families of Charles

V and

seen in the Church of

Mary

St.

Philip

II,

can be

Lawrence. Only

of England, Philip's third wife,

is

not represented.

Over the high


cifix

which they were born was a

is

a beautiful cru-

by Domenico Guidi, a

fine

work

in

of

di-

vanity.

The

Escorial

is,

nevertheless, a reposi-

the
like

gathered over the centuries by the kings of

and Herrera.

lection of water colors

by Diirer and an-

The

other of early printed books. There

is

also

in

many

Escorial

architecture for
it

was

addi-

after the

perfectly with

fit

most Spanish architects of

riches include a matchless col-

to

complex because Villanueva,

building,

sympathetic to

The

The two

two hundred years

tions, built

tory for a vast accumulation of treasures

Spain.
altar

gift

to

casita of the infanta.

Leone and Pompeo Leoni with the nu-

Two

architect

his

add two annexes

this resting

that they

ing but dust, that the

functionaries. He,

all his

commissioned

therefore,

built.

But

was

his time,

of the ideas of Philip

was a model

for

Spanish

more than a century


this austere royal

after

monas-

cannot be said to be typical of

gilded bronze dating from the seventeenth

a picture gallery representing centuries of

tery

century. Directly under the altar

European painting; a

Spanish architecture. Standing at the ad-

Pantheon de

los

the

is

Reyes, designed by the

architect Giovanni-Battista Crescenzi

serve as a royal

mausoleum. Nearly

all

to

the

kings and queens of Spain since the time

of Charles

which
with

is

gilt

were not

built

lie

in the great

Pantheon,

bronze. However, the monarchs


laid to rest in the

Pantheon im-

ten years in a sort of

first

anteroom

to

the place of eternal rest, a vile-smelling

place

known

as el pudridero.

Though

the

monarchs of Spain believed themselves

to

and an immense

relics;

library of

Islamic manuscripts, collected by Philip


III,

who was

pitiless in his

the Moriscos, those

persecution of

Arabs who had con-

Unlike the later embellishments of the


Escorial, the

rooms of Philip

II

are plainly

and modestly whitewashed, decorated by


equally modest blue Talavera
the furniture
his

is

II,

tiles.

Even

humble. All the pictures

in

rooms, however, are the works of great

masters. Enfeebled

ministrative center of Spain


pire,

at

the heart of a

from

stretched
Escorial

is

and

its

and withdrawn, Philip

the true architect of the Escorial, died

all

em-

dominion which

America

to

Asia,

the

an assertion of the essential

European heritage and character of

verted to Christianity.

of polished marble accented

mediately after they died. They were


left for

of holy

priceless collection

Spanish people. But above

all, it is

the

a per-

sonal building, the perfect artistic expression of the soul of Philip

II.

Taj Mahal

India

^I

A hove,

lite

arched alcove under the great central

iwan, or half dome, which

is

a convention of

Persian architecture, adapted here to blend with

elements of
eral view

Left

and

Mogul

design.

Above

of the Taj Mahal and


right, details

Human

Far

a gen-

minarets.

and

stylized de

figures are excluded

dense ornamentation, as
Islamic

right,

of the mausoleum, show-

ing the intricate inscriptions


signs.

its

is

from

the

frequently the case in

art.

right,

one of the

icniral dome.

lesser cupolas that flank the

larrJ

Facing page, the swelling central dome of ihe


Taj Mahal which is the dominant architectural
feature of the complex. Above, one of the slender
minarets, which rise to a height of
138 feet at the
corners of the tomb. The minarets serve to bal-

ance the group of buildings, as well as

to lighten

the effect of the massive dome.


Right, above

and below, Indians

visiting

the

tomb ofMumtaz Mahal, one of the most popular


shrines in India.

-:S5e^i.^^

Facing page, the central chamber of the mauso-

leum showing the Iwo svmboUc sarcophagi of


Miimlaz Mahal and her devoted husband Shah

Jahan

side

bv side. The emperor's sarcophagus

slightly higher than that

one

side,

of his wife and

is

is

set to

thus becoming the only infraction of

symmetry of the mausoleum. Howwas not part of the original design. Shah
Jahan had planned to build himself a vast tomb
the overall

ever,

it

across the river from the Taj Mahal. But

when

he died, his son Aurangzeb betrayed his father's


wish

Left,

and buried him beside Mumta: Mahal.


an archway leading through the delicate

screens which surround the two sarcophagi. The

tombs are opulently inlaid with precious and


.semiprecious stones
tations

.Above,

and

are inscribed with quo-

from the Koran.

the filigreed

lamp

that burns in

the

chamber, casting an intricate glow upon the two


sarcophagi.

Following page, the Taj Mahal, renowned the


world over for

its

serene

and

timeless beauty.

fei

Taj Mahal .69

been the qualities that have inspired

Taj Mahal
India

to build.

ever,

is

domed

who

The famous

a notable exception.

building

is

memorial

vent love of Shah Jahan, the


the

Mogul empire,

fifth ruler

to legend, the

so beautiful that

proverb, but rarely does


for

the

architect.

it

Faith

provide work

and

vanity,

throughout the centuries, have more often

Mopil emperWhen he was a young prince, he fell in love


with the beautiful Arjumand Bunu Begum, the

Above, Shah Jahan. Jiflh of the


ors.

daughter of his father's prime minister, and

On the day of her corowas given the honorary name of

eventually married her.


nation, his bride

Mumta: Mahal, the "Chosen One of the PalWhen Mumta: Mahal died. Shah Jahan
built the wonderful Taj Mahal in her memory.

ace. "

Right, a Mogul illustration of the Taj Mahal.


Although the building was strongly influenced

by the Persian architecture of the time,

become

the

supreme symbol of India.

it

has

of

for a cherished wife,

queen's

wish was that the shah build a

to the

to the fer-

died in childbirth.

According

Love moves mountains, according

men

The majestic Taj Mahal, how-

whoever saw

last

monument
it

could not

many tourists and pilgrims. Visitors are as


moved by the many legends surrounding
creation as they are spellbound by

its

The

first

meeting between the prince

and

his future wife took place in 1607, in

the

royal

Meena

bazaar.

which was attached

turbed by men, the

women

Indeed, since

its

metics.

seventeenth

century,

the

tranquil gardens

and

shimmering

bazaar,

harem,

was a private marketplace where, undis-

racy could buy waxes,

monument of white marble,

This

to the royal

help but sense the perfection of their love.


construction in the mid-

its

serene elegance.

On

oils,

of the aristoc-

and other

certain days, however,

cos-

normal

protocol was reversed, and the bazaar be-

among

came a

lively

pools, has attracted

classes.

Relaxing their reserve for a day.

set

meeting place, open

to all

70

Individual Creations

a drawing of ihe screen around the iwo

Lefl,

sarcophagi in the mausoleum.

Below, a floor plan of ihe whole complex, in

which

mausoleum

the

flanked hv

bottom

at

is

mosque and

its

the "reply.

center,

"

love to his side, he

dreamed

instead of making her immortal.

He would

call his lost

mausoleum

build her a

who gazed on
love

it

the city of Agra,

miracle of

on the banks of the broad

his wife's greatest

it

feel the

and the cruelty of death. He selected

Yamuna the

slow stream of the

the

so perfect that all

would

scene of

happiness as the

site

of

tomb of the "Chosen One" and named

"Remembrance of

the Taj Mahal, the

the Palace."

Strangely enough, the architect of the


Taj

noblewomen would

the

and peddle

and wares

their baubles

to the

who came

that

was on one of these

"contrar)' days"

Shah Jahan, who was then known

Prince

Begum,

love

with

He immediately
According

her.

when Khurram
bottom of a

father, the

He

quest, pleasing

mission to marry the trinket


gir

gave permission, for he,

ried for love.

However,

before the couple

Shah Jahan was

was

first

seller.

united,

pean

had been
this

One

One." In

their nineteen

years together,

Mumtaz Mahal was more


wife.

She was a

many of his

close

than a harem

companion, privy

royal dehberations.

to

She bore

daughter on the battlefield of

birth to a

After the death of his wife, the shah was


stricken with grief
his

rooms

drink.

He

stayed weeping in

for eight days, refusing to eat or

It is

later,

another Euro-

by a Western architect

dian version of the history of the Taj

her husband on his campaigns.

She died soon

deaux, also a goldsmith. However, the In-

"King of the World," the shah could be

fatal to her.

years

this

."
.

last

Turkey or

"Chosen

said that he

after giving

her husband fourteen children, but the

Burhanpur, having insisted on following

for his

It is

Frenchman Austin de Bor-

time the

was

hved only

manner of a

concluded that the Taj Mahal

built

new name, Mumtaz


Mahal, the "Chosen One of the Palace."
Although the name Shah Jahan means
said to have

re-

the beauty of his

Agra: a Major Sleeman, who,

visited

in his turn,

Khurram and Arjumand Banu

and the bride was honored by her

wife.

him know when

let

been spent

all

Two hundred

passed

father-in-law with a

him with

rupees and "to

sum had

poUtical marriage with a Persian princess.


Eventually,

dead

his

ordered Veroneo to spend thirty million

Jahan-

make

em-

a large

rage at the projected costs, which he con-

actually married.

obliged to

for

sidered disgracefully low.

had mar-

five years

make

proud barbarian," the emperor flew into a

to ask per-

too,

was a

Geronimo

priest, the

designs. But "in the arrogant

Khurram

then went to his

emperor Jahangir,

called

Veroneo complied with the emperor's

smiled and withdrew the ten thousand


rupees from his sleeve.

tomb

sumptuous

diamond, Ar-

rupees.

goldsmith

preliminary drawing of his design for a

in

a price only a prince could

thousand

afford ten

1642 to ransom a

in

peror requested Veroneo to

buy from her the

tried to

bottle cut like a

jumand named

fell

Agra

Veroneo. According to the

tradition,

to

to

Venetian

as

beguiling daughter of the

prime minister.

are legion. Father Sebas-

colleague, relates that the architect

Khurram, saw Arjumand Banu


the

unknown, aUhough claim-

is

title

Manrique, a Portuguese missionary

tian

milling crowd.
It

Mahal

ants to the

cast off their veils

said that during this time his

beard turned quite gray. Powerless to

re-

Mahal

credits

Ustad

Isa,

an itinerant from

Persia, as being the designer.

legend

tells

that

Ustad

was an inconsolable widower

Isa himself
in

search of

an opportunity to erect a worthy monu-

ment

to

his

own

wife.

Other accounts

claim .variously that he was from the

cities

of Isfahan or Samarkand or from Russia

Taj Mahal. 71

and

was

that he

either a Christian, a Jew,

It

probable that the Taj Mahal was

is

not the

depicting

a single master at

procession

neral

craftsmen from

many

artists

and

over Asia. Begun

all

in

eternal

his

resting

place alongside his heloved wife.

mausoleum took some 20,000

1631, the

workmen twenty-two

years to build at a

Below, a gold coin from

Shah Jahan 's

the

cost of forty million rupees.

however, the legends con-

detail,

reign.

Persian in design

It is

cur.

of

but

ail

to

one

the fu-

Shah Jahan. taking him

work of

the concerted effort of

In

P^T^

Righl. a \toi;i(l miniature

or an Arab.

and style.

Shah Jahan was apparently so pleased

mausoleum

with the elegant

headed

that he be-

chief architect, cut

his

hands of the

architect's

off the

assistants,

and

blinded the draftsmen, so that they would

never be able to create a building to rival


it.

And

the legends are correct on another

tomb

count: There has never been a

to

surpass the cool, white beauty of the Taj

Mahal.
It is

a balanced

of buildings.

and symmetric grouping

harmonious synthesis of

the architecture of Persia, India,


tral

Asia,

and cen-

combines, for example, the

it

traditional design of

Mogul gardens with

the characteristically Indian use of minarets, or towers,

and a dominant dome.

The placement of a dome over an arched


alcove

is

a characteristic of Persian archi-

tecture, successfully

Mahal

to

Mogul

adapted

in

the Taj

design.

At the heart of the complex stands the

mausoleum

itself:

a massive eight-sided

structure inset with arched iwans, or half

domes, of a

classically

Mogul

design.

It is

not a setting for rec-

white marble. At different times of the

reation and pleasure but rather a retreat or

day, the marble surfaces take on varying

the Persian garden

is

sacred refuge from the disorder of tem-

and

poral

claim that the only

life.

Under
onal

the great

hall,

dome, within an octag-

are the sarcophagi of the two

by a screen of carved mar-

lovers, enclosed

crowned by an immense, bulbous dome,

ble.

which

tomb of Mumtaz Mahal. Next

is

surrounded and

minarets that

Flanking

domed

the

mosque and

known

rise to a

set off

by four

height of 138

feet.

are

structure

a second matching building,

larger

the

couple are

to

idyllic

oblong pools,

at the front

of the mauso-

leum. These pools, in turn, are divided


into fourths

by avenues, four being the

number sacred

The

to Islam. This

planned and

calculated reordering of nature

and the

severe regularity of the lines of trees are


characteristic of Persian gardens,

which

are intended to invite spiritual contempla-

Unlike English and French gardens,

The

him beside

his

Sweden

part of the
to

for himself

his son, refusing

of another tomb, be-

last

wishes and buried

beloved consort.

Perhaps the single most alluring aspect


of the Taj Mahal

is

more descriptive and

Mahal was

across the river from that of his loved one.

trayed his father's

the

Victorian-accounts of the sin-

written by Prince William of

mausoleum

However, when he died,

its

gular effects of light at the Taj

Shah Jahan had planned

to incur the expen.se

One of

distinctly

by moonlight, when

on an almost incandescent

Shah

small crypt beneath the

build another vast

glow.

is

travelers

but a

tomb was not

shah's

original plan.

Mahal

Some

to fully appreciate

it,

to

actual graves of the royal

in a

the Taj

surface takes

way

that of

burial hall.

square garden, divided by


is

is

the memorial

whole complex. However, both tombs

maintain the symmetry of

is

and higher,

is

Jahan-the only asymmetrical element of

are empty.

the entire composition.

tion.

little

as the jawab, or "reply." Its sole

function

An

In the exact center

delicate casts of color.

the pervasive use of

one of his
site in

in

travel books, after he visited the

1832:

'

72

Individual Creations

The sun shone

so intensely on the dead-

ever,

who was governor general of Bengal


who disapproved of

was

India,

active in the efforts to preserve

white marble that one was forced to

from 1828 to 1833 and

look with half-closed eyes or to wear

the

smoked

India, proposed that the building be dis-

now appears much the way it did


when the great Mogul emperor. Shah

mantled and auctioned off

Jahan, was

glasses to avoid being dazzled.

The many dehcate

now

details

ap-

peared to great advantage, and the


laid

work, especially with

masterly;

otherwise

wealth of

its

stones of different colors,

in-

seem

to

preferred

be
the

lovely moonlight effect of the evening

before with

its

and

feeling,

atmosphere of profound

it

is

thus that

choose to remember

among

all

The Taj

would

gem

this costliest

the treasures of India.

Mahal

abashed praise from

received

many

such

other

un-

visitors,

including such distinguished travelers as


the

seventeenth-century

Baptiste

Tavernier,

the

essayist

Jean-

English

poet

Edwin Arnold, and Rudyard Kipling.


the 1830s, Lord William Bentinck,

mf'W

In

how-

"decadent"

During

Mogul

this period,

architecture

in

England.

many tombs and

dels were destroyed. Fortunately, the

attempted auction of Taj Mahal

England was a dismal

failure,

were no further threats

in

first

and there

to the building.

Nonetheless, throughout the nineteenth


century,

the

British

completely

disre-

to his vigilance, the

building

alive.

Because of Curzon and other conserva-

cita-

relics in

Thanks

the Taj Mahal.

tionists, the

nificent

Taj

Mahal

survives as a

Indian history. The rare beauty of the Taj

Mahal and
have
in

the reasons for

stirred hearts since

1664.

Edward

it

r-

construction

was completed

Lear, the Victorian au-

thor and humorist,

summed

marble terrace was used for formal dances

quip, "Henceforth

let

which were accompanied by brass bands.

the world be divided into two classes

Picnics

and croquet matches were held

the gardens, which eventually

became

more than badly maintained

tle

in
lit-

was a dramatic

ain's attitude
art.

up with

his

as has seen the Taj

Mahal and them

as hasn't."

parks.

By the beginning of the twentieth century, there

them

it

the inhabitants of

revival in Brit-

toward precolonial Indian

Lord Curzon, an Englishman living in

(I European drawing of the Taj Mahal.


The Taj Mahal has long fascinated European

Below.

visitors

including

Rudyard

Kipling,

Jean-Baptiste

and Edward

tpt=M=dVt=:M=dVfn^^t^^
r'-

its

garded the sanctity of the Taj Mahal. The

mag-

reminder of a unique period of

''r

(rarTTnmX^fMMt^WT^TTTTTTT r r

Lear.

Tavernier,

The Belvedere

^^

Austria

>

^<^,

,*r^*^

Baroque palace in
Preceding page, an aerial view of the Belvedere. This
Savoy (1663Vienna was the summer residence of Prince Eugene of
1736).

one of history's most

.Above, the

huge

triple

brilliant military strategists.

wrought -iron gate

in front

of the Upper Palace.

On either side of the central gateway, gentlefaced lions hold Eugene's escutcheon and coroHoly
net, symbols of his title of prince of the
Roman Empire

(above,

and

detail far right).

This heraldic coronet appears five times on the

gate (detail righl)-an emphatic reminder of


Eugene's nobility The lions once inspired the
epigramist Nikolaus Klauserwitz to pen the fol-

Latin impromptu: "Indomiti Ducis


ungue tenent insigne liones. Nam leo magninimi signa leonis amat" ("Lions bear in their

lowing

claws the shield of the invincible prince, for the


lion

loves

the

insignia

brother"). Left, detail

of his magnanimous

of the

gate.

Above, the entrance facade of the Upper Palace,


reflected

on the smooth surface of the pool. The

central entrance portico once provided shelter

for the carriages of visitors. The statues in front

of the palace include an athlete taming a wild


stallion (far left)

Right,

an ornate,

converted to

and a benign sphinx


wrought-iron lantern,

eleclricity.

(left).

now

//)( curves and broken lines


of the facade of the
Upper Palace are more than matched by its ex-

uberance of detail. Above

left, the coat of arms of


Eugene of Savoy on the pediment of the central

portico. Paired pilasters (left) flank the ornate

windows, while copper domes (above), patined


with age.

crown the four corner pavilions.

Facing page, the entrance portico of the Upper


Palace seen across the pool. Dozens of statues,
the pagodalike roof

and a wealth of

inventive

details lend to disguise the fact that the

of the palace

is

relatively simple.

massing

The sloping

terraces

and geometric gardens

contribute an impression of height


to the

the

and elegance

comparatively simpler garden fat^ade of

Upper Palace

(above). Left, detail

of Ba-

roque ironwork from one of the palace gates.


Right, a sculptural group ofputti frolicking with

a mermaid, which contrasts with the dignified


statues of classical gods
(far right).

and goddesses nearby

Abuve, ihe gardens and Lower Palace as seen

from the pool

at the top

of the cascade.

Right, one of the staircases

ing the upper

ramp

is

circles,

and lower

and ramps connect-

levels

of the garden. The

decorated with ornamental squares and

now

barely

visible,

which are Chinese

symbols for the earth and the skv.

Facing page, the central pavilion of the Upper


Palace and the cascade. The sculptural groups at
either side of the cascade portray heroes subdu-

ing primeval monsters. Left, Hercules fighting


the dragon of the

Hesperides.

Right, Apollo

conquering the Pvthon.

Following page, a fountain

(left,

above and

below) near the garden fa(;ade of the Lower


Palace. Right, the

Lower Palace

dens and Upper Palace beyond.

with the gar-

^,

^UKBUfc^.'-.-s.-^R

the vaulled Hall of the Giants in the


Upper Palace, which opens direcllv onto the

.l/)<;ic' left,

garden. The staircase in the background leads

up

to //if sala terrena (facing page).

The giants

supporting the arches of the vault (detail above)

symbolize mililarv strength.

The bases of the

arches they carry are surrounded by war trophies. Left,

one of the stucco cherubs that sup-

port the lanterns on the white staircase. Top,


detail

of the balustrade of the

staircase.

-,

J-acing page, four Jrescoed ceilings al the Belvedere.

Clockwise from above

left,

are from: an octagonal ground-floor

the ceilings

room

in

one

of the end pavilions on the garden side of the


Upper Palace, decorated in a "Roman" style hv

Jonas Drentwitt: the more Baroque central hall


of the Upper Palace, decorated by Carlo Carlone: the
ace,

Hall of Grotesques

in the

Lower Pal-

executed by Jonas Drentwitt; and the chapel

of the Upper Palace, also bv Carlo Carlone.


Above, the reception hall of ihe Upper Palace.

The fresco by Carlo Carlone on the ceiling


picts the allegory

de-

of Apollo and Diana. Other

frescoes in the palace, such as the octagonal

room by Jonas Drentwitt

(right),

are less specific

allusions to Eugene's military glories.

>

*
iTj.^

Facing page, the Golden Cabinet. Parallel mir-

a dizzying regression of gold and


The statue represents the apotheosis of

rors create
glass.

Prince Eugene. The decor was further enriched

bv Maria Theresa. Below, details of the painted


gilt walls

of the Golden Cabinet.

Right, a statue, completed in

Maria Theresa, wearing the

1 766.

of Empress

of queen of
Hungary. Maria Theresa purchased the Belveregalia

dere some years after Eugene's death. Below

an equestrian statue of Eugene. Below


tail

of a table

in the

Golden Cabinet. The

which dates from the time of Eugene.


the typically

Rococo tendency

left.

right, de-

table,

e.xhibits

to enliven every

surface with decoration.

Following page, the south faqade of the Upper


Palace, overlooking the reflecting pool. Today,
the arcades

of the faqade are glazed.

w^

"^

The Belvedere 97

and

for building

The Belvedere
Austria

Where

restoration.

the

thoughts and desires of the young soldier

and splendid mansions. Thus, the

of the

Danube throughout

every province

of the Hapsburg dominions. Even


remotest valleys, the

common

lowed the example of the


siasm. Village bell

of

architectural

flourished in

and flamboyant
the

styles,

Baroque

Europe during the seven-

teenth and early eighteenth centuries. In


Austria,
vitality

it is

characterized by a particular

and exuberance.

For more than a century, Austria had


struggled

fitfully

against

the

threat

domination by the Ottoman Turks,


the

enemy was

at last repulsed

gates of Vienna in 1683.

was

that

felt

of

until

from the

The joyful

relief

throughout the nation was

immediately reflected

in

an enthusiasm

elite

engravers. Below, one of the innumerable

early views of the southern fa^-ade of the

Pahu

<

Upper

It

illuminates

the

rose to glory despite his physical dis-

advantages and
spent

in the

his

unhappy

early years

France of Louis XIV.

fol-

with enthu-

towers were topped

When
France

Louis

in

XIV became

643 at the age of

king

five,

of

the re-

mother Queen Anne, confirmed

gent, his

with onion-shaped domes, and scrolled

the wily Cardinal Mazarin in the oflice of

pediments adorned the windows of mod-

prime minister and virtually handed him

est

country inns.

Pomp and

the reins of government. Mazarin, a bril-

splendor were the watch-

words of the Baroque. The show of wealth

and

prestige

was not only an end

in itself

liant

statesman, was the center of political

intrigue

and conspiracies

but also a symbol of power and promi-

three children to join

them became

expressed

the

Reformation,

Church of
the

triumph of the Counter


ascendancy

the

Rome

of

the

over Protestantism. In

homes of royalty and

the nobility, Ba-

at the court.

reasons of his own, he sent for his

nence. In religious buildings, the Baroque

time, the
king.

him

in Paris.

For

sister's

One of

a favorite playmate and, in

amorous consort of the young

Her name was Olympe Mancini.

Court gossip suspected Mazarin of hoping to marry his niece to the sovereign.

roque architecture was an aflirmation of

However, a

absolute authority, designed to overawe

vision

the populace with

tained such a scheme, given the insuper-

its

display of wealth and

politician

could

not

of his subtlety and

seriously

have enter-

able obstacle of their unequal birth. After

The Belvedere Palace

and

who

of Savoy.

in the

people

brilliance.

The Belvedere was a favorite subject for painters

founder. Prince

the Austrians built churches, royal pal-

Austrian Baroque spread from the valley

the most opulent

its

Eugene

aces,

One of

and preoccupations of

Turks had wreaked havoc and destruction,

in

Vienna

is

the

quintessence of this Baroque conception

of princely sovereignty. But

it is

more than

Louis had outgrown his youthful if not so

innocent diversions with Olympe, the

girl

departed from the royal apartments with

an impressive monument to money and

impeccable

power.

her hand on the Count of SoLssons, Prince

It

also mirrors the personal ideals

political credentials, to

bestow

98

Individual Creations

of Savoy. The count was a general in the

French army. His frequent absences

Olympe ample freedom

to

pursue her

left
liai-

18,

1663.

him:

Eugene of Savoy was a homely

The Duchess of Orleans wrote of

child.

"He was small and

son with the king. However, her political

turned nose and flaring

machinations led to her eventual banish-

upper

ment from

the

mother of eight

dren. Eugene, the youngest

pected by

chil-

so narrow that he cannot shut his

(who was

sus-

many to have been a natural son

of the king), was born in Paris on October

which are

teeth

Solomon Kleiner published an

entire

volume of engravings of the Belvedere. This volume was the source of these two views of the Hall
of the Giants, the vestibule of the Upper Palace
that leads to the gardens. In the
ing, the artist

ceiling with

much on account

old,

When

he was just ten years

Eugene himself was determined

He engaged

in a rigorous

he

left

ofl"ered his services to the

peror Leopold

was

1.

at the gates

The Turkish army

of Vienna. In the west,

XIV had just

Louis

was hungry

taken Strasbourg and

more German

for

Eugene had much


Leopold. As a

Austrian em-

Leopold's domains were

threatened.

severely

to

be a

program

territory.

recommend him to
member of the House of
to

Roman

Savoy, he was a prince of the Holy

fend the Christian faith against the

Moreover,

and

Versailles

Empire and thus eminently suited

for a life in the church.

soldier.

HumiUated, the young prince took a


fateful step. In 1683,

Eugene was excluded from the

Louis decided to have him prepared

army, Louis refused

in the

his brother,

to deinfidel.

Louis Julius, had

upper engrav-

has erroneously replaced the real

one based upon that of the adjacent

entrance portico.

is

of his unfortunate looks as his mother's

French court.
I7il.

He

always dirty and has lanky hair, which he

intrigues.

//;

visible all the time.

never curls." Possibly as

commission

his petition.

an up-

and an

nostrils,

mouth." She added: "He has two large

the kingdom.

Olympe was

lip

ugly, with

met a hero's death while

of riding, fencing, and gymnastics to de-

recently

velop his strength and stamina. However,

the Turks in

when

had been spurned by Louis

the

young Prince of Savoy requested

Lower

fighting

And Eugene
XIV, who was

Austria.

Leopold's adversary. Leopold, therefore,

welcomed Eugene

to his refuge

Passau in eastern Bavaria.

He immedi-

graciously
at

ately placed

paign

Eugene

the

divert

to

in

charge of a cam-

Turkish

siege

of.

Vienna.

Eugene's valor and military genius were

soon widely recognized and rewarded. At


the age of twenty-one, he

was decorated

with the Golden Spurs and was given

command of the

regiment of dragoons of

Kufstein. At twenty-two, he

major general;

mander

in chief

an imperial

was named

twenty-seven,

com-

of the cavalry; at

thirty,

at

field

marshal;

president of the Imperial

and

War

finally,

Council.

His success was prodigious, even for a


prince of a reigning house, but

it

was well

merited. His campaigns against the Turks

culminated
battle

won

in

the

for

The

Battle of Tisza.

ended Turkish hopes

in

Europe and

Eugene the name of savior of

Christianity

and Western

civilization.

These honors and promotions were ac-

companied by
Hapsburgs

prestige

showered

and wealth. The

him

with

money, and land. Having arrived


tria

titles,

Aus-

in

with only twenty-five guilders to his

name. Prince Eugene was by the age of


thirty a rich
at

and powerful man. His

the time of his death

estate

was valued

at

twenty-five million guilders.

Eugene loved Vienna and made

it

his

The Belvedere 99

'JrfttrdVrtrt:/nnu iPrnt.iptr^^i.i

Left, an eighteenth-

century view of the Belvedere gardens.

home. However, he never used German,


relying solely

ing

on

his

French, both in writ-

and conversation. He

for himself,
just steps

in the center

away from

perial court,

of town.

one

built

ered appropriate Olympian sites for those

and a second on the

residences.) But

the

city,

outskirts

for

memsum-

their winter

Eugene did not

retire to

on the contrary, he continued

win great military successes. In

to

same lime

as he

was planning

palace, the Belvedere, he

was

fact, at

his

also

new

cam-

paigning victoriously against the armies of


Louis

XIV

War

in the

of the Spanish Suc-

his

to acquire the land for

when he was only

country estate

elect spirits

who guarded

the destinies of

entire nations.

The Belvedere
sensitivity

Eugene's

reflects Prince

and refinement rather than

thirty.

his

enormous fortune although the palace


and gardens can scarcely be called
tarian. In fact, the

utili-

Belvedere consists of

not one but two palaces, one cresting the


slope and the other at

its

separated

foot,

by acres of spacious gardens. Yet, Prince

Eugene spent

On

little

time at the Belvedere.

those rare occasions

when he was

in

rooms

in

residence, he occupied only a few

cession (1701-14).

Eugene began

the Ba-

of the

bers of the aristocracy to spend the

civilian life:

to

roque imagination since they were consid-

the Hofburg, the im-

mer only a few miles from

since disappeared.

Moreover, hilltops appealed

two palaces

was then customary

(It

campments had long

the

Lower

Palace.

Having

for the rituals of court

life,

little

inclination

he had no need

Eugene of Savoy servea as general


perors. In his long career,

once, at the

The

site

he chose for

sloping pasture.

this

palace was a

The palace

is

known

the Belvedere ("beautiful view").


crest

of the

manded

hill,

the

On

as

the

Upper Palace com-

sweeping panorama of the

woods of Vienna stretching eastward


the plains of the

Danube. The

to

location,

overlooking the scene of Eugene's earliest


victories,

may have been

nostalgic

choice, though traces of the Turkish en-

for vast

numbers of reception rooms or

assembly and banquet


continued

to

be

halls. Instead,

absorbed

by

he

military

matters and affairs of state until his death

and spent

his

few leisure moments

in the

company of artists, philosophers, and men


of science. The philosopher Leibnitz was

among
ful

his close friends. In his rare peace-

years between the Peace of Passarowitz

in 1718.

which

finally

thwarted the ambi-

to three

em-

he suffered defeat only

hands of Vendbme at Cassano. The


of his time, he was surpa.s.sed

greatest strategist

as a tactician only by his friend

and

ally,

the

Duke of Marlborough. Napoleon ranked him


among the seven commanders who had contributed most to the art of warfare. This engraving
(above) shows
time,

Eugene

in

armor which, by

was more emblematic than functional

his

100

Individual Creations

of the times, he commissioned a pal-

spirit

ace that both

embodied
and

magnificence
glory.

was depicted

All

flUcLlssIMVs Longc IVIt

Cxfiirls

0:in ^(tiratt anf Sfcfct mi km S5i(i>)i ^oiJS


SiUc

\m

I'ctibc j

V&

ilrJh.JZ'Z^^

]f|f fc iBcif tntiftntt

ffinngtnfiiinwrr/hiii'luMJfii'urc

'".rJ^Tr'^Z.

(cnhTJt briftlidJiTI.5i>ffmumi

'J^'-.^t'ZSZ

The

va-

dominated and con-

are laid out geometrically to

complement

and

adjoining

the

buildings. In their formality


tion with the palace

9(ff (Ur

icj).

the

reflect

measure and proportion.

is

The gardens
echo

also

status of the prince.

garies of nature are


trolled.

XIV

palacejust as Louis

at Versailles.

The palace gardens


power and

as

Apollo on one of the

fiery

ceilings of the

cX VtrotA'c

own

his

Eugene had himself represented

handsome,

his era's taste for

celebrated

and integra-

complex

as a whole,

they follow the vogue for the French gar-

dens popularized by the work of Louis

""
Wii^burtfliiSrwH(>fi/

"om fiiTgrti

(in

XIV's landscape architect Andre Le Notre

^f iiffdJcT.

WrffSlPifa'n/ninniild (iiTiffrllwfftia/
tvfi iiJt)frr

at Versailles.

lmiiib/ dn Qrtrnirr Igrrrfilibrrr;

The parterres formal planting beds-

lllmM^^M%to(^lltfi:

Eugene died

in 1 736 ai the

age of

73.

His em-

balmed bodv. dressed in regimental uniform,


in stale for three days.

Upper Palace, although once

closest to the

Cr|tBt(/ ipnlt<rrScMrOC><vnjnN.

lay

more

In accordance with con-

elaborate, have always

and mostly

treeless.

been open

Statues and decora-

temporary custom, his heart was sent to Turin to


tive urns accent the clear

be buried with his Savoy ancestors. The funeral

MM iVaC et
VC9 tVpalV.

procession (above) took three hours to reach the

nearby

St.

Above

right,

cVgr-..l\

hut

ta'.^t

<

iDVnKtVVailHUjI

'/ litiiKjf

Stephen 's Cathedral.

tions of the Turks,

and the

of the Polish Succession

Eugene spent
Eugene established one of the

largest zoos

time, collecting over fifty species

He

was particularly interested

(below),

of his

of mammals.
in

wild birds

and he fed his eagles bv hand whenever

he was at the Belvedere.

and an

army and

his

start
in

of the

War

1733, Prince

time reorganizing the

collecting

works of

its

cial waterfall

exemplifies the Baroque fas-

as a

museum. He wanted above

build a

monument

to

Lower

the

vast spaces,

artifi-

all

to

himself True to the

Near

Palace, the parterres of hedges

and squarely pruned shrubs, aligned


perfect order, underline the

the design.

art.

But Eugene did not erect the Belvedere

Still

pools mirror

cination with flowing, swirling water.

a broad sheet published by Elias

Baeck eulogizing the dead prince.

and spare design,

divided by neat .symmetrical paths.

in

geometry of

Formal but not portentous,

and

festive but not frivolous, the palace

and

its

gardens were conceived as a har-

monious
refined,

unity, displaying

an idealized,

and perfected nature.

The arrangement of the Belvedere, with


its

two facing palaces,

is

unique in

all

Europe. The huge Upper Palace com-

mands

the

hill.

The Lower Palace below

is

smaller and more intimate by princely


standards. Architecturally balanced, the

palaces are finked by the central axis of


the sloping garden, the "spine" that also
the

unifies

in

Any

design of the garden.

undue emphasis or oddity of detail

is

the overall impression of order

lost

and

harmony.

The design of
from

fertile

the Belvedere resulted

collaboration

between

The Belvedere

Prince

Eugene and

Johann

his architect

Lucas von HiJdebrandt. Hildebrandt had


served under the prince as field architect

army

imperial

in the

campaigns of 1695

he had studied

traction,

Piedmontese

in the

to 1696.

Of Italian

ex-

firsthand

the

works of the great Italian Baroque and


northern Italy and

Mannerist architects

in

Rome.

was appointed court

1700, he

In

engineer.

He

architect

and was employed by many

later

noble Austrian

became

a leading court

Moreover, the

families.

talented and superior craftsmen

employed

by Eugene and Hildebrandt worked with


exceptional

of these

skill

artists

and inventiveness. Most


were

Italian,

including

Martino Altomonte, Carlo Carlone, Gaetano Fanti, Santino de Bussi, Francesco


Solimena. and

Giacomo

del Po.

The Lower Palace was

between

built

1714 and 1716. Typically Baroque in conception,

it

however,

is,

less

flamboyant

than the Upper Palace. Primarily a single


story in height, the building has a distinctive

horizontal emphasis, which

vened by
truly

its

interesting roof line.

dramatic element

is

is

enli-

The only

the grand en-

Above, below, and center, three eighleenlh-cenlury views of the


vedere, with its

Upper Palace. The Upper Bel-

shimmering

reflecting

pool and

geometric garden, was conceived as a magnificent architectural gesture,

reflecting

roque fascination with stunning

effects.

the Ba-

101

102

Individual Creations

From

top to bottom: the

eiUrance fagade of the

Upper Palace: the garden fagade: the plan of


the upper floor; the plan

of the main floor

and

the

plan

ground floor

trance salon, which projects out slightly

Today, the Lower Palace houses the

from the quietly elegant facjade into the

Museum

spacious courtyard. Despite the urns, mil-

rooms have been preserved

itary

trophies,

cherubs,

and

allegorical

figures representing the prince's

and strength, the predominant

wisdom
effect

is

one of simpHcity.

knew them:

the

as

its

outstanding

in

red and white (the colors of

House of Savoy, whose family coat of

arms was a white cross on a red

the vaulted entrance hall, the dusky rose

the study, with

sheen of the marble floor and walls con-

walls shining with gold leaf.

work and gilded moldings that

in tiers to the

their

its

field):

and

doors, columns, and

left

frescoed ceiling.

To

rise

the right

stretch suites of halls which, with

doors arranged on a central axis,

create a magnificent effect of spaciousness.

For

this

He

left

sponsibility to Hildebrandt,
tect

surpassed himself.

reveals

its

(right).

Eugene merely

palace,

cated a general idea.

and the

archi-

single glance

grace.

distinctive

indi-

the chief re-

Supremely

confident of the lasting value of his masterly creation,

Hildebrandt did not hesi-

tate to repeat motifs

later

in

from the Belvedere

commissions.

Lantern-bearing

cherubs, for example, are also to be seen in


the

with the glow of the ivory-colored

plaster

and

col-

Chinese vases: the dining room,

the palace hints at the splendor within. In

trasts

Eugene

the Hall of Grotesques; the

Hall of Mirrors, with


lection of

decorated

Neither the gardens nor the exterior of

of the Austrian Baroque. The

(left);

of the

main

staircase of his Palais Kinsky,

scarcely a mile away.

The bold
with the

stroke of crowning the garden

Upper Palace did not

figure in the

The

idea

and the Upper

Pal-

original plan for the Belvedere.

only matured

in 1715,

ace was actually completed in 1724.

The
festive

two

three-story central section of the

Upper Palace

stories.

these wings
vilions,

is

flanked by wings of

The outer comers of each of


end

in

domed

octagonal pa-

which evoke the military image of

The Belvedere.

From

103

top to boiiom: two

longitudinal sections of
the

Upper Palace cut

through

the

vestibule

and through

the Great Hall,

entrance

and two

transverse sections cut

through the central axis


(left)

and through one

of the wings (right). The


main entrances from the
forecourt

and

den

linked

are

the gar-

bv

which

stairH'ay.

also

leads to the Great Hall

overlooking the garden.

the corner towers of a castle. In the center,

constantly changing angle of vision grad-

two

lofty

rows of windows, white medallions

above the entrance

ually transforms the fantasy of the shim-

and

gilt

moldings gleam against the red

per roof rises like a pagoda. Decorative

mering image into the

marble of the columns and cornices. The

details expanses of cunningly

giant piers, pilasters,

hall,

the patined cop-

wrought

stucco balustrades in stately progression, a

The

interior

solid reality

of the

and entablatures.

of

the

Upper

trompe

Palace

I'oeil

wall panels

perspectives of the painted

and the frescoed cupola, with

profusion of marble statuary, and military

matches the magnificence of the faqade.

its

"trophies"-suffuse the faqade with a mel-

The theme of the building the

the effect of further increasing the vastness

low autumnal richness.

of the grand and enormous-is echoed

At the entrance to the palace stands a


colossal wrought-iron gate, decorated with
lions

and

cherubs

displaying

princely

arms and coronets. The awesome mass of


the palace rises beyond.

the huge pool lends


real air.

The path

it

It.s

reflection in

a distant

to the

and ethe-

palace follows the

perimeter of the wide stretch of water, so


that as

one approaches the palace, the

the four colossi by

exaltation
in

Lorenzo Matticlli that

Olympian

of the

hall.

reflects the

vistas

of seated

gesture

overlooking the garden.

glimp.sed through the

The

ceaseless insistence
efl"ects is

upon dazzling

also reflected in the

central double stairca.se.

Plump cherubs

holding outsize lanterns light the


the splendid Hall of
floor.

way

to

Marble on the main

Here, in the light that floods through

have

Scorning intimacy, the hall

Baroque love

carry the vault of the once-open portico

and stunning

deities,

and public

for the

grand

The

vistas

.spectacle.

doorways

into re-

ceding suites of richly decorated rooms


invite the visitor to

embark on voyages

of discovery.

Today, the Upper Palace houses a


lection

cluding

of modern Austrian paintings,

many by Gustav

colin-

Klimt, whose

104

Individual Creations

And

it

was

at the Belvedere, in 1770, that a

splendid farewell ball marked the departure from

Vienna of one of the empress's


Marie Antoinette.

sixteen children,

In the following century, the Belvedere

served as the imperial picture gallery until

.Archduke Ferdinand adopted

From

idence.

there,

1914 on an

in

nian, Serbian,

he and

official

never

and Croatian

Their

returned.

out

tour of the Slove-

Austro-Hungarian

the

as his res-

it

his wife set

territories

of

They

Empire.

assassination

at

Sarajevo triggered the carnage of World

War

I,

which put an end

Hapsburg

to the

monarchy. Since. the war, the Belvedere


has been a state

museum.

But the Belvedere's days of


gilded and rapturous compositions blend
well with the

Baroque

spirit

of the palace

as a whole.

Modern

visitors

are

amazed

sumptuous expansiveness
residence, a "second"

ubiquitous

power

at

allegories

at

such

for his

poor physique and homely appear-

ance: the Baroque penchant for mytholo-

end of the empire.

gizing cannot fully explain the deceptive

witnessed several events of enormous con-

flattery

of

sequence

his deifying portraits.

vember

in a bachelor's

summer home. The


of strength

and

the Belvedere the festoons of

pomp and

circumstance have endured beyond the

Eugene died

Prince

Belvedere but
Vienna.

He

left

his

at

no

in

1736 not

city

at the

residence

in

direct descendants. His

in

the

imposing halls have

Its

modern

age.

On No-

20, 1940, according to Hitler's ex-

press wish.

Germany. Hungary, and

Italy

signed their tripartite pact in the central


hall

of the Upper Palace.

1955, another treaty

And

in

May

was signed there

chains, the giants in the atrium, banners,

entire fortune, including the Belvedere,

arms, and military trophies have been

fell

Victoria of

storing the independence of the Republic

seen as the prince's attempt to compensate

Savoy. Within a few years, the princess

of Austria after seventeen years of foreign

had

to his niece. Princess

sold whatever she could.

in 1800. It

almost immediaielv became a popular

place for leisurely promenades (above).

Eugene's

thedral,

is

the spire of St. Stephen's Ca-

where Eugene's body

burial chapel.

lies in

a private

that

occasion,

crowd of Viennese celebrated

tered to the ends of the earth. In

1752,

gained freedom

treasures

in the

re-

huge

their

re-

gardens of the Bel-

however, the empress Maria Theresa put

vederegardens which owed

an end

existence to the liberation of their city

to the

depredations by purchasing

nearly three centuries earlier.

the palace.

of center

On

scat-

collected

Below. Vienna as seen from the Belvedere. Just


right

occupation.

were

patiently

The Belvedere's garden was opened lo the public

Anna

The Hapsburgs used


cial receptions

the palace for

and, on occasion, as a

offi-

resi-

dence for members of the imperial family.

their

very

Sagrada Familia
v^

^
YyV. Vi^
^>
,

\'

-/:i-

K^

>:

'>.

>A

Spain

u'li

hto

ay.

^Dbi

"^T

t-

Preceding page, the northeastern facade of the


Sagrada Familia, dedicated to the Nativity, with
its

slender mosaicked spires.

church transcends

The unfinished

stylistic classification

and has

been termed "a ruin of the future." At present,


the church consists

of this fafade, the

crypt,

and

the e.xterior wall of the apse all begun by Gaudi

or his predecessor as well as the fagade of the


Passion, which

was begun

Left, the delicate towers

after

World War

II.

of the Sagrada Familia

soaring above the Barcelona skyline.

Gaudi's

plan called for twelve such towers, arranged in


groups of four, symbolizing the Apostles.

Facing page, the Nativity portal, with details


(below). Sculptural scenes

of the

birth

of Jesus

are framed by sinuous arrangements of vines

plants
style.

which recall the Catalan

and

Modernista

i^H^^^H

b\:

^
A

Gaudi has often been labeled a Golhic


hut his Golhicism
tic.

is

as

much

archilecl.

spiritual as stylis-

Gaudi 's own religious fervor and his dedica-

tion to his

work on the Sagrada Familia

the tradition of medieval


their lives to the building

Above
Far
sept.

left

left,

and

left,

the "west"

recall

masons who devoted

of the great cathedrals.

views of the apse.

window

(The .Sagrada Familia

in the
is

"south" tran-

not oriented on an

easi-we.u axis in the traditional way.)

Right,

a view over Barcelona from behind the

.sculpture in the Nativity portal.

''v^w^n<g>^^y-i>'

t"i

r'v

Left, ihe interior

of the facade of ihe Nalivilv,

which has a completely different


exterior.

spirit

The Sagrada Familia appears

from

the

to incor-

porate elements from countless themes and influences. Yet, in the eves

of his admirers. Gaudi

has fashioned from this potpourri a unified


<

(iherent masterpiece.

The stones

in

and

the fore-

i^round which will be re-used in the Sagrada


I'amilia

come from demolished buildings of

Barcelona. Today, this recycling of materials

is

an economic necessity, particularly as the stone


nhich was originally used for the church

is

now

i;round up at the quarry for concrete.

Tar

right, center

rior elevations

Far

and below,

of the

details

inte-

of the Nativity fagade.

right, top, detail

of a recently constructed

lower on the opposite transept.

Right, above
the

and below,

spiral staircases within

Sagrada Familia. They

recall those

of the

made

all the

great cathedrals, although they are

more daring by

the omission

of the centerposts of

their medieval models.

Following page, the Sagrada Familia by night.


Today, floodlights

from across the

beam upward onto

.street,

but

it

the church

was apparently

(iaudi's intention to illuminate the


lights set into the lowers themselves.

church by

,V'VI'

.t

.^^-^

".

d^E-- '--'^Oi

---i

Sagrada Familia

And

Sagrada Familia
Spain

this

was by no means the

imaginative architects of the

was mistaken

young woman was

visiting the site

to discourage charity.

this,

Gaudi

But aside

needed

desperately

an

architect,

The
the
is

he lived for a while

a dandy, indulging a taste for expen-

and foppish mannerisms.

his habit

during

this

building sites in a carriage, from which he

in 1926.

would

Temple of

the story of

its

architect.

in 1852 in the provincial

town of Reus

in

issue

after taking

abandoned

commands

to the workers.

these pretensions.

social

invitations,

though he did enjoy

an indigent and offered him a few coins.

Catholic education, and these early years

as

Albert Schweitzer and

The man smiled and accepted her

of schoohng

which he then placed


for

in

a collection box

work on the church.

Unknowingly, the

woman had

crossed

paths with none other than Antoni Gaudi.

Ahove, Gaudi, aged seventy, atlendini^ a Corpus


Chrisli procession in Barcelona.

Right, a drawing for the

Sagrada Familia. which

was Gaudi 's passionate concern from IHHi


his death in 1926.

the piety

spired

until

and

faith that sustained

him throughout

Gaudi
and

in-

At the age of sixteen. Gaudi went

poet Maragall,

who

distinguished visitors
the

to

Barcelona to study architecture and, soon

Catalan

was, like Gaudi, a fer-

vent supporter of Catalan independence.

Gaudi never married. After

his life.

ascetic.

Taciturn and withdrawn, he refused most

company of such

instilled in

He became

more religious and eventually quite

the

may have

But

on the Sagrada Familia, he

Tarragona. Here he received a rigorous

alms,

It

period to ride to

for

suit

more

years of

Holy Family, or the Sagrada Familia,

much

the

After he quali-

death

until his

story of the Expiatory

very

field.

last forty-three

upon an old man. Noting

threadbare

like

was

Gaudi, the son of a coppersmith, was born

his

interested in the artistic than

sive clothes

from 1883

home. Aside

of his hfe there. Gaudi was apparently

the great votive church to which he dedi-

much of the

17

an undistinguished student, perhaps more

funds for his work on the Sagrada Familia,

was under construction when she came

and unkempt beard, she took him

rest

fied as

more than half a century ago, an

Barcelona where the Sagrada Familia

his

city as his

no desire

his hfe,

in

age,

When

adopted the

prosaic aspects of his

cated

elegant

modern

beggar.

for

after,

from a few short excursions, he spent the

such alms, he repHed quietly that he had

from

day.

occa-

him why he always accepted

friends asked

One

first

sion on which Gaudi. one of the most

died, he lived alone, tended by

his father

two Car-

melite nuns from a nearby convent. Dur-

18

Individual Creations

mm

A hove left, an

early study

by Gaudi for the portal

a portrait of Gaudi by his


friend Opisso, made in 1900. Above. Gaudi 's

of the Passion.

Left,

only drawing of the projected cathedral in


entirety (1906).

on the
a

months of his

life,

he even

After work on June

7,

1926,

Gaudi was

walking to church, as he always did,

when

he was struck by a streetcar. Because of his

shabby appearance, passers-by were slow

come

to

his

aid.

He was

eventually

taken to a hospital, where he died three

days

later.

Appropriately, he was buried in

the crypt of his great unfinished church.

The
Holy

of stress within the structure. Right,


by Gaudi of the nave.

planners

who had

laid out the

than

rather

wanted

to

the

to

city

by building a church

would

rest

on the

wealthy bookseller
cabella.

named

Jose Maria Bo-

A deeply religious man, Bocabella

regularly

went on retreats occasionally

accompanied by the young Gaudi to a

Gothic tradition.

on the

crypt.

architect

of the diocese, to

tionalist,

he was dismayed

work was begun

But a few months

later, Villar

the city

have refused commis-

do not wish

to

work

than the Sagrada Familia,

for other

wish for

that.

In his

deep religious

architecture,

ment

to the

and

faith, his

his

Sagrada Familia, Gaudi him-

builders

Thus

to replace him.

in 1883,

Gaudi began

the project

to regard as his

work:

devotion to

enduring commit-

recommended

who devoted

of the medieval

their lives to the

great cathedrals.

Gaudi's method of designing was a process

of ceaseless research and discovery, a

continual exploration of formal and

strict tradi-

at

clients,

self recalled the tradition

life's

resigned and Gaudi, then thirty-one, was

purchased an entire

tent of erecting a church.

my

sions;

Bocabella chose Francisco del Villar,

which he eventually came

block with the in-

left

nothing but

shrine at Montserrat. In 1881, Bocabella


city

that

solid foundations of the

build the church. In 1882,

He

toward a material and overly rational urbanization

Family

with

traffic

residents.

stem what he saw as a trend

the official

originated

exten-

square blocks, catering to

large

idea for a church dedicated to the

had

new

sions of Barcelona as a checkerboard of

slept in the office at the building site.

to

its

sketches are based

noo

4
ing the last nine

lines

late study

Many of his

have no family, no obligations;

have

tic possibilities.

stylis-

His innumerable sketches

Sagrada Familia 119

made over many

for the church,

veal a constant evolution

years, re-

statues

and refinement

of his ideas, which were only gradually

committed

Gaudi repeatedly broke

He was

ules.

As

to concrete form.
his

Rejecting

Villar's

Gaudi

plans,

in-

creased the dimensions of the church, so

work sched-

that they stood to each other in a ratio of

both unwilling and unable to

three to

one a

basic piece of Christian

symbolism. The Latin-cross plan was

from

inherited

as well as by frescoes,

reliefs,

a result,

keep within estimates.

Gaudi

and

enamels, majolica, and wrought iron.

design

Villar's

nave and four

consist of a single

to

aisles.

only the crypt, which he transformed by

Twelve towers representing the twelve

raising the height of its vault to over thirty

Apostles were to surround a cupola, sym-

feet.

This preliminary gesture was an early

of the soaring Gothic

indication

which was
Gothic
is

aspiring

than the

words of William Blake,

the

The

The Sagrada Familia em-

art.

bodies the imaginative impulse of

The cupola was

reach a height of over 500 feet taller

to

shape the whole project.

to

art, in

bolizing the glory of Christ.

spirit

dome of St.

Peter's in

Rome.

four great columns which would

support the

dome were

to

symbolize the

ar-

four Evangehsts. There were to be three

as the ca-

entrance faqades, each with three doors

thedrals of the Gothic period reflected the

representing Faith. Hope, and Charity.

chitect in

much

same way

the

masons and

aspiring spirit of the

who

built

its

artisans

them.

The choice of

the Gothic (specifically

Catalan Gothic) style for the church thus


reflected

a bell lower.

Gaudi's personal religious fervor.

But the choice was also undeniably a political

Above, views and sections of

gesture.

symbolized the Catalan

It

The longitudinal section of

mav

the church (right)

sug-

gest the richness

own

of surface
ornamentation which Gaudi

during the latter half of the nineteenth

had once envisioned for the

century. This nationalism brought with

interior.

nationalism which had

renewed

interest

come

into

its

the Catalan

in

it

lan-

guage and history and a revival of Catalan

Note that the pro-

jected

forecourt

church

spans a

of

the

busy

city

street.

art

and

tal

of Barcelona, was a commercially and

with

literature. Catalonia,

its

capi-

industrially prosperous region.

The

citi-

zens of Catalonia

were

car-

felt

that they

rying the economic burdens of a bankrupt

medieval Spain, and they resented being

governed from

Madrid. Gaudi himself

was a passionate supporter of the nationalist

movement. He refused

thing but Catalan his

speak any-

to

name "Antoni"

is

Catalan variation of "Antonio."


If the

Sagrada Familia was

worthy symbol

of Catalan

Gaudi wanted

to

it

aspirations,

be not the

great medieval churches but the

new-a church
tects

be a

would have

built,

buttresses

High Gothic

the

lars set at

of the

they had to bear.

lived in

"The Gothic

sublime but incomplete," he stated.

is

"It is

(which

instead of the

he

scornfully

style,

he introduced

pil-

angles according to the stresses

of the

first

had they

And

called muletas, or "crutches") typical of

last

such as the Gothic archi-

the nineteenth century.

replaced the pointed arch

with a parabolic one.


flying

to

He

elements.

the project, Gaudi's

design coalesced into a kind of "mystery


or sacred

pageant of incredible

complexity and vastness.

He

envisioned

church as a union of architecture and

only a beginning stopped short by the de-

his

plorable Renaissance." While holding true

sacred .scripture, infused throughout with

to

many of the

principles of Gothic design,

Gaudi developed and

refined

some of

its

traditional Christian symbolism.

sign

was

to

The

de-

be completed by hundreds of

first

be

to

touched by the rays of the sun was to be


dedicated

to

the

birth

and infancy of

The southwestern faqade would

Jesus.

pict his Passion

the

de-

and death, and the south-

eastern and principal entrance


resent

As he worked on

play"

The northeastern faqade the

Last

Judgment.

would

And

rep-

in

mingling of Christian symbolism and Catalan and Iberian pride, the eight forward

columns of the central nave were

to repre-

sent the Spanish cities of Valencia,

Gra-

nada, Toledo, Saragossa, Burgos, Valladolid,

Santiago,

and

Seville-with

the

conspicuous absence of Madrid.


Like the great cathedrals of the Middle

120

Individual Creations

7"u'o

studiesa model

and a drawing

(left)

(above) of the final version of the recently

completed portal of the Passion.

Ages, the Sagrada Familia was not com-

Accordingly,

the

faqade

Nativity

is

pleted during the lifetime of the architect.

richly

Gaudi was only able

above the portals depict scenes of the Na-

to build a small part

ornate.

stone sculptures

Intricate

and are framed by arrangements of

of his ambitious design. At the time of his

tivity

death, the Sagrada Familia consisted only

carved vines and leaves. These sinuous

of the crypt, the northeastern facade, and

lines

the apse. Today, however, the towers of

of the Modernista

the faqade as well as the southwestern

alan form of Art Nouveau.

facade of the Passion have been com-

portal

pleted, according to the original designs of

symbol of the birth of Christ.

and

is

Gaudi might have

attracted

more sup-

style, a peculiarly

The

crowned by a huge stone

Gaudi

the architect.

plantlike forms are reminiscent

lived to see the

Cat-

center

fir tree,

completion of

two of the striking Nativity towers, and

all

first

building the

four

faqade which faced the

city.

However, he

slender, parabolic towers, encrusted with

believed

that

would be more

the

more severe Passion

difficult

than the Nativity

for the citizens of Barcelona

stand.

Therefore,

he

began

to

under-

with

the

northeastern facade in 1891. In 1903 the


basic structure
ished.

Soon

and doorways were

after the fa(^ade

fin-

was begun, a

were

completed

by

1930.

delicate, fairylike detail, soar

skyline of Barcelona.

These

above the

Capped with exu-

berant geometric forms of brilliant mosaics,

the towers were apparently designed to

hold spotlights which would

upon

the church

and the

beam down

The words "Sanctus Sanctus Sanctus"

donation of over seven hundred thousand

are carved

pesetas was received for the church. Fear-

planned that these words should be yel-

ing that the bishop of Barcelona might

low,

decide to allocate the

money

elsewhere, the

church administrators encouraged Gaudi


to

press

ahead with the northeastern

facade, using as

much money as he needed.

three

red,

tower.

Gaudi

and orange, symbolizing the

members of

the

Holy

Trinity. In-

deed, Gaudi intended color to play an


tegral

church.

symbolic

The

role

throughout

Nativity facade

the west

the

Passion

would be echoed
would

reflect

in

somber tones

that

of the sunset.

the colors

Within the church, the walls and sections


of the vaulting were to be colored according to the various ritual uses of each section

of the church.

The Sagrada Familia,

far

still

from

was

to

future." But Gaudi's inexhaustible relig-

in-

the

be

on

ious imagination lives

and notes

sketches

in his

for the church,

and

in recent

years, the facade of the Passion has

constructed.

Of

course,

had Gaudi

been
lived

long enough to supervise the construction,

he would doubtless have

made

further

modifications and refinements.

Gaudi has sometimes been


"baroque"

city at night.

midway up each

On

mood of

the solemn

side,

completion, has been called a "ruin of the

by

port for the church

decorated with bright colors.

architect.

called

But the Sagrada Fa-

milia ultimately transcends classification.


It is

both a universal statement of Chris-

tian doctrine

and a symbol of the Catalan

people. But the church

is,

above

all,

highly personal expression of faith.

Gaudi

said of his

Familia:

"What

nothing more; and

work

am
1

Sagrada

for the

doing

must do

is

As

my

it."

duty,

Chapel at Ronchamp

>

>

'y

-'''>:

:^^
iV-ir
V-ir.l

^^^ti^"

.t:^
ivr.-

t^^'^vr-

France

Preceding page, the Chapel of Notre-Dame-du-Haut at Ronchamp, built by


Le Corbusier during the early 1950s. The previous chapel was destroyed by
artillery

building.

during World

Le

War

II,

but some of its stones were used

Corbusier's detractors labeled the chapel

in the

new

"baroque"-a charge

which infuriated the architect, who prided himself on his mathematical precision.

Above, the southern facade of the chapel, with its upswept prowlike corner
(facing page). The windows with their embrasures are widely splayed either

inward (north

wall,

below right) or outward (south

a constantly varying light into the nave.

wall,

below

left)

and filter

x"^"

-'*^'

'^-

'**^

Left, the austere

block of the outside

Le

altar.

Corbusier designed the chapel so that mass

could be celebrated both in the small, restful


interior
silting

of the chapel and

outside, with pilgrims

on the grass as though the church

itself

were the apse of an immense temple roofed bv


the sky.

Below, far

left,

a rainwater spout and catchment

basin.

Below

left,

a view of an exterior pulpit, which

is

accessible from within the chapel.

Right, top

and

center,

two views from the north.

Despite the originality of the chapel, several influences are suggested: the Mediterranean quality

of the white volumes enhanced bv sunlight:

Le Corbusier's

earlier tendency

tional" architecture, with

its

toward 'func-

clear surfaces

pure volumes: and the primitive flavor

of the

Below

in

and

many

details.

right, the "light

catchers" of one of the

side chapels, designed to carefully apportion the

captured light that illuminates the altar within


the tower.

"Tlie
I

kfv

"
IS liglil,

urule Le Corbusier. Within

he chapel a magical play of light

the

windows with

sures.

To the south and

right), the

is

created by

their widely splaved

east {above

left

embra-

and far

roof is almost invisibly supported on

columns, leaving a narrow blade of light separating

it

from the wall so that the roof appears

hover weigh tlesslv.

to

A hove. Jar

left

and right,

the south wall, studded

with small windows thai filler the light as if

through the leaves of an enchanted forest. Le


Corbusier eschewed traditional stained glass for
the chapel, preferring to paint the
his

own

designs

and

inscriptions.

windows with
This interior

faqade of the chapel, which seems so freshly


conceived,

was actually designed according

to

ofproportional measures
invented by ihe architect. Exact mathematical
the Modulor, a system

and geometric

ratios govern the relationship

each aperture to the others and of all of them


the wall as a whole.

of
to

Liiihl wtlhin ihe

Lefl.

an altar

in

in lii^lu /runt the

chapel takes

many

forms.

one of the side chapels, bathed


tower above.

Facing page, votive candles, arranged with geometric simplicitv, flickering before a venerated
statue of the I'irgin that

was rescued from the

ruins of the previous chapel.

windows are the words of the A

On some of
ve

the

Maria, painted

bv Le Corbusier himself.

Following page, the great "prow" of the chapel.

The chapel

itself

marvelouslv illustrates Le

Corbusier's belief in architecture as "the skillful,


correct,

and magnificent

put together

"
in light.

interplay of volumes,

nujuiii

:^..-.

Chapel

Chapel at Ronchamp
France

Comte area of France,


border. This

hill

close to the Swiss

had long been considered

sacred, having been associated

first

with

pagan and then Christian worship over


the centuries.

But

its

chapel had been

blasted by artillery during the liberation of

France

at the

end of World War

the projects submitted for


tion

had been

and too

costly.

might be able

In 1950, the

received

French architect Le Corbusier

commission

to

rebuild

Chapel of Notre-Dame-du-Haut on a
near Ronchamp. a village

in the

the
hill

Franche-

ground plan, transverse

of the Chapel

at

Ronchamp.

section,

and

Le Corbusier,

it

was hoped,

forms and dramatic use of color and sense


of space,
great

is

without doubt one of the few

religious

structures

of our time.

However, the completed Chapel

champ met
miration.

with as

much

at

Ron-

hostility as ad-

Le Corbusier was particularly

incensed by the charge of "baroquism."

To be

identified with

a style he vehe-

mently disliked after a lifetime of dedication to "all-embracing mathematics," to

meticulous precision, and to constant re-

rounding landscape.

preme

Le Corbusier, then already

sixty-three,

undertook the project with his customary


tenacity.

design,

The
with

insult!

Such

criticism,

however, was nothing

new. Throughout his career, he had been

resultant bold,

unorthodox

subjected to a continual barrage of accu-

full-blown

curvilinear

sations of architectural heresy, "vandal-

its

4'i.'i4

Ri^ht. the

reconstruc-

rejected as overambitious

133

search and adjustment-that was the su-

fa(^ade

all

ary that would harmonize with the sur-

I)

vate studio within his office in A uieuil~a cubicle


that he called "the study for patient research. "

and

Ronchamp

to design a suitable sanctu-

KlOII.

Above. I^ Corbusier at his worklable in the pri-

its

II,

at

134

Individual Creations

ism," megalomania, and contempt for historic

and

of Michelangelo, thrived on con-

like that
flict.

But his genius,

artistic tradition.

Indeed, Le Corbusier has sometimes

recognize the totally

modem

attentive

urban

Not only did he share Michelangelo's

ture

temperament, but Le Corbusier can be


said to have

changed the direction of the

twentieth century, as Michelangelo

is

rec-

new requirements of

World War

I.

At the be-

ginning of his career, he was particularly

been dubbed the Michelangelo of his age.


fiery

Ufe after

life

to

the growing complexity of

and the "functional"

He

architec-

unadorned cubic forms became known

Le Corbusier increasingly valued the

reer,

of architecture. The

plastic possibilities

Chapel

Ronchamp

at

mechanistic notion of the house as une

machine a habiter ("a machine

spent three hours on the

necessitated.

popularized the

emphasizing simplicity and

to live in")

efficiency.

He

He

probably the

is

max of this
One day

it

as

the International style. Yet, later in his ca-

cli-

sculptural development.

June 1950, the architect

in

hill at

Ronchamp.
ground

familiarized himself with the

in his

own

The

ruins

ognized as having influenced the entire

was one of the architects among them

and the horizons and became,

course of the Renaissance.

Walter Gropius and Ludwig Mies van der

words, "permeated" with them.

Rohe who,

of the old chapel were on the grassy crown

Le

Corbusier

painter as

was

also

weU

was

an

accomplished

as a brilliant architect.

one of the

first

He

social critics to

in a

wave of postwar

experi-

mentation, stripped architecture of its historical deceits

and

superfluities,

and whose

of the

reached by a steep and winding

hill,

To

dirt track.

the west stretched the plain

of the Saone River; to the north lay a

small valley and a village; to the east, the


Elevations of the two longer faqades: the northern faqade (inimediatelv below)

faqade (below) are shown


itor to assess

and the southern

here. "I forbid the vis-

automatically the size of the vari-

Ballons d'Alsace; and to the south, the last


spurs of the Vosges Mountains sloping

down

into a valley.

As he surveyed

the

ous parts of the building, " Le Corbusier wrote.

landscape, Le Corbusier had a vision of

For him. the important consideration was the

the chapel created

interplay

of ratios dictated by the Modulor.

craftsmen,
lonely,

by a team of master

working together on the

windswept

eventually
his

all

The

hill.

become

would

idea

For

reality.

years

five

group of designers and artisans would

share the rewards and the frustrations of


constructing the

new

Le Corbusier's

hilltop chapel.

was

step

first

to

make

meticulous drawings of the surrounding


landscape.

As

a painter, he

beUeved

in the

importance of preliminary drawings as a

means of unlocking in

his

own words

"the visual echo in the realm of shape."

His design for the chapel was above

all

response to the landscape. For Le Corbusier,

was "a phenomenon of visual

it

acoustics" a counterpoint to the Une of

and

hills

of the blue of the

a celebration

sky and the play of the clouds.

The
ture

finished chapel

rizon

and

rounding
a

is

a massive sculp-

which stands out against the wide hois

visible for miles

hills

from the

sur-

and green woodlands. Like

twentieth-century

Stonehenge,

it

ap-

pears elemental and natural, with an expansive,

uncramped

dignity.

upward sweep of the roof

The

majestic

unifies the ele-

ments of its composition and creates an

air

of almost dramatic inevitability.


Yet, as if in defiance of

its

mass, the

chapel has an appearance of weightlessness.

The whitewashed

walls

seem made

of papier-mache, and the upswept roof,

"

Chapel

invisibly

supported a few inches above the

on columns, appears

walls

hover sub-

to

135

Below, an axonometric perspective of the chapel,


with the roof "removed.

Below
the

after

Le Corbusier

stantially but weightlessly.

modeled the roof

Ronchamp

at

of a

shell

horseshoe crab he had picked up while

left,

construction drawings of the two

towers above the side chapels, which were de-

signed to capture

light.

walking with his friend, the sculptor Tino

Long

Nivola, along a beach on

New

Island,

York. For months the shell occupied

honor on

the place of

his

drawing board.

Aside from the beauty of the structure,

Ronchamp,
truly

as a whole,

spaces.

With

formal

elements,

also

is

modem

remarkable

one of the

architectural

precise relationship of

its

which space flows

around

and

through

freely,

is

supreme

it

example of what Le Corbusier called

"in-

effable space."

Le Corbusier assembled a small book


describing the creation of the Chapel at

Ronchamp.

In

is

it

poem

called

"The

Key," which emphasizes the importance


of understanding

his use

of

light in

any

interpretation of the building:

The key
and

is

light

light illuminates

shapes

and shapes have an emotional power.

On

the following page,

Le Corbusier goes

still

further-"Observe the shadows, learn

the

game"-and

suggests that the reader

turn the pictures upside

down

or sideways

become

to

By

better

aware of the play of light.

his poetic logic, the

eye-varying light

music: "Precise shadows

arabesques

is

enchanting

counterpoint and fugue.

Great music."
It

is

easy to sec what

meant. Outside, the


brilliant

architect

form

to the

white of the walls and defines the

varied pattern of the


that

the

light gives

window openings

throw huge shadows

broken expanses. The

acro.ss the

light picks

un-

out the

colors of the glazed, painted steel of the

pivoting door.
the

It

also projects the colors of

windows-decorated with designs and

inscriptions painted by the architect him-

self-deep into the interior of the chapel.

Other windows, particularly on the north

^-de&ri3

wall, diffuse the light, giving the

luminous, almost mystical aura.

chapel a

136

Individual Creations

Le Corbusier's sense of
tributes in other

of the
light

interior.

ways

light also con-

mood

to the special

The narrow glazed

strip

between the roof and the walls

the underside of the roof blotting out

supports, so that like the

Sophia

in

dome

of

lights
its

of Hagia

Istanbul the heavy span ap-

pears to be suspended in the

air.

The

three

towers of the side chapels like three stone

nuns searching the horizons catch the


light at dilTerent
it

down onto

tacular

is

times of the day and

the altars below.

filter

Most spec-

the northeast tower, with red

walls which bathe the altar beneath in a

magical red glow.

As

far as possible, the materials used in

the chapel were

left in their

stone and cement paving;

natural state:

wood benches;

beion brut for the ceilings (raw concrete


still

bearing the marks of the

work

into

which

it

wooden form

was poured); wood-

block flooring; a cast-iron altar

rail; altars

of dressed stone from Burgundy; and a


simple bronze cross. This use of materials
implied a respect for their primitive, essential state, a recognition

sculptural

properties,

an

of their innate

emphasis

construction rather than on finish.

on

To Le

Corbusier, raw materials were beautiful in


their honesty, in

much

the

same way

the depiction of a nonidealized

form

may

that

human

be.

Le Corbusier's construction techniques

*,>,

IH

'

Taivallahti
KV

ViJ*.

Church

VAVl*V

Finland

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ft

ff

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y^f>>

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g

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OJ

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ffl"Ef1

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ffl

ffl

ffl

BSIIID

IJII

^
i

^:

.,

Preceding page, ihe snow-covered dome of the


church, rising above

its

rocky base.

It is sepa-

rated from the surrounding park by a wall built

of stones quarried from the

night, the

site.

dome (above left) eerily resembles a


down in the city of Helsinki.

flying saucer set

Modern

materials are used here in conjunction

with natural elements such as the roughly

hewn

.stones that define the

character-both functional

and primitive of the

structure.

Above

right,

a detail of the

strip

of windows that

runs around the base of the dome.

Left

and

right, the

entrance of the church. The

doors are entirely of glass. Where the bare rock


is not left exposed, the walls are of concrete, or
"reconstituted rock, " as

it

has been

called.

H-^AT

'^^

m'

Left. Taivallahii's
1)1

spacious interior, with a view

the altar. The body of the church

is

hewn out

of the great rock that filled the center of the


square. The architects were thus able to preserve
a piece of nature in the midst of a
creating a place for prayer that

is

city,

dome

mantically

is

in striking contrast to the ro-

"natural" rock walls below.

One

hundred eighty prestressed concrete beams support the roof.

while

protected, lu-

minous, and beautiful. The dimensions of the


church allow it to serve as a concert or convention hall.

metric

Seen from within, the immense geo-

Above, in the foreground, the stone

font, and, in

the distance, the church organ.

Below, the simple pews and the

altar.

r-'^-i

Above

left,

the

roughly carved

Above and below


lery in the rear

organ, set close against one

wall.

right, the

angular copper gal-

of the church seems

church toward the

altar.

Its

to focus the

gleaming surface

evokes a sense of modernity within a basically


primitive setting.

Left

and far

bases are
tion site.

left,

the font

and

the altar, who.se

formed from stones from

the excava-

As

in

many modem

works, materials of contrasting textures are dramai-

icallr juxtaposed at Taivallahli.

The photographs on

this

page show

the

achieved bv the combinations of copper, coated ahiminum. glass,


and stone. Stone both quarried and applied in the form of concrete-is

effects

the

common denominator of the

building.

Following page, the copper dome, which hangs suspended over the
church, reflecting light from the broad
space.

band of windows

into the interior

^r^^mt BiS^^^r^

Taivallahti

Taivallahti

Exceptions to

Church

Modern

exist.

Finland

this

rule do,

of course,

architecture has produced

some memorable churches


contemporar)'

years, Finland

149

had become even more of a

and secular

socialist

Church

society.

Although

combine

ninety-five percent of the Finnish people

methods of construction

are Christians, only four percent claim to

that

with contemporary ideas about rehgion.

attend church regularly.

One example is the starkly modern,


domed Church of Taivallahti in Helsinki's

therefore,

community

Temppeliaukio ("Temple Hill")

cert hall.

district.

would

also

have

A new

church,

to function as a

center, auditorium,

and con-

In August 1960, the church committee

The

original plan

was

imposing church on the


Architecture

is

Of course,

ing churches.

being

built,

no longer the

dressed for a

new

life, is

of build-

churches are

but the age

chronicler could wxite:

art

is

still

gone when a

"The world,

as

if

putting on a white

architectural

to build a large

site.

However, an

competition held in

1932,

followed by a second one in 1936, pro-

duced no
lection

clear

winning designs. The

se-

committee eventually decided on

plan that called for a church fronted by an

mantle of cathedrals." The cathedrals of

almost skyscraperlike tower. Preliminary

today are airports, refineries, and super-

excavation began in the

highways, huge sports stadiums and office


towers, dams,

and

satellite cities.

They are

built in a style called Functional,

was

bom

which

out of the technology of mass

the

fall

of 1939, but

work was interrupted almost immedi-

ately

by the outbreak of war.

More than twenty


the committee

its

duties,

and by

of the public park in which

to

be

In January 1961, from a field of sixty-

ted by a pair of young


the

brothers

and talented

archi-

Timo and Tuomo

Suomalainen. Their proposal, entitled Kivikirkko ("Stone Church"),

masterful

of

was

seven entries, they chose the plan submit-

seemed inappropriate. In the intervening

the church.

it

situated.

economics.

Below andfar right, photographs of

to

the greatest possible extent the character

ing for

the early stages of the excavation

was

at large

as well as the parish, while preserving to

that time, their original plan for a church

of Taivallahti.
Timo and Tuomo Suomalainen.

community

serve the needs of the

production and the constraints of modern

Riglil. the architects

yet another competition. This

time, they specified that the church

tects,

years passed before

resumed

announced

its

was outstand-

elegant simplicity and for the

way

it

resolved the numerous

150

Individual Creations

architectural

problems posed by the com-

church in the center of the rock, and cover

dome.

the excavation with a large aerial

petition committee.

Those problems were,

in

formi-

fact,

They would then connect

the

church

dable. First, the site chosen for the church

proper with tunnels to the parish meeting

surrounded by blocks

rooms, the vicarage, and other secondary

was a

circular space,

of unprepossessing buildings. Second, in


the center of the space

was an enormous,

irregular rock that rose to a height of forty

above

feet

street level.

To dynamite

this

way

that

would preserve

its

general outline. As the architects them-

"The

selves said:

special nature of the lo-

excavation,

February
later,

14,

began

finally

on September

on

two years

1968. Less than

28, 1969, Taivallahti

Church was consecrated.

It is

not entirely accurate to speak of the

church as having been "built." Perhaps a

more appropriate term would be


tecture

"archi-

by removal," an idea usually asso-

for in

cation led to the idea of making the church

ciated with certain Indian temples or fu-

urban neighborhood the rock was a

out of the rock outcrop itself and to add

nerary

away was out of the question,

rock

the

buildings which would be set into the sides

of the rock in a

properly

precious contact with nature, a stretch of

extra forms

open ground

possible."

in the center of the city.

was equally unthinkable, though,


gate the church to a

comer of the

site.

The Suomalainens had a bold


They would leave
possible,

It

to rele-

plan.

the rock intact as far as

hollow out an opening for the

and structures

as naturally as

The

architects

some changes

in

were asked

their

original

to

diffi-

make

design.

These involved removing the projected


tower and reducing the secondary

bell

buildings by two-thirds of their planned

And

size.

in

the finance committee ar-

still,

gued incessantly about the cost of the


Seven years passed before

construction.

Egypt and

to existing faults in

The rock was then dynamited

the rock.

along these natural cracks, so that there

would be

as

little

evidence of drilling and

dynamiting as possible.

However, any

marks resulting from the process were


visible.

were

also

left

and unfinished,

natural

without any stone dressing or plaster. As


the

architects

noted:

"Marks from

much

digging were avoided as

work underway. Construction, or more

but not artificially masked, since

the

as possible,
it

was our

left:

the excavation in

its

the

stages;

later

left

The granite walls of the excavation

the Suomalainens were able to get the

Clockwise from

Persia.

space, blasting holes

were drilled adjacent

Almost immediately, there were


culties.

monuments
To hollow out the

casting of the foun-

dation wall: the supports for the prefab-

and

ricated beams;

wooden

the

upon

form

which

dome was

the

cast.

Be-

cause of the irregularity

of the rim, the

supporting beams for


the

dome

are all of

varying lengths.

III II

1
sv
'

B M H

81

"^

*.

Q B

II
!5

.>'.
n

iiii

ar

ii
fi

II

li

jllKf,

I lie Ml

:\

Taivallahti

idea that the system of construction should

the work.

remain easily

ning, engineering,

visible."

The church,

therefore, has

finished surfaces to be
tional

building there

worked

rock.

The

found
is

none of the
in a

conven-

The

The other half involved


and

creation of the

dome proved

impressive technical

plan-

installing the

roof

Church

dome, a model of the structure was

The model was subjected

to

an

tations of the stresses that the actual

an

in-

would be expected

to bear.

151

built.

represen-

to be

feat, as well as

dome

These experi-

just very roughly

genious solution to the aesthetic problem

ments gave the engineers the information

an

of converting a raw cavity into a harmoni-

they needed to design the roof of the

ous and habitable architectural space.

church.

architects allowed

eighteen-inch margin of error between the

intended alignment of the walls on the


plans and the location of the actual rock

The outer

one hundred eighty beams of

First,

concrete were

prestressed

set,

like

the

lights Ues

ring of double-glazed sky-

above the prefabricated beams,

an ordinary building, the compa-

spokes of a wheel, around the perimeter of

while the thin concrete shell in the center

rable margin of error might be a quarter of

the hole, at a slight angle from the hori-

is

an inch.) The walls and

zontal.

face. (In

floors,

of course,

have no insulation, neither thermal nor


acoustic.

The primeval rock

protects,

warms, and enfolds so that the

itself isolates,

Then, a shallow concrete

hub of

the

this

dome

dish-shaped wheel was

cast in the center. This

seemingly simple

covered inside and out with copper.

From below,
appears
space.

to

The

the copper

and

glass

dome

hover dramatically above the


architects

knew

that a support

operation turned out to be a complex

with a bright light on either side appears a

church has the oddly comforting feeling of

problem

good deal more slender than

a subterranean

church.

lair.

across and rather


lar,

to

working on the
be both rather

an average of seventy-five

broad
Excavating Taivallahti was only half

for the engineers

The dome was

flat. It

for the rim of the

was

feet

also irregu-

wheel was the edge

of the excavation. Thus, each of the precast spokes

was

calculate

Several views of

and

casting

the

th<

of

the cement used for


the

center

dome
here.

are

of the
shown

The prestressed

beams sup-

concrete

port a thin concrete


shell,

which

ivas

covered outside with

a copper roof and


support an acoustic

copper ceiling inside


the church.

thin:

it

actually

is.

are already re-

on sunny days, they seem

to disappear.

The
ing

is,

The
the requirements of the

of the beams

creclion

markably

beams

ring of windows encircling the ceilin the architects'

words:

a slightly different length

from the next.

To

In fact, the concrete

decisive part of the design.

The

most "weightless" part of the church.

152

Individual Creations

design, stones from

the heavy freeform of the

contrasts with the play of light overhead.

overall principle of

stone wall joins the mathematical form

Glass against metal, metal against stone,

the site were used for various details, such

of the dome, and the hall space opens

stone against glassjuxtapositions of tex-

Through

it

upward toward

the

open space

outside.

ture everywhere give the

church a

vital,

copper,

visible to passers-by.

is

ring of glass

is

The

great

In planning their church, the


lainen brothers paid

strict

Suoma-

attention to the

hidden by a waU of stone,

secular as well as the rehgious needs of the

so close to the wall that they

some

sort

community. Therefore, they designed the


building itself to function not only as a

metaphor

mizes the church's intrusion upon

church but also as an auditorium for con-

modem

ural surroundings,

goers

away

and

from

it

its

nat-

also keeps park-

the

dome

and

its

Such a fusion of modem and primitive


materials

ment.

It

certs or conferences.

choir

loft,

There

skylights.

a bold and elegant achieve-

is
is

this subtle

present that

makes

union of past and

Taivallahti's roughly

carved, unadorned center so immediately


inviting.

The

looms overhead

expansive
like

copper

a giant sun, reflecting

the light that enters through the


at its base.

Above and

dome

The harsh

windows

granite dramatically

right, (he interior

of the church dur-

ing construction, showing the scaffolding sup-

porting the work.

Once construction was underand a

way. Taivallahti Church took only a year

half to complete.

font.

to the

is

The church has

as well as space for an orchestra.

a control

room

for recording, for

society. Stripped

phisticated

modem

deep into rock,

it is

its

ship and reflect.

equipped

to

community.
font,

and

altar, there are

few

Apart from pews, an organ, a


a small cross
traditional

on the

ecclesiastical

accouterments

within Taivallahti. In keeping with the

church in

of its traditional

technology, yet carved


a space in the heart of

where people may gather

simultaneous translations. Enclosed in


is

be

faqades and furnishings, at ease with a so-

the city

meet the needs of a contemporary urban

to

been seen as a visual

for the place of the

radio and television transmissions, and for

primeval rock, Taivallahti

seem

of natural outcropping.

Taivallahti has

which follows the

site,

and the

and pews, low

the rising pipes of the organ, which nestle

contour of the excavation. The wall mini-

quarried from the

altar

coppery dish that hangs overhead as do

the exterior, only the upper part

of the dome, covered in a gradually aging

as the supports of the altar

The simple

ground, accentuate the height of the great

natural atmosphere.

From

its

to

wor-

Guggenheim Museum

U.S. A.

mttM

Wf
5Wi

i^-

'
,.

u-

:;;^-<-r.

Preceding page, the Guggenheim Museum, seen

from above with its huge skylight. It is one of


Frank Llovd Wright's last major works and is
also

among his

least

he wanted nothing
sign.

decoratedperhaps because

to distract

from

Wright considered the spiral

its

to

spiral de-

be the

ulti-

mate and most coherent form for the "organic


architecture" of which he was the undisputed
master.

Above

left,

Guggenheim

the

Fifth Avenue.

in

setting

its

The museum stands out

contrast lo the buildings

around

it.

on

in sharp

In Wright's

view this was proof of its greatness. In fad. his


concrete spiral makes the surrounding structures

look archaic as though they are intruders upon

a landscape

to

which only the museum

itself is

native.

Ij:ft,

and

above,

and

ma.ss of the

right,

huge

.sense

.spiral,

precariously balanced were


darity of the

of the "energy"

which might seem


it

not for the soli-

huge slab upan which

il

rests.

J-

L-LilLy,f

The
it,

interior space

of the museum

and functions along

thev are taken to the top of the


shaft breaks the curve
their

way down

is

entirely fluid, as Wright envisioned

the lines of his original idea.

ramp bv

of the ramps

(left

and

above}.

the spiraling ramp, they can view the

visitors enter,

As

visitors

make

modern paintings

walls. Most of the museum's daytime illuminacomes from the huge central skylight (below), which is reflected in

which are hung on the


tion

As

the elevator, whose columnlike

a pool on the ground floor

(facittg page).

f.

a
Wright's spiral design has proved lo be some-

what impractical for a picture


tor

has

to

paintings

flat

gallery.

Some

have housed

to

unsympathetic atmosphere, but


that Wright

he paid
serve.

such an

more

likely

little

attention to the function

it

was

to

However, he did justify his design on

Walking down the

ramp was supposed


dering through the
lery,

in

it

it is

was so enthralled with the form that

functional grounds.

crit-

have suggested that the architect must have

hated modern art

visi-

hung against curved walls

sometimes discomforting experience.


ics

The

stand on a sloping floor and look at

to

be

less tiring

linear

than wan-

maze of a conventional

although some

ingand dizzying as

visitors
well.

find

it

Just as

galtir-

The Guggenheim

is

among the best-known and most popular museums of modern art in the world, although the
building itself may well be the prime attraction
for most visitors.

i
jBSSsssaaBB

^^

2^

The museum

reflects Wright's characteristic attention to the integrity

and continuity of his

interiors

and

the fusion of each element into the

overall design.

Above and

left,

an arch overlooking a side

gallery.

Below, the leaf-shaped reflecting pool that rests inside the ground floor
curve of the ramp. The foliage at the edge of the pool seems to grow
naturally out of the concrete of the ramp.

Curvedforms dominate the spaces devoted

museum

's

torium (above
left),

to the

subsidiary activities the small audileft),

the

book

the restaurant (below

sales stand (center

left),

and an

ancillary

gallery (below).

Following page, the Guggenheim perhaps the


only

museum

leries

in the

world

in

which

can be seen at a single glance.

all the gal-

Guggenheim Museum

temporary

Guggenheim

architects.

band of devoted

Museum

With the help of

assistants,

Wright had

created dozens of them, year after year. By


1932, Wright's

U.S.A.

work had become highly

Guggenheim Museum.
own training had been limited

few years' work in the studios of some

York's

Museum

of Modern

modern

be a definitive exhibition of
chitecture.

It

ar-

presented the work of Frank

Chicago

architects,

the

Guggenheim Museum

City. In the early 1940's

genheim,

him

the

relationship
the

master

master") their

his

of their contract.

revolutionary design school, the Bauhaus.

commented.

made an

Wright

exuberantly

warn you,

"I

excellent start,

having

that

fully intend not

Frank Lloyd Wright's childhood had


been shaped by a transplanted
land

heritage

of liberal

New

Eng-

Protestantism

only to be the greatest architect that has

and an acceptance of the "natural philos-

ever been but also the greatest of all future

ophy"

of Walt

architects."

Wright's

candid

own work was


were

still

endorsement of

understandable,

what extravagant.
itors

in

When

his three

if

his

some-

coexhib-

grade school, he was

ready designing remarkably

al-

innovative

houses, any one of which could have established his pre-eminence

among

con-

Below, one of the masterly perspective drawings


that Wright's studio
project.

that

produced

to illustrate the

was expressed

in the writings

Whitman and Henry David

Thoreau. In the spirited and energetic

mosphere of the times,

it

is

at-

perhaps not

surprising that Wright also developed that


insistence

upon absolute freedom of mind

which marks the true pioneer as well as the

renowned

painting,

house a growing collection of pictures.

that

uously,

occasion,

to fostering

young

discovered

Quite

that

who was committed

found himself in need of more space to

buildings for clients of his own, in viola-

On

New York

in

Solomon R. Gug-

was abruptly dissolved when

Ludwig Mies van der Rohe and

tion

his

his obstinacy

development of modern

protege had begun to secretively design

Walter Gropius, two leaders of Germany's

said to

to play their roles in his design for

respected Sullivan he was fond of calling


lieber meister ("dear

is

man move

Both Wright's genius and

during

Though Wright

called

was dripping on him from

chair.

designer for Louis Sullivan, the father of


skyscraper.

function. Once,

have suggested that the

came

modem

more impor-

far

utilitarian

owner of one of his houses

the

Lloyd Wright along with that of Le Corbusier and

work was

his

its

a crack in the ceiling, Wright

which time he had risen to become chief

the

New

tant than

to say that rain

well-known

In 1932,

of

integrity

when

to a

Art assembled what was clearly meant to

pleasing his clients.

individualistic often with hints of the ex-

Wright's

165

embody an idea than with


To Wright, the artistic

proper form to

pressionism that later was to suffuse his


design for the

artist,

which

is

why he

often

seemed more concerned with finding the

he decided

modern

art

leading

modern

ought

empathy

painting,
the

that
to

Ironically,

man known

for

ingen-

museum of

be the work of a

architect.

turned to Wright, a
little

perhaps

but

justifiably,

to

he

have

twentieth-century

and commissioned him

new museum. Wright's

to design

creation

is

one

of the most original buildings in the world,


a

museum

of

art.

with

its

own

ure. Ultimately, the

well

is

place in the history

Yet. as a picture gallery,

only thing

it

a fail-

displays

itself

One of

the

first

problems in Wright's

view was the location of


building.

comer

it is

the proposed

The foundation had

site

selected a

on Fifth Avenue, facing Cen-

166

Individual Creations

%:

m^

]"i

^imrMiJCt^.:-^-r'^

Above, Frank Lloyd Wright's


studio in

with

Oak

Park.

some of his many

mon Guggenheim
until

student-collaborators.

1949,

in

New York

1956 by the

house and

first

Illinois. Left, the architect

then

again

City building

some disagreements

codes, as well as by

between the architect and the directors of


the

Guggenheim foundation. Work was

museum

not finally completed on the

until

after Wright's death.

The museum
which
Park. If there

tral

was one thing

Lloyd Wright detested,


city not

New York

it

that

Frank

was the

big

in particular, but the

very concept of city. "The city." he used to


say,

Ralph

quoting

Waldo

Emerson,

"makes man sociable and loquacious.


and

artificial."

Wright's feelings were well

known; nevertheless, the commission was


offered

and accepted by the

architect.

The administrators of the museum may


have been unaware of or refused

to ac-

knowledgeWright's growing rejection of


the conventional square

and rectangular

for the spiral, or

simply a

mension, a
line.

circle

had wanted

infinite

years earlier, Wright

would give concrete form

to his vision. In

upward
ually

is

toward the

top.

Within the

huge

skylight.

main

spiral

is

At the

ramp

that

would take

cars

into a spiral

up

to

an obser-

vatory at the peak. In the 1930s, however.

Wright returned

more conventional

to

forms, thus his heUcal spiral

dream was

not realized until he Convinced


that

relates the
tilinear

conical

would make a magnificent museum.

Progress on the building was slow, but

The
is

Outside, there

of conch

shells, "plastic

form

and continuous"

sented in

1943.

was secured

metic-

Guggenheim's approval

in 1944, but construction

was

not scheduled to begin until the war was


over.

It

was delayed by the death of Solo-

city

also

its

rec-

blocks and

is

apparent simplicity.

its

is little

ulous studies for his proposals was pre-

made

and

whole to

more than

name of the museum

tering of the

project the architect always

shows the original

and

of the Guggenheim

startling effect

accentuated by

polygon (recalling the forms of mineral

design, a fantastic per-

as a

environment of

plore the possibilities of the triangle, the

circle to the spiral, the

by a

floor level, the

conventional buildings.

Solomon

an inverted

museum

spective drawing that

from the

first

structure coimects both elements

people from it-Wright had begun to ex-

step

a vast

A broad horizontal rectilinear base

starkness

For some

is

oflfices.

Maryland

the smoothness of

circle.

opens out

arloaf Mountain in

the delays were not attributable to Wright.

to take the logical

it

spiral

joined with a smaller, round

The preliminary

and even the

spirals

central space, illuminated primarily

out onto the world rather than insulating

had been ready

and

in five concentric turns, contin-

growing wider so that

scribed as "organic architecture." opening

time, he

level

building, used for readings, lectures,

spiral

crystals),

ramp

essentially a long

ground

1927, he proposed turning the top of Sug-

continual search for natural forms approthat he de-

is

to build a great spiral that

Guggenheim

human needs forms

a helix,

of movement, an

many

In fact,

forms of city buildings and blocks. In his

priate to

more properly

circle carried into the third di-

starts at

its

unusual

many of his

the
to

let-

break

concrete walls. This

in Wright's

work.

for.

buildings are so highly deco-

rated that their carefully designed spatial


structures are barely discernible.

Wright was fond of quoting Lao-tse,

who

twenty-five

centuries

space which

it

encloses."

had

earlier

stated that "the reality of a vessel

is

the

The Guggen-

Guggenheim Museum

Museum may

heim

clearest

architect's

achieved a perfectly continuous, self-con-

shell,

which would gently "spiral"

demonstration of the somewhat

tained organic form where the flowing

down

to the

contradictory

way

in

be

the

which he interpreted

spiral

shapes both the outside structure

these words. Wright said he could not un-

and the space

within. If here

derstand the inability of his colleagues to

be faulted for

all

between urban and rural

differentiate

chitecture.

tience

for

ar-

He proclaimed his lack of paarchitects who unthinkingly

transposed the boxlike structures suitable


for cities into country landscapes.

horred

unnaturalness

the

buildings that took

no account of

rural surroundings, those


terior spaces

side

only

punched
his

ab-

their

whose closed

in-

communicated with the out-

through

the

life itself

small

windows

Remaining

In defense of his stunningly original design,

Wright declared that he was not

merely playing a

that the conventional

He

with forms:

was

He

manner of

ing paintings in one dreary

be-

really the best

for a picture gallery.

an angle as Wright believed the

himself had seen

was

room

on the

Some

that very large rectangular canvases could

not tolerate the sloping floors and curved


walls.

A reply of sorts

Forum

display-

painting has

The Architectural

in

that "the rectangular

more

to

than with the painting"

is

frames before

However,

this

surroundings,

using

on

terpieces

Wright,

this

itable

chitecture.

which they were

to stand. In

Guggenheim Museum, he

certainly

the

walls.

museum

mas-

According

fatigue

was an inev-

consequence of wrong-headed

At the Guggenheim,

would enter on the ground

to

floor

ar-

visitors

and be

tant.

still

objection

The curve of

enough

to

allow

true enough, but

stretched

is

on

rec-

being

painted.

really

unimpor-

the walls

all

frame of a

do with the frame

tangular

tion of their feet rather than with the

controversy

raised the objection

making them concerned with the condi-

would har-

artist

easel.

considerable

over the design.

claimed

after an-

it

as fluid, continuous,

ronment
the

game

lieved that the helix

shape

at

the outward-leaning walls. In

way, each work of art would be viewed

There

out of place.

materials that were natural to the enviin

makes them

look as though they are the ones that are

hung along
this

most canvases are

ing to design structures that


their

neighbors, at least he almost

they would be able to study the paintings

other distracts the attention of visitors by

and integrated, Wright wrote about want-

monize with

but ignoring his urban

visitors

As they descended,

true to

in their walls.

view of

He

"urban"

of

Wright can

first floor.

167

but

is

gradual

tremendously

oversized canvases to hang comfortably.

The

spiral defines a magnificent space

and has become a compulsory stop on

to the top,

where

even the most cursory tours of New York.

they would begin to slowly wind

down

The Guggenheim

carried by elevator

up

Any

weariness would be

more than

counteracted by the natural form of the

prestigious

"along the spiral.

often impresses visitors

the better-known

Museum

of

and more

Modern

Art,

Above, plan of the Jacobs House designed in


1943. which reflects Wright's interest in circular
buildings.

Right, the flrsi version

of the Gug-

genheim, higher than the final design.

<'

->J

.-

>-

168

Individual Creations

partly because
It is

it is

human

on a more

a continuous structure, far

time,

and while

it

scale.

ahead of its

was under construc-

tionand remaining upright

in

apparent

very high esteem.

One of Wright's

resent-

telligible

has even suggested that the

sionsto

defiance of gravity Wright would smirk

ful ex-disciples

happily and say of his colleagues, "They'll

architect created the

spend years trying

museum,

make

it

their

is

to

work

it

out." But as a

a challenge. Visitors

way down

ramp

at

must

an angle,

museum

annihilate the pictures.


sion,

By

his

order to

in

own admis-

Wright did not appreciate modern

knew

painting; he certainly

studying paintings hung on a wall that

and may well have cared

about

little

less

it

about the

form

hopes, and

to ideas,

illu-

human life. In this sense the


Guggenheim Museum is a success. It suggests how exciting the world could be and
how many beautiful things it offers- if
only

every

freely,

individual

would be

fully,

and enthusiastically himself and

both curves and slopes. Wright's original

collection than about his spiral. Certainly,

would choose personal

idea of hanging the pictures as they were

one of Wright's strongest convictions was

trappings of success. Most important, the

painted was never carried out the paint-

that the true artist

ings are customarily

suspended perpen-

dicular to the ground to alleviate addi-

It is

easy to conclude that Wright did

Guggenheim

collection

come

building

knows

in

rything.

above

all

that

house

own

that his

cre-

functions

is

as

well,

us, is

not eve-

not a machine;

way of giving

museum
tion

first.

Wright ceaselessly reminded

tional discomfort to the viewer.

not hold the

ations must

it

integrity over the

underlines that crucial distinc-

between the merely interesting gra-

tuitous forms created

simply to arouse

astonishment and the truly beautiful.

is

tangible and inAbove,

left

and right, two

sketches showing

museum was

how

the

to function.

Wright's professed intention

was

museum
Left,

to revolutionize

design.

a perspective draw-

made in 1949, showing the museum at night.


ing

Here

it

looks a bit like the

flying saucer that


critics

labeled

it.

some
The

proposed attached apart-

ment

hou.ie in the back-

ground was never

built.

Centers of Belief

The Oracle

at

Delphi, Greece /The Piazza dei

Miracoli in Pisa. Italy/The Baptistery in Florence.

Italy/Pyramid of Quetzalcoatl

Mexico /The Temple of

the

at

Teotihuacan.

Tooth

at

Kandy.

Sri

Lanka/Temple of Borobudur, Indonesia/


Mont-Saint-Michel. France/The Mosque
of Mostar. Yugoslavia

Breaking the Confines

The Empire State Building. New York. New


York/Golden Gate Bridge. San Francisco.
California/Sugar Loaf Mountain of Rio de Janeiro.
Brazil/Jaipur Observatory. India/The Great Wall.
People's Republic of

China/The

New Opera House

of Sydney. Australia/The Pyramids of Giza,

Egypt/Abu-Simbel. Egypt

The Focus on Democracy


The White House. Washington. D.C./Town

Hall of

Stockholm. Sweden/Parliament Building of


Brasilia.

Brazil/Old Stock Exchange

Denmark ^Phe Houses of

Town

Copenhagen,

Hall of Antwerp. Belgium/The Acropolis,

Greece/Town Hall of

New

at

Parliament. England/

Basel. Switzerland

Techniques

Offshore Drilling Platform, Texas/The Eiffel

Tower. France/Boulder Dam. Colorado/Charles de


Gaulle Airport. France/Lever Building,

New York/Olympic

Stadium

at

New

York.

Munich. Germany/

Panama Canal. Panama/Pont de Garde

at

Avignon. France/Stonehenge, England/Urnes


Stavkirke.

Norway

The Closed Faith


Basilica at Assisi. Italy /Cathedral of Monreale.

Italy/City of Paestum. Italy/Cathedral of Santiago


di

Compostela. Spain/Rila Monastery. Bulgaria/

Cathedral of Aachen. West Germany/Monastery

at

Athos. Greece/City of Petra. Jordan

The World

of Pleasure

Spanish Steps of Rome. Italy/Maharaja's Palace of

Udaipmr. India/City of'Petrodvorets,


U.S.S.R. /Palace of Sans Souci,

Azay-le-Rideau

Hampton Court
Austria/Casino

in the

Germany /Castle

Palace, England/Mirabell Castle,


at

Deauville, France

Tribute to Religion

Angkor Wat, Cambodia/San Marco at Venice,


Italy /Cuzco Cathedral, Peru /The Old-New
Synagogue, Czechoslovakia/Cologne Cathedral,

West Cjermany/Notre

Dame

of Paris, France/

Melk Monastery. Austria/Santa Sophia, Turkey

HBJ

of

Loire Valley, France/

Press

757 Third Avenue

New York, NY

10017

'.m^^;,.

/.

v^
/

The Grand Tour


Homes of Kings
Shrines of Power
Individual Creations

Splendor of the Gods


Architecture as Environment

Centers of Belief

Breaking the Confines

The Focus on Democracy

New

Techniques

Closed Faith

The World of Pleasure


Tribute to Religion

m^B.-^!r^:^^k^t:^k-

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