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Example. At atmospheric pressure, water boils at 100 C or

212 F, and freezes at 0 C or 32 F. At what temperature do the

two scales have the same value? When is the Farenheit temperature

twice the Centigrade temperature?

Centigrade scale (symbol ) and the Farenheit scale (symbol ) are

linearly related:

= a + b

Write down givens

using this:

Solve:

212 F = a 100 C + b

32 F = 0 + b

F

b = 32 F, a = 1.8 C

If = :

= a + b,

b

so = = - a - 1 = - 40 C = - 40 F

If = 2:

.........

2 = a + b

b

so = 2 - a = 160 C = 320 F.

Thermal Physics

Thermodynamics: laws relating macroscopic variables (P, V,

T etc.).

Statistical Mechanics: molecular explanation.

Difference between heat and temperature

Intensive or extensive properties?

Which relates to sense of hotness?

Define temperature:

Thermal equilibrium:

Thermal properties do not change with time

Definition of Temperature (T):

T is equal in any 2 bodies at thermal equilibrium.

Zero th Law of Thermodynamics:

if TA = TB and TB = TC, then TA = TC.

What is temperature? How to measure it?

Thermometers: Hg in glass, thermocouple, thermistor, liquid

crystal layer, constant volume gas thermometer

Scales. Obvious definition of temperature : choose a property X

and make X proportional to or linear with . This can only

be done once for any temp scale .

Reference temperature

Melting or freezing? Depends on the pressure.

Thermal Expansion

T

T + T

L

L

Usually, L T for small T

Define

L

L = T

steel st = 1.1 x 10-5 K-1

e.g.

Al

Mid-winter, T = -5C summer, T = 45C

What is l?

L = T.L = ..... = 55 cm

Volume Increase

define

V

V = T

3

V = (L + L) - L

3

L 3 3

= L 1 +

-L

L

L

L + L

3

3 L

= L 1 +

+ . . . . . . . . . - 1

L

V 3T

3

Note:

100 C?

M

M

= V

d = - 2 dV

V

V

M

V = - V

2

V

V

= - V = - = .... = - 0.33%

1 mm steel. Straight at 0 C, what angle at 50 C?

t

R

L + Lst = 2R . 360

subtract

=

= 3.4 C

~

e.g. oven switch:

Example: thermometer, Volcylinder << Volsphere

x

What is its calibration slope T ?

a

x

V

V T

a x Vfl - Vsphere

= f1 VT - g1 VT

x

V

=

T

a ( f1 - g l)

Uses reference temp:

Triple point - co-existance of ice, water, steam

call it tr.

defines P for constant volume of gas

But gases are not (quite) ideal

e.g. consider boiling temp s at some P:

s

is different for different gases and at different densities.

tr

At very low density or pressure,

all gases ideal,

s

same limit

tr

lim P

T = Ttr.

tr0 Ptr V

where Ttr = 273.16 K

Why 273.16? This defines the Kelvin so that

T = 1 K

T = 1 C

(Working defn. is more complicated)

T C = 0 C water freezes

T C = 100 C water boils

at PA

Farenheit Scale

Heat

Definition: that which is transferred between a system and its

surroundings as result of T only.

Joule showed:

mechanical energy heat

t showed

(Cheata ratn ohigh

T heat at low T + work)

Q

Heat Capacity: (for a body) C =

T

Specific Heat: (of a substance) c =

-1

5

extensive quantity

Q

intensive quantity

M

-1

-1

heat required for change

Latent Heat:

of phase (at constant T).

-1

in 500 ml of water at 20 C and turn on. How long before it boils

dry? (Specific heat of cw = water = 4.2 J.kg.K-1, Latent heat of

vaporisation Lvap = 2.3 MJ.kg-1.)

V2

Energy in = power.t = R t = (1.15 kW).t

= Q to raise T of water + Q to evaporate water

= mwcw(Tf - Ti) + mwlvap

= (0.5 kg) (4.2 103 J.kg-1K-1) (100 - 20)C

+ (0.5 kg) (2.3 106 J.kg -1)

= 168 kJ + 1.15 MJ = 1.32 MJ

1.32 MJ

t = 1.15 kW = ... = 1150 s = 19 minutes

168 kJ

(it boils after 1.15 kW = 2.5 mins)

Work: energy transmitted from one system to another without T

or transfer of Q.

e.g. work done by force F

dW = F.ds

e.g. work done against pressure P

ds

F

dW = F.ds = PA ds = PdV

Internal Energy

Heat dQ added to a system increases its internal energy U.

Work dW done by the system lowers its internal energy.

1st Law

dU = dQ - dW

where U is a state function

Digression

V

Vo

T

P

P

V = V o 1 + ( T - T o )

B

Volumetric coefficient

1 V

of thermal expansion V T P

1

1 V

B V P T

Bulk modulus

Tut prob 3:

Lo

L therm

Th

Tc

m

Tc

L stress

L

stress

force/area

strain L modulus

Y

o

Phase diagram in one dimension:

L therm L stress

L = Lo 1 +

Lo +

Lo

mg

= Lo 1 + (T - T o ) + AY

Heat conduction

A

TH

TC

H is rate of heat transfer through a

material in steady state.

T T

H kA H l C

defines the thermal conductivity k

H in W, so

Copper

Stainless Steel

Glass

Water

Pine (wood)

Dry air

k in W.m-1.K-1.

401

W.m-1.K-1

14

1

0.5

0.11

0.026

materials

l

R k

so

T

H = AR

Whe his Auststudy is cut off, a student lives in a pine packing

crate, area 8 m2, thickness 1.0 cm. If the shivering student

produces 300 W, which is lost by conduction through the crate,

how much warmer is it inside the crate?

Tc

Th

A

P

l

R k = 0.09 K.m2W-1

T T

T

H kA H l C

or = A

R

lH

T H TC = kA

0.010 m * 300 W

=

0.11 W.m -1 .K -1 * 8 m 2

= 3 K.

Other benefits: wind, rain, radiation

What if he has a friend?

2 students at 300 W 600 W 7 K.

Example. To reduce thermal noise, a low temperature circuit is

immersed in liquid nitrogen (77 K, L = 199 kJ.kg-1). It is

connected to the outside circuitry by 3 well-insulated copper wires,

length l = 100 mm, diameter 0.3 mm. What is the rate of N2

evaporation due to the heat conducted down the wires?

insulator

nitrogen

dm

L. dt =

T T

H kA H l C

dm

kA T H T C

=

dt

L

l

= .....

= 90 gs-1 = 340 mg.hr-1

one hour in 20 C atmosphere. How long will it take to cool to 60

C?

T TC

L

dQ

mcdT

H = dt dt

H = kA

dT

kA T T C

=

dt

mc

L

T

T0

T

mcL

Characteristic time: = kA Solve DE

T = TC + (To TC) et/

81 C = 20 C + (70 C)e(1 h)/

= 7.3 h

The Ideal Gas - postulates

equation of state

r.m.s. velocity

Temperature

Internal energy

specific heats

Ideal gas equation of state

( limit for all gases at low ):

PV =

nRT

=

NkT

no. of moles

no. of molecules

gas constant

Boltzmann's Constant

R

R = 8.31 JK-1

k=

= 1.38 10-23 JK -1

NA

NB not the same k and R as in heat conduction!

i)

gas made of (identical) molecules

ii)

these obey Newton's laws, with random motion

(~ Avagadro's number)

iii) no. of molecules is large

iv) total volume molecules is negligible fraction

(~ 10-3)

v)

no interaction except during collision

(average Uinteraction

< 10 -4 K.E.)

vi)

(~ 10-3 of time)

V = AL .

N molecules (mass m) of an

ideal gas.

Each collision

momentum = 2mvx

t = 2L/vx.

momentum

2mv

mvx2

= 2L/vx =

L

x

time

F on all N molecules is

___

Nm v x2

Fall molecules =

= PA

L

v 2 = vx 2 + v y 2 + v z 2 ;

___ ___

___

___

___

1 2

2

2

2

2

random motion vx = v y = v z

vx = 3 v , so:

___

___

___

N

Nm 2

2

2

=

P = 3V v

PAL = PV = Nm v x

3mv

Molecular speeds:

vrms root mean square velocity

___

vr.m.s. v2

F =

at PA, with A = 1.3 kg.m-3)

vrms =

3P

=

3 x 10 5

= 480 ms-1

1.3

Meaning of temperature:

We had

___

N

PV = 3 m v2

both sides are familiar

___ _

1

m v2 = average K.E. per molecule

2

But T defined by (1 and 5): PV = NkT

___

_

3 PV

3

1

= 2 m v2 = 2 N = 2 kT (7)

For ideal gas all energy E is kinetic so:

_

3

E = N = 2 NkT

(8)

3 degrees of motional freedom (x, y, z)

1

i.e.

2 kT per degree of freedom

(At ordinary temperatures,

kT 4 10-21 J )

___

1

= 3 v2

10

___

3

1

2

= 2 kT

m

2 v

___

3kT

=

vr.m.s. v2

m

(7)

vrms =

for O2 :

mol wt

m =

3kT

3kT N A

0.032

-1

= 478 ms

So what?

but recall from waves:

vs =

Kad

=

vrms

vs =

so

P

=

kT

m

~ 1.5

motion) of: pollen grain (m ~ 10-15 kg) and apple (m ~ 0.2 kg)

vrms. =

3kT

m

pollen 2 mm s-1

(Brownian motion 1st analysed by Einstein, 1904)

Example: What is the ratio of the speed of sound in He to that in air

at the same temperature? How will this affect the pitch of a human

voice when the lungs and vocal tract are (temporarily) filled with He?

vs =

He

air

kT

m

= 1.1

v

vHe =

air

Hemair

airmHe

mair

He

fair =

c c

340 ms -1

= 4L 4 x 0.17 m = 500 Hz

fHe 1350 Hz

30

2.7

How big does it need to be to lift 200 kg load if (i) it contains hot

air at 100 C? (ii) Helium at STP?

4

3

3

r3(air gas) 3r2 = 4 m

3m

r

4 air(1 gas/ air)

Nm Pm

Hot air: = V = kT

hot

T

273 K

= Tcold = 373 K

hot

cold

r 3.6 m

r 5.3 m

check approxn

11

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