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Psychology is currently defined as the science of

human behavior and mental process


From a good distance (so that they do not realize), Dr. Matthews is observing children
in the playground and recording instances of aggression, best illustrating which is the
following research methods?
naturalistic observation

A research technique commonly used to study in depth the effects of brain injury on
various behaviors in a single individual is
the case study

We would expect the correlation between smoking and lung cancer to be


____because both numbers go in the same direction.
positive

The ____is the score positioned in the middle of a distribution when all the scores are
listed from the lowest to the highest.
median

The part of the neuron responsible which reminds us of the branches or roots of a tree
and is responsible for receiving information from other neurons is the____.
dendrite

A neurotransmitter is:
a naturally occurring chemical in our nervous system that specializes in transmitting
information

The primary function of the myelin sheath is to:


insulate the axon and increase the speed at which neurons carry their message

Antianxiety medications, such as valium and xanax, work by____in the brain.
increasing GABA levels activity

During the Korean conflict, field hospitals began to run low on supplies of morphine
so drs. used a placebo of saline solution to successfully relieve the pain of post surgical
soldiers. Which neurotransmitter did they apparently enhance or stimulate to produce
this effect?
endorphins

Thomas was distracted as he was cooking, and he inadvertently touched a very hot
dish. Instantaneously, he jerked his hand back, a relexive action that was processed:
primarily in his spinal cord with a signal also sent to the brain

Dopamine activity is believed to be ____among Parkinson disease sufferers.


lower

The two main divisions of the nervous system are the ___and the___.
central nervous system; peripheral nervous system

After a good meal, Jane is relaxing comfortably as her food digests. When she is
frightened by a loud noise, Jane's digestion is inhibited and her hearbeat accelerates,
suggesting her___nervous system is in control.
sympathetic

After an auto accident, Randy experienced seizures and his ability to exercise
appropriate judgment, sustain attention and control his impulses were greatly
impaired. Which brain structure was most likely damaged by the severe seizures?
the frontal lobe

Within a neuron, communication is___. Between neurons, communication is___.


electrical; chemical

The endocrine system involves communication by chemical messengers called___,


which circulate throught the bloodstream.
hormones

When President J.F.K was hit by a sniper's bullet in the back of his head, he died
almost instantly, because the bullet destroyed the part of his brain called the___,
which controls breathing, heartbeat, and other vital body functions.
medulla

The part of the brain the enables you to feel someone holding your hand is in
the___lobe.
parietal

The hippocampus, as we learned in class and spelled out in the text using the ex of
HM, plays a key role in:
forming new memories

After too many drinks at a party, your friend awkwardly stumbles into a table, almost
knowcking it over. Your friends coordination for simple actions, such as walking
between two closely place tables, is reduced because the alcohol has affected his:
cerebellum

The band of fibers called___allows the left and right hemispheres to communicate
with one another.
the corpus callosum

Brocas area, involved in the ___of speech, is most often located on in


the___hemisphere.
production; left

Although we may dream about running, punching, jumping, climbing to the celing
while taking athis test, etc., it is unlikely that we can even walk while we are dreaming.
Why is it unlikely that we can literally walk while we are dreaming?
because our bodies are essentially paralyzed for safety purposes

Melatonin which is associated with sleep is produced by:


the pineal gland

Which of the following best describes a myoclonic jerk?


as a person is going to sleep, an involuntary muscle spasm that jolts the person awake.

REM is an acronym that stands for:


rapid eye movements

the study of brain systems and sensory processes are examples of what general theme?
biological foundations

mental health psychologists are most likely to be concerned with which of the
following topics?
potential & dysfunction

a counseling psychologist is most likely to be working in which area?


mental health

A psychologist's research focuses on whether a person's personality is determined by


the genes inherited from parents or by childhood and adolescent experiences. This
type of research is attempting to answer the question of _________________.
nature vs nurture

Which question about the mind versus body controversy MOST represents today's
research by psychologists?
What is the reciprocal relationship between the mind and the body?

You are interested in studying the parenting skills of Americans and Europeans. As a
psychologist, your research is attempting to answer which enduring question?
Differences versus similarities

The field of psychology originated with the _________________.


Greek philosophers such as Plato and Aristotle

Psychology made the transition from philosophy to a scientific discipline with which
event?
Wilhelm Wundt founded the first psychological laboratory to study the mind.

Structuralism, an early school of psychology ________________________.


described the elements of sensations and perceptions

Which early school of psychology focused on explaining behavior, emotion, and


thought as active adaptations to environmental pressures?
Functionalism

The Sea World animal trainers use rewards (reinforcements) to teach whales, sea lions
and dolphins to perform tricks. These training techniques are based on principles
from which early school of psychology?
Behaviorism

Which psychologists were proponents of studying only observable behavior and not
the mind?
John B. Watson and B. F. Skinner

The psychodynamic school of psychology emphasizes _____________________.


the unconscious and early childhood experiences

Sigmund Freud founded the early school of ____________ psychology while Jean
Piaget influenced the development of the ____________ school of psychology.
psychodynamic; cognitive

Which school of psychology originated with studying the growth of thought and
language processes in infants and children?

Cognitive psychology

The difference between the cognitive research of Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky is that
____________________.
Jean Piaget recorded the progressive development of infants and children's thinking
through four major stages.

Humanism which developed as a reaction to the behaviorism and psychodynamic


schools of psychology, emphasized that ___________________________.
each person is inherently good and motivated to be a healthy functioning individual

Which person is most credited with the school of humanistic psychology and the
concept of self-actualization?
Abraham Maslow

All contemporary perspectives in psychology are interconnected in that the research of


each perspective is influenced by the research findings of the other perspectives... not
a question just notes
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Research based on the _____________ perspective would focus on the connections


of the nervous system and the neurotransmitters that affect feelings such as of sadness
and despair.
biological

The invention of computer technology in the 1950's led to the development of the
contemporary perspective of ________ psychology.
cognitive

Neuroimaging techniques are used by which contemporary perspectives?


Behavioral neuroscience, biological and cognitive

A current research study has found that parenting styles differ among people from the
United States, China, and Australia. This type of research best represents which
contemporary psychology perspective?
Social

(not a Question)Developmental: emphasizes how cognitive, physical, and socioemotional factors change and show stability across the lifespan
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Maria is experiencing several personal setbacks, including academic problems, marital


difficulties, and a dyingmother who needs her help. Maria is feeling overwhelmed,
sad, and lonely. A psychologist who represents the _________ perspective could
best help her.
Clinical

A psychologist is interested in studying how the character traits that a person has
inherited influence the ability to handle stress. This study most likely reflects the
contemporary __________ perspective.
Individual differences/personality

A study is conducted to determine the extent of damage, if any, to the brains of three
groups of people who have had high blood pressure for either 5 years, 10 years, or 15
years. This study is an example of ________ research.

basic

Research conducted specifically for the purpose of solving practical problems and
improving quality of life is called _____________.
applied research

A __________ is a general, tentative explanation that tries to account for diverse


findings on the relationships between variables and therefore provides ideas for future
research, whereas a __________ is a specific prediction about the relationship
between two or more variables that is to be tested.
theory; hypothesis

Which of the following is the correct sequence of activities for a psychologist utilizing
the scientific research method?
Write hypothesis, conduct study, analyze data, write conclusion, publish article

"Children who play violent video games will become more aggressive." Based on the
scientific research method, this statement is most likely a __________.
hypothesis

A precise statement of how a variable in a study will be observed and measured is


called a(n) __________.
operational definition

A researcher hypothesizes that children who play violent video games will become
more aggressive. The variables "play violent video games" and "become more
aggressive" are ____________ variables.
conceptual

The ethical requirement of informed consent means that participants


___________________.
must be informed as much as possible about the purpose and conditions of the research,
and that they are free to withdraw from the research at any tim

The branchlike fibers extending in clusters from the neuron's cell body are called
__________.
dendrites

The function of the ______ is to keep the cell alive.


soma

An axon is a ____________.
long, tubelike structure extending from a neuron's cell body

Terminal buttons are found at the ends of __________.


axons

Dendrite is to axon as _________ is to _________.


receiving; sending

Which of the following sequences accurately reflects the route followed by nerve
impulses when one neuron communicates with another?
Dendrite, cell body, axon

What is the term for the insulating material that covers some axons?

Myelin

What are the gaps in the myelin sheath called?


Nodes of Ranvier

A synapse is a __________.
gap

What neurotransmitter is important if there is an injury and pain relief is necessary?


Endorphins

My Aunt Mabel has Alzheimer's disease. What neurotransmitter is likely in low supply
in her brain?
Acetylcholine

If a person is shot, and the bullet destroys the part of the brain called the
_____________, which maintains basic life functions (heart rate, breathing), there
is virtually no chance for surviving that injury.
medulla

(not a question) The thalamus resides just above the brain stem area and filters
sensory information to the higher levels in the brain.
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The part of the brain stem called the _________ has been shown to be related to
arousal in lab animals; when this part is stimulated, the animal is awake; when it's
severed (cut), the animal goes into a coma.
reticular formation

Jim's friends noticed that he was stumbling around, consistently losing his balance
while walking. It's possible that his ___________ has been negatively affected or
injured on some way.
cerebellum

The reason the area of the brain that includes the brain stem is called the "old brain" is
that ____________________.
it's the oldest brain region

Sally was hospitalized after a car accident, and due to injury to her hippocampus, she
has trouble with __________________________.
newer memories, but still retains older memories

By stimulating the __________ part of the limbic system in lab animals, researchers
found that the animal will display anger/rage instantly.
amygdala

Researchers discovered that the hypothalamus helps to regulate basic drives, like
hunger, thirst, and sexuality. Another interesting aspect of the hypothalamus is that it
___________________.
serves as a reward center

The human brain's more advanced structure, compared to most animal brains, is the
__________________.
cerebral cortex

Contralateral control describes ____________________.


one hemisphere's ability to receive sensations and control movement of the opposite
side of the body

The ___________ cortex sends signals to move our muscles, whereas the
____________ cortex receives information about bodily sensations.
motor; somatosensory

The visual cortex is located in the _________ lobe.


occipital

The _________ cortex is part of the parietal lobe.


somatosensory

Lateralization of brain function refers to the ___________ of the brain.


difference between hemispheres

Which of the following best describes the process of neuroplasticity?


When parts of the brain compensate for damages to another part of the brain

Neurogenesis refers to the brain's ability to ______________.


form brand new neurons

Julie fell during an accident at work and suffered damage that affected her ability to
comprehend language. After a few months of therapy, her ability to understand
language has improved. This most likely demonstrated ______________.
neuroplasticity

The two separate hemispheres are connected by the ___________.


corpus callosum

The difference between a nerve and a neuron is that a ____________.


nerve is made up of a bundle of interconnected neurons

The most common type of neuron in the human body is the ___________.
interneuron

The two main divisions of the nervous system are ____________.


central and peripheral nervous systems

Reflexes are _______________________.


quick, involuntary responses that are not processed in the brain

Cecilia accidentally touched her hot curling iron and immediately withdrew her hand
before becoming consciously aware of the sensation or movement. She was able to do
this because of a(n) _____________.
spinal reflex

The key components of the peripheral nervous system are


somatic and autonomic nervous systems

The terms autonomic and somatic refer to the two main subdivisions of the
____________.
peripheral nervous system

Christopher Reeve was accidentally thrown from his horse while riding.
Unfortunately, he landed on his head and was paralyzed from the shoulders down.
Although his mental abilities were intact, he was unable to move the lower part of his
body, which was a result of permanent damage to his ______________.
somatic nervous system

As Mona was searching for her phone in her purse, she accidentally dropped her keys
on the floor. She quickly reached down, retrieved them, and put them back in her
purse. This voluntary reaction involved _____________ signals that were
communicated to her muscles via the ____________ nervous system.
motor; somatic

While asleep, Jesse's heart rate, blood pressure, and digestion are functioning without
any conscious effort on his part. This is because a subdivision of the ___________
nervous system called the ____________ regulates these involuntary functions.
peripheral; autonomic nervous system

The two branches of the autonomic nervous system are ________________.


sympathetic and parasympathetic

At home alone late one night, Carlos had just finished watching a very frightening
movie when there was a knock on the door. His heart rate suddenly increased, his
breathing accelerated, and he began to sweat. These physiological changes were most
likely triggered by his __________________.
sympathetic nervous system

When Carlos answered the door, he discovered it was the pizza delivery person; before
long, he calmed down, and his blood pressure, heart rate, and breathing returned to
their normal state. These physical reactions were most likely regulated by his
________________.
parasympathetic nervous system

The heightened physical arousal that characterizes the fight-or-flight response


involves the __________ division of the nervous system.
sympathetic

When your parasympathetic nervous system works to maintain vital bodily functions
so that your body is in its natural balance, it is called ____________.
homeostasis

The ______________ functions as the main link between the nervous system and
the endocrine system.
hypothalamus

Before entering 9th grade, Brooks had to have most of his clothes replaced because he
had grown almost 3 inches since the previous year. The gland responsible for his
growth is the ____________.
pituitary gland

The pituitary gland is the body's master gland, which is responsible for __________
and hormones that influence feelings of __________ and signal the sexual
reproduction hormones.
growth; pain

The ____________ produce hormones that regulate salt and water balance and are
located on top of the ____________.
adrenal glands; kidneys

What are the two most important hormones that stimulate the sympathetic nervous
system into action when we are feeling stressed?
Norepinephrine and epinephrine

Which gland directly regulates the production of hormones in other endocrine glands?
Pituitary gland

The function of the pancreas is to ____________.


keep the body supplied with energy sources such as sugar and insulin

The pineal gland secretes ____________, a hormone that helps regulate the
_____________.
melatonin; wake/sleep cycle

Roberto, who is about to take the final exam for his psychology course, is totally
stressed out because it is worth 50 percent of his grade. The endocrine system
gland(s) that is (are) likely to be stimulated is (are) the ____________.
adrenal glands

Detection of energy from the environment and initiating neural action in response to
it is called ____________.
sensation

The sensory system that detects smells is __________.


olfaction

You answer your cell phone without checking to see who is calling. You recognize your
best friend, Maria, from her voice. This is an example of _____________.
perception

The term absolute threshold refers to ________________________.


the intensity of a stimulus where we can just barely detect it

The term JND refers to ________________________.


the smallest difference between two stimuli that you can detect

The brain region that receives signals from all of the senses except smell is the
____________.
thalamus

In a signal detection task, which of the following two outcomes both involve a "YES"
response from the person being tested?
HIT and FALSE ALARM

What is the branch of psychology that studies the effects of physical stimuli on sensory
perceptions and mental states?
Psychophysics

True or False: Signal detection analysis is a technique to determine the ability of a


perceiver to make signals.
false

It is easy to detect the difference between a 1 lb weight and a 2 lb weight, however, it is


much more difficult to detect the difference between a 51 lb weight and a 52 lb weight,
even though the difference is the same: 1 lb. This is consistent with
_______________.
Weber's law

What differentiates light energy we can perceive visually from light energy we cannot
perceive visually?
Wavelength

The _________ is a muscle that regulates the size of the pupil.


iris

When a person is nearsighted, the ______ focuses light from objects far away in front
of the _____, instead of on it.
lens; retina

Information from the left eye is processed on __________ of the visual cortex.
both sides

Which type of neural cell is responsible for color vision?


Cones

In which lobe of the brain is visual information processed?


Occipital

Which is not a good explanation of why we don't notice a "hole" in our visual field due
to our blind spot?
We consciously direct our eyes to pick up the information missed by the blind spot.

Light energy with very high amplitude would be perceived as ___________.


very bright

The Young-Helmholtz theory best explains __________.


red-green colorblindness

Amy lines up 5 pennies in a row from left to right. Below each penny, she places a
quarter. You are likely to perceive this as two rows of coins, rather than 10 separate
objects because of the principle of ___________.
similarity

What is most accurate regarding the development of depth perception?


It is both learned and innate

Convergence is an example of a(n) ___________.


binocular depth cue

You look out the window, and a tree appears to be very small, about the same size as
your hand. You know that this means the tree must be quite far away because of the
depth cue known as __________.
relative size

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Judging the distance of a nearby object based on the angle your eyes are turned
towards each other uses the depth perception cue known as __________.
convergence

When two images near each other are presented in succession, we perceive that it is
one object that has moved. This is known as ___________.
the beta effect

Loudness is to amplitude as pitch is to ____________.


frequency

An 80-decibel sound is about ___________ times louder than a 60-decibel sound.


100

Which part of the ear contains the pinna and auditory canal?
outer ear

The vibrations of the eardrum are amplified by three tiny bones: the malleus, the
incus, and the stapes. They are located in the _____________.
middle ear

The __________ is a fluid-filled chamber that contains the sensory receptors for
audition.
cochlea

__________ are the sensory receptors for audition.


Hair cells

Which theory holds that the pitch we hear is determined by the particular location on
the cochlea where the hair cells vibrate the most?
Place theory

Which of the following theories is currently thought to provide the best explanation
for how we perceive low frequencies (below 150 hz)?
Frequency theory

Hearing loss caused by exposure to loud noise is known as __________ .


sensorineural hearing loss

Which of the following senses is best described as a chemical sense?


Taste

Which of the following would play a role in alerting you to a gas leak in your home?
Olfactory receptors

The sense of touch includes the four basic sensations of _______________.


pain, pressure, hot, and cold

Brian banged his shin against a desk and grimaced with pain. He quickly bent over
and began rubbing his leg where he'd banged it and the pain he was experiencing
started to subside a bit. This phenomenon can best be explained by ___________.
the gate-control theory

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According to the gate-control theory, a back massage would most likely reduce your
physical aches and pains by causing the ____________.
activation of specific neural fibers in your spinal cord

The sense of touch includes four basic sensations. How do we experience other types
of sensations, such as wetness?
Complex sensations arise from the combined stimulation of several basic senses.

As John is reading, he sees the words, but the letters in all the words evoke the
experience of colors. This condition is called ______________.
synesthesia

The McGurk effect occurs when ___________________.


we combine information from speech and from the way the speaker's lips are moving to
hear something different from either

Imagine that someone across the room drops a plate and it crashes to the ground and
breaks. Light travels faster than sound, but our brains make it seem that the sight of
the breaking plate and the smashing sound are exactly simultaneous. This is an
example of ______________.
sensory interaction

When we experience a complex environment, our attention system


____________________.
selects specific information to send for deeper processing, and fails to encode much of
the other available information

The text describes the "cocktail party phenomenon," which occurs when we are at a
party or meeting where many conversations are going on around us at the same time.
What happens?
We can fully attend to only one conversation at a time, but some information from other
conversations can get into consciousness.

A plausible explanation for the Mueller-Lyer illusion, the perception of the lines as
differing in length when they are actually the same length, is that it
______________.
is based on our experience with the interior and exterior of buildings

the point of studying perceptual illusions is that _______________.


they show us how our perceptual system uses information from the world around us to
infer what the world is like

The Ponzo illusion is based on what perceptual inference?


Converging lines are perceived as lines going into the distance.

Why does the moon illusion occur?


Our perceptual system is influenced by the detailed objects on earth we see near the
moon when it is near the horizon, leading the perceptual system to treat it as a closer,
and therefore larger, object.

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Wilhelm Wundt investigated which of the following phenomena?


fundamental psychological processes, such as mental reaction times in response to
visual and auditory stimuli

Wilhelm Wundt:
was a German physiologist who established the first psychology research laboratory at
the University of Leipzig.

Which of the following was the first "school" of thought or approach in psychology?
structuralism

The early psychological school called structuralism emphasized the study of:
the elemental components of sensations, feelings, and conscious experience.

Wilhelm Wundt defined psychology as:


the study of consciousness.

_____ wrote On the Origin of Species, which was published in _____.


Charles Darwin; 1859

Which of the following people played a key role in establishing psychology as a


scientific discipline in the United States?
William James

Which early school of psychology examined how psychology could be applied to


education, child rearing, and the work environment?
functionalism

Both structuralists and functionalists agreed that:


psychology should study conscious experience.

The founder of psychoanalysis was


Austrian physician Sigmund Freud.

Psychoanalysis emphasized:
unconscious causes of behavior.

Your therapist is very interested in your dreams, blocked memories, and slips of the
tongue. On which approach to psychology is your therapist probably basing his
psychotherapy?
psychoanalysis

The early school of psychology called behaviorism


grew out of Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov's pioneering research in which he
conditioned dogs to salivate to the sound of a bell.

Behaviorism was characterized by:


the rejection of consciousness as a topic in psychology and a focus upon observable
behavior.

The founder of behaviorism was:

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John Watson.

Which of the following statements about behaviorism is TRUE?


John B. Watson argued that consciousness was not a usable concept and considered
consciousness to be a concept related to superstition and magic.

Which of the following approaches dominated American psychology for the first half
of the twentieth century?
behaviorism

When researchers create questions to investigate, generate evidence, and draw


conclusions, they are guided by a set of assumptions, attitudes, and procedures that is
(are) called:
the scientific method.

Psychologists assume that:


behavior and mental processes have a cause or causes.

Which of the following is NOT a step in the scientific method?


apply the findings to solve human problems

When psychologists systematically observe and record behaviors as they occur in their
natural settings, they are using a descriptive method called:
naturalistic observation.

The primary goal of naturalistic observation is to:


detect natural behavior patterns.

Why do researchers try to avoid being detected by their participants when engaged in
naturalistic observations?
Naturally occurring behavior patterns might not occur if the participants become aware
that they are being observed.

This drawing shows the typical structures found on a neuron. Pick the alternative that
correctly labels the structures in the drawing.
1 = dendrites, 2 = cell body, 3 = axon, 4 = myelin sheath

Neurons are:
highly specialized cells that receive and transmit information from one area of the body
to another.

This cross-sectional drawing of the human brain depicts four structures that are key
components of the limbic system. Pick the alternative that correctly labels the
structures in the drawing.
1 = hypothalamus, 2 = thalamus, 3 = hippocampus, 4 = amygdala

There are roughly _____ neurons in the human brain.


100 billion

Acetylcholine is:
involved in movement and memory.

Miguel jogs about five miles a day. At roughly the three-mile point, Miguel usually
experiences a rush of positive feelings due to _____ levels of _____.
increased; endorphins

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The two main divisions of the nervous system are the _____ and the _____.
peripheral nervous system; central nervous system

In combination, the brain and spinal cord make up the


central nervous system.

Which of the following statements is FALSE?


The peripheral nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord.

In the _____, information is communicated along nerves.


peripheral nervous system

The heightened physical arousal that characterizes the fight-or-flight response


involves the _____ branch of the nervous system.
sympathetic

In general, the sympathetic nervous system _____, while the parasympathetic


nervous system _____.
arouses and mobilizes; maintains and conserves

The brainstem is made up of the _____ and the _____.


midbrain; hindbrain

Which of the following represents the largest region of the brain?


the forebrain

The primary communication link between the left and right cerebral hemispheres is
called:
the corpus callosum.

Which best describes the surface of the cerebral cortex?


numerous folds, wrinkles, bulges, ridges, and valleys

This image depicts a cross section of the human eye. Pick the alternative that correctly
labels the structures in the drawing.
1 = cornea, 2 = lens, 3 = fovea, 4 = retina

This image depicts the path that sound waves take through the human ear. Pick the
alternative that correctly labels the structures in the drawing.
1 = semicircular canals, 2 = cochlea, 3 = eardrum, 4 = pinna

In psychology, the term sensation formally refers to:


the process of detecting a physical stimulus such as light, sound, heat, or pressure.

In contrast to sensation, the term perception is formally defined as the:


active mental process of integrating, organizing, and interpreting sensory data.

Which of the following statements is TRUE?


There is no clear boundary between the processes of sensation and perception as we
experience them.

The smallest possible stimulus which can be detected half the time, or the minimum
level of stimuli that we can detect, is called:

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the absolute threshold.


The smallest possible difference between two stimuli which can be detected is called
the:difference threshold, or just noticeable difference.
John puts one toe into the swimming pool and shivers because the water is so cold. He
grits his teeth and dives in anyway. After about ten minutes, the temperature of the
water seems quite comfortable to him. This example illustrates the principle of:
sensory adaptation
According to the trichromatic theory of color vision:
cones come in three basic varieties: red-sensitive, green-sensitive, or blue-sensitive.
According to the text, which body areas are the MOST sensitive to pain?
. the back of your knee, your neck, and the crook or bend of your elbows
According to the text, which body areas are the LEAST sensitive to pain?
the tip of your nose, soles of your feet, and balls of your thumbs

What occurs during the refractory period?

Neurotransmitters are
released by the dendrites.

The all-or-none law refers to the fact that:

the myelin sheath either


completely covers an axon
or it does not.

The heightened physical arousal that


characterizes the fight-or-flight response
involves the _____ branch of the nervous
system.

somatic

Which of the following statements about the


properties of neurons is TRUE?

Sensory and motor neurons


are the same size and
shape, and interneurons are
long and thin.

The statement that most people only use


about 10% of their brain:

has been proven by modern


brain research.

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An action potential occurs when:

potassium ions are


electrically transformed into
sodium ions.

The point of communication between two


neurons is called the:

conjunction.

The cell body of a neuron:

manufactures myelin.

The occipital lobe is to _____ as the temporal


vision; audition
lobe is to _____.

Which of the following best defines a


neurotransmitter?

a special magnetic wave


used to generate detailed
images of individual neurons

About 70% of left-handed people

are bilateral, using both


hemispheres for language
functions.

Your pencil starts to roll off the desk and in a


smooth, coordinated fashion you grab it just
before it rolls off the edge. Your ability to
perform this action involved which of the
following brain areas?

the hippocampus

During the war in Iraq, some U.S. troops


Atropine blocks
carried atropine injection kits as an antidote to
acetylcholine receptor sites.
nerve gas. How does the drug atropine
counteract nerve gas?
Miguel jogs about five miles a day. At roughly
the three-mile point, Miguel usually
experiences a rush of positive feelings due to
_____ levels of _____.

increased; endorphins

Multiple sclerosis is a disease that involves:

dendrites becoming brittle


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and breaking.
The part of the neuron that carries messages
to other cells in the body is the:

nucleus.

Damage to Wernicke's area in the brain:

produces difficulty speaking


but does not disrupt the
ability to comprehend verbal
or written words.

After too many drinks at a party, your friend


awkwardly stumbles into a table, almost
knocking it over. Your friend's coordination for
thalamus.
simple actions, such as walking between two
tables, is reduced because the alcohol has
affected his:
Which of the following neurotransmitters is
implicated in Alzheimer's disease?

GABA

Jake received a severe brain injury in a


motorcycle accident and was partially
paralyzed on the left side of his body. After
several months of intensive physical therapy,
he gradually regained the use of his left leg
and arm.

This example best illustrates


the principle of: structural
plasticity.

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