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MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the

1)Unlike other forms of commercial agriculture, plantations are 1)______

A) situated in densely populated locations.
B) found primarily in less developed countries.
C) owned by people in less developed countries.
D) part of agribusiness.
E) all of the above
2) The predominant form of agriculture in the U.S. Southeast is 2)______
A) Mediterranean agriculture.
B) mixed crop and livestock.
C) dairy farming.
D) plantation farming.
E) commercial gardening.
3)Which of the following is least likely to be produced in Mediterranean agriculture? 3)______
A) grapes
B) bu<er
C) cereals
D) fruits
E) olives
4) A good bottle of wine is most likely to come from 4)______
A) Brazil.
B) Guatamala.
C) Equador.
D) Chile.
E) Venezuela.
5) Which of the following is not a strategy for increasing food supply? 5)______
A) increasing taris on grain exports
B) expanding arable land area
C) identifying new food sources
D) increasing land productivity
E) increasing exports of surplus production
6) In the winter wheat area, the crop is planted in 6)______
A) spring and harvested in autumn.
B) autumn and harvested in summer.
C) winter and harvested in autumn.
D) winter and harvested in spring.
E) spring and harvested in summer.

7) Ranching has declined in the southwestern United States primarily because 7)______
A) the predominant breed of ca<le has changed.
B) long-distance ca<le drives are no longer practical.
C) the region lacks adequate water supplies.
D) export taris on beef.
E) crops yield more income per area.
8) Commercial agriculture is distinguished from subsistence agriculture by all but which of the following 8)______
A) farm size
B) surplus production
C) output consumed on the farm
D) low percentage of farmers in the labor force
E) heavy use of machinery
9)Which of the following is the most common form of commercial agriculture in Europe? 9)______
A) livestock ranching
B) grain farming
C) dairy farming
D) mixed crop and livestock farming
E) mediterranean agriculture
10)In the United States many farms are integrated into a large food production industry. This is known as
A) mechanized farming.
B) agribusiness.
C) commercial farming.
D) food processing.
E) mixed crop and livestock farming
11)What is the purpose of crop rotation? 11)______
A) maintaining the fertility of elds
B) maintaining fresh products for market
C) maintaining price supports
D) reducing transportation costs
E) responding to shifting consumer preference
12)The primary factor in von Thnen's model for choosing commercial farm products is 12)______
A) market location.
B) land price.
C) soil character.
D) climate.
E) labor cost.

13)Von Thnen's model can best be used to explain the location of which of the following types of agriculture?
A) ranching in the dry lands of North Africa
B) intensive subsistence in South China
C) dairying in the Northeast United States
D) mediterranean agriculture in central Chile
E) shifting cultivation in the tropics of South America
14)According to the von Thnen model, timber production was located in the second ring from the city because of
what factor? 14)______
A) need for a vast area
B) product weight
C) perishability
D) labor intense harvesting methods
E) delivery time
15)The farther a dairy farm is from a large urban area the lower the percentage of output devoted to fresh milk. This
occurs primarily because 15)______
A) the quality of soil is lower near an urban area.
B) land costs are lower farther from the urban area.
C) rural populations drink less milk per capita than urban dwellers.
D) processed milk is less perishable.
E) transport costs are greater farther from the urban area.
16)Asian agriculture is characterized by shortages of all but which of the following? 16)______
A) land
B) equipment
C) funds
D) labor
E) C and D
17)Which of the following is a typical practice in growing rice in Asia? 17)______
A) transplanting seedlings into the ooded eld
B) ooding the plowed eld with water
C) growing seedlings in a nursery
D) preparing elds with a plow drawn by oxen
E) all of the above
18)The most important reason why most people in North China grow crops other than wet rice is 18)______
A) harvesting wet rice requires expensive machinery.
B) climate.
C) soil.
D) tradition.
E) cultural preference.
19)Pastoral nomadism is most commonly found in which climate region? 19)______
A) warm mid-latitude
B) polar

C) dry
D) humid low-latitude
E) cold mid-latitude
20)Pastoral nomads 20)______
A) consume mostly meat, rather than grain.
B) prefer sheep to goats because sheep require less water and will forage on virtually any vegetation.
C) are expanding their territory in North Africa and the Middle East.
D) occupy only their own territory, moving with the seasons to nd forage and water.
E) occupy dierent territory each year to nd forage and water.
21)The seasonal migration of livestock between mountains and lowland pastures is 21)______
A) pastoral nomadism.
B) practiced mostly in the tropics.
C) transhumance.
D) livestock ranching.
E) shifting cultivation.
22)To increase crop yields, farmers in southeastern China commonly practice 22)______
A) transhumance.
B) threshing.
C) shifting cultivation.
D) pastoral nomadism.
E) double cropping.
23)The most important distinction for dividing the world into agricultural regions is 23)______
A) the population density of the crop-producing region.
B) whether crops are grown or animals are raised.
C) the location of the rst agriculture.
D) B and D
E) whether the product is consumed on or o the farm.
24)Which statement correctly describes hunting and gathering? 24)______
A) All humans obtained their food this way before the invention of agriculture.
B) Hunter gatherers live in small groups.
C) This form of subsistence is still practiced.
D) It is a form of nomadism.
E) all of the above
25)Hunting and gathering societies 25)______
A) include about 15 percent of the world's people.
B) occur nearly everywhere but are especially common in Europe.
C) are found in isolated places in the world.
D) are responsible for most of the environmental degradation of the planet.
E) are characterized by large concentrations of people.

26)An important agricultural hearth is 26)______

A) northern China.
B) Southeast Asia.
C) Ethiopia.
D) South America.
E) all of the above
27)The cultivation of plants by cutting stems and dividing roots is 27)______
A) subsistence agriculture.
B) sawah.
C) vegetative planting.
D) plant hybridization.
E) seed agriculture.
28)Vegetative planting probably originated in 28)______
A) Southwest Asia.
B) northern China.
C) Southeast Asia.
D) Ethiopia.
E) all of the above
29)In the Eastern Hemisphere, seed agriculture probably originated in which of the following? 29)______
A) northern China
B) western India
C) Ethiopia
D) Southwest Asia
E) A, B, and C
30) The first group to integrate seed agriculture with domestication of herd animals was probably in 30)______
A) western India.
B) South America.
C) Southwest Asia.
D) northern China.
E) Ethiopia.
31)Seed agriculture probably reached Europe from 31)______
A) northern China.
B) Southeast Asia.
C) Southwest Asia.
D) Ethiopia.
E) western India.
32)Unique agricultural practices arise in particular regions because of 32)______
A) climate.
B) physical characteristics of the land.
C) limited knowledge of alternatives.
D) distinctive cultural traits.
E) all of the above

33)Which is not a form of subsistence agriculture? 33)______

A) shifting cultivation
B) intensive
C) Mediterranean
D) pastoral nomadism
E) All of the above are forms of subsistence agriculture.
34)Which type of agriculture is found primarily in less developed countries? 34)______
A) Mediterranean
B) truck farming
C) commercial gardening
D) plantation
E) none of the above
35)Which is not a characteristic of shifting cultivation? 35)______
A) Debris is burned to provide the soil with nutrients.
B) A new site is designated every few years.
C) Swiddens not under cultivation are used for fruit trees.
D) Land is cleared by slashing the vegetation.
E) All of the above are characteristics.
36)Shifting cultivation is most commonly found in which climate region? 36)______
A) humid low-latitude
B) warm mid-latitude
C) dry
D) cold mid-latitude
E) undierentiated Highlands.
37)Which type of agriculture occupies the largest percentage of the world's land area? 37)______
A) livestock ranching
B) pastoral nomadism
C) shifting cultivation
D) intensive subsistence
E) dairying
38)Which type of agriculture is practiced by the largest percentage of the world's people? 38)______
A) shifting cultivation
B) hunting and gathering
C) pastoral nomadism
D) plantation
E) intensive subsistence

39)Defenders of shifting cultivation say it is the best approach for the tropics because 39)______
A) shifting cultivation is part of the cultural diversity of folk customs in the tropics.
B) shifting cultivation destroys less tropical rain forest than permanently clearing the land.
C) permanently clearing elds and using fertilizers will destroy tropical soils.
D) it requires a lot of land to feed a small number of people.
E) A, B, and C
40)Only about 15 million people are nomads, but they sparsely occupy 40)______
A) most of the islands of the south Pacic.
B) 50 percent of the undierentiated highlands.
C) 20 percent of the earth's land area.
D) most of the tropical regions of the earth.
E) 10 percent of the earth's land area.
41)The largest proportion of farmers in Asia practice 41)______
A) pastoral nomadism.
B) shifting cultivation.
C) plantation agriculture.
D) intensive subsistence.
E) hunting and gathering.
42)Compared to shifting cultivation, intensive subsistence agriculture is characterized by which of the following?
A) smaller farms
B) more diversied cropping
C) higher agricultural density
D) greater use of animal power
E) all of the above
43)To separate husks from seeds, Asian farmers beat the heads on the ground, a practice known as 43)______
A) winnowing.
B) polishing.
C) threshing.
D) cha.
E) grazing.
44)A principal practice of sustainable agriculture is 44)______
A) limited use of chemicals.
B) sensitive land management.
C) be<er integration of crops and livestock.
D) use of pesticide resistant seed.
E) A, B, and C

45)China, the United States, Russia, and India are the leading producers of 45)______
A) corn (maize).
B) sugar cane.
C) milk products.
D) wool.
E) commercial grain.
46)After corn, the most important crop in the U.S. mixed crop and livestock region is 46)______
A) soybeans.
B) barley.
C) wheat.
D) fruits and vegetables.
E) sugar beets.
47) Ranching is practiced in a climate region most similar to that of which other type of agriculture? 47)______
A) dairying
B) Mediterranean agriculture
C) grain
D) shifting cultivation
E) pastoral nomadism
48)The different areas of the world where Mediterranean agriculture predominates have similar 48)______
A) broad expanses of at land along sea coasts.
B) social customs.
C) levels of livestock production with the mixed crop and livestock regions.
D) cultural beliefs.
E) climate.
49)Farmers in more developed and less developed countries share which of the following problems? 49)______
A) inadequate income
B) lack of equipment
C) access to fertilizers
D) declining market demand
E) surplus production
50)Less developed countries generate funds to promote development through 50)______
A) adopting shifting cultivation.
B) encouraging traditional subsistence agriculture.
C) feeding the rapidly growing population.
D) bartering with urban residents.
E) selling export crops.
51)Farmers in more developed and less developed countries share which of the following problems? 51)______
A) access to fertilizers
B) inadequate income
C) lack of equipment
D) declining market demand
E) surplus production

52)Less developed countries generate funds to promote development through 52)______

A) feeding the rapidly growing population.
B) adopting shifting cultivation.
C) bartering with urban residents.
D) selling export crops.
E) encouraging traditional subsistence agriculture.