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QN 2 ACCA JUNE, 2012

The Universal Health System (UHS) provides the entire healthcare service to residents in Illopia. The
UHS is funded centrally through revenues from taxpayers. However, the government is not involved in
the day-to-day running of the UHS, which is largely managed regionally by a number of self-governing
trusts, such as the Sickham UHS Trust.
The Sickham UHS Trust runs one hospital in Sickham and, like other trusts in Illopia, receives 70% of its
income largely from the UHS payments by results scheme, which was established two years ago. Under
this scheme, the trust receives a pre-set tariff (fee income) for each service it provides. If the Trust
manages to provide any of its services at a lower cost than the pre-set tariff, it is allowed to use the
surplus as it wishes. Similarly, it has to bear the cost of any deficits itself. Currently, the Trust knows that
a number of its services simply cannot be provided at the tariff paid and accepts that these always lead to
a deficit. Similarly, other services always seem to create a surplus. This is partly because different trusts
define their services and account for overheads differently. Also, it is partly due to regional differences in
costs, which are not taken into account by the scheme, which operates on the basis that one tariff fits all.
The remaining 30% of the Trusts income comes from transplant and heart operations. Since these are not
covered by the scheme, the payment the Trust receives is based on the actual costs it incurs in providing
the operations. However, the Trust is not allowed to exceed the total budget provided for these operations
in any one year.
Over recent years, the Trusts board of directors has become increasingly dissatisfied with the financial
performance of the Trust and has blamed it on poor costing systems, leading to an inability to control
costs. As a result, the finance director and his second in command the financial controller have now
been replaced. The board of directors has taken this decision after complaining that the Trust simply
cannot sustain the big deficit between income and spending. The new financial controller comes from a
manufacturing background and is a great advocate of target costing, believing that the introduction of a
target costing system at the Sickham UHS Trust is the answer to all of its problems. The new financial
director is unconvinced, believing target costing to be only really suitable in manufacturing companies.
Required:
(a) Explain the main steps involved in developing a target price and target cost for a product in a
typical manufacturing company.
(6 marks )
(b) Explain four key characteristics that distinguish services from manufacturing.(4 marks )
(c) Describe how the Sickham UHS Trust is likely, in the current circumstances, to try to derive:
(i) a target cost for the services that it provides under the payment by results scheme;
and (2 marks )
(ii) a target cost for transplants and heart operations.

(2 marks )

(d) Discuss THREE of the particular difficulties that the Sickham UHS Trust may find in using
target costing in its service provision.
(6 marks )

QUESTION 1 ACCA DEC-20012

Hair Co manufactures three types of electrical goods for hair: curlers (C), straightening irons (S)
and dryers (D.) The budgeted sales prices and volumes for the next year are as follows:
C

Selling price
Units

$110

$160

20,000

22,000

$12
0
26,00
0

Each product is made using a different mix of the same materials and labour. Product S also uses
new revolutionary technology for which the company obtained a ten-year patent two years ago.
The budgeted sales volumes for all the products have been calculated by adding 10% to last years
sales.
The standard cost card for each product is shown below.

Material 1

C
$
12

S
$
28

D
$
16

Material 2

22

26

Skilled labour

16

34

22

Unskilled labour14

20

28

Both skilled and unskilled labour costs are variable.


The general fixed overheads are expected to be $640,000 for the next year.
Required:
(a) Calculate the weighted average contribution to sales ratio for Hair Co.
Note: round all workings to 2 decimal places.

(6 marks )

(b) Calculate the total break-even sales revenue for the next year for Hair Co.
Note: round all workings to 2 decimal places.

(2 marks )

(c) Using the graph paper provided, draw a multi-product profit-volume (PV) chart
showing clearly the profit/loss lines assuming:
(i) you are able to sell the products in order of the ones with the highest ranking
contribution to sales ratios first; and
(ii) you sell the products in a constant mix.
Note: only one graph is required.

(9 marks )

(d) Briefly comment on your findings in (c). (3 marks )

QUESTION 5 ACCA DEC 2012


Wash Co assembles and sells two types of washing machines the Spin (S) and the Rinse (R). The
company has two divisions: the assembly division, and the retail division.
The companys policy is to transfer the machines from the assembly division to the retail division at full
cost plus 10 %. This has resulted in internal transfer prices, when S and R are being transferred to the
retail division, of $22017 and $24169 respectively. The retail division currently sells S to the general
public for $320 per machine and R for $260 per machine. Assume it incurs no other costs except for the
transfer price.
The retail divisions manager is convinced that, if he could obtain R at a lower cost and therefore reduce
the external selling price from $260 to $230 per unit, he could significantly increase sales of R, which
would be beneficial to both divisions. He has questioned the fact that the overhead costs are allocated to
the products on the basis of labour hours; he thinks it should be done using machine hours or even activity
based costing.
You have obtained the following information for the last month from the assembly division:

Product S
Production and sales (units)
Materials cost
Labour cost (at $12 per hour)
Machine hours (per unit)
Total no. of production runs
Total no. of purchase orders
Total no. of deliveries to retail division
Overhead costs:
Machine set-up costs
Machine maintenance costs
Ordering costs
Delivery costs
Total

Product
R
5,450
$95
$9
1
12
64
80

3,200
$117
$6
2
30
82
64
$
306,435
415,105
11,680
144,400

877,620

Required:
(a) Using traditional absorption costing, calculate new transfer prices for S and R if
machine hours are used as a basis for absorption rather than labour hours.
Note: round all workings to 2 decimal places.

(3 marks )

(b) Using activity based costing to allocate the overheads, recalculate the transfer prices for
S and R. Note: round all workings to 2 decimal places.
(8 marks )
QUESTION 3: ACCA 3 JUNE 2013

Cam Co manufactures webcams, devices which can provide live video and audio streams via
personal computers. It has recently been suffering from liquidity problems and hopes that these
will be eased by the launch of its new webcam, which has revolutionary audio sound and visual
quality. The webcam is expected to have a product life cycle of two years. Market research has
already been carried out to establish a target selling price and projected lifetime sales volumes for
the product. Cost estimates have also been prepared, based on the current proposed product
specification. Cam Co uses life cycle costing to work out the target costs for its products,
believing it to be more accurate to use an average cost across the whole lifetime of a product,
rather than potentially different costs for different years. You are provided with the following
relevant information for the webcam:

Projected lifetime sales volume

50,000
units
$200
$70
$130
$160

Target selling price per unit


Target profit margin (35% selling price)
Target cost per unit
Estimated lifetime cost per unit (see note below for detailed
breakdown)
Note: Estimated lifetime cost per unit:
$
Manufacturing costs
Direct material (bought in parts)
40
Direct labour
26
Machine costs
21
Quality control costs
10
Rework costs
3

Non-manufacturing costs
Product development costs
Marketing costs

100
25
35

60

160

Estimated lifetime cost per unit

The average market price for a webcam is currently $150.

The company needs to close the cost gap of $30 between the target cost and the estimated lifetime
cost. The following information has been identified as relevant:
1. Direct material cost: all of the parts currently proposed for the webcam are bespoke parts.
However, most of these can actually be replaced with standard parts costing 55% less.
However, three of the bespoke parts, which currently account for 20% of the estimated direct
material cost, cannot be replaced, although an alternative supplier charging 10% less has been
sourced for these parts.

2. Direct labour cost: the webcam uses 45 minutes of direct labour, which costs $3467 per hour.
The use of more standard parts, however, will mean that whilst the first unit would still be
expected to take 45 minutes, there will now be an expected rate of learning of 90% (where b
= 0152). This will end after the first 100 units have been completed.
3. Rework cost: this is the average rework cost per webcam and is based on an estimate of 15%
of webcams requiring rework at a cost of $20 per rework. With the use of more standard
parts, the rate of reworks will fall to 10 % and the cost of each rework will fall to $ 18.
Required:
(a) Recalculate the estimated lifetime cost per unit for the webcam after taking into account
points 1 to 3 above.
(12 marks )
(b) Explain the market skimming (also known as price skimming) pricing strategy and
discuss, as far as the information allows, whether this strategy may be more appropriate
for Cam Co than charging one price throughout the webcams entire life.(8 marks )

QN 2 ACCA DEC 2013


1

Solar Systems Co (S Co) makes two types of solar panels at its manufacturing plant: large panels for
commercial customers and small panels for domestic customers. All panels are produced using the same
materials, machinery and a skilled labour force. Production takes place for five days per week, from 7 am
until 8 pm (13 hours), 50 weeks of the year. Each panel has to be cut, moulded and then assembled using
a cutting machine (Machine C), a moulding machine (Machine M) and an assembly machine (Machine
A).
As part of a government scheme to increase renewable energy sources, S Co has guaranteed not to
increase the price of small or large panels for the next three years. It has also agreed to supply a minimum
of 1,000 small panels each year to domestic customers for this three-year period.
Due to poor productivity levels, late orders and declining profits over recent years, the finance director
has suggested the introduction of throughput accounting within the organisation, together with a Just in
Time system of production. Material costs and selling prices for each type of panel are shown below.

Large panels

Selling price per unit


Material costs per unit

$
12,600
4,300

Small
panels
$
3,800
1,160

Total factory costs, which include the cost of labour and all factory overheads, are $12 million each year
at the plant.
Out of the 13 hours available for production each day, workers take a one hour lunch break. For the
remaining 12 hours, Machine C is utilised 85% of the time and Machines M and A are utilised 90% of
the time. The unproductive time arises either as a result of routine maintenance or because of staff

absenteeism, as each machine needs to be manned by skilled workers in order for the machine to run. The
skilled workers are currently only trained to work on one type of machine each. Maintenance work is
carried out by external contractors who provide a round the clock service (that is, they are available 24
hours a day, seven days a week), should it be required.
The following information is available for Machine M, which has been identified as the bottleneck
resource:

Machine M

Large panels Small panels


Hours per unit Hours per unit
14
06

There is currently plenty of spare capacity on Machines C and A. Maximum annual demand for large
panels and small panels is 1,800 units and 1,700 units respectively.
Required:
(a) Calculate the throughput accounting ratio for large panels and for small panels and
explain what they indicate to S Co about production of large and small panels. (9
marks )
(b) Assume that your calculations in part (a) have shown that large panels have a higher
throughput accounting ratio than small panels.
Required:
Using throughput accounting, prepare calculations to determine the optimum
production mix and maximum profit of S Co for the next year. (5 marks )
Suggest and discuss THREE ways in which S Co could try to increase its production
capacity and hence increase throughput in the next year without making any additional
investment in machinery. (6 marks

QUESTION 1 ACCA JUNE 2014


Duff Co manufactures three products, X, Y and Z. Demand for products X and Y is relatively elastic
whilst demand for product Z is relatively inelastic. Each product uses the same materials and the same
type of direct labour but in different quantities. For many years, the company has been using full
absorption costing and absorbing overheads on the basis of direct labour hours. Selling prices are then
determined using cost plus pricing. This is common within this industry, with most competitors applying
a standard mark-up.
Budgeted production and sales volumes for X, Y and Z for the next year are 20,000 units, 16,000 units
and 22 ,000 units respectively.
The budgeted direct costs of the three products are shown below:

Product
Direct materials
Direct labour ($12 per hour)

X
Y
$ per unit
25 28
30

36

Z
$ per unit$ per unit
22
24

In the next year, Duff Co also expects to incur indirect production costs of $1,377,400, which are
analysed as follows:

Cost pools
$
Machine set up costs 280,000
Material ordering costs
316,000
Machine running costs

Cost drivers
Number of batches
Number of purchase
orders
Number of machine
hours
Number of machine
hours

420,000

General facility costs 361,400

1,377,400

The following additional data relate to each


product:
Product
Y
Batch size (units)
500
800
No of purchase orders per batch
5
Machine hours per unit
125

Z
400

4
15

4
14

Duff Co wants to boost sales revenue in order to increase profits but its capacity to do this is
limited because of its use of cost plus pricing and the application of the standard mark-up. The
finance director has suggested using activity based costing (ABC) instead of full absorption
costing, since this will alter the cost of the products and may therefore enable a different price to
be charged.
Required:
(a) Calculate the budgeted full production cost per unit of each product using Duff Cos
current method of absorption costing. All workings should be to two decimal places. (3
marks )
(b) Calculate the budgeted full production cost per unit of each product using activity based
costing. All workings should be to two decimal places.
(11 marks )
(c) Discuss the impact on the selling prices and the sales volumes OF EACH PRODUCT
which a change to activity based costing would be expected to bring about. (6 marks )

QUESTION 1 ACCA DEC 2014


P Co makes two products P1 and P2 budgeted details of which are as follows:

Selling price

P1
$
1000

Cost per unit:


Direct materials

350

Direct labour

150

Variable overhead

060

Fixed overhead

120

P2
$
80
0
40
0
10
0
04
0
10
0

16
0

Profit per unit

320

Budgeted production and sales for the year ended 30 November 2015 are:
Product P1 10 ,000 units
Product P2 12 ,500 units
The fixed overhead costs included in P1 relate to apportionment of general overhead costs only.
However, P2 also includes specific fixed overheads totalling $2,500.
If only product P1 were to be made, how many units (to the nearest unit) would need to be sold
in order to achieve a profit of $60,000 each year?
A
B
C
D

25 ,625 units
19 ,205 units
18 ,636 units
26 ,406 units

ACCA QN1 DEC 2014


A company manufactures two products, C and D, for which the following information is available:

Product C Product D
Budgeted production (units)

1,000

4,000

Tota
l
5,00

Labour hours per unit/in total


Number of production runs required
Number of inspections during production

10

13

15
3

0
48,00
0
28
8

Total production set up costs $140,000


Total inspection costs $80,000
Other overhead costs $96,000
Other overhead costs are absorbed on the basis of labour hours per unit.
Using activity-based costing, what is the budgeted overhead cost per unit of product D?
A
B
C
D

$4384
$4625
$13100
$14064

QN 3 ACCA DEC 2014


1

Glam Co is a hairdressing salon which provides both cuts and treatments to clients. All cuts and
treatments at the salon are carried out by one of the salons three senior stylists. The salon also has
two salon assistants and two junior stylists.
Every customer attending the salon is first seen by a salon assistant, who washes their hair; next, by a
senior stylist, who cuts or treats the hair depending on which service the customer wants; then finally,
a junior stylist who dries their hair. The average length of time spent with each member of staff is as
follows:

Cut

Assistant
Senior stylist
Junior stylist

Hours
01
1
05

Treatme
nt
Hours
03
15
05

The salon is open for eight hours each day for six days per week. It is only closed for two weeks each
year. Staff salaries are $40,000 each year for senior stylists, $28,000 each year for junior stylists and
$12,000 each year for the assistants. The cost of cleaning products applied when washing the hair is
$060 per client. The cost of all additional products applied during a treatment is $740 per client.
Other salon costs (excluding labour and raw materials) amount to $106,400 each year.
Glam Co charges $60 for each cut and $110 for each treatment.
The senior stylists time has been correctly identified as the bottleneck activity.
Required:

(a) Briefly explain why the senior stylists time has been described as the bottleneck activity,
supporting your answer with calculations.
(4 marks )
(b) Calculate the throughput accounting ratio (TPAR) for cuts and the TPAR for treatments
assuming the bottleneck activity is fully utilised.
(6 marks )