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It's AirVenture time

t's here. For aviators around the
globe, the month of July always
brings EAA AirVenture Oshkosh
to mind. Most everyone of these
aviators will wish he or she were go
ing to be able to attend, but for var
ied reasons, many are never able to
make it. Here's hoping this is the
year for you! I still remember my
first EAA convention in 1984; I re
ally thought it would likely turn out
to be a one-time visit for me. Fortu
nately, the proverbial Oshkosh bug
bit me pretty hard. So far, I have
not missed a single Oshkosh since
my first, and each of them has been
very enjoyable. But, some members
are not as fortunate as I am in be
ing able to come to this great event
every year. Even if you can get here
only once, you really owe it to your
self to experience this amazing cel
ebration of the Spirit of Aviation.
One of the great benefits of mem
bership is the opportunity to serve
yo ur fellow members as a Vintage
volunteer during EAA AirVenture.
So, as we typically do each year in
July, here's a partial list of names
and contact information for many
of the volunteer chairpeople for the
Vintage area of operations. Want to
rev up your visit by installing some
extra horsepower to your Oshkosh
experience? Just drop these folks
a line, and they will fill you in on
these varied volunteer opportuni
ties. Hope to see you around the
Red Barn.
Please do us all the favor of in
viting a friend to join the VAA, and
help keep us the strong association
we have all enjoyed for so many
years now.

EAA AirVenture Oshkosh 2008, the

World's Greatest Aviation Celebration,
is July 28 through August 3, 2008.
VAA is about participation: Be a
member! Be a volunteer! Be there!
Let's all pull in the same direc
tion for the good of aviation. Re
member, we are better together.
Join us and have it all.

Vintage Aircraft
Association chairpeople
Convention Management
Geoff Robison, chairman,
chief7025@aoi .com, 219-493-4724
Butch Joyce, vice-chairman, wind
sock@aoi .com, 336-427-0971
Convention Management

Field Operations

George, Daubner, Vice Chairman,

Bob Lumley, chairman,
i umper@execpc. com, 262-782-2633
Metal Forming Workshol)
Steve Nesse, chairman,, 507-373-1674
Parking and Safety
Michael Kosta, chairman,
cubf/, 303-673-9355
Participant Plaques
Jack Copeland , chairman,, 508-393-4775
Past Grand Champions
Steve Krog, chairman,, 262-966-7627
Safe Flying
Ken Morris, chairman,, 815-547-3991
Tim Fox, chairman,



Rob Kamsch, chairman,


VAA ludging/Awards
Dave Clark, VAA chief judge,, 317-839-4500
Computer Operations
Earl Nicholas, chairman, eman4@, 312-451-2930
Construction and


Bob Brauer, chairman,, 312-779-2105
Ruth Coulson, chairman,, 616-624-6490
Host/Activ ities
Jeannie Hill, chairman,, 815-943-7205
Membership /Chapter Info
Dave Bennett, chairman,, 916-645-8370

Tall Pines Cafe
Steve Nesse, chairman,, 507-373-1674
Toni's Trolley
Jim Brown, chairman,
Tour Tram
James LeFevre, chairman,
Type Club Headquarters
Steve Krog, chairman,, 262-966-7627
Volunteer Center
Steve Moyer, chairman,, 215 -362-0379
Lorraine Eberle, v ice chairman,


VOL. 36, NO.7




I Fe

Straight & Level

It's AirVenture time
by Geoff Robison



Vernon's CAA Airmaster

The Bronze Age Outstanding Closed Cockpit Mon oplane
by Nick Hurm


The Flight of the June Bug

The centennial of Glenn Curtiss' epic flight of July 4, 1908
r-------_------_.......- ---_......._--,
by H.G. Frautschy


Light Plane Heritage

Remember the Klemm
by Bob Whittier


The Pratt & Whitney Wasp

Th e history of a most remarkable engine
by Joe Haynes


Mystery Plane

by H.G. Frautschy


The Vintage Instructor

The !I D A"

by Doug Stewart


Classified Ads



FRONT COVER: The Cessna Airmaster was once billed as "The World's Most Ef
ficient Airplane." With sleek lines and a strutless cantilever wing, this Airmaster
was used by the FAA's predecessor, the Civil Aeronautics Administration. Vernon
Heyrman was looking to buy a Fairchild 24 , but he didn 't wind up purchasing one;
instead he bought this 1940 C-165 Airmaster. See Nick Hurm's article starting on
page 8 to find out why. EAA photo by Phil High .
BACK COVER: July 4th marks the 100th anniversary of Glenn H. Curtiss' award
winning flight with the Aerial Experiment Association's (AEA) June Bug. Presented
with the Scientific American trophy for the first officially recognized public ftight
over one kilometer in length, the June Bug's flight solid ly put Curtiss in the public
eye as an aeronautical force to be reckoned with. See the story about the flight of
the June Bug starting on page 13. Photo courtesy the Glenn H. Curtiss Museum,
Hammondsport, New York.


EAA Publisher
Director of EAA Publications
Executive Director/Editor
EAA Art Director
Executive Assistant
News Editor
Advertising Coordinator
Classified Ad Coordinator
Copy Editor
Director of Advertisi ng

Tom Poberezny
David Hipschman
H.G. Frautschy
Olivia P. Trabbold
Jillian Rooker
Ric Reynolds
Jim Koepnick
Bonnie Kratz
Sue Anderson
Daphene Van Hullum
Colleen Walsh
Katrina Bradshaw

Display Advertising Representatives:

Northeast and Southeast: Chester Baumgartner
Phone 7275324640, FAX 7275324630, email: cbaulll iii@milldsprillg.COIII
Cen tral: Gary Worden
Phone 800444-9932, FAX 816-74 16458, email:
Moun tain & Pacific: John Gibson
Phone 916-7849593, emai l: joilllgibsoll@Spc-mag.colII
Europe: Willi Tacke
Phone +498969340213, FAX +498969340214, . -mail:


o help members who
" 1)
fly in to understand
In The
West Side
the layout of the con
Vi ntage Aircraft ~
vention area administered
by VAA, we've prepared
this simplified map. As you
can see, camping starts at
Type Club &
Showe rs
Workshop Tents
Row 74 on the east side of
Type Club
.sShowplane/Cam pe r
( \ ( \ .....-\
Reg i stratio n
V V V Red
the main north/south road
- . - - Row 74
(Wittman Road) , with the
areas to the north of that
Past Grand Ch ampions - parked along road
Tall Pines
line set up to handle dis
and in rows 60 & 61.
- . - - Cafe
Near Ultralights
play-only vintage aircraft.
That's why you may see

Large Special

open areas as you taxi south


VAA PARKING to your camping location.

Com m Ce nte r

No Camping
Ant iq ues

Row 62 through Row 77

Once you arrive, you'll
need to register your air
craft and/or campsite. In
Rows 60
Row 50
Row 78
addition to roving regis
& 61
tration vehicles, there is
VAA CAM PI NG AND PARKING - - - - - ' - - - ' - " - ' - - - - - - - -- - - - ' -- - ' - - -
one main aircraft registra
tion building, located just
south of the Red Barn (see map). by a current EAA member.
up in the rear of the Red Barn. EAA
The EAA convention campgrounds
Another immediate benefit of and VAA memberships are available
are private campgrounds and are VAA membership is your free VAA at both aircraft registration and
at the membership booth located
not open to non-EAA members. AirVenture Oshkosh 2008 Partici
Each campsite must be registered pant Plaque, which you can pick northeast of the Red Barn.

~r ))


o t~v

Flight Planning for

Your EAA AirVenture Trip

As an EAA member (an

important part of your VAA
membership), you can use
the EAA Flight Planner to
chart your trip to Wittman
Field for EAA AirVenture Osh
kosh 2008. Just click on the
EM Flight Planner link on the
left side of the members-only
home page at http://Members. or you can log in at


JULY 2008

Get Your EAA AirVenture 2008

NOTAM Booklet
Printed copies of the EAA Air
Venture Oshkosh 2008 Notice to
Airmen (NOTAM) can be ordered
by calling EAA Membership Ser
vices at 800-564-6322, or you can
download it directly from the Web
at www.AirVenture.orgI20081(lying.
The NOTAM contains the special
flight procedures in effect for Witt
man Regional Airport and alternate
airports from 6 a.m. eDT on Friday,
July 25, to 11:59 p.m. eDT on Sun
day, August 3, 2008. All pilots who
fly into the event are expected to
know the special flight procedures
prior to arrival. EAA AirVenture
Oshkosh runs from July 28 through
August 3. For additional EAA Air
Venture Oshkosh 2008 informa
tion, including advance ticketing
purchases, visit


- -ffi)-



The Worfcf 5 Greatest Aviation Celebration TU

FOI' .. n. (I09'fol ~ NOTAII~alEAA.III ,.....S&U3l:l.

TO_ QI' ~"""""'''''''


--~-~-.......+ '


Grass Runways and Fuel

Also on our VAA website, we
publish a list created by VAA mem
ber Kris Kortokrax.
Kris flies a variety of old biplanes
that are more pleasant to fly when
they are flown from grass strips,
and he and his buddies from Shel
byville, Illinois, do their best to keep
the old biplanes happy (and keep
tire wear to a minimum) by flying
cross-country from grass strip to
grass strip. Finding fuel facilities can
be a challenge these days, and Kris
has distilled this airport information
to be useful for like-minded grass
runway-preferring pilots. This data
was current as of the beginning of
the year, and we'd suggest calling
ahead to confirm fuel availability
and hours of operation. If you have
any changes or additions, drop us
an e-mail here at vintageaircra(t@eaa.
org and we'll forward it to Kris.
Our thanks to Kris for sharing his
list. Let us know if you find it useful!

Breakfast and a Briefing

The VAA Tall Pines Cafe will be
in operation again this year with
an expanded schedule prior to
convention, and fly-in-style pan
cake breakfasts during EAA AirVen
ture. Starting on Friday morning,
July 25, and continuing through
Sunday, July 27, the VAA Tall Pines
Cafe will be open for breakfast
(6:30-9:30 a.m.) and dinner (4 :30
7:30 p.m.). Starting Monday, July
28, only breakfast will be served at
the Tall Pines Cafe (6:00-9:30 a.m.).
Just to the north, an FAA Flight
Service Station (FSS) trailer will be
located near the cafe. At the trailer
you'll be able to check the weather
for your flight and obtain a full
briefing from FSS speCialists with
out having to trek up to the FAA
Building near the control tower.
We'll see you there each morning
for "breakfast and a briefing."

Are You a Friend of the

VAA Red Barn?
If so, be sure to check in at the
information desk at the VAA Red
Barn. There, we'll issue you a special

name badge. We can also point out

the location for the Ford Tri-Motor
rides. If you have any questions,
feel free to ask for Jillian Rooker,
the VAA administrative assistant. If
you need to reach her in advance of
your arrival, call her at EAA head
quarters, 920-426-6110.
Our thanks to each of you
who have contributed to the VAA
Friends of the Red Barn 2008 cam
paign. We'll have the list of con
tributors in next month's edition of
Vintage Airplane!

lot of effort to sponsor this event.

Shawano's residents do a great job
of hosting us, and we hope you'll
help us thank Shawano by joining
us on the flight.

VAA Message Center

If you would like to leave a mes
sage for people you know who
frequent the VAA Red Barn, stop
by the information desk. You can
write them a message in our "note
book on a string," and we'll post
their name on the marker board so
they'll know there's a message wait
ing for them. Sure, cellular phones
and walkie-talkies are great, but
sometimes nothing works better
than a hand-scribbled note!

VAA Picnic
Tickets for the annual VAA picniC
to be held Wednesday, July 30, at
the Nature Center will be available
for sale at the VAA Red Barn prior to
the start of EAA AirVenture. Tickets
must be purchased in advance so we
know how much food to order. The
delicious meal will be served after
5:30 p.m. Trams will begin leaving
the VAA Red Barn around 5 p.m.
and will make return trips after the
picnic. Type clubs may hold their
annual banquets during the picnic.
Call Jeannie Hill (815-943-7205),
and she will reserve seating so your
type club can sit together.

Shawano Fly-Out
The annual fly-out to Shawano
is Saturday, August 2. The sign-up
sheet will be at the desk at the VAA
Red Barn, and the briefing will be
at 7 a.m. the morning of the fly
out. The community of Shawano,
approximately an hour north of
Oshkosh (as the Cub flies), is a big
supporter of VAA and puts forth a

VAA Red Barn Store

The VAA Red Barn Store, chock
full of VAA logo merchandise and
other great gear, will be open with
expanded hours all week long,
Monday through Saturday, 8 a.m.
until 6 p.m. Early-bird arrivals can
shop on the previous weekend as
well, during limited hours. Show
your VAA membership card (or your
receipt showing you joined VAA at
the convention), and you'll receive
a 10 percent discount.
When you first visit the Red Barn
store, check to see when there will
be a special VAA members-only sale.
Bring your VAA card to the sale, and
save with additional discounts. See
you there!

VAA Volunteer Opportunities

Are you an ace pancake flip
per? If you're not one yet, we can
help! The VAA Tall Pines Cafe is
looking for volunteers who can
help provide a hearty breakfast
to all the hungry campers on the
south end of Wittman Field . If
you could lend a hand for a morn
ing or two, we'd appreciate it . If
that's not your cup of tea, feel free
to check with the VAA volunteer
center, located just to the north
east of the Red Barn. The volun
teers who operate the booth will
be happy to tell you when your
help is needed each day. It doesn't
matter if it's just for a few hours or
for a few days-we'd love to have
your helping hands!

VAA Judging Categories

The VAA's internationally recog
nized judging categories are:
Antique: Aircraft built prior to
September 1, 1945
Classic: September 1, 1945,
December 31, 1955
Contemporary: January 1,
1956, - December 31, 1970
Any aircraft built within those
years is eligible to park in the Show
plane parking and camping areas.
If you wish to have your aircraft
judged, let the volunteer know
when you register your aircraft and
camping area. If you want your air
craft to be judged by VAA volunteer
judges, you need to be a current
Vintage Aircraft Association mem
ber. VAA contributes a significant
portion of the costs related to the
EAA awards that are presented to
the award winners.

Designated Smoking
Areas Near Flightline
Smoking on the flightline at EAA
AirVenture is prohibited because
it's a hazard to all aircraft. There are
several designated smoking areas
with butt cans along the flightline,
well away from aircraft and refuel
ing operations.
Designated smoking areas will
be south of the ultralight runway;
near the Hangar Cafe; near the
Warbirds area (northeast corner of
Audrey Lane and Eide Avenue); the
Wearhouse flag pole area; the shade
pavilion north of the control tower;
and near the Ultralight Barn. Lo
cations will be indicated on EAA's
free convention grounds map. The
admission wristband also instructs
visitors that smoking is allowed
only in designated smoking areas.

VAA Ballot
If you have not sent in your VAA

election ballot, we encourage you

to do so as soon as possible.
Due to a printing error, the 2008
VAA Election ballot may lead you to
believe that you should only vote
for six candidates. That's incorrect.
As it states in the ballot introduc4

JULY 2008

Aeroplane Factory volunteer Ron Kempka shows (I to r) Roger White, Beverly

Cushman, Sam James, Reed McCall, and Bruce Leighfield how to tie a knot.

Find Your Favorite Presentations and Workshops Online

With hundreds of the world's leading aviation authorities delivering
close to 1,000 individual presentations at nearly 3S locations spread
throughout the expansive EAA convention grounds, planning your
week at EAA AirVenture Oshkosh 2008 can be, in a word, challenging.
Fret not, eager aviation enthusiasts, because you can plan your visit
to the World's Greatest Aviation Celebration with EAA's integrated
presentations and workshops schedule database, and the preliminary
version is now available at
The database will include all the venues, subjects, topics, and pre
senters from not only forums and workshops, but also Warbirds in
Review, KidVenture, Museum Speaker Showcase, Authors Corner, The
ater in the Woods, special "at the aircraft" presentations on AeroShell
Square, and more. You can search for activities by date, interest level
(such as Aerobatics or Homebuilding), name of presenter, location, or
simply by keyword. If it's on a schedule, it'll be here, allowing you to
create custom searches to conveniently preplan your AirVenture stay.
The process of confirming schedules, making modifications, and
adding new presentations is continuing, so check back often for the
latest updates.

tion, please vote for two officers

and 7 directors. If you'd prefer to
download a corrected ballot, you
can do so by visiting the VAA web
site at

AirVenture's Member Village

Becomes EAA Welcome Center
EAA's organizational center of
activity at AirVenture Oshkosh,
known as EAA Member Village, will
become the EAA Welcome Center
in 2008. While maintaining the
high service to EAA members, the
Welcome Center will be even more
inviting to all AirVenture attendees,
with an emphasis on customer ser-

vice and information.

Visitors can obtain general in
formation, directions, exhibitor
information, or answers to virtu
ally all questions regarding EAA
or AirVenture. The EAA Welcome
Center will continue to provide
EAAers a convenient place to re
new their memberships, get infor
mation on all EAA member pro
grams, see unique aircraft displays,
check their e-mail at the Internet
Cafe, and much more.
Visit the EAA Welcome Cen
ter at the corner of the east-west
AeroShell Square taxiway and
Knapp Street Road.

More on the Web

Visit for more
information on EAA AirVenture 2008.

From the massive Boeing Dream

lifter to the small but fast Neme
sis NXT .. . more military aircraft
than you've ever seen outside an
invasion, including F-22 Raptors,
the V-22 Osprey, and those great
vintage warbirds . .. and th e iconic
Goodyear blimp ... find out what
you'll want to see at AirVenture
this year.
OB060S_presentations.html. Put
more than a thousand presen t a
tions, workshops, and other sched
uled events at your fingertips.

Upcoming Major


Arlington Northwest Fly-In

Arlington MuniCipal Airport (AWO),
Arlington, Washington
July 9-13, 2008

EAA AirVenture Oshkosh

Wittman Regional Airport (OSH),
Oshkosh, Wisconsin
July 28-August 3, 2008
Mid-Eastern Regional Fly-In

AirVenture Is Almost Here

Are You Ready?
We've made it easy to learn the
status of, for example, Oshkosh
area accommodations, with new
pages on the Web.
Just a few short weeks from
now, many of you will make the
annual pilgrimage to Oshkosh for
EAA AirVenture 2008. Are you
ready? Here are several handy
online tools on the newly rede
signed AirVenture website that
can help you take care of any
last-minute concerns.
For pilots flying in: www.AirVenlure
Arrival procedures, ground op
erations, parking, even a Special
Offers for Pilots interactive map
ternate_airports.html) help get you
here and take you home.
For lodging: www.AirVenture.
See area accommodations avail
ability at a glance.
Find/offer a lift: www.AirVen
Sharing the load with a fellow
EAAer can help make AirVenture
more affordable.
What to see and do at Air
A quick rundown of major hap
penings each day: www.AirVenture.

SPOT to Offer Free

Messengers for EAA Members
Attending AirVenture
EAA members
attending EAA
AirVenture Osh
kosh 2008 are
eligible to re
ceive a free
SPOT Satel
lite Messenger
through an
exclusive offer
from SPOT Inc.
available only at
SPOT Inc. will give
away SPOT Satellite Messengers
(a $169 .99 value) to current EAA
members when they subscribe to
a one-year satellite service package
for $149.98 at AirVenture.
SPOT uses the GPS network to
pinpoint a user's location, then
transmits that information to
friends, family, or an emergency re
sponse center over a separate satel
lite network. SPOT works where cell
phones don't and communicates
like GPS devices can't, making it a
real asset to pilots and their loved
ones . Users can even track and
share their flying adventures online
using Google Maps.
This exclusive offer is available
to current EAA members whether
they join or renew before or during
the convention. For more informa
tion on the special SPOT offer for
EAA members at AirVenture, go to

Mansfield Lahm Regional Airport

(MFD), Mansfield, Ohio
August 23 & 24, 2008
Southeast Regional Fly-In
Middleton Field Airport (GZH),
Evergreen, Alabama
October 24-26, 2008
Rocky Mountain Regional Fly-In
(New Date)
Front Range Airport (FTG), Denver
(Watkins), Colorado
September 19-21 , 2008
Copperstate Regional Fly-In
Casa Grande Municipal Airport (CGZ),
Casa Grande, Arizona
October 23-26, 2008
www. Coppers

u.S. Sport Aviation Expo

Sebring Regional Airport (SEF),
Sebring, Florida
January 22-25, 2009
Aero Friedrichshafen
Messe Friedrichshafen (EDNy),
Friedrichshafen, Germany
April 2-5, 2009
www.Aero-Friedrichshafen.coml htmllen

Sun 'n Fun Fly-In

Lakeland Linder Regional Airport (LAL),
Lakeland, Florida
April 21-26, 2009
For details on EAA chapter fly-ins and
other local aviation events, visit




P.O. Box 3086

OSHKOSH, WI 54903-3086


Additional Information on
Funk Serial Number 1
Al Ball of Santa Paula, Califor
nia, who owned serial number 2
for 40 years, called to tell us that
the airplane was built out of the
salvaged parts of serial number 1.
No.1 was caught in a hangar fire

while it was still owned by the

Funk brothers, and while the bulk
of it was rescued from the fire, there
was significant damage done to it.
According to evidence found on
the parts of serial number I, it was
originally painted lemon yellow,
with black numbers. AI Ball says

the color was close to the color of

a yellow writing pad-lighter in
tone than Cub Yellow, but not a
light yellow. He pointed out that
when he restored the airplane he
didn't repaint the airplane in its
original yellow color, but chose a
dark-red-with-black-trim scheme
that is closer to the production
Funk airplanes.
The split nosebowl seen on the
first airplane was used on the sec
ond version, but the distinctive
center divider was removed at some
point, so the opening appears very
different than the original.
Just prior to World War II, the
Northrop Technical Institute took
ownership of the airplane, and after
the war it was sold to a Los Ange
les-area pilot. The pilot who pur
chased it from NT! flew it briefly,
but because the cooling system was
so clogged with scale and rust after
sitting for a number of years, the
engine would overheat soon after
takeoff. After Al Ball restored the
engine and airframe, he put about
500 hours on it before selling it to
Fred Patterson and the Oakland
Aviation Museum (also known as
the Western Aerospace Museum) in
Oakland, California.
Al is currently restoring an Air &
Space 18A autogyro and expects to
have it flying within a year.


Are you nearing completion of a restoration? Or
is it done and you're busy flying and showing it off?
If so, we'd like to hear from you. Send us a 4-by
6-inch print from a commercial source (no home
printers, please-those prints just don't scan well)
or a 4-by-6-inch, 30O-dpi digital photo. A JPG from
your 2.5-megapixel (or higher) digital camera is
fine. You can burn photos to a CO, or if you're on
a high-speed Internet connection, you can e-mail
them along with a text-only or Word document
describing your airplane. (If your e-mail program
asks if you'd like to make the photos smaller,
say no.) For more tips on creating photos
we can publish, visit VAA's website at www. Check the News page for a




JULY 2008

hyperlink to Want To Send Us A Photograph?

For more information, you can also e-mail
us at or call us at 920

700 mW loud audio with built-in BTL amplifier

18 hour* Lithium-Ion battery pack, 2000 mAh
Side tone function and adjustable mic gain setting
Low battery indication and low battery beep
Military spec, rugged body
ANL (Auto Noise Limiter), reduces noise components
Water resistant to IPX4 standards**






'Typical operation,Tx: Rx: stand-by=5:5:90. -Protected against splashing water from all angles.
Airplane courtesy of Glasair.
0 2008 lcom America Inc.The lcom logo is a registered trademark of Icom Inc. All specifications subject to change without notice or obligation. 40059

Optional BC-179
Securely holds &

charges the radio

Light indicator tells

when charged

Here's the Interior of the

Airmaster, complete with tan
whipcord upholstery.

For anyone who 's flown an older Cessna, those rudder pedals sure
look familiar.
Cu.s"tOD1 Colors

NC21914 rolled out of the Wich

ita factory on February 21, 1940, in
Command-Aire green with white
trim and a black pinstripe-a far cry
from its current look-it now sports
181 square feet of international or
ange on the wing and jet black on
the fuselage.
That paint scheme came cour
10 JULY 2008

tesy of the Civil Aeronautics Ad

ministration (CAA) in 1943.
The airplane was originally
bought from the factory by Hanger
Six, a flying outfit based out of Stin
son Field in San Antonio. Two years
later, the aircraft was sold to the De
fense Plant Corporation and leased
to the CAA. With it came an abbre
viated N-number change, 237E, as

well as the new paint scheme.

According to aircraft builder and
historian Gar Williams, at least two
Airmasters were used by the CAA
and a number of others were im
pressed into the Army Air Force for
the duration of World War II. No pa
perwork is available indicating how
Heyrman's Airmaster was used. The
CAA performed many duties dur

ing the war, including airway de

velopment, which could have been
a likely job for 237E.
Airmasters were exceptional
camera planes because of their
rock-solid stability. One former
owner joked the Airmaster can cut
through turbulence like a DC-3 .
Of the 186 built, 23 were sold or
converted by the factory for aerial
photography. N237E was not one
of them on record; however, cam
era equipment was installed.
"I looked in the belly, and the
holes were still there in the wood
for the big camera/' said West
Coast antiquer Don Carter, who
owned the airplane from 1961 to
1970. lilt was all covered over, but
they were there.
As luck would have it, Carter
learned a little more history of the
Airmaster on a trip to Oakland.
"I was doing some air show stuff
during that time in a Bucker and
Ryan ST. I had Security Parachute
Company in Oakland build me a
chute. When I got to the place,
there was a picture on the wall of
an Airmaster. So I got talking and
pulled out a picture of mine, and
they informed me they used to own
the airplane. The guy said he used



to have an aerial photography busi

ness he used the plane for.
"He claimed they went to 20,000
feet doing high-altitude photogra
phy. That's with two guys-pilot
and camera operator, and one of
those big Fairchild cameras. I said,
'How long did it take you to get
there?' He said, 'Well, we brought
our lunches along!'"
The president of Security was avi
ation and parachute pioneer John
Maggi, who owned the airplane
from 1948 to 1955. Maggi was one
of the first air show sky divers
we're talking the 1920s-and later
flew Curtiss Helldivers in the Ma
rines during World War II. He was
voted into the Aviation Pioneer Hall
of Fame in 1998.
The airplane went through a few
owners before Carter bought the
plane. He said the airplane was in
good condition except for one glaring
problem. Someone repainted it.
"It was a horrible yellow with
light green trim," Carter said. "I fig
ured I could fix that. Everything was
straight on it. I just painted it back
to the CAA colors."
Carter sold the airplane to Coe in
1970. Until June, Coe had owned
the Airmaster for more than 30 years
and had logged 1,300 hours in it. He
re-covered the fuselage in Irish linen
in 1976. Rick Atkins of Ragtime Aero
in Placerville, California, re-covered
the wing in 1994 and maintained
the airplane.
Throughout the years Coe owned
12 JU L Y 2008

it, he was able to keep the airplane

"You want to keep the thing going
straight on landing and takeoff," Coe
said. "The tail is really heavy. If you


"I kept thinking,

'Did I do some
thing stupid?'
When we were
flying it back I
fell in love with
it and knew I
made the right
decision. "

get the thing out of alignment, you

can put it in the weeds really easy. I'm
proud in the fact that all of the years I
flew it, I never put it in the weeds."
Heyrman and Baeten also got
some flying advice from another
Airmaster expert, 98-year-old Mort
Brown, who was Cessna's chief
production test pilot from 1939
until 1972.
"I called Mort Brown and asked
him if there were any quirks," Baeten
said. "He told me the airplane is
pretty straightforward. Come across
the fence at 75 if you two-point it
and 80-85 if you're going to wheel
land it."
Baeten said during the 22-hour
trek back, the 165 Warner sounded
good, burning 8 gallons an hour at
1850 rpm. They averaged 120 mph.
That's pretty good efficiency today
from the airplane once deemed "the
world's most efficient airplane."
Back home, Heyrman said every
one seems to be taking a liking to his
new airplane.
"When we put it in the hangar it
was like the new girl in town," Heyr
man said. "Everyone was coming up
to look at it."
Heyrman also got the thumbs up
from the person who matters most,
his wife, Cheryl.
"My wife wants to fly in this air
plane. I think she likes the looks
of it."
For a guy who doesn't have the
world's nicest Fairchild 24, it seems
like he's done pretty well.


t had been a long, muggy summer day in up

state New York. The humid air hung in the val
ley southwest of Hammondsport until it could
hold no more, and the crowds assembled on
the grounds of Stony Brook Farm and the Pleasant
Valley Wine Company had to endure a few rum
bling thunderstorms that afternoon. Many had
been there since dawn, expecting to see a remark
able sight-a local man, already famous for his ex
ploits on bicycles and motorcycles, was going to fly
nearly a mile through the air.
A few days before that hot, muggy afternoon,
Glenn Hammond Curtiss had stepped aboard a
train bound for Washington, D.C. He and Thomas
Selfridge were to meet with officials of the Aero
Club of America. He and Selfridge were members
of the Aerial Experiment Association (AEA), a small
group of accomplished aeronautical experimenters
that consisted of Dr. Alexander Graham Bell, Fred
erick "Casey" Baldwin, ).A. Douglas McCurdy, Cur
tiss, and Selfridge. They were sure they had licked
the problem of lateral control that had plagued
their earlier aircraft. So sure of their accomplish
ment was Curtiss that he boldly told bystanders,
"We'll fly the June Bug on the Fourth of July. Ad
vertise it. Invite everybody interested in flight.





I ... . IIUIIDII , AD.II.I"U,101 or r . I . IILraIDU. DIO' 1) .


1,011, 106.

.. "LIOATIOI rlLlD API . I , 110 .

Patented Dec. 5, 1911.

., .anu-un? I .

Above: Glenn Curtiss roars down the path of Harry

Champlin's Stony Brook Farm racetrack. To the right is
the temporary tent hangar tacked on to the side of one
of the buildings of the Pleasant Valley Wine Company.





. .. . lliLP'lIDGZ. AD_"111"101

or f .

E. It LtIJDOt. DJ:O ' D

The June Bug Is prepared for flight on a warm, muggy Satur

day, the Fourth of July, 1908. Glenn Curtiss stands with his
hands on his hips, garters for his shirt sleeves holding his
cuffs above the elbow on the summer day.



.&PPLIOiTI O. '(U D HI . 8, 1909 .

Patented Dec. 5, 1911.













-R:::l'e 14/
II Cl.(ltr.dL..-~

14 JULY 2008


Draw a crowd to Hammondsport and prove to the world

that we can really fly."
In Washington, Curtiss and Selfridge told the officials
of the Aero Club that they intended to compete for the
Scientific American trophy. Established by the noted sci
ence magazine, the silver trophy was created in 1907 to
stimulate aviation progress in the United States. If a com
petitor could complete a trio of trials in succeeding years
(each year's hurdle would become increasingly difficult,
thanks to standards determined by the Aero Club), the
trophy would be permanently given to the competitor.
Curtiss and the AEA were confident that their new air
plane, the third powered fixed-wing aircraft they built,
was up to the first challenge of flying more than a kilo
meter (3,281 feet, or 0.621 mile) in a straight line. After
all, they'd already flown it that far a week earlier. Well, at
least once they'd flown it that far.
The June Bug was the logical evolution of the AEA's
two earlier efforts in fixed-wing airplanes. The AEA had
built a glider of fairly standard layout and also a tetrahe
dral kite of Dr. Bell's design. The gilder gave them valu
able experience, while the kite proved to be an aeronau
tical dead end. Aerodrome Nos. 1 and 2, the Red Wing
and White Wing, respectively, were biplanes that featured
tapered wings whose wingtips were pulled toward each
other, with the lower wing curving upward as the top
wing's ends described a gentle downward arc, creating a
squashed oval shape with the ends clipped off.
After J.A. Douglas McCurdy crunched the White Wing
on May 23,1908 (he'd run afoul of windy conditions that

day), the AEA made the decision to go ahead with a new

design, similar in appearance but refined by Curtiss. The
five flights made with White Wing told them they were
on the right track, but that both structural and aerody
namic changes needed to be made. It would be easier to
build a new airplane than to rebuild the White Wing with
the changes incorporated.
Aerodrome No.3, which would be dubbed the June
Bug by Dr. Bell, would feature the wingtip lateral controls
first installed on the White Wing. The triangular movable
control surfaces were a revelation to the team. They al
lowed the AEA's aircraft to be controlled laterally, so the
pilot could regulate his turns or recover from upsets that
caused the airplane to roll to one side or the other. The
June Bug's "wingtips," as the controls were called by the
AEA, were controlled by a yoke that was worn over the
shoulders of the pilot. If you leaned into the turn in the
same manner as when riding a motorcycle, your lower
shoulder would be on the lower or inside of the turn,
while your higher shoulder would be pointed away from
the ground. The yoke was rigged to move the wingtips
so that the trailing edge on the wingtip of the wings you
wished to lower would tilt upward, and the wingtip on
the opposite wings would tilt in the opposite direction.
Curtiss' design for the June Bug created a biplane with
the familiar AEA-style wings, although the design of the
structure created a straight line down the leading and
trailing edges as viewed from in front, each side more like
a long truncated triangle than the curved wing of its pre
decessor. (Later, Curtiss would dispense with the tapered
wings, maintaining a rectangular box structure for his air
craft wing designs.) With a longer forward structure, which
allowed the builder to move the engine back 5 inches, the
pilot sat further forward than on the White Wing. The
total length of the June Bug was 27 feet 6 inches, with a
wingspan of 42 feet 6 inches. The lightweight structure
of the third AEA aerodrome had an empty weight of 473
pounds and a gross weight of 615 pounds; the engine
alone weighed nearly 200 pounds. The White Wing and
June Bug had one other pioneering feature that would
become a standard in aviation many decades later-they
had a tricycle landing gear.
The 40-hp air-cooled V-8 Curtiss engine and the pro
peller that had powered both the previous biplanes was
again used on the June Bug. With that part of the aircraft's
construction dispensed with, the airframe could go to
gether quickly.
One discovery made while building and testing White
Wing was the effect the weave of the fabric had on the
amount of lift generated by the airplane. The White Wing
had been coated with varnish after Dr. Bell suggested that
the porosity of the fabric's open weave was the reason
the airplane's lift was not as high as they expected. In
the spring in upstate New York it worked like a charm on
the White Wing, but when they used varnish in the early
summer on the June Bug, the finish proved to be trouble
some. It may have been because the June Bug lasted lon-

J. . O. BELL,




or T. E. ULnUI . DEO'D,

UPLIOJ,'I'IOi run API , I , UOf.

Patented Dec. ~. 1911.

'lIun- IIln ,.

ger than the White Wing, which had a lifespan of only six
days from its first flight to its last!
It took just slightly less than a month to build the new
airplane. The airframe was completed by June 19, 1908,
and it was given a few ground tests before the wings were
installed and it was pronounced ready for a test flight.
The summer heat and humidity caused the varnish to
crack and peel, so it had to be refinished. Pioneering aero
nautical enthusiast and engineer Octave Chanute had
suggested coating it with a mixture of paraffin, gasoline,
turpentine, and yellow ocher. That must have been a
rather odoriferous coating!
The yellow ocher was not meant for sealing the pores,
but to make the light-colored cotton fabric show up bet
ter in photographs. In its brief lifetime, the White Wing
had shown itself to not photograph well, due to the poor
contrast between it and an overcast or hazy sky. It was
important that the photographic record of the AEA's ex
periments show as much detail as possible, not to men
tion the benefits of a well-defined photograph when
published in newspapers or magazines. In researching
this article, Louis Casey's wonderful book, Curtiss: The
Hammondsport Era, 1907-1915, states that the new coat
ing was applied after three unsuccessful attempts at flyVINTAGE AIRPLANE


The June Bug's eight-cylinder, 40-hp engine was a Curtiss

product. Each cylinder had its own carburetor. Curtiss, already
well-known for his company's engine-building prowess, was
one of the spark plugs of the Aerial Experiment Association.

ing the June Bug, yet other research would lead one to
believe the varnish coating was used first on the White
Wing and then the June Bug. In either event, the coat
ing is believed to have been the first use of a sealing
coating, or dope, used on a fixed-wing aircraft.
Flight testing began on June 21 with three short
flights, the longest of which lasted 25.5 seconds, cover
ing just more than 1,200 feet in length. By the seventh
test flight onJune 27, Curtiss kept the airplane in the air
for 60 seconds, covering more than 3,000 feet and land
ing only when the boundary of the field at Stony Brook
Farm was reached.
Curtiss and his compatriots were convinced-they had
an airplane that could win the Scientific American tro
phy! Wiring Dr. Bell, who had left Hammondsport on a
less than direct trip home to Nova Scotia, they told him
of their plans, and at the same time informed the Aero
Club of their intentions.
Augustus Post, the secretary of the club, was surprised
by the news that the AEA was ready to make an attempt.
Like many in the Aero Club, he expected the Wright
brothers would claim the prize, since they had been mak
ing regular flights at Huffman Prairie near Dayton.
But the Wrights, unwilling to change their aircraft to
suit the requirements of the rules set forth by the Aero
Club (which included installing a wheeled landing gear
instead of using the catapult the Wrights preferred for use
on the unimproved grounds of the Ohio prairie), and still
16 JULY 2008


or r. t . IELrllDGE ,

E. . 'UFlIDGE . ADKII18'rU.tOI



DEO ' D.

Patented Dec. 5, 1911.

6 'BEE1'I- lHtEf 4.

certain their rights as inventors would be better served by

not taking part in such a public event, were not drawn out
by the trophy.
By July 1, it was clear to the secretary that the AEA
meant to claim the prize, and since the rules allowed the
competitor to name the place and time of the attempt, it
would be accomplished in a valley in the wine country of
the Finger Lakes region of New York, and not in Washing
ton or any other major population center.
The day before the public, officially sanctioned event
was to take place, Curtiss and the members of the AEA
who were in Hammondsport, along with Curtiss' assistant
Henry Kleckler, decided to test the June Bug one last time.
Using the horse racetrack owned by winery owner Harry
Champlin as a runway, Curtiss roared off on a dry run
of the next day's record attempt, but due to his (and ev
eryone else's, for that matter) inexperience and the chal
lenging handling characteristics of a pioneer-era aircraft,
gusty winds put him in the ground, wrecking one wing
and busting a wheel. But Curtiss was undeterred, and with
the help of the others, they rebuilt the June Bug in only
half a day.
As the sun rose that steamy Saturday, hundreds of
spectators began to spread out blankets and settle in for
what they thought would be a few hours on the hill
side of the valley near the Pleasant Valley Wine Com
pany. Expecting the flight to take place early in the day,
when normally the weather was calmest, the crowds
were forced to wait in the increasingly uncomfortable
weather. At one point, in an effort to put a cheery face
on an otherwise tedious day, the owners of the winery
opened their doors to the public for a repast, complete
with the local vintner's creations.
As the day dragged on, Curtiss kept eying the weather.
After his experience the previous day, he wasn't about to
take a chance on blowing the opportunity to make his
tory by being impatient. Finally, after the afternoon show
ers had passed and the weather calmed down, he gave the
word he was ready to fly.
As the sun began to draw lower on the western ridge of
the valley, Curtiss and his associates pulled the June Bug
from its tent hangar. With the hour now past six in the
evening, even with the longest summer day only 12 days
before, there wouldn't be a great deal of extra time if me
chanical or other difficulties arose.
As the official starter deSignated by the Aero Club,
Charles Manly, pioneer aircraft engine designer and
builder who had once served as Samuel Pierpont Langley's
assistant during the Langley Aerodrome flights, measured
off the I-kilometer distance. Manly was told by Curtiss
that he'd not follow a straight course to the I-kilometer
flag, since there were vineyards and trees in the way. Cur
tiss wouldn't get credit for traveling in a circuitous path,
and it turned out he didn't seem to much care-he would
fly the route he chose and still set the record.
His first attempt at 7 p.m. fell short, a victim of the
rear horizontal stabilizer being set incorrectly, with an ex-


I . .1, tELlIIDQE . .101'11 1111'-1'01


T. J: . lurllDGE . DtU' D.





J.PPLICJ.TI0M f iL ED !P l. 9.


Patented Dec. 5. 191 I



H.M. Bemmer's photo of the June Bug in flight on July 4, 1908.

cessive angle of negative incidence. After takeoff, Curtiss

couldn't keep the June Bug from climbing at too steep
an angle. With the engine making full revolutions, he
couldn't force the nose down, and he had to cut the power
so he could recover from the excessive pitch attitude. Pull
ing the power did the trick, and Curtiss landed safely but
well short of his intended mark.
After the June Bug was pulled through the clover back
to the mud racetrack, Curtiss and the AEA members had
a discussion about the cause of the excessive climb, and


behind as Curtiss coaxed the biplane

up to an average speed of 39 mph for
the flight.
Just before takeoff, annoyed at the
naysayers, Curtiss spotted something
that steeled his determination. A pho
tographer, intent on taking a photo
of the June Bug as it passed by, set up
h is camera short of the finish line's
red flag. Curtiss took that to mean the
photographer didn't think he could
make it the full distance. (I think the
pho tographer just wanted a shot in
the air, and not one as the June Bug
touched down . After all, for a historic
flight, who wants a photo of an air
plane on the ground?)
The crowd then got to witness one
The June Bug roars past the camera and its no-doubt startled photographer on one
the most amazing flights ever made
of the two flights on July Fourth. Might this be the shot taken by the photographer
to that point in time, and one that
whose choice of position short of the expected end of the flight seemed to inspire
ld actually be the longest flight
Curtiss to fly well past the 1-kilometer mark's red flag?
ever made with the June Bug. Curtiss
wove his way around the t rees and
as they reviewed the setting of the flight control surfaces,
they discovered the error in the stabilizer setting. Quickly vineyards of the Pleasant Valley Wine Company, roaring
putting it right, they had time for another attempt to win by the photographer and continuing well past the red flag,
the Scientific American trophy.
only coming down when he reached a stand of trees near
At 7:30 Manly's starter flag dropped and the roar of the edge of the fie ld . He covered nearly 6,000 feet in dis
Curtiss' V-8 echoed up and down the valley. It must have tance, flying 102.5 seconds. He'd won! Glenn Hammond
been a fantastic sight; the yellow wings of the June Bug Curtiss and the AEA had topped them all, placing himself
must have glowed in the warm evening light of that July and the accomplishments of the AEA on the front page of
summer day, the cloud of exhaust and oil smoke trailing every newspaper in the nation and around the world.

OS~KOS~ ~6Q6


J U LY 2008

W6 COH6!11

It must have been a very sweet cel

ebration that Fourth of July, 1908.
With the Great Western champagne
flowing from th e winery, it must
have been quite a night. Glenn Cur
tiss, once known as liThe Fastest Man
on Earth" thanks to his motorcycle
building and racing prowess, had
set himself on a new path, one that
would lead to remarkable technical
achievements, but one that would
try his very soul.

For more on Glenn Hammond Curtiss and his life, I recom

mend the following books:
Unlocking the Sky: Glenn Hammond Curtiss and the Race to In
vent the Airplane, by Seth Shulman, published in 2002.
Hell-Rider to King of the Air: Glenn Curtiss's Life ofInnovation,
by Kirk W. House, published in 2004.
Curtiss: The Hammondsport Era, 1907-1915, by Louis Casey,
published in 1981.
Glenn Curtiss: Pioneer of Flight, by C.R. Roseberry, published
in 1972.

"Buets !bounce right oft

the Po.y-FI!ber. sec?"

July Fourth will mark the 100th anni
versary of Glenn Curtiss' flight in the AEPls
Aerodrome No.3, June Bug, winning the
Scientific American trophy for the first of
ficially observed public flight of more than
1 kilometer in length.

e here at Poly-Fiber are mighty proud to help heroes like Captain

Eddie defeat the dreaded Hun in the skies over France by covering
his ship with the toughest. easiest-to
repair fabric known to man. It's easy to
apply, too, even Over There, and it'll see
our boys through the most arduous dog
fighting they'll face. Poly-Fiber will never
let them down, so don't you, either!
Help put Liberty Bond sales "over the
top" for all our gallant doughboys!

The Glenn H. Curtiss Museum in Ham

*Friendliest manual around

*Toll-free technical support

mondsport, New York is dedicated to the

memory of the pioneer aviator. The mu


seum contains a priceless collection relat

ing to early aviation and local history. In

addition to seeing the museum displays

and exhibits, visitors are welcome to viSit
the Restoration Shop, talk with volunteer


Aircraft Coating_

craftsman and watch them work on his

toric aircraft such as the recent project.
the Curtiss America flying boat.
Glenn H. Curtiss Museum
8419 State Route 54
Hammondsport, NY


19 f 9 - 1 949
c/fatlol1al clEl't qu,.cefj
The only comprehensive DVD Story of the National Air Races available today!

"Aviation fans will enjoy the yea r-by-yea r storytelling about the airplanes, and
the pilots who flew them"Rose Dorcey, EAA Sport
" .. a positive addition to the aviation historian 's
video collection."
Jerri Bergen, American Avia/ion Historical Society

"I highly recommend this interesting video."

Tim Savage, Warbird Digest

May - October: Mon-Sat: 9-5, Sun: 10-5
November - April: Mon-Sat and Sun: 10-4


Light Plane Heritage


EAA Experimenter


Remember the Klemm


This nostalgia-evoking photo shows a 20-hp Klemm in flight over the German countryside. Bulge
atop engine cowling covers the single magnet o. Most Klemms were done with unpigmented fin
ishes allowing natural wood and fabric colors to show. Note wingtip skids and the unusual pivoting
wingtip ailerons.

housands of young men

learned to fly during World
War I. Upon being dis
charged from their respec
tive air forces at its conclusion, many
of them sorely missed the great sen
sations and satisfactions of being in
command of a machine able to break
the bonds of gravity and roam the
vast skyways. Some thus searched for
ways to continue flying.

In the United States a great many

took eagerly to barnstorming in sur
plus two-seater Jenny and Standard
training planes. There was some
barnstorming in Britain with Avro
504 trainers, but the comparatively
small land area of the British Isles
limited this activity compared to
the States. A few pilots used surplus
SE-5 Single-seaters to develop the
advertising form known as skywrit

ing. Some joined flying clubs . Yet

others saw a future in offering fast,
frequent, and hopefully reliable air
services across the English Channel
from London to Paris, flying surplus
bombers outfitted with makeshift
cockpit enclosures.
In those days Britain and France
had dominions and colonies in far
away parts of the globe. The need
to transport people, mail, and light

Editor's Note: Longtime aviation enthusiasts will recognize the byline of Bob Whittier. Bob has been a regular con
tributor to EAA publications since the founding of the organization, as well as a knowledgeable author for other avia
tion and boating magazines. Bob's Light Plane Heritage series in EAA's Experimenter magazine often touched on aircraft
and concepts related to vintage aircraft and their history. Since many of our members have not had the opportunity to
read this series, we plan on publishing those LPH articles that would be of interest to VAA members. Enjoy!-HGF

JULY 2008

but valuable cargo to and from

these places more swiftly than could
be done by ship spurred yet others
to use modified single- and twin
engined bombers to make incred
ibly long and daring exploratory
flights to South Africa, India, Indo
China, and even Australia . Out of
these adventures there eventually
developed a vast airline system.
But pilots in defeated Germany
found themselves in a very differ
ent situation. The harsh terms of
the Treaty of Versailles called for the
destruction of Germany's military
equipment. Only a handful of war
surplus planes escaped the bonfires.
The manufacture of new military
aircraft was forbidden, and severe
restrictions were placed on the
manufacture of and performance
capabilities of civilian aircraft.
On top of that, their country was
in the throes of runaway inflation.
These daunting factors combined
to spark a strong interest in gliders
and gliding.
Many and sometimes strange
looking gliders appeared. The method
of launching them in those very early
days was to find a large, grassy field
on the side of a hill and yank the glid
ers aloft with stretched bungee cords.
Flights were simply short downhill
glides. Soaring came later.
Inevitably some pilots began to
install whatever they could find in
the way of very small, light mo
tors in their gliders so they could
get airborne without having to call
together enough people to form
launching crews, or so they could
fly over their country's relatively flat
farming regions.
Attaching motors to airframes
not originally intended for them
soon spurred the design and con
struction of more suitable airframes.
Then, using powerplants originally
designed to really suit the require
ments of flight led to the devel
opment of small but real aviation
engines. This in turn prompted de
signers to come out with airframes
designed to get the best out of these
new and better powerplants. It's
worth noting that many years later,

The Klemm monoplane was powered by this 20-hp Daimler-Mercedes

two-cylinder engine. Circular shape behind the propeller hub is the hous
ing for the 3-to-1 reduction gear. Note two exhaust stacks per cylinder,
an outcome of the engine's having four valves per cylinder. Single mag
neto is mounted atop the crankcase. The engine had a 75 mm bore and
100 mm st roke.

A derivation of the original Klemm was this very handsome KL-35 trainer
powered with a 150-hp Hirth engine. That's Hans Klemm standing beside
the fuselage. Wing was of inverted gull design. Front cockpit has been
covered over.

our own ultralight movement went

through the same process.
In 1921 an affluent gentleman
from Milwaukee named William
Pohl made a trip to Germany. He
tracked down the German World
War I ace Ernst Udet (62 con
firmed victories) and made a busi
ness proposition. He'd put up the
money if Udet would use his flying
skill and prestige in Germany to or
ganize a company to mass-produce
a light sport plane for sale in the
United States.
Being one of the many German

fliers who at the time weren't at all

sure how they'd pay next month's
rent, Udet agreed, and so Udet Flug
zeugbau was organized in Munich.
The company's first effort was an
all-wood cantilever lOW-Wing sin
gle-seater of rather squarish lines.
Construction was started in July
of 1921 in their three-person "fac
tory." Hardly had they gotten down
to serious work when some nosy of
ficial somehow got word that some
body was building an airplane. At
that time the people in charge of
enforcing the treaty strictly forbade


any and all aircraft construction,

but the Udet crew apparently didn't
realize this.
One of Udet's employees was
collared by this official, liquored
up, and questioned. The employee
promptly told Udet that officialdom
was after their little company. The
little crew went into a huddle and
decided "To hell with the treaty!"
In the dark of night they loaded ev
erything into a wagon, made their
furtive way well out into the hin
terlands, and resumed work in a
chicken coop.
Just a few days before their plane
was finished, in May of 1922, they
were very happy when word reached
them that the ban on construction
of civil aircraft had been lifted. So
they proudly rolled the ship out for
its maiden flight. It was powered by
an opposed twin-cylinder air-cooled
Haacke engine of 30 hp. This mill
vibrated so badly that Udet wrote of
the plane's first hop thusly:
"The motor shakes the plane so
badly I can't even recognize the aile
rons! Everything vibrates as though
the road in the air were paved with
cobblestones! But I am flying-for
the first time in two years!"
The Udet crew must somehow
have improved on this situation, for
by 1923 the little company had also
developed a similar two-seater pow
ered by an upgraded 3S-hp Haacke.
The hoped-for mass market in the
United States never materialized
due to the insurmountable competi
tion caused by the thousands of war
surplus American military planes
available at flea market prices. But
modest production was carried on
for the European market.
It's reasonable to deduce that all
wood construction was used for the
good reason that in the Germany
of the early 1920s, such things as
round and streamlined aircraft-type
steel tubing and streamlined tie rods
were difficult if not impossible for a
very small company to obtain.
The reason why the low-wing
configuration was chosen began
with the fact that a cantilever wing
was wanted. During the war Ger
22 J U LY 2008

This American Aeromarine-Klemm sports the 4O-hp Salmson nine-cylinder ra

dial engine built in France and a set of floats designed by Harold Kantner.

This American-built Aeromarine-Klemm with a LeBlond engine was photo

graphed at Floyd Bennett Field in New York around 1937. Fat "airwheel "
tires were standard and allowed operation on rough fields, sandy beaches,
etc. Rudder top was raised to better control added horsepower.

man deSigners like Junkers had pi

oneered this form of wing design,
so Udet had a precedent. This type
would need no external struts or tie
rods, in addition to offering the low
drag necessary to get decent perfor
mance from low power. Making it
in one piece from tip to tip would
save the cost and weight of the
steel connecting fittings necessary
in a wing built in two or more sec
tions. The Druine lightplanes de
veloped in France after World War
II used this same line of reasoning,
by the way.
Also, to obtain the necessary
strength, the spars in the central
portion of the wing would have to
be fairly deep. If it were attempted
to mount this wing on top of the
fuselage, there would be problems
with the weight of the necessary
supporting structure and headroom
for the occupants. If you have ever
wriggled into the front seats of a

Cessna C-38 Airmaster, you will

understand this perfectly. The low
wing configuration allowed the
deep central portions of the Udet
plane's wing spars to pass under the
seats and/or knees of the occupants.
The open cockpits were easy to get
into, had no headroom problem,
and afforded excellent visibility.
In the town of Bbblingen, not far
from the city of Stuttgart in south
western Germany, was located the
rather substantial Mercedes-Daimler
works. This name is well-known to
all who are familiar with automo
tive and aeronautical history. By
around 1924 it had deve loped its
own version of a small, economi
cal two-cylinder air-cooled light
plane engine.
Like the Haacke it was of the
horizontally opposed type but was
rated at an almost unbelievably
puny 20 hp . Its cylinder displace
ment was only S4 cubic inches, and

you can best appreciate this tini

ness by recalling that the original
four-cylinder, 1200 cc Volkswagen
engine has 73 cubic inches displace
ment. But it had excellent "breath
ing" characteristics by reason of
having two inlet and two exhaust
valves per cylinder. So what else is
new, you modern automobile en
gine deSigners?
Also, its peak-rated rpm was 3000,
quite high for aircraft engines of its
time. It was fitted with a 3-to-1 re
duction gear so as to drive the pro
peller at a maximum speed of 1000
rpm, which was comparable to the
rotational speeds of World War I
rotary engines. A large-diameter
propeller could thus be used, and
this threw back a correspondingly
large diameter, thrust-producing
column of air. So it was in fact a
well-thought-out approach to light
airplane engine design that was
quite advanced for its time. And by
the way, the engineer in charge of
its development was Dr. lng. h.c.
(doctor of engineering) Ferdinand
Porsche, whose skill at designing
small and reliable air-cooled en
gines later created the Volkswagon
and Porsche automobile engines.
The well-financed Mercedes
Daimler company decided to develop
an airplane of its own to use this en
gine. They put the project into the
hands of an aeronautical engineer
named Hansjurgen "Hans" Klemm.
The resulting airplane was originally
called the Daimler L.20. A separate
organization was established to
manufacture it and named Leight
flugzeugbau Klemm G.m.b.H., or
roughly "Klemm Lightplane Man
ufacturing Corp." The planes this
firm produced thus eventually came
to be known as Klemms. The factory
was at B6blingen.
Because what actually took place
happened so long ago and so far
away, we cannot be positive about
this, but it's reasonable to assume
that other German deSigners took
note of the Udet approach to light
plane design. It's a fact that when
any designer sets about to create a
new airplane, he studies similar de

signs from other engineers' draft

ing boards to learn whatever he can
about their poor and good ideas.
Like the Udet, the Klemm was
of all-wood construction and was
a low wing of the cantilever type.
But, where the Udet had a mod
est span of 29 feet 1 inches, the
new Klemm had a long span of 40
feet 2 inches and had 215 square
feet of wing area. Later American
lightplanes of the "Cub" type had
around 170 square feet of wing
area, so you can see that the Klemm
was definitely a "floater." Very light
airplanes tip easily when landing in
crosswinds, so the low wing on the
Klemm did much to minimize this
problem. If wind did tip a Klemm,
one wingtip skid simply contacted
the ground and "bumped" the ship
back to level position.
Because of this appreciably
greater span, Hans Klemm decided
to build the wing in three pieces, a
center section and two outer pan
els. He paid a small penalty in the

form of the cost and weight of the

necessary steel connecting fittings,
but gained much in convenience.
Each wing panel was attached with
two vertical bolts and could quite
readily be removed and hung snug
and secure against the fuselage
sides by means of small fittings pro
vided for the purpose. This enabled
the Klemm to be housed in a fairly
narrow and inexpensive storage
shed or to be towed along a road
behind an automobile. The rudder
and horizontal tail were removed
so as not to catch the wind or foul
the tow car.
Making light and easily managed
wings removable rather than fold
able saves a lot of complication,
cost, and weight. Some Klemm
owners came to value this feature
very highly.
The reason for the long span had
to do with a concept known to en
gineers as "span loading." Basically
the idea is that if good takeoff and
climbing ability and high ceilings

WeD. for falJJI1o~R

airplanes, anyway... we
got the idea from Ponce.
It's called rejuvenation, and it works great with real
dope finishes. Spray our rejuvenator over aged dope;
it soaks in and restores flexibility for years of added
life. It can even hide hairline cracks. And no finish
has the foot-deep luster of
authentic polished dope.
Roll back the calendar on
your plane's finish!



are wanted in a plane powered by

a small engine, wingspan must be
quite long. Read the article "Wing
Span - The Vital Factor" in the July
1988 issue of EAA Experimenter.
In early models the leading edges
of the wings had false ribs between
the main ones. Later the leading
edges were sheathed with thin ply
wood back to the front spars, and
in a later (1929) license-built Amer
ican version, to the rear spars.
An odd feature was the use of
pivoted wingtips for aileron con
trol. The tips pivoted in response
to control stick movement. You
can see this clearly in the in-flight
photo accompanying this article.
Regular ailerons were also used,
and the result must have been
a somewhat complicated control
linkage system . The exact reason
for the use of pivoted tips is ob
scure but could have involved the
problem of adverse yaw in a light
airplane of considerable wingspan.
The writer recalls reading some
thing many years ago to the effect
that it was hard to get good control
stick feel with tip ailerons. They
were very sensitive to the location
of their pivoting pOint, and at high
angles of deflection they could be
come overbalanced so as to "take
the stick away from the pilot." This
feature was in time dropped in fa
vor of conventional ailerons only.
The wing used the thick, high-lift
Gottingen 387 airfoil, very similar
to the Gottingen 386 used in the
American Ford Tri-Motor of notable
load-carrying capability.
Early Klemm fuselages employed
wooden longerons and cross-braces,
the whole held true and rigid by the
use of many crisscrossing wires and
turnbuckles. This framing was fabric
covered. The wires and many small
fittings called for much hand labor,
so it was not long until a change was
made. Crosspieces were increased in
number and spaced closer together,
and the flat-sided fuselage was
sheathed with thin, glued-on ply
wood that served to gusset the frame
members together and impart rigidcontinued on page 37

JULY 2008

Cessnas fitted with retractable-wheel amphibious twin floats are nothing

new in the aviation world! Back in 1929 Aeromarine-Klemm in New Jer
sey experimented with exactly the same idea.






. _._

., .......



KLEMM L . 25

' ...c"fT ..

C, "AHU .

(af..." coc.U'Il ONLy',)




Oshkosh. 2008. July 28-August 3.



The Spirit ofAviation.




tt &

The history of a
most remarkable engine



As antiquers, we all like to talk

about our particular antique or clas
sic Stearman, Waco, Beech, Cessna,
Stinson, Howard, Spartan, and so
on into the evening. Sometimes
during these stories, someone will
ask, "What engine is in her?/I
If there's not much of a response,
then the answer is a Lycoming or
Continental. But when the answer
is a Pratt & Whitney, you have
their attention. What is so magi
cal about that name? Generally the
answer is, "Well, it's an old engine
company, and I've heard the name
for years. They build big radicals./I
True, but the name Pratt & Whit
ney goes back to 1860 when two

JULY 2008

skilled machin ists who had

both worked at the Colt
Pistol Factory and formed
a partnership after meeting at
the Phoenix Iron Works in Harf
ord, Connecticut, started a preci
sion tool company that grew into
a major tool company. When they
began the tool manufacturer, they
certainly did not envision engine
production, much less aircraft en
gines. But their company's dedica
tion to precision gave the firm the
basis for the preciSion manufactur
ing they would need 65 years later.
Then one day in 1925, Fred Rent
schler, a former president of Wright
Aeronautical, walked into Pratt &

Whitney's Hartford, Connecticut,

office with a letter of introduction
and a proposal, claiming that for
$250,000 he could produce a team
to design and build an efficient air
cooled aircraft engine in the 400- to
500-hp range. He said he knew the
Navy was in the market for engines
to equip 200 aircraft to outfit two
aircraft carriers being built, the Sara

toga and Lexington. Rentschler be

lieved that the best airplane could
only be designed around the best
engine; second best didn't count.
At that point, aircraft engines
were still based on World War I de
signs. What made him think an air
cooled engine could be developed
in this horsepower range and com
pete with the big Curtiss D-12 and
the water-cooled V-12s being devel
oped by Wright and Packard? Well,
the story goes back to an engineer
named George Mead.
George Mead was a Massa
chusetts Institute of Technology
graduate who had worked on an
aircraft engine design for the
U.S . Army Air Ser
vice during World
War I and didn't
believe that liquidcooled engines were
ideal for aircraft.
Those types of
required en
gines carried
too much weight.
He had worked for
Rentschler when
had formed
Wrigh t -Mar
tin (later re
organized into
Wright Aeronautical
Corporation) and
produced the His
panso-Suizas and
the 575-hp Wright liq
uid-cooled T.
On a side note, before Rent
schler resigned from Wright,
Mead was talking of air-cooled
radial engines and was charged with
redesigning the Lawrence engine
Wright had brought because Law
rence could not produce it for the
Navy. George selected Andy Will
goos, an engineer who had been
with him at Crane-Simplex, and
who had that rare ability to "think
with his fingertips" and sense the
rightness in a design. Together they
quickly recognized the problem
with the Lawrence and redesigned
it. That engine evolved into the fa

mous Wright J-5, which later pow

ered the Ryan NYP Spirit of st. Louis
from New York to Paris in May of
Mead knew more about get
ting more horsepower per pound
than anyone in the engine busi
ness, but the Wright directors still
backed the liquid-cooled designs, a
stance that caused Rentschler to re
sign. Mead and Willgoos told Rent
schler they would go with him if
he ever got back in the engine busi
ness. Mead's foresight was the key
to any rapid expansion of aircraft
engine development, but he got
bogged down by Wright manage
ment and their insistence on stick
ing with the liquid-cooled design to
challenge the Curtiss D-12.
Pratt & Whitney management
reviewed Rentschler's proposal
with their board of directors and
looked at the market. The War De
partment reports were negative in
tone. The National Advisory Com
mittee for Aeronautics Report to
President Coolidge was blunt in its
assessment: There was no civil avi
ation development following the
war. They consulted with Chance
Vought, a well-known, outspoken
aircraft designer, who replied, "Hell,
if you can even produce an engine
of 350 hp and weighing less than
650 pounds, there will be a mar
ket." Two days later, Pratt & Whit
ney management called Rentschler
and told him he had his money;
produce your team and we will
work out a contract.
Rentschler called Mead, who
resigned from Wright, along with
Willgoos. They said they would
come to Hartford. Rentschler asked
them to stay in New Jersey for the
time being because he had no fa
cilities as of yet. They procured two
drafting tables and moved them
into Willgoos' garage and started
the design with a "clean piece of
paper." They came up with a new
engine of 400 hp that was to weigh
less than 650 pounds. They knew
the design of the 325-hp Wright Si
moon was complete, and they had
to pack in 75 more hp and not ex-

The solid master rod with one of the other

eight connecting rods Installed.

ceed 650 pounds. A generation later,

when the highest-powered radial
air-cooled engines delivered power
almost 10 times the 400 hp Mead
and Willgoos were seeking in 1925,
aircraft engine men would speak of
the configuration and design that
emerged from that piece of paper as
"clean as a hound's tooth."
The foremost problem facing
Mead and Willgoos was solving
crankshaft speeds. A basic limita
tion of previous radial engines had
been a maximum crankshaft speed
of 1800 rpm. Solid crankshafts
had been used with split mas
ter rods. At shaft speeds beyond
1800 rpm, the master rod tended
to pull apart and damage the bearVINTAGE AIRPLANE


The two-piece crankshaft of the Wasp .

Combined with the one-piece master rod
and the industry-l eading metallurgical
engineering that created long lasting
bearings and valves, the Pratt & Whitney
Wasp rai sed the bar for all aircraft
engines that were to follow after it 's
introduction to the industry in 1926.


Three of the first aircraft equipped with the Wasp were the Wright F3W-l Apache, The
Curtiss F6C-4 Hawk, and the Boeing XF2-B-l fighter. The Wright was built by Wright
Aeronautical and equipped with their Wright P-l engine, which soon proved to be
unsatisfactory. Since the airframe was already built to accept a radial engine, the
Apache was modified to test the brand new Pratt & Whitney Wasp.

ing, and then the engine would

disintegrate. Mead knew he had
to come up with a way of achiev
ing a considerably higher brake
mean effective pressure coverage
(pressure force against the piston)
2 8 JULY 2008

than the 120 pounds that was re

garded as good under the designs
of the period. Mead and Willgoos
decided that the required guaran
teed power they were aiming for
could be achieved with an engine

of 1,344 cubic inches displacement

on the basis of 125 pounds brake
mean effective pressure (BMEP)
and 1900 rpm. That meant the
average engine would have to be
capable of 420 hp or 130 pounds
BMEP to assure a safe margin above
the 400-hp guarantee . They also
had to consider that for military
use the engine would be forced in
dives to run at 2400 rpm, as there
were no controllable-pitch propel
lers in 1925.
In 1920, Mead had designed an
engine, the R-1, for the Army Air
Service on which he had reversed
the usual procedure, splitting the
crankshaft and employing a solid
master rod. He decided on this pro
cedure because it meant less weight
to counterbalance. He also thought
it might hold the key to permitting
the higher crankshaft speeds. He
also decided to change the crank
case from a casting to a forging and
split it through the plane of the cyl
inders so the same forging could be
used for both halves. With the two
halves, they could be slipped over
the ends of the crankshaft when
the master link and rods were as
sembled. This resulted in a strong,
light construction, but more im
portantly, the load was divided uni
formly between the front and rear
main bearing. The higher power
could be obtained with higher ro

The two-piece crankcase.

tational speeds and sturdier con

struction for dependability, and
the l,344-cubic-inch displacement
would weigh no more than the Si
moon's l,176-cubic-inch engine. A
cylinder design was developed us
ing an all-steel barrel with the cool
ing fins machined from the solid
casting. General practice up to this
time had been to integrally cast an
aluminum cylinder head and barrel
with a shrunk-in steel sleeve. Mead
devised a rotary induction system
that made possible the use of one
carburetor instead of three, and, by
gearing up the impeller, the engine
could later be supercharged.
Mead put Willgoos to work on
the arrangements for the valves,
finning, rocker boxes, and push
rods. He used Mead's "tulip" valve
design, which had solved the valve
burning on the Lawrence engine,
and designed the rocker box as an
integral part of the cylinder head
casting, along with telescoping
pushrod covers. Mead had Willgoos
design the rear accessory section,
which made it possible to service
the accessories without disassem
bling the engine. They called this
the modern "tri-section" engine,
consisting of the nose, power, and
accessory sections. This design was
entirely developed on two drafting
tables in Willgoos' garage in New
Jers ey during May while he was
waiting to hear from Rentschler
about facilities in Hartford.
In Hartford, Rentschler was
working with Pratt & Whitney Tool
Company to obtain shop space for
the engine that Mead and Willgoos

The "power section" of the engine

was built as a separate unit from the
accessory section, giving the engine
greater maintainability.

were designing in Willgoos' garage

in Montclair, New Jersey. The only
space available was in the Pope Hart
ford building that Pratt & Whitney
had leased to local tobacco grow
ers for storage. Rentschler spent
the month of June getting tons of
tobacco moved and succeeded in
clearing a 3,OOO-square-foot space
where they would put their modest
office and layout the experimental
machine shop where the first en
gine was built.
On July 14, 1925, Rentschler
summoned Mead and Willgoos to
Hartford. Several old metal cut
ters who had previously been with
Wright recognized them as they ar
rived in town and were curious as

to why these engine men were in

Hartford. Mead let them know that
something was up, but he needed
their silence. He told them they
would be the first to know when
the news broke . They were in the
market for workers, but they still
had to formalize a contract with
Pratt & Whitney. That afternoon, a
formal contract was signed between
Pratt & Whitney Tool Company, as
a subsidiary of Niles-Bement-Pond,
and the new Pratt & Whitney Air
craft Company, with Rentschler as
president and Mead as vice presi
dent of engineering. Their objective
was the "designing, constructing,
testing and experimenting with
aeroplane engines, aeroplanes, hy
droplanes, and if successful, to pro
ceed with the production thereof. "
The spelling of "aeroplane" was not
the choice of Rentschler or Mead
but of the lawyers.
The financial details closely fol
lowed those originally proposed by
Rentschler: $250,000 to carry the
work through the testing of the first
engine and, if the engine was prom
ising, $1 million for further devel
opment and production tooling.
Rentschler insisted in the contract
that neither Niles-Bement-Pond
nor Pratt & Whitney Tool could
have any voice in the management
of the new company. In addition
to Rentschler and Mead, three out
side directors, Col. Leonard Horner,
Sanford Etherington, and Edward
Deeds were chosen. They had been
key aviation figures in World War
I and recognized the need for na
tional air power.
Mead contacted the engine men
he had met at the train station, and,
along with a couple of engineers
he called from Montclair and a tool
factory man who wanted to join the
new company, work was begun on
the new engine. Mead cut a hole in
his office wall, which served as the
drawing release to Don Brown, who
would run the shop. The design
ers were polishing up the design
that had emerged from Willgoos'
garage. Brown and the engine men
took handcarts and started the surVINTAGE AIRPLA N E


vey of Pratt & Whitney Tool, which

they found very well-equipped . It
appeared that only certain gears
would require subcontracting for
the first engine.
John Burrop was one of the old
metal cutters from the train sta
tion meeting, and Brown put him
in charge of the machine shop. Be
tween them they secured two lathes,
two big milling machines, a Lucas
boring mill, external grinders, inter
nal grinders, benches, drills, layout
plates, etc. The routine was simple.
Mead released the drawing through
the hole to Brown, who doubled as
purchasing agent, who then passed
them to Burrop, who had built a
platform in the center of the shop
and assigned the tasks for building
the various engine parts. By October
the blueprints were flying through
the hole as several more designers
had left Wright and joined Mead
and Willgoos.
Willgoos' brother Bill Willgoos
joined them and was in charge of
the assembly of the first engine .
No name had been selected for the
engine. Mrs. Rentschler thought it
should be in the "bee" line, as the
place resembled a beehive. She se
lected "Wasp," which stuck. Bill
and his small crew set Christmas as
the target date for completing the
assembly. Several days earlier, Col.
Deeds had cabled from Havana,
saying that if the engine was com
pleted by Christmas he would give
each member of the organization a
turkey. There were still some parts
to be fabricated and the engine was
far from assembly. When the lunch
hour came the day the cable arrived,
the little shop emptied and everyone
went into the Hartford market and
ordered a turkey with all the trim
mings and charged it to Col. Deeds.
They then called on Rentschler and
told him what they had done. They
were grinning, and so was Rent
schler, when he reminded them that
the colonel had stipulated that the
engine must be completely assem
bled. Later the turkeys were turned
over to Mrs. Rentschler and Mead,
who prepared the trimmings. Late
30 JULY 2008

at night on December 24 , they

passed out the baskets as the men
left the shop. Sitting on the engine
stand was the first Wasp, all assem
bled and ready for the test stand.
In just six months the engine had
progressed from scratch to a com
pleted assembly.
Mead now had to put into practice
the adage of this old engine professor
of MIT to "start her up and see why
she didn't go." The Wasp weighed in
at just under 650 pounds, and as he
and Andy looked at her, they knew it
looked "right."
Mead wanted to start an immedi
ate informal test prior to the Navy
test and felt it should start at 360 hp.
He was finally coaxed into going for
380 hp, if it started. The Wasp started,
all right. It took the 380 hp in stride
and so smoothly that all skepticism
vanished . Why not go for 400 hp?
Again under an informal test, the Wasp
delivered 410 hp. On the third test the
Wasp hit 425 hp and ran clean.
During the next two months the
Wasp underwent continual informal
runs in preparation for the formal
Navy qualification test. In the mean
time, the second Wasp was almost
assembled and four more were mov
ing from rough to finished parts to as
sembly. Also during this time, Mead
and Willgoos were far along with the
design of a new engine, the Hornet,
which displaced 1,690 cubic inches
and was aimed at 525 hp at 1900 rpm.
Many parts of the Wasp were inter
changeable with the Hornet, which
was remarkable in those days.
The Navy qualification test started
March 4, 1926, with Willgoos se
lected as the company observer. In
those days a qualification type test
was set for only SO hours, compared
to the 150 hours of continuous in
tensive type testing required later. It
could also be run in a series of peri
ods, at the end of any of which you
could go into the cell and inspect
the engine, change plugs, make ad
justments or repairs, or even tear the
engine down. The only requirement
was that after SO hours of running
time the engine would still be in
"fairly good shape."

The No.1 Wasp swept through the

SO-hour test, measuring at full throt
tle between 410 and 420 hp. The fi
nal reading taken by the observers,
their 221st, showed 1890 rpm and
415 hp. The Navy sent its congratula
tions and asked that this Wasp be ear
marked for an earthbound existence.
It was retired and placed on perma
nent exhibit in the Franklin Institute
in Philadelphia, where it resides to
day. It has never flown. In later years,
Mrs. Mead remarked that it was a pity
this Wasp was never allowed to fly
after performing so well and being
the engine that ushered in Pratt &
Whitney Aircraft and its slogan "De
pendable Engines." She also said that
the engine still smelled of the to
bacco that hung in the air of the ex
perimental shop that Christmas Eve
when the engine sat gleaming and
finished on the engine stand.
On May 11, 1926, the Navy issued
Pratt & Whitney Aircraft a check in
the amount of $15,385.92 as pay
ment for the first Wasp. On April
I, Pratt & Whitney Tool advanced
the $1 million to proceed with pro
duction tooling, as they had risked
only $202,713 .29 on the experi
mental engines. Rentschler's plan
and Mead's design offered a fertile
investment opportunity. The sec
ond Wasp took to the air in a Wright
Apache (F3W-l), which had been
modified by Chance Vought. Within
six months, the Wasp was flown in
planes never designed to take its
power and the Wasp demonstrated
power that made possible the aircraft
speed, rate of climb, performance at
altitude, and reliability that revolu
tionized American aviation.
The very first Pratt & Whitney
Wasp engine proved to be capable of
producing 380 hp on its first test run.
On its third test run, it easily pro
duced 425 hp. Upon completion of
it's SO-hour test run for the U.S. Navy,
the service asked that the prototype
engine be preserved. It was shipped
to the Franklin Institute in Phila
delphia; in its short test lifetime, it
never flew on an airframe, but thou
sands of its brethren did on commer
cial and military aircraft.

"Be sure and visit AUA, Inc., at AirVenture July 28th

through August 3rd, 2008. They are in South East
Exhibit Building B, Booth# B-2005." - Ace

Aviation insurance wItft the EAA Vintage Program offers:

AOtftliclnal coverages - Flexibility on the use of your aircraft - Experienced agents




Send your answer to EAA, Vintage Airplane, P.O. Box

3086, Oshkosh, WI 54903-3086. Your answer needs
to be in no later than August 10 for inclusion in the
October 2008 issue of Vintage Airplane.

You can also send your response via e-mail. Send

your answer to Be sure to include
your name, city, and state in the body of your note, and
put "(Month) Mystery Plane" in the subjectline.



JULY 2008

Ap ril's Mystery Pla n e also came to u s from Ted

Businger's collection. Our answer comes from Wes
ley Smith:
liThe April 2008 Mystery Plane is the 1927 Martin
Boyd (Parasol) Monoplane. The aircraft was built by
Edward Martin of San ta Ana, California, and was de
signed by Millard Boyd. The aircraft incorporated a
parasol wing using a symmetrical NACA No. 81 air
foil, which at the cen ter was 22 inches thick. It was
powered by a 180-hp Wright-Martin Hispano-Suiza
engine. The aircraft is notable for having been flown
in the 1927 International Aviation Peace Ju b ilee,
which was sponsored jointly by the Santa An a Air

Cl ub and The Aero Club of Hollywood. It was held

at the Eddie Martin Airport at Santa Ana, California,
Ju ly 2-4, 1927. This event incorporated various aerial
events, including races and parachute jumping. A rear
view of the Martin-Boyd appears in Aviation ("Interna
tional Aviation Peace Jubilee Draws Large Attendance:
Stu nting, Parachute Jumping and Air Races Make Up
Interesting Program," July 25, 1927, Page 203). I re
gret t h at I have been unable to unearth any further
deta ils on this attractive and interesting monoplane;
however, many years later, Millard Boyd was involved
with the design of the Ryan SCM."
Wes' response was the only one we received. ......


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The "DA"
The abbreviation "DA" means
different things to different folks.
For people who get involved with
court proceedings, it brings to mind
a state or county prosecutor. For
those who grew up in the '50s, it
might evoke a hairstyle resembling
the posterior of a waterfowl. But
for pilots it should mean only one
thing: density altitude.
Unfortunately, I have found
not only as an examiner asking an
applicant to describe what density
altitude is during a practical test,
but also as an interested pilot pe
rusing the National Transportation
Safety Board (NTSB) accident re
cords-that many pilots really don't
understand what density altitude is.
And without that understanding,
many are getting themselves into
bad situations because they fail to
recognize the ramifications of high
density altitudes.
It's true that many pilots can give
the "official definition of density
altitude: pressure altitude adjusted
for nonstandard temperature. But
when asked how they might de
scribe DA to a young child, they are
at a loss. Before I offer my simple
description of DA, let's look at the
definition first.
We'll begin with pressure altitude.
The easiest way to explain pressure
altitude is to say that it is indicated
altitude on the altimeter, when the
altimeter is set to the standard pres
sure of 29.92 inches Hg. Thus, the
higher the atmospheric pressure,
the lower the pressure altitude, and

vice versa. We now adjust this alti

tude for nonstandard temperature.
You will remember that standard
temperature is 15C (59F). As the
temperature rises above this stan
dard, so will the density altitude.

And without the

many are getting
themselves into
bad situations . . .



JULY 2008

But what if you are as numeri

cally challenged as I am, or not of a
scientific bent? We certainly don't
want to see our aircraft get bent, but
it (your airplane) might very well
end up rolled up in a ball if you fail
to comprehend this important con
cept and its impact on aircraft per
formance. (You will, on the other
hand, recognize its impact on the
ground.) So I offer this simple ex
planation that even a young child
could understand:
Density altitude is the altitude that

your airplane "thinks" it's at.
If an aircraft were a sentient be
ing capable of thoughts and feel
ings, it would factor in the mean
sea altitude it was at, the barometric
pressure, the temperature, and the
humidity (which plays a major part
in affecting aircraft performance,
even though it is not factored into
denSity-altitude calculations) and
come up with a "feels like" altitude.
The higher this "feels like" altitude,
the more cautious we, as pilots,
need to be.
I hope we all know that the
higher we go, the less dense the air
gets, and the less dense the air gets,
the poorer the aircraft performance
gets, especially when it comes to
takeoff, landing, and climb perfor
mance. This is really aeronautical
knowledge 101. That being said,
why is it that over the last five years
(May 2003 through May 2008) the
NTSB records show that there were
138 airplane aCCidents, including
79 fatalities, in which density alti
tude played a major part? (I'm sure
if you asked an insurance under
writer whether he concurred with
these numbers, he would come up
with even more claims, as many ac
cidents that might involve density
altitude do not necessarily have to
be reported to the NTSB.)
As I looked at mentions of "proba
ble cause" in the NTSB reports, I came
up with the following statistics:
- In 41 (29.7 percent) of these ac
cidents, "poor pilot planning" (in
many cases, no planning whatso

ever) was a contributor to the event.

eTwenty-eight of the reported ac
cidents (20.2 percent) occurred at air
ports or in high mountainous areas.
eTwenty-three of them (16.6 per
cent) happened in "vintage" (man
ufactured before 1968) airplanes.
eThirteen (9.4 percent) of them
happened during the attempted
In 11 cases, an instructor was
on board.
e In 10 of them, the aircraft ex
ceeded the maximum certified
gross weight.
It was interesting to note several
recurring themes in these accidents.
Many times pilots neglected to con
figure the airplane appropriately.
Improper use of flaps was often a
contributing factor. There were nu
merous takeoff and go-around acci
dents where pilots failed to properly
lean the engine. But the thing that
most stood out was that in many
instances pilots had sufficient
time to take proper action-such
as aborting a takeoff, initiating an
early go-around, or turning before
they impacted a mountain ridge
but failed to do so.
Let's look at a couple of them. The
first was the crash of a Taylorcraft
BC12-D, which caused one fatality:
"According to several witnesses
in the area, the pilot had been at
tempting to land to the west on
a grass strip. The pilot had made
approximately five attempts to
land prior to the accident. During
the sixth approach, the airplane
touched down approximately mid
field, the pilot added power, and
the airplane became airborne again.
Witnesses stated that the airplane
struck a road embankment at the
end of the runway, continued in a
steep climb, and then struck several
60-foot-high aspen trees approxi
mately 150 feet west of the end of
the runway. The airplane rolled off
hard to the right and impacted the
southbound lane of a county road
in a nose-low attitude. Airport ele
vation was approximately 7,800 feet
mean sea level. Density altitude was
calculated to be 10,063 feet. The air

port runway is surrounded on every

side by vegetation, and terrain el
evation rises dramatically in all di
rections. According to the owner of
the airport, it is recommended that
pilots land to the east and depart to
the west due to the obstacles and
terrain near the airport."
The second accident involved
a Stearman and led to two minor
"The pilot reported that he was
concerned with the field elevation,
airplane weight, heat, and humidity

It was
to note several
recurring themes
in these
before the flight. During the takeoff
roll, the airplane had a slower accel
eration and longer takeoff roll than
normal. The pilot considered abort
ing the takeoff twice, but was con
cerned that there was not enough
available runway to land and felt
that he would be able to out-climb
the terrain located at the end of the
runway. After bouncing twice on
the runway, the airplane began to
climb in ground effect, about 100
feet per minute. When the pilot re
alized that he would not clear the
terrain, he lowered the nose in an
attempt to gain airspeed. He lo
cated an area of lower terrain, made
a shallow right turn, and attempted
to fly through the area; however,
the airplane sank into the trees and
rolled. The pilot stated that the en
gine sounded as if it was producing
full power, and that he was unfamil

iar with the airplane's high-density

altitude performance capabilities."
It would appear that not only in
these two aCCidents, but also in so
very many others, the pilot, rather
than relying on sound decision
making and preflight performance
planning, relied more on hope.
Now, hope is a wonderful thing! It
certainly has its place in presidential
campaigns. But there is absolutely
no room for hope when it comes
to aviation . "Hope" will not in
crease airplane performance as the
departure end of the runway gets
closer and closer, and the airplane
still won't rotate. "Hope" won't in
crease an airplane's rate of climb as
obstacles loom in the windscreen.
"Hope" won't get an airplane fly
ing again when one has waited too
long before initiating a go-around.
"Hope" won't save the life of some
one who has been fatally injured in
an airplane accident.
However, I do hope that the fol
lowing suggestions will help pre
vent you from having an accident
in which density altitude plays a
role. You don't have to be at high
field elevations to become a victim
of this. Anytime the density alti
tude is 2,000 feet or more above
your field elevation it's time to pay
attention. It's time to have as much
information available as possible.
Certainly the first place to look
for information is in your airplane's
pilot's operating handbook (POH) .
(Unfortunately, for many vintage
aircraft, a POH might not even
exist.) Find out the manufactur
er's recommendations for aircraft
configuration and engine -lean
ing requirements in high-density
altitude environments. Refer to the
takeoff, climb, and landing perfor
mance charts to get an idea of ex
pected performance. Keep in mind
that the performance figures in the
POH were obtained in a brand-new
aircraft flown by a highly qualified
test pilot. Factor that in as you ad
just the figures to reflect an accu
rate and realistic expectation of the
performance you will get in your
airplane, with you at the controls.


Come to the Vintage Red Barn

for great aviation merchandise
for the whole family!

If the density altitude is at 5,000

feet or higher, leaning the engine
for maximum power is highly rec
ommended. Again, the POH will
rule on this, but in the absence of a
POH, here are some suggestions. For
start-up and taxi, lean at 1000 rpm
(all propeller combinations) until
the rpm peaks; then enrich slightly.
Before takeoff, go to full throttle
and lean the mixture. With a fixed
pitch prop, lean to maximum rpm
and then enrich slightly. With a
variable-pitch prop, on carbureted
engines, lean to engine smooth
ness. If you have an EGT gauge, lean
to +100F on the rich side of peak.
With a fuel-injected engine, lean to
the correct fuel-flow setting accord
ing to the POH for your specific air
plane (often, though not always,
marked on the fuel-flow gauge). To
ensure maximum available power
in the event that you need to make
a go-around at a high-altitude air
port, do not apply full rich mixture
as part of your landing checklist.
Keep in mind that departures will
have a greater rate of success when
made during cooler times, such as
early in the morning or late in the
evening. Remember that you might
have to reduce your takeoff weight
by draining fuel or leaving behind
the mother-in-law (she' ll tell you
to leave behind the big bucket of
chicken and the cooler filled with
beverages). Don't forget that what
worked in the depths of the winter
or at the seaside airport might not
work at all at the height of summer
or in the mountains.
Now that it's summertime, please
be especially aware of the DA. No,
not when you have a court appoint
ment. No, not when you 're going
to have your hair cut. Be aware of
the density altitude every time you
are beckoned aloft by ... blue skies
and tail winds.
Doug Stewart is the 2004 National
CFI of the Year, a NAFI Master In
structor, and a designated pilot ex
aminer. He operates DSFI Inc. (www. based at the Colum
bia County Airport (lBl).

36 JULY 2008

Light Plane Heritage

continued from page 24

ity to the structure. Read the article about the Loughead

S-l in the October 1991 issue of EAA Experimenter. [Vin
tage Airplane Editor's Note: We'll be running the Loughead
article in a future issue of Vintage Airplane.]
Powered with the 20-hp Daimler engine, the big
winged, lightweight Klemm was able to take off quickly
and landed at the surprisingly low speed of about 20
mph. Empty weight was 485 pounds, useful load 420
pounds, and gross weight 905 pounds. Top speed was
claimed to be 62 mph with cruising speeds in the 50s,
depending on load aboard. Some Klemms were later
fitted with the 40-hp French-built nine-cylinder Salm
son engines, with useful gain in performance.
One such Klemm was entered in the 1928 French
Light Plane Trials held at Orly airfield near Paris and
won over stiff competition from the planes of other
well-known European manufacturers. In the efficiency
event it sco red 150 more points than did the well
known English de Havilland Gypsy Moth of greater
power. The Moth was a biplane whose wings used a
thin, World War I type airfoil. Watching monoplanes
like the Klemm is what spurred British designers to
cool their longstanding love affair with biplanes!
By 1928, incidentally, the Klemm had become Ger
many's first mass-produced lightplane, with from 15 to
20 examples coming out of the Bbblingen factory each
month. But this is getting ahead of the story.
To combat the then (and still!) widespread feeling
that lightplanes are only able to operate in fair weather,
in late February and into March of 1926 two men from
the Klemm works undertook a most remarkable jour
ney. Now remember, it was at that time still very much
winter in the Alps mountains, the plane they were fly
ing had only 20 hpJ and they rode in open cockpits.
What they did would today make a bunch of FAA offi
cials faint dead away!
And this is what they did-they made a 1,500 mile
flight from Sindelfingen near Stuttgart to Vienna, Aus
tria, and then on to Budapest in Hungary, and then
home by a different route. Get out a good world atlas,
turn to pages that show southern Germany, Austria,
and Hungary, and follow the route they took as de
scribed herewith:
The route called for stops sometimes at established
airfields and just as often in randomly chosen mead
ows. From Sindelfingen they hopped to Augsburg, Mu
nich, and Salzburg, then headed south to Austria to a
little town called Zell-am-Zee, then easterly and north
easterly to Hermagor, Villach, Klagenfurt, Voitsberg,
Graz, and Vienna. From the latter city they headed
easterly to Budapest. The return trip took them back
to Vienna, from whence they headed westerly to Melz,
Kinz, Frankenmarkt, Salzburg, and home.
Simple in a modern bizjet perhaps. But not long

after the start of the trip, wind swirling through the

cockpits caught and blew away their carefully prepared
maps. They flew the rest of it using cyclists' maps! The
weather was always cold and dished up mostly low
ceilings, rain, and snow.
The landing near Zell-am-Zee was made on a
meadow that was covered with a foot of snow. The
Klemm's thin, high-pressure tires cut grooves through
it instead of bulldozing it so forcibly as to cause a nose
over. The vee-type landing gear helped here, too, for
if the Klemm had used a World War I style landing
gear having a straight axle, this would also surely have
caught in the snow.
And, by the way, in getting across the Alps, they
coaxed their little puddle-jumper to vault over jag
ged mountains ranging from 9,000 to 12,450 feet in
height. This was indeed quite an accomplishment, and
it is regrettable that most of today's private pilots have
never read of such an amazing early-day flight. Admit
tedly, it wasn't exactly a pleasure hop, but it did make
a lot of people change their minds about the capa
bilities of lightplanes. And, if you too think this 1926
aerial cruise was remarkable, then be sure to read this
column next month!

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For more information or photographs,
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Complete 2008 Schedule online


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-- ~ -38 JULY 2008


Always Flying Aircraft Restoration, LLC

A&P I.A.: Annual, 100 hr. inspections .

Wayne Forshey 740-472-1481

Ohio - statewide.

This VAA Calendar of Events is a fraction of those posted on the newest page on the
EAA website. To submit an event, or to view the most up to date list, please visit the EAA
website at www.eaa.orgjcalendar. During 2008, we'll publish this calendar as we transition
to an all-web based calendar for 2009. This list does not constitute approval, sponsorship,
involvement, control or direction of any fly-in, seminar, fly market or other event.
July 11-13 - Alliance, OH - Annual Taylorcraft-Aeronca Ry-In. Barber Airport
(2Dl). All grassroots aircraft welcome. Breakfast on Saturday and
Sunday by EM Chapter 82. Contact: Forrest Barber, Phone: 330-823
1168, Email:
July 11-13 - Lompoc, CA - West Coast Piper Cub Ry in. Lompoc Municipal
Airport (LPG). 24th annual West Coast Cub fly-in here in the beautiful
Lompoc Valley. Contact: Bruce Fall, Phone: (805) 733-1914, Email:
July 12 - East Tawas, MI - Dawn Patrol & Community Festival. losco County
Airport (6D9). Local Summerfest, Car Show, Pancake Breakfast; Brats
for lunch. Taildraggers especially welcomed! 7-12 noon. Contact: Marvin
Poland, Phone: 989-362-5832,
July 13 - Middleton, WI - EM Chapter 1389 Pancake Ry-in. Morey Airport
(C29). Rain or shine. Ry or drive. Event is part of Middleton weekend
City Celebration Start Time: 7-12 noon Contact: Roman Bukolt, Phone:
608-848-4108, conceptmode/
July 19 - Delaware, OH - EM Vintage 27 Ry In Breakfast. (DLZ). Ry In
Breakfast Start Time: 08:00 End Time: 10:00 Contact: Woody Mcintire,
Phone: 6145652887, Email:
July 19 - Houston, TX - Wings & Wheels - Raffle Day. 1940 Air Terminal
Museum (HOU). In July of last year we began selling raffle tickets for
our beautiful, award-winning, polished aluminum 1947 Cessna 140.
Admission is $10/adults and $5/children, fee waived for all Cessna
120/140 arrivals. 10-5pm Contact: Megan Lickliter, Phone: 713-454
July 19-20 - Independence, OR - Independence "Ragwing" fly-in.
Independence State Airport (7S5). First Annual Ragwing Ry-In at
Independence (7S5). Start Time: 08:00 PDT End Time: 10:00 PDT
Contact: Andy Duncan, Phone: 503838 9870, Email:
July 19-20 - Mulino, OR - 52nd Annual Blueberry Pancake Ry-In Breakfast.
Mulino Airport (4S9). Mulino Chapter of the Oregon Pilots Association 52nd
annual pancake breakfast and fty-in/ drive-in. Motorcycles, antique cars and
vintage airplanes. Admission, adults $7, children $6. 0730-1300. Contact:
Steve Millar, Phone: 503651 3802, Email:
July 20 - East Troy, WI - East Troy Airport Open House. East Troy
Municipal Airport (57C). Fly-in/Drive-in breakfast. Pancakes, eggs &
more. 0700-1300. Airplane & Helicopter rides. Homebuilts, warbirds
and antique aircraft, antique & classic cars. model trains. Skydiving
demonstration raffle with cash prizes. Sponsored by: Friends of East
Troy Airport. Contact: Ken Klima, Phone: 414-425-7991, Email:
July 20 - Hanson, MA - EM Chapter 279 Ry-in Breakfast. Cranland Airport
(28M). EM Colonial Chapter 279, Cranland Airport (28M). 0800-1100.
All you can eat for a $6 donation. Children through 12 years of age half
price if accompanied by adult parent. Ry, drive, ride or walk, in rain or
shine. Antiques , Classics, Homebuilts, Ultralights. 0800-1100. Contact:
Carl Patturelli, Email :
July 23-26 - Wausau, WI- 2008 National Ercoupe Convention. (AUW).
Food, fun , fellowship with Ercoupers. Includes factory tours, Young Eagle
flights, a picnic dinner, a corn roast, poker fly, spot landing contest, flour
bomb drop, aircraft judging, and an awards banquet. Ercoupes, Forneys,
Alons & Mooney M-l0's welcome. Start Time: 8 am End Time: 10 pm
Contact: Syd Cohen, Phone: 715-573-7063, Email :
July 25-27 - Brodhead, WI - Hatz - Pietenpol Ry-In. Brodhead Airport (C37).
Annual Pietenpol Ry-In and Hatz Ry-In at Brodhead Airport. Seminars
and forums for builders and enthusiasts. Free camping on field . Food
for purchase each day as well as nearby restaurants . Contact: Mike
Weeden, Email:
July 26 - Abingdon, VA - Abingdon Kiwanis Club historic Wings & Wheels

Ry-in & Cruise-in for vintage aircraft and automobiles from l0-4pm,
Saturday. No registration fee , but entrants must register. For info and
registration form visit, or call Bob Craig 800
818-4393 or Gary Crane 276-224-9510.
August 2-3 - Norridgewock, ME - EM Chapter 736 12th annual
"Everything that Ries " Ry-in. Central Maine Regional Airport (OWK).
Pancake breakfast, airplane rides , Young Eagle flights Saturday, model
airplane demos, food concessions, free admission, primitive camping.
Start Time: 7am End Time: 6pm Contact: Michael Watson, Phone: 207
968-2587, Email:
Aug. 10 - Queen City, MO - Applegate Airport. 21st Annual Watermelon
Ry-in and BBQ 2:00 PM -Dark. Come and see grass roots aviation at its
best. Info: 660-766-2644 or 66O-B65-0210 or
August 10 - Chetek, WI - Chetek Municipal Southworth Airport (Y23)
Annual BBQ Charity Ry-In 10:30 - 3:30 pm Modern , Antique , Unique
planes and Warbirds. Antique and Collector cars. Children activities
and airplane ride raffle . Water ski show to follow.
Contact info: Chuck Harrison 715-456-8415,
Tim Knutson 651-308-2839,
August 10 - Chetek, WI - Annual BBQ Charity Fly-In . (Y23). Modern ,
Antique , Unique planes and Warbirds. Antique and Collector
cars. Children activities and airplane ride raffle. Water ski show
to follow. 10:30-3:30 pm. Contact: Chuck
Harrison, Phone: 715-456-8415,

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Jo hn Berendt
7645 Echo Point Rd.
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Espie " Butch" Joyce

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Jerry Brown

4605 Hickory Woud Row

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Dan Knutso n

106 Tena Marie C ircle

Lodi, W I 53555

Dave C la rk
635 Vestal Lane
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1002 Heather Ln.

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Gene C hase
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Flight Instructor information ..... 920-426-6801

Library Services/Research ........ 920-426-4848
Medical Questions .... ..... . .... 920-426-6112
Technical Counselors . .. .. . .... . 920-426-6864
Young Eagles ... ... ............ 877-806-8902
Ben efits
AUA Vintage Insurance Plan ..... 800-727-3823
EAA Aircraft Insurance Plan ..... 866-647-4322
Term Life and Accidental ... .. ... 800-241-6103
Death Insurance (Harvey Watt & Company)
... . ..... . ................. 1-800-JOIN-EAA
EAA Platinum VISA Card . . 800-853-5576 ext. 8884
EAA Aircraft Financing Plan ... . 866-808-6040
EAA Enterprise Rent-A-Car Program
....... . . ... . .......... ... 877-GA1-ERAC

Editorial ........... ... . .... ... 920-426-4825

VAA Office ................ FAX 920-426-65 79


Membership in the Experimental Aircraft
Association , Inc. is $40 for one year, incl ud
ing 12 iss ues of SPORT AVIA TION. Fam ily
members hi p is an add iti onal $10 annua lly.
Ju n ior Me mbersh ip (under 19 years of age)
is available at $23 annually. All ma jor credit
cards accepted for membership. (A dd $16 for
Foreign Postage.)


C u rre nt EAA membe rs may add EAA
SPORT PILOT m agaZine for an additiona l
$20 per year_
EAA M e mb ers hi p and EA A SPORT
PILOT ma gaZin e is ava il able for $40 per
yea r (SPORT AVIATION magaZi n e n ot in
cluded) . (Add $16 for Foreign Postage.)


C u rre nt EAA m e m be rs may jo in th e
Vintage Airc raft Assoc ia ti o n a n d receive
VINTA GE AIRPLANE magazine for an ad
dition al $36 per year.
magaZine and one year membership in the EAA
Vintage Aircraft Association is available for $46
per year (SPORT AVIATION magaZine not in
cluded). (Add $7 for Foreign Postage,)


C urren t EAA me m bers may join the

Inte rn a ti o n a l Aerobatic C lub, Inc. Divi
sio n an d rece ive SPORT A EROBATICS
magaZine for an additional $45 per year.
EAA Me m bershi p , SPORT AEROBA T
ICS m agazine a nd one year m em bership
in th e lAC D iv isio n is ava il abl e for $SS
pe r year (SPORT A VIA TIO N magazine
n o t i ncl ud ed)_ (A dd $18 f o r Fo re ig n
Pos tage.)

Current EAA mem bers may join the EAA
Wa rbi rds of America Division an d receive
WARBIRDS m agazine fo r an add itional $45
per year.
EAA Me m bersh ip, WA RBIRDS m aga
zi n e and o n e year members h ip in the
Wa rb irds Divisio n is ava il able fo r $55 pe r
year (SPORT AVIATION magazi n e no t in
cluded). (A dd $7 for Foreign Postage.)

Please su b mit you r rem ittan ce w ith a
c h eck or dra ft draw n o n a Uni t ed States
bank payable in United States dollars. Add
req ui red Foreign Postage amount fo r each
m embership.

Membership dues to EM and its divisions are not tax deductible as charitable contributions
Copyright (;)2008 by the EM Vintage Aircraft Association, All rights reserved.
VINTAGE AIRPLANE (USPS 062-750; ISSN 0091-6943) is published and owned exclusively by the EM Vinlage Aircraft Association of the Experimenlal Aircraft Association and is published monthly at EM
Aviation Ceoter, 3000 Poberezny Rd., PO Box 3086, Oshkosh, Wisconsin 54903-3086, e-mail: Membership to Vinlage Aircraft Association, which includes 12 issues of Vinlage Airplane
magazine, is S36 per year for EM members and 546 for non-EM members. Periodicals Poslage paid at Oshkosh, Wisconsin 54901 and at additional mailing offices. POSTMASTER: Send address changes
to Vintage Airplane, PO Box 3086, Oshkosh, WI 54903-3086. PM 40063731 Retum undeliverable Ganadian addresses to Pitney Bowes IMS, Slation A, PO Box 54, Windsor, ON N9A 6JS. FOREIGN AN D APO
ADDRESSES - Please allow al least \Wo months for delivel)' of VINTAGE AIRPLANE to foreign and APO addresses via surface mail. ADVERTISING - Vinlage Aircraft Association does nol guarantee or endorse
any product offered through the advertising. We invite constructive criticism and wfficome any report of inferior merchandise obtained through our advertising so that corrective measures can be taken.
EDITORIAL POLlCY: Members are encouraged to su bm~ stories and photographs. Policy opinions expressed in articles are solely those of the authors. Responsibility for accuracy in reporting rests entirely
with the contribulor. No remuneration is made. Material should be sent to: Ed~or, VINTAGE AIRPLANE, PO Box 3086, Oshkosh, WI 54903-3086. Phone 920-426-4800.
EM and EM SPORT AVIATION, the EM Logo and Aeronautica' are registered trademarl<s, Irademarl<s, and service marl<s of the Experimental Aircraft Association, Inc. The use of these Irademarl<s
and service marks without the permission of the Experimental Aircraft Association, Inc. is strictly prohibited .



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