Sie sind auf Seite 1von 6

Offene Ports und Anwendungen finden mit netstat, lsof und nmap :: network lab

13.07.2015

Offene Ports und Anwendungen finden mit netstat


Grundlagen
Fr die Kommunikation in IP-Netzen spielen die Ports eine w ichtige Rolle. ber das Protokoll (UDP, TCP) und die
Portnummer w ird auf dem Layer 4 ein Dienst identifiziert. Eine Anw endung die einen Service im Netzw erk anbietet, ffnet
dazu einen Port. Dieser Port geht dabei zunchst in den Status "Listen" und w artet auf Verbindungsversuche. Eine Liste
der offiziell vergebenen Portnummer findet man bei der IANA.
Ein offener Port im Status Listen ist ein potientielles Einfallstor fr Script Kiddies und Hacker. Trojaner oder besser
Trojanische Pferde installieren gerne Backdoors und ffnen dabei einen entsprechenden Port. Daher ist es sehr zu
empfehlen, sich von Zeit zu Zeit die offenen Ports seiner Systeme anzusehen. Bei der Suche nach unbekannten
Portnummer leistet Google gute Dienste.

Offene Ports unter Windows


Unter W indow s liefert das Kommando "netstat" die gew nschten Informationen.
Der Befehl "netstat -an" zeigt alle Netzw erkverbindungen auf einer Maschine an. Serverdienste die sich im Status
"Listen" bzw . "Listening" befinden, w erden von deutschen W indow sversionen als "ABHREN" angezeigt.

C:\>netstat -an
Aktive Verbindungen
Proto
TCP
TCP
TCP
TCP
TCP
TCP
TCP
TCP
TCP
TCP
TCP
TCP
UDP
UDP
UDP

Lokale Adresse
192.168.1.7:139
192.168.1.7:1031
192.168.1.7:1031
192.168.1.7:1071
192.168.1.7:1071
192.168.1.7:1096
192.168.1.7:1103
192.168.1.7:1106
192.168.1.7:1230
192.168.1.7:1258
192.168.1.7:1385
192.168.1.7:1420
192.168.1.7:137
192.168.1.7:138
192.168.1.7:500

Remoteadresse
0.0.0.0:0
0.0.0.0:0
192.168.11.25:139
0.0.0.0:0
192.168.11.77:139
0.0.0.0:0
10.0.2.1:1433
10.4.0.1:3311
10.4.0.3:1352
10:4.0.3:1352
0.0.0.0:0
10.5.0.1:23
*:*
*:*
*:*

Status
ABHREN
ABHREN
HERGESTELLT
ABHREN
HERGESTELLT
ABHREN
HERGESTELLT
HERGESTELLT
HERGESTELLT
HERGESTELLT
ABHREN
HERGESTELLT

Ab W indow s 2000 kennt netstat zustzlich den Parameter "-o". Dieser bew irkt, dass zu jedem Port die Prozess-ID PID des
zugehrigen Prozesses angezeigt w ird.

C:\>netstat -ano
Aktive Verbindungen
Proto
TCP
TCP
TCP
TCP
TCP
TCP
TCP
UDP
UDP
UDP
UDP

Lokale Adresse
192.168.1.100:139
192.168.1.100:1031
192.168.1.100:1034
192.168.1.100:1035
192.168.1.100:1036
192.168.1.100:1048
192.168.1.100:10224
192.168.1.100:121
192.168.1.100:137
192.168.1.100:138
192.168.1.100:9150

Remoteadresse
0.0.0.0:0
67.152.71.172:80
67.104.144.70:3131
68.97.40.116:3131
64.49.76.16:80
216.234.59.241:80
0.0.0.0:0
*:*
*:*
*:*
*:*

Status
ABHREN
HERGESTELLT
HERGESTELLT
HERGESTELLT
SCHLIESSEN_WARTEN
HERGESTELLT
ABHREN

PID
4
1584
1600
1600
2040
1364
2032
636
4
4
2032

Mit Hilfe des Taskmanagers ist die passende Anw endung zur PID schnell gefunden. Unter Umstnden muss die Anzeige
der PID im Reiter Prozesse erst ber das Men "Ansicht/Spalten ausw hlen" aktiviert w erden. Prinzipiell sollten nur Ports
offen sein die man w irklich bentigt.

Offene Ports unter Linux


Unter Linux sind die Parameter fr das Kommando netstat etw as anders. Fr eine Kontrolle der offenen Ports ruft man
"netstat -nlp" auf.

/home/work $ netstat -npl


Proto Recv-Q Send-Q Local Address
tcp
0
0 72.139.238.24:993
tcp
0
0 72.139.238.24:143
tcp
0
0 72.139.238.24:783
tcp
0
0 72.139.238.24:80
tcp
0
0 72.139.238.24:21
tcp
0
0 72.139.238.24:22
tcp
0
0 72.139.238.24:25
tcp
0
0 72.139.238.24:443

Foreign Address
0.0.0.0:*
0.0.0.0:*
0.0.0.0:*
0.0.0.0:*
0.0.0.0:*
0.0.0.0:*
0.0.0.0:*
0.0.0.0:*

State
LISTEN
LISTEN
LISTEN
LISTEN
LISTEN
LISTEN
LISTEN
LISTEN

PID/Program name
1622/couriertcpd
1609/couriertcpd
1576/spamd.pid
25671/apache
19417/proftpd
1695/sshd
26889/exim4
2082/apache-ssl

Das System zeigt mit diesen Parameter nur Ports im Status "Listen" an. Zustzlich w ird in der letzten Spalte die PID und
der Name der zustndigen Applikation angezeigt. Alternativ kann unter Linux auch das Kommando "lsof" benutzt w erden.
Mit dem Aufruf "lsof -i | grep -e LISTEN" w ird ebenfalls eine Liste der Ports im Status "Listen" angezeigt.

Einsatz von nmap (Windows und Linux)


Zur Kontrolle der offenen Ports eines Host ber das Netzw erk bentigt man einen Portscanner. Einer der populrsten
Vertreter dieser Spezies ist nmap von Fyodor. Gerade fr Systeme die direkt mit dem Internet verbunden sind w ie DSLRouter und Rootserver ist ein Portscan sehr interessant.
Der Portscanner nmap kennt eine Unmenge von Optionen. Fr einen ersten Scan nach offenen TCP-Ports w ird lediglich der
Parameter "-sT" und die IP-Adresse des Zielsystems bentigt. Damit scannt nmap alle W ell Know TCP-Ports (1-1024) und
alle Ports aus der Datei etc/services.

[work] ~ $ nmap -sT 192.168.1.1


http://www.nwlab.net/tutorials/netstat/offene-ports-netstat.html

1/6

Offene Ports und Anwendungen finden mit netstat, lsof und nmap :: network lab

13.07.2015

Starting nmap 3.20 ( www.insecure.org/nmap/ ) at 2004-10-16 23:17 CEST


Interesting ports on Router (192.168.1.1):
(The 1610 ports scanned but not shown below are in state: closed)
Port
State
Service
80/tcp
open
http
Nmap run completed -- 1 IP address (1 host up) scanned in 6.533 seconds
Der hier untersuchte IP-Host bietet einen Dienst an: HTTP auf TCP-Port 80. Auf der Maschine luft also hchstw arscheinlich
ein W ebserver. Um alle TCP-Ports von 1 bis 65535 zu untersuchen ruft man nmap mit den Optionen "-sT -p 1-65535" auf.
Mit der Option "-sU" sucht nmap nach offenen UDP-Ports. UDP-Scanning ist allerdings oftmals sehr langsam. Ursache
hierfr ist eine Begrenzung der Anzahl der ICMP-Meldungen die ein Host pro Zeiteinheit versendet. Viele Systeme
begrenzen die ICMP-Meldungen nach RFC 1812. nmap erkennt dieses Verhalten und arbeitet entsprechen langsamer um
keine Meldungen zu verlieren.
Eine Mglichkeit fr Backdoors sich vor Portscanner zu verbergen ist das Portknocking. Dabei w ird ein Port erst in den
Status "Listen" versetzt, w enn das System ein bestimmtes Datenpacket empfngt.
Ein DSL-Router bietet einen guten Schutz gegen Angriffe aus dem Internet. Der Router verhindert Verbindungsversuche
aus dem Internet auf Serverdienste im internen Netz. Durch Konfiguration von Portforw arding am Router w ird dieser
Schutz allerdings ausgehebelt. W eitere Informationen zu dieser Thematik finden sie im Tutorial Eigenen Server am DSLAnschluss einrichten.
Hilfe und Erfahrungsaustausch zu Netzwerkfragen finden Sie im Netzwerkforum.

http://www.nwlab.net/tutorials/netstat/offene-ports-netstat.html

2/6

Manpage netstat :: network lab

13.07.2015

NETSTAT
Section: Linux Programmer's Manual (8)
Updated: 24 November 2001

NAME
netstat - Print netw ork connections, routing tables, interface statistics, masquerade connections, and multicast
memberships

SYNOPSIS
netstat [address_family_options] [--tcp|-t] [--udp|-u] [--raw|-w] [--listening|-l] [--all|-a] [--numeric|-n] [--numerichosts] [--numeric-ports] [--numeric-users] [--symbolic|-N] [--extend|-e[--extend|-e]] [--timers|-o] [--program|-p] [-verbose|-v] [--continuous|-c] netstat {--route|-r} [address_family_options] [--extend|-e[--extend|-e]] [--verbose|-v] [-numeric|-n] [--numeric-hosts] [--numeric-ports] [--numeric-users] [--continuous|-c] netstat {--interfaces|-i} [--all|a] [--extend|-e[--extend|-e]] [--verbose|-v] [--program|-p] [--numeric|-n] [--numeric-hosts] [--numeric-ports] [-numeric-users] [--continuous|-c] netstat {--groups|-g} [--numeric|-n] [--numeric-hosts] [--numeric-ports] [-numeric-users] [--continuous|-c] netstat {--masquerade|-M} [--extend|-e] [--numeric|-n] [--numeric-hosts] [-numeric-ports] [--numeric-users] [--continuous|-c] netstat {--statistics|-s} [--tcp|-t] [--udp|-u] [--raw|-w] netstat {-version|-V} netstat {--help|-h} address_family_options:
[--protocol={inet,unix,ipx,ax25,netrom,ddp}[,...]] [--unix|-x] [--inet|--ip] [--ax25] [--ipx] [--netrom] [--ddp]

DESCRIPT ION
Netstat prints information about the Linux netw orking subsystem. The type of information printed is controlled by the first
argument, as follow s:

(none)
By default, netstat displays a list of open sockets. If you don't specify any address families, then the active sockets of all
configured address families w ill be printed.

--route , -r
Display the kernel routing tables.

--groups , -g
Display multicast group membership information for IPv4 and IPv6.

--interface, -i
Display a table of all netw ork interfaces.

--masquerade , -M
Display a list of masqueraded connections.

--statistics , -s
Display summary statistics for each protocol.

OPT IONS
--verbose , -v
Tell the user w hat is going on by being verbose. Especially print some useful information about unconfigured address
families.

--numeric , -n
Show numerical addresses instead of trying to determine symbolic host, port or user names.

--numeric-hosts
show s numerical host addresses but does not affect the resolution of port or user names.

--numeric-ports
show s numerical port numbers but does not affect the resolution of host or user names.

--numeric-users
show s numerical user IDs but does not affect the resolution of host or port names.

--protocol=family , -A
Specifies the address families (perhaps better described as low level protocols) for which connections are to be
shown. family is a comma (',') separated list of address family keyw ords like inet, unix, ipx, ax25, netrom, and ddp. This
has the same effect as using the --inet, --unix (-x), --ipx, --ax25, --netrom, and --ddp options. The address family inet
includes raw , udp and tcp protocol sockets.

-c, --continuous
This w ill cause netstat to print the selected information every second continuously.

-e, --extend
Display additional information. Use this option tw ice for maximum detail.

-o, --timers
Include information related to netw orking timers.

-p, --program
Show the PID and name of the program to w hich each socket belongs.

-l, --listening
Show only listening sockets. (These are omitted by default.)

-a, --all
Show both listening and non-listening sockets. W ith the --interfaces option, show interfaces that are not up

-F
Print routing information from the FIB. (This is the default.)

-C
Print routing information from the route cache. UP.

OUT PUT

http://www.nwlab.net/tutorials/netstat/man-netstat.html

3/6

Manpage netstat :: network lab

13.07.2015

Active Internet connections (TCP, UDP, raw)


Proto
The protocol (tcp, udp, raw ) used by the socket.

Recv-Q
The count of bytes not copied by the user program connected to this socket.

Send-Q
The count of bytes not acknow ledged by the remote host.

Local Address
Address and port number of the local end of the socket. Unless the --numeric (-n) option is specified, the socket address
is resolved to its canonical host name (FQDN), and the port number is translated into the corresponding service name.

Foreign Address
Address and port number of the remote end of the socket. Analogous to "Local Address."

State
The state of the socket. Since there are no states in raw mode and usually no states used in UDP, this column may be left
blank. Normally this can be one of several values:
ESTABLISHED
The socket has an established connection.
SYN_SENT
The socket is actively attempting to establish a connection.
SYN_RECV
A connection request has been received from the netw ork.
FIN_WAIT1
The socket is closed, and the connection is shutting dow n.
FIN_WAIT2
Connection is closed, and the socket is w aiting for a shutdow n from the remote end.
TIME_WAIT
The socket is w aiting after close to handle packets still in the netw ork.
CLOSE
The socket is not being used.
CLOSE_WAIT
The remote end has shut dow n, w aiting for the socket to close.
LAST_ACK
The remote end has shut dow n, and the socket is closed. W aiting for acknow ledgement.
LISTEN
The socket is listening for incoming connections. Such sockets are not included in the output unless you specify the -listening (-l) or --all (-a) option.
CLOSING
Both sockets are shut dow n but w e still don't have all our data sent.
UNKNOWN
The state of the socket is unknow n.

User
The username or the user id (UID) of the ow ner of the socket.

PID/Program name
Slash-separated pair of the process id (PID) and process name of the process that ow ns the socket. --program causes
this column to be included. You w ill also need superuser privileges to see this information on sockets you don't ow n. This
identification information is not yet available for IPX sockets.

Timer
(this needs to be w ritten)

Active UNIX domain Sockets


Proto
The protocol (usually unix) used by the socket.

RefCnt
The reference count (i.e. attached processes via this socket).

Flags
The flags displayed is SO_ACCEPTON (displayed as ACC), SO_W AITDATA (W) or SO_NOSPACE (N). SO_ACCECPTON is used
on unconnected sockets if their corresponding processes are w aiting for a connect request. The other flags are not of
normal interest.

Type
There are several types of socket access:
SOCK_DGRAM
The socket is used in Datagram (connectionless) mode.
SOCK_STREAM
This is a stream (connection) socket.
SOCK_RAW
The socket is used as a raw socket.
SOCK_RDM
This one serves reliably-delivered messages.
SOCK_SEQPACKET
This is a sequential packet socket.
SOCK_PACKET
Raw interface access socket.
UNKNOWN
W ho ever know s w hat the future w ill bring us - just fill in here :-)

State
This field w ill contain one of the follow ing Keyw ords:
FREE
The socket is not allocated

http://www.nwlab.net/tutorials/netstat/man-netstat.html

4/6

Manpage netstat :: network lab

13.07.2015

LISTENING
The socket is listening for a connection request. Such sockets are only included in the output if you specify the -listening (-l) or --all (-a) option.
CONNECTING
The socket is about to establish a connection.
CONNECTED
The socket is connected.
DISCONNECTING
The socket is disconnecting.
(empty)
The socket is not connected to another one.
UNKNOWN
This state should never happen.

PID/Program name
Process ID (PID) and process name of the process that has the socket open. More info available in Active Internet
connections section w ritten above.

Path
This is the path name as w hich the corresponding processes attached to the socket.

Active IPX sockets


(this needs to be done by somebody w ho know s it)

Active NET/ROM sockets


(this needs to be done by somebody w ho know s it)

Active AX.25 sockets


(this needs to be done by somebody w ho know s it)

NOT ES
Starting w ith Linux release 2.2 netstat -i does not show interface statistics for alias interfaces. To get per alias interface
counters you need to setup explicit rules using the ipchains(8) command.

FILES
/etc/services -- The services translation file
/proc -- Mount point for the proc filesystem, w hich gives access to kernel status information via the follow ing files.
/proc/net/dev -- device information
/proc/net/raw -- raw socket information
/proc/net/tcp -- TCP socket information
/proc/net/udp -- UDP socket information
/proc/net/igmp -- IGMP multicast information
/proc/net/unix -- Unix domain socket information
/proc/net/ipx -- IPX socket information
/proc/net/ax25 -- AX25 socket information
/proc/net/appletalk -- DDP (appletalk) socket information
/proc/net/nr -- NET/ROM socket information
/proc/net/route -- IP routing information
/proc/net/ax25_route -- AX25 routing information
/proc/net/ipx_route -- IPX routing information
/proc/net/nr_nodes -- NET/ROM nodelist
/proc/net/nr_neigh -- NET/ROM neighbours
/proc/net/ip_masquerade -- masqueraded connections
/proc/net/snmp -- statistics

SEE ALSO
route(8), ifconfig(8), ipchains(8), iptables(8), proc(5)

BUGS
Occasionally strange information may appear if a socket changes as it is view ed. This is unlikely to occur.

AUT HORS
The netstat user interface w as w ritten by Fred Baumgarten <dc6iq@insu1.etec.uni-karlsruhe.de> the man page basically
by Matt W elsh <mdw @tc.cornell.edu>. It w as updated by Alan Cox <Alan.Cox@linux.org> but could do w ith a bit more
w ork. It w as updated again by Tuan Hoang <tqhoang@bigfoot.com>.
The man page and the command included in the net-tools package is totally rew ritten by Bernd Eckenfels <ecki@linux.de>.

Index
NAME
SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
(none)
--route , -r
--groups , -g
--interface, -i
--masquerade , -M
--statistics , -s
OPTIONS
--verbose , -v
http://www.nwlab.net/tutorials/netstat/man-netstat.html

5/6

Manpage netstat :: network lab

13.07.2015

--verbose , -v
--numeric , -n
--numeric-hosts
--numeric-ports
--numeric-users
--protocol=family , -A
-c, --continuous
-e, --extend
-o, --timers
-p, --program
-l, --listening
-a, --all
-F
-C
OUTPUT
Active Internet connections (TCP, UDP, raw)
Proto
Recv-Q
Send-Q
Local Address
Foreign Address
State
User
PID/Program name
Timer
Active UNIX domain Sockets
Proto
RefCnt
Flags
Type
State
PID/Program name
Path
Active IPX sockets
Active NET/ROM sockets
Active AX.25 sockets
NOTES
FILES
SEE ALSO
BUGS
AUTHORS
This document was created by man2html, using the manual pages.

http://www.nwlab.net/tutorials/netstat/man-netstat.html

6/6