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PHYSICS SPM

LIST OF DEFINITION
CHAPTER ONE ( INTRODUCTION TO PHYSICS )
ITEM
MEANING/DEFINITION
Physics quantities
A quantity that can be measured.
Kuantiti yang boleh diukur
Base quantities
Physical quantities that cannot be difined in term of other
physical quantities.
Kuantiti fizik yang tidak dapat ditakrifkan
Derived quantities
Physical quantities derived by combining base quantities.
This can be done by multiplication or division or both.
Kuantiti fizik yang dihasilkan daripada gabungan kuantiti asas
secara pendaraban atau pembahagian atau keduanya.
Precision /Consistency
The ability to measured values remain constant throughout.
Kebolehan alat itu mengukur sesuatu kuantiti fizik dengan
memberi nilai secara konsisten.
Accuracy
The ability of an apparatus to give readings nearest to the
actual value.
Kebolehan alat untuk mengukur kuantiti fizik yang hampir
dengan nilai sebenar.
Sensitivity
Ability to detect small changes in measuring physical
quantities.
Kebolehan alat mengesan perubahan kecil pada kuantiti yang
diukur.
Errors
Incorrectly reading and measurement.
Ketidakpastian dalam suatu bacaan dan pengukuran.
Systematic errors
Cumulative errors that can be corrected, if errors are know
like incorrect position of the zero point and incorrect
calibration of the measuring instrument.
Ketidakpastian alatan ketika yang tidak menunjukkan bacaan
kosong ketika bacaan skala diambil dalam membuat
pengukuran.
Random errors
Arise from unknown and unpredictable variations in
condition, and will produce a difference error every time you
repeat the experiment. They may vary from observation to
observation.
Kesilapan yang dilakukan oleh mata pemerhati semasa
mengambil bacaan
Parallax error
Is an error in reading an instrument because the observers
eye and the pointer are not in a line perpendicular to the
plane of the scale.
Kesilapan pengukuran semasa mengambil bacaan skala dan
kedudukan yang kurang sesuai.
Zero error
The measuring instrument does not start from exactly zero.

CHAPTER TWO ( FORCE AND MOTION )


ITEM
Linear motion
Scalar quantities
Vector quantities
Velocity
Speed
Acceleration
Distant
Displacement
Inertia

First Newtons Law

Second Newton s law

MEANING/DEFINITION
Motion in a straight line.
Gerakan mengikut satu garis lurus.
A quantities which has only magnitude.
Kuantiti yang mempunyai magnitud shj.
A quantities which has both magnitude and direction.
Kuantiti yang mempunyai magnitud dan arah.
The rate of change of displacement.
Kadar perubahan sesaran.
The rate of change of distance.
Kadar perubahan jarak.
The rate of change of velocity.
Kadar perubahan halaju..
The total length of the path traveled.
Jumlah panjang lintasan yang dilalui.
The distance travelled in a specific direction.
Jarak yang dilalui mengikut arah tertentu.
The tendency of an object to resist change to its state of
motion.
Sifat semulajadi sesuatu objek yang menentang perubahan
kepada keadaan asalnya samada pegun atau bergerak.
An object at rest tends to stay at rest and a moving object
tends to continue its uniform motion with the same speed and
in the same direction unless being acted upon by an external
force.
( menerangkan situasi inersia )
The net force on an object is proportional to the rate of
change in momentum.
( menerangkan situasi kadar perubahan momentum terhadap
daya ( F=ma ) daya impuls.

Third Newtons law

Momentum
The principle of conservation of
momentum
Force

Impulsive

( menerangkan situasi keseimbangan daya )


Menyatakan bahawa bagi setiap tindakan terdapat satu
tindakbalas yang mempunyai magnitude yang sama dan
bertindak pada arah yang bertentangan.
The product of its mass and velocity.
Hasil darab jisim dengan halaju.
The total momentum of a system is constant, if no external
force acts on the system.
Jumlah momentum sebelum perlanggaran = Jumlah
momentum selepas perlanggaran.
The resistant of change to its state of motion or moves in the
object..
Tindakan yang boleh mengubah keadaan rehat atau gerakan
suatu jasad.
Change in momentum.
Perubahan momentum.

Impulsive force
Weight
Mass
Free fall

Work
Energy
Gravitational field
Potential energy

Elastic potential energy

Kinetic energy
The principle of conservation of energy

Power

The rate of change of momentum.


Kadar perubahan momentum..
The force of gravity which is exerted on it by earth.
Daya tindakan gravity ke atas suatu jasad.
The amount of matter in the object.
Jumlah kuantiti jirim bagi suatu jasad.
An object falling under the force of gravity only without any
external forces.
Sebarang objek yang jatuh disebabkan oleh daya gravity (
berlaku dalam vakum ) tanpa sebarang daya luar.
The product of force and the displacement.
Hasil darab daya dengan sesaran.
The capacity to do work.
Keupayaan melakukan kerja.
The region in which an object experiences a foece due to
gravitational attraction.
The energy stored in the object because of its position or its
state.
Tenaga yang dipunyai oleh suatu jasad disebabkan oleh
kedudukannya.
The energy possessed by an object due to its compressed or
rarefaction.
Tenaga yang dipunyai oleh jasad yang diregangkan atau
dimampatkan.
The energy possessed by an object due to its motion
Tenaga yang dipunyai oleh suatu jasad disebabkan oleh
gerakannya.
State that the energy cannot be created or destroyed. It can
be transformed from one form to another, but the total
energy in a system is constant.
Menyatakan bahawa tenaga tidak boleh dicipta atau
dimusnahkan tetapi boleh berubah bentuk ke benntuk yg lain.
The rate at which work is done or energy is transformed.
Kadar melakukan kerja @ tenaga.

CHAPTER THREE (FORCE AND PRESSURE)


IITEM
Elasticity
Kekenyalan

Hookes law
Hukum Hooke

Pressure
Tekanan
Archimedes principle
Prinsip Archimedes

Bernoullis principle
Prinsip Bernoulli
Pascal principle
Prinsip Pascal

MEANING/DEFINITION
The property of an object that enables it to return to its
original shape and dimensions ( sizes ) after an applied
external force is removed.
Keupayaan bahan untuk kembali ke bentuk asalnya apabila
tindakan daya regangan atau daya mampatan dialihkan.
State that the extension of a spring is directly proportional to
the stretching force acting on it provided the elastic limit of
the spring is not exceeded.
Menyatakan bahawa pemanjangan spring adalah berkadar
terus dengan daya regangan yang dikenakan dengan syarat
had kekenyalan tidak dilampaui.
The force acting perpendicularly on unit area of a surface.
Daya yang bertindak secara normal pada seunit luas.
State that an object, whether completely or partially
immersed in a fluid is acted on by a buoyant force which is
equal to the weight of the displaced fluid.
Menyatakan bahawa jasad yang direndam atau separa rendam
dalam bendalir akan ditindakkan oleh satu daya julangan ke
atas yang sama nilai dengan berat bendalir yang tersesar oleh
jasad itu.
State that the in a steady flow of a fluid the pressure of the
fluid decreases when the velocity of the fluid increases.
Menyatakan bahawa kawasan bendalir yang bergerak dengan
halaju tinggi akan menghasilkan tekanan yang lebih rendah.
State that in an enclosed fluid an externally applied pressure is
transmitted uniformly in all directions.
Menyatakan bahawa tekanan yang dikenakan pada satu titik
cecair akan dipindahkan ke seluruh cecair.

CHAPTER FOUR ( HEAT)


ITEM
Temperature
Suhu
Heat
Haba
Thermal equilibrium
Keseimbangan terma
Specific heat capacity
Muatan haba tentu
Specific latent heat
Haba pendam tentu

Specific latent heat of fusion


Haba pendam tentu pelakuran

Specific latent heat of vaporisation


Haba pendam tentu pengewapan

Penyejatan

MEANING/DEFINITION
The hotter measured on the object.
Ukuran kepanasan sesuatu jasad.
The one form energy was transfer by hot object to cold object.
Satu bentuk tenaga yang dipindahkan oleh jasad yang panas
ke jasad yang lebih sejuk.
Produce when the net rate of heat transfer is zero.
Is reached when the temperature of both object touched is
same.
The quantity of heat energy required to increase the
temperatureof 1 kg of the substance by 1C or 1 K.
Kuantiti haba yang diperlukan untuk menaikkan suhu seunit
jisim bahan itu sebanyak 1 C atau 1 K.
The quantity of heat energy required to change 1kg of the
substance from physical form to another.
The amount of heat energy required to change the phase of
1kg of the substance at a constant temperature.
Kuantiti haba yang diperlukan untuk menggubah
1 kg bahan dari satu sifat fizikal ke bentuk yang lain.
The quantity of heat energy required to change 1kg of the
substance from a solid to a liquid without a change in
temperature.
Kuantiti haba yang diperlukan untuk menggubah
1 kg bahan pepejal ke cecair pada takat lebur tanpa kenaikan
suhu.
The quantity of heat energy required to change 1kg of the
substance from a liqiud to a gaseous without a change in
temperature.
Kuantiti haba yang diperlukan untuk menggubah
1 kg bahan cecair ke gas tanpa kenaikan suhu.
A process matter changes from liquid to gaseous at random
temperature lowest from that the boiling point.
Proses perubahan keadaan jirim daripada cecair menjadi wap
pada sebarang suhu ygg lebih rendah daripada takat didih
cecair itu.

Boiling
Pendidihan

A process the liquid become vapour into bubble form gaseous


to all boiling point of liquid.
Proses cecair menjadi wap dalam bentuk gelembunggelembung gas di keseluruhan cecair itu pada takat didih
cecair itu.
States that the pressure of a fixed mass of gas is inversely
proportional to its volume provided the temperature of the
gas is kept constant.
Menyatakan bahawa tekanan berkadar songsang dengan
isipadu bila suhu dan jisim tetap.
States that the volume of a fixed mass of gas is directly
proportional to its absolute temperature provided the
pressure of the gas is kept constant.

Boyles law
Hukum Boyle

Charles Law
Hukum Charles

Menyatakan bahawa isipadu berkadar terus dengan suhu


mutlaknya bila tekanan dan jisim tetap.
States that the pressure of a fixed mass of gas is directly
proportional to its absolute temperature ( in kelvin ) provided
the volume of the gas is kept constant.
Menyatakan bahawa tekanan berkadar terus dengan suhu
mutlaknya bila ispadu dan jisim tetap.

Pressure law
Hukum Tekanan

CHAPTER FIVE ( LIGHT)


ITEM
Reflected of light waves
Pantulan cahaya
Reflected of light waves
law
Hukum pantulan cahaya

Refraction of light waves


Pembiasan cahaya

Refraction of light waves


law
Hukum pembiasan
( Hukum Snell )

MEANING/DEFINITION
Occur when a light wave propagate into the plane reflector
and it is reflection.
Berlaku apabila sinar cahaya merambat menuju ke suatu
permukaan berkilat.dan ia di pantulkan.
It can be seen that :
Angle of incident = angle of reflection
The normal line, incident ray, reflection ray on the same plane.
Berlaku apabila:
Sudut tuju = sudut pantulan
Garis normal,sinar tuju dan sinar pantulan berada pada satah
yang sama.
Is phenomenon where the direction of light is changed when
it crosses the boundary between two materials of different
optical densities.
Pembengkokan cahaya berlaku apabila cahaya merambat
melalui dua medium yang berlainan ketumpatan.
Sin i /sin r
Nisbah sinus sudut tuju kepada sinus sudut pembiasan.