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Dna is made up of?

Nucleic Acids
What are Nucleic Acids made of?
Sugar, Phosphate, and a base
What are the bases of DNA?
Adenine, Cytosine, Guanine, Thymine
What two scientist discovered the double helix structure of DNA?
Watson and Crick
Dna replication is also known as?
Gene copying
Explain replication?
When the DNA is ready to multiply, its two strands pull apart and a structure
reads the strands (RNA)
Along each strand, RNA writes the corresponding base
This creates 2 copies of the original
Once replicated, the two copies untangle to allow cell division to take place
The Biologys version of a turing machine is?
DNA
Explain the process which DNA translates into an enzyme.
1. RNA polymerase transcribing a gene into an mRNA strand
2. Strand splits
3. Ribosome converting mRNA into a protein chain (enzyme)
4. Enzymes unfold.
For every three DNA bases (codons) we have what?
An amino acid
What are many amino acids hooked together called?
Proteins
What is a type of protein?
Enzyme
What did Crick discover about the basic dogma?
DNA makes RNA
RNA makes protein
A large portion of proteins are what?
Enzymes

Enzymes are proteins that do what?


Take apart or put together other molecules
Why do enzymes have a particular shape?
Because it will specifically affect a chemical process
What drives all chemical reactions in the body?
Enzymes
What happens if an enzyme is misshapen? How about shaped
correctly? Whats it smiliar to?
If misshapen, then it will not work or it will turn off the process. If enzyme
is shaped correctly it will work or it will turn on the process. Its like 0s and
1s
What would be considered a 1 for an enzyme? How about a 0?
If an enzyme is correctly shaped it represents a 1 and the enzyme is active
so the reaction goes. If an enzyme is a 0 it is mishapened and the enzyme
is inactive, therefore the reaction stops.
What do enzymes prove a cell with?
A basic computing language to process information
How do G-proteins work like enzymes?
They are moer complicated, but they act like logic gates (and or not)
Where are the G-proteins located? And how are they turned on
They are located inside of a cell and turned on by a specific receptor cell.
How is the process turned off
It is turned off when the presence of the proper enzyme is not there ithen the
activation of the receptor cell.
What would be considered an AND?
Some processes require two G-proteins to be present and active
What would be considered an OR?
Some processes require two G-proteins, one of them on and one of them off.
What would be considered a NOT?
Some processes require a specific one on a specific one off.
Tell me an interesting story.
Think of the corpus callosum as the brains email serve, a bundle of message
sending nerves that connect and share information with the two
hemispheres. Alien hand syndrome is a result of damage to these nerves.

This damage most often occurs in brain aneurysms, stroke patients and
those with infections of the brain, but can also manifest as side effect of
brain surgery, most commonly after a radical procedure that treats extreme
cases of epilepsy.
What is vestibule-ocular reflex (also known as VOR)?
The VOR, is a reflex eye movement that stabilizes images on the retina
during head movement by producing an eye movement in the direction
opposite to the head movement
What happens when the head moves? How does VOR respond?
VOR responds with an eye movement that is equal in magnitude but
opposite in direction
How does the brain receive input and output?
Brain receives input, processes the input and gives an output
What levels is this input and output done?
It does this at cellular level and level of an organ.
What is the chinese room analogy?
Man in room who does not speak or read chinese, the room is sealed off
except for one door. Man in room is given cards with chinese symbols on
them and a book of instructions (written in English or his native language).
The instructions tell the person what symbols to send out in response to
chinese messages slipped under the door. The man uses the instructions as a
computer uses a computer program. The man does not know what or if he is
communicating, but to an outsider his responses could look reasonable.
What is the conclusion of the chinese room analogy?
That a computer computes whereas a brain thinks, understands and has a
consciousness. The brain is biological, not a machine.
What are the 4 regions of the brain?
The Cerebrum (4 lobes), cerebellum, diencephalon, and brain stem.
Where is the medulla oblongata located and what does it mange?
It is located in the brain stem, it manages the reflexes: vomiting, coughing,
sneezing, swallowing, hiccupping, respiratory rate, and vasoconstriction.
What is this a perfect example of?
Input, process, output analogy.
What is the basic unit of our central nervous system that includes
the brain?
Neurons.

Neurons use chemical mechanics to what?


Transfer an electric impulse or action potential, from cell to cell to affect a
response.
What is Artificial Neural Networks? And what does it act like?
A collection of primitive electronic devices that put together, simulate the
human neural system. It acts like a sensory perception.
Explain the 4 parts of a neuron or nerve cell.
Dendrites accept inputs, soma processes the inputs, axon turn the processed
inputs into outputs, and the synapses are the electrochemical contact
between neurons
What are the uses for neural networks?
Interpretation, prediction, and diagnosis. The most successful application are
in categorization and pattern recognizetion.
What is LANDAUER PRINCIPLE?
Rolf Landauer discovered that the process of erasing a bit of information
dissipates a small amount of energy as heat.
Explain the pit and the pendulum
It takes place in a dungeon during the Spanish inquisition. Light seeping in
gives new way to his dungeon.
The pit and the pendulum illustrates the way science shapes our reality.
Science is a description of reality, not an explanation of it.
Science is not the same things as reality it describes. There is a gap between
reality and the description of it
You cannot compare the universe to what?
A clock, a steam engine, or a computer. These machines are metaphors for
reality, not reality itself.

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