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- Student Edc Lab Manual
- Brake Test on the 3-Phase Induction Motor
- Brake Test on Dc Shunt Motor
- Z and Y Parameters
- CHANDER RAWAL
- Datasheet (1)
- Cummins C33D5 - Specification Sheet
- Avr Sr7 2g Uvr6 Manual
- trafo loss cal
- Electrical Motor Connection
- AC Generators
- 2000reozm4_10a
- 1
- Ee 1251 Electrical Machines-1 Question Bank
- EEP 203.pdf
- Question and Answers Electrical Maintenance Unit
- Synchronous Machines
- Excitation System
- ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING AND CONTROL SYSTEMS LAB.pdf
- ECA LAB MANUAL.pdf

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WOMEN::BHIMAVARAM

(AUTONOMOUS)

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING

II B.TECH - I SEM

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS

1. Swinburnes Test on DC Shunt Machine (predetermination of efficiency of a

given d.c

Shunt machine working as motor and generator)

2. OC and SC Tests on 1- Transformer (predetermination of efficiency and

regulation at

Given power factors)

3. Brake Test on Three-phase Induction Motor (determination of performance

Characteristics).

4. Regulation of Alternator by Synchronous impedance method.

5. Speed control of DC Shunt Motor by

a) Armature voltage control b) Field flux control

6. Brake Test on DC Shunt Motor

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efficiency of a given DC Shunt machine working as motor and generator).

Aim: To conduct Swinburnes test on DC shunt motor and predetermine the

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Apparatus Required:

S. No

Equipment

Range

0-2A

0-2 A

Type

MC

MC

Qty

1No

1No

Ammeters

Voltmeters

0-300V

MC

1No

3

4

5

Rheostats

Tachometer

Connecting Wires

250/2A

0-9999rpm

Wire wound

Digital

2No

1No

LS

Theory

Swinburnes test:

It is a simple indirect method in which losses are measured separately and

the efficiency at any desired load can be predetermined. This test applicable to

those machines in which flux is practically constant i.e. shunt and compound

wound machines. The no load power input to armature consist iron losses in core,

friction loss, wind age loss and armature copper loss. It is convenient and

economical because power required to test a large machine is small i.e. only no

load power. The effect of commutation are not considered or tested. The iron

losses remains constant is insignificant.

Calculations:

IL = No Load Current

If = Shunt Field current

Then, no load armature current Ia = (IL If)

Also let, V is the supply voltage. Therefore, No load power input = IL watts.

Let

losses. The losses occur in the machine mainly are: Iron losses in the core Friction

and windings losses Armature copper loss.

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test, the no load input power is only used to supply the losses.

The value of armature copper loss = (IL If)2 Ra

Here, Ra is the armature resistance.

Now, to get the constant losses we have to subtract the armature copper loss

from the no load power input.

Then, Constant losses WC = V IL - ( IL If)2 Ra

After calculating the no load constant losses now we can determine the

efficiency at any load.

Let, I is the load current at which we have to calculate the efficiency of the

machine.

Then, armature current (Ia) will be (I If), when the machine is motoring.

And Ia = (I + If), when the machine is generating.

Calculation of Efficiency When the Machine is Motoring on Load

Power input = VI

Armature copper loss, PCU = I2 Ra = (I If)2Ra

Constant losses, WC = VIL - (IL If)2 Ra

Total losses = PCU + WC

Efficiency of the motor:

m =

output inputlosses VI Pc U + wc

=

=

input

input

VI

Power input = VI

Armature copper loss, PCU = I2 Ra = (I + IF)2 Ra

Constant losses, WC = VI0 - (I0 IF)2 Ra

Total losses = PCU + WC

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g=

=

=

input

input

VI

Procedure:

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

At no load, run the machine at rated speed using field rheostat.

Note down the readings of If, Ia, IL,V and N.

Find the armature resistance using V-I method.

Calculate the efficiency for and motor and Generator.

Observations

Tabular Form:

IL

()

IF

IA

For Ra

S.NO

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Ra=V/I

Precautions:

1. Swinburnes test should be conducted on no load.

Result:

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

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N2>N1

Fig-1 Open Circuit Test

N2<N1

Fig-2 Short Circuit Test

of efficiency and regulation at given power factors and determination of

equivalent circuit).

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Aim:

(a) To predetermine the efficiency and regulation of Single Phase Transformer by

conducting no-load test and short circuit test.

(b) To draw the equivalent circuit of single phase transformer referred to LV side as

well as HV side.

Apparatus:

S. No

Equipment

Voltmeter

Ammeter

1

2.

3.

.

4

Wattmeter

Range

0-300V

0-10A

Type

M.I

M.I

Qty

1

1

2.5A/150V,10A/75V

LPF,UPF

1,1

230V/(0-270V/2A)

-----------

Dimmer stat

1- Transformer

2KVA,230/115V

-----------

6

.

Connecting wires

---------

--------

as required

THEORY:

These two tests on a single-phase transformer help to determine;

I.

II.

III.

The voltage regulation and

Efficiency.

The power required during these two tests is equal to the appropriate power loss

occurring in the transformer.

Open-circuit (or) no-load test:

The circuit diagram for performing open circuit test on a single-phase transformer

is as shown in fig.1. In this diagram a voltmeter, wattmeter and an ammeter are

shown, which are connected on the low voltage side of the transformer. The high

voltage side is left open circuited. The rated frequency voltage applied to the

primary .i.e. low voltage side, is varied with the help of a variable ratio autotransformer. When the voltmeter reading is equal to the rated voltage of the low

voltage winding, all the three instrument readings are recorded. The purpose of

this test is to determine no-load loss or core loss and no-load current I 0 which is

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helpful in finding X0 and R0. In the circuit left open as high voltage winging side.

Ie

Ie

).since

is almost negligible. The applied voltageV1 is equal to the induced emf. V 11.the

input power given by the wattmeter reading consists of core loss and ohmic loss.

The exciting current being about 2 to 6% of the full-load current, the ohmic loss in

the primary Ie2.r1 varies from0.04% to 0.36% of the full-load primary ohmic loss.

In view of this, the ohmic loss during open-circuit test is negligible. Hence the

wattmeter reading can be taken as equal to transformer core loss.

Let V1=applied rated voltage on lv side.

Ie

Pe

Ic

.cos0

=

Ie

Ie

Ie

Ie

.cos0 and

Im

.sin0

Ic

RCL

Core-loss resistance

=Pc/V1

Ic

=V1/

.cos0) =V12/Pc

Also Ic2.

RCL

=Pc;

Magnetizing reactance,

X ml

RCL

=Pc/Ic2=Pc/ (

=V1/

Im

=V1/ (

Ie

Ie

.cos0)2

sin0).

Short-circuit test:

This is an economical method for determining the following;

(i). the equivalent impedance, leakage reactance and total resistance of the

transformer as referred to the winding in which the measuring instruments are

placed.

(ii) Copper loss at full load; this loss is used in calculating the efficiency of the

transformer.

The low voltage side of the transformer is short-circuited and the instruments are

placed on the high-voltage side. The applied voltage is adjusted by autoDepartment of EEE-SVECW

transformer, to circulate rated current in the high voltage side. In a transformer, the

primary mmf. is almost equal to the secondary mmf., therefore, a rated current in

the high voltage side winding causes rated current to flow in the low voltage

winding. A primary voltage of 2 to 12% of its rated value is sufficient to circulate

rated currents in both primary and secondary windings. about half(1 to 6%) of the

applied voltage appears across the secondary leakage impedance. the core flux

induces the voltage across the exciting branch. the core flux is 1 to 6% of its rated

value. hence the core loss being proportional to the square of its value at rated

voltage. the wattmeter, in short-circuit test records the core loss and the ohmic loss

in both the windings. since the core loss has been provided to be almost negligible.

the wattmeter can be taken to register only the ohmic losses in both the windings.

at rated voltage, the exciting current is 2 to 6% of full-load current. when the

voltage across the exciting branch is 1 to 6% of rated voltage, the exciting current

may be 0.02% to 0..36% of its full-load current.

Voltage regulation of a transformer can be determined from the data obtained from

short-circuit-test. Data of both open circuit and short-circuit tests is necessary;

(i)

(ii)

Let

For calculating the transformer efficiency.

V sc

I sc

and

PSC

Z eH

I sc

V sc

Equivalent resistance referred to

X eH = z2eH R2eH

equivalent leakage reactance referred to high voltage side,

PROCEDURE:

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1.

Connect the circuit for no-load test as per the circuit diagram. Shown in fig.

(1).

2.

Keep the variable ac in minimum output position and switch on the supply.

3.

Apply the rated voltage to the transformer by properly adjusting the variable

ac.

4.

Note down the readings of various meters i.e. wattmeter (W 0), ammeter (I0),

voltmeter (V1) and then bring back the variable ac to its original output position,

and then switch off the supply.

5.

Connect the circuit for SC test as per the circuit diagram, shown in fig (2) with

appropriate ranges of meters.

6.

Keep the variable ac in minimum output position and switch on the supply.

7.

variable ac such that rated current flows through the transformer.

8.

Note down the readings of various meters i.e. wattmeter (W 0), ammeter (I0),

voltmeter (V1) and then bring back the variable ac to its original output position,

then and switch off the supply.

TABULAR COLUMN:

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At full-load

Lag load

Lead load

(x=1)

regulation

regulation

1

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

OC Test:

S No

V1 (V)

Io(A)

Wo

(w)

SC Test:

S No

V sc (V)

Isc (A)

W sc

(w)

MODEL CALCULATIONS:

Find the equivalent circuit parameters R 0, X0, R01, R02, X01 and X02 from the O.C. and S.C.

test results and draw the equivalent circuit referred to L. V. side as well as H. V. side.

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From OC test:

Wo

cos0=

Ic

Im

=I0.cos0=

=I0.sin0=

R0=V0/

X0=V0/

/ (V0.I0) =

Ic

Im

=

=

From SC test:

cos sc

W sc

V sc

I

=

/(

. sc ) =

V sc

I sc

Z02=

X 02

/2

=2

Z 02 R02P.F.

Load

=

UPF

V HV

; R 02=

% efficiency

R01=R02xK2=

W sc

where

1(full)

UPF

1/2

% efficiency= ((x.V

2.I2.cos)/ ((x.V2.I2.cos) +w0+ (x2.wsc))) *100.

UPF

3/4

EFFICIENCY CALCULATIONS

UPF

P.F.

Load

1/4

%

efficienc

y

0.8

1(full)

0.8

1/2

0.8

3/4

0.8

1/4

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I sc

K=

V LV

efficiency

Output

x 100

Input

%

Regulation: From open circuit and Short circuit test

% Re gulation

x 100

V2

+ for lagging power factors

- for leading power factors.

Model Graphs: Plots drawn between

(i)

% efficiency Vs output

(ii)

PRECAUTIONS:

1.

2.

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RESULT:

Hence the regulation of transformer is found by using OC and SC test data

Circuit diagram

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characteristics).

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Aim:

To conduct load test on the given 3 phase induction motor and to plot its

performance characteristics.

Apparatus:

S. No

1

2.

.3

.

4

5

.

Equipment

Voltmeter

Ammeter

Wattmeter

Range

0-300V

0-10A

300V/10A

Dimmerstat

Connecting wires

---------

Type

M.I

M.I

UPF

Qty

1

1

2

-----------

--------

as required

THEORY:

It is the direct method to find the efficiency of the induction motor. In this test the

breakig of the rotor is done with the help of the belt which surrounds the pulley by using

spring balances. When the braking power is increased by tightening the springs then the

line current is increased.

Procedure:

1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram shown the above fig.

2. Keep the 3 phase auto transformer in minimum output position and switch on the

supply.

3. Apply the rated voltage to the stator windings of 3 induction motor with the help

of 3 phase auto transformer.

4. Note down the readings of wattmeter ammeter and voltmeter on no-load.

5. Load the induction motor in steps using the brake-drum arrangement. At each step

note down the readings of all meters the speed and the spring balance readings S 1

and S2 up to 25% over load.

6. Stop the motor by gradually releasing the load.

Tabular column:

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Sl.

No.

(V)

(A)

Spring balance

Power, W

(Watts)

W1

W2

Speed

(RPM)

(Kg)

S1

Torque

S1S2

S2

Input

(N-m)

Model Calculations:

Input power drawn by the motor W = (W1+ W2) watts

Shaft Torque, Tsh = 9.81 (S1 ~ S2) R N-m

R Radius of drum in mts.

2 N Tsh

watts

60

% efficiency

% slip

x 100

Input power in watts

Ns N

x 100

Ns

where N s

120 x f

p

cos

W

3 VL I L

Model Graphs:

Draw the graphs between

(i)

% efficiency () Vs Output

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

% Slip Vs Output

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%

Slip

Pf

Cos

Output

Power

(W)

Power

(W)

Precautions:

1) Connections must be made tight

2) Before making or breaking the circuit, supply must be

switched of

Result:

Hence the performance characteristics of 3 phase induction motor is determined by

conducting load test

Circuit Diagram:

EMF:

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Aim:

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To pre-determine the regulation of a given three-phase alternator by

conducting O. C. and S. C. tests by synchronous Impedance method

(EMF method)

Apparatus:

S. No

1

2.

3.

3

.

4

5

.

Equipment

Voltmeter

Ammeter

Ammeter

Rheostats

Range

(0-300)V

(0-5)A

(0-2)A

Tachometer

270/1.5A

Type

M.I

M.I

M.C

W.W

-----------------

Digital

---------

--------

as required

Connecting wires

Qty

1

1

1

2

THEORY:

The regulation may be found by direct loading. The procedure is as follows:

Diagram the alternator is driven at synchronous speed and the terminal voltage is adjusted

to its rated value v. the load is varied until the wattmeter and ammeter indicate the rated

values at desired p.f. then the entire load is thrown off while the speed and field excitation

are kept constant. Hence regulation can be found from,

% regulation= (E0-V)/V *100

In case of large machines, direct loading becomes prohibitive. Some methods differ the noload voltage is found below:

(1) Synchronous Impedance (or) EMF method

(2) The ampere turn (or) MMF method

(3) Zero power factor (ZPF) method

All the methods require :(i) `armature resistance Ra

(ii) open circuit characteristics

(iii) Short circuit characteristics.

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(1) Synchronous Impedance (or) EMF method:

In this, open circuit characteristics .is plotted from the given data. Similarly S.C.C is

drawn from SC test. It is a straight line passing through the origin. Consider a field current

(If), the OC voltage corresponding to this field current is E1. When winding is shortcircuited, the terminal voltage is zero. then whole voltage circulated the armature SC

current against the synchronous impedance Zs.

X S Z S2 Ra2

Therefore E1=I1.Zs;

Zs=E1oc/I1sc;

To know the Ra & Xs, vector diagram can be drawn for any load and any power factor.

E0

v cos

I a Ra

v sin I a X S

-for leading power factor.

This method also utilizes OC. & SC data in the sense that armature leakage reactance is

treated as an additional armature reaction. Now, field AT required to produce a voltage of v

on full-load is the vector sum of the following:

(i). field AT required to produce v on no-load. This can be found from OCC and (ii)

field AT required to overcome the demagnetizing effect of armature reaction on full-load.

(3) Zero power factor (ZPF) method:

This method is based on the separation of armature leakage reactance drop and the

armature reaction effects. It makes use of the first two methods to some extent. The

experimental data required is (i) no-load curve and (ii) full-load zero power factor curves

also called wattles load characteristic. It is the curve of terminal volts against excitation.

When armature is delivering full-load current at zero power factor. The reduction in

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voltage due to armature reaction is found from above and (iii) voltage drop due to armature

leakage reactance XL is found from both. By combine these two, E0 can be calculated.

It should be noted that if we vector ally add to V the drop due to resistive and leakage

reactance (XL), we get E. if to E is further added. The drop due to armature reaction

(assume lag power factor.), then we get E0. The ZPF lagging curve can be obtained.

(a). if a similar machine is available which may be driven at no-load as a synchronous

motor at practically ZPF (or) by loading the alternator with pure reactors (c) by connecting

the alternator to a 3-phase line with ammeters and watt meters connected for measuring

current, power and by so adjusting current with zero wattmeter reading.

Therefore % regulation= (E0-V)/V *100.

To find armature resistance per phase of alternator

Procedure:

OCC test

1.

2.

With the rectifier in the zero voltage position TPST switch open, and the

rheostats in their proper positions, the DC. Supply to the motor is switched on.

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3.

The dc motor is brought to its rated speed and thus the alternator by

properly varying the field rheostat of motor.

4.

Now, the alternator field is excited by applying the dc voltage through the

rectifier in steps. At each step the field current and the corresponding generated

voltage are noted. This procedure is repeated till the voltage generated is much

beyond rated value.

Reduce the alternator field excitation to zero level.

5.

SCC test:

1.

With the rectifier in the minimum voltage position, the TPST switch is

closed.

2.

Increase field excitation gradually till the S.C. current of the alternator

reaches the rated value.

Note down the field current required to circulate the rated short circuit

current tabulate. The readings taken during the O.C. and S.C tests.

3.

ZPF:

1. Connect the circuit as shown in fig.

2. Give supply to the dc motor and start if with the help of 3-point starter.

3. Adjust the speed of the alternator to its rated value by varying armature rheostat of

the dc motor

4. To obtain OCC, vary the field rheostat of the alternator and note down the field

current and generated emf of the alternator.

5. After rated emf is generated in the armature, close the switch s.

6. Vary the inductive load & the field rheostat of the alternator simultaneously such

that rated current is maintained. Ensure that the prime mover speed is kept

constant throughout the test.

7. Note down the field current and terminal voltage until the rated voltage is

generated.

Tabular Column:

OCC Test

Sl. No

SCC Test

If (A)

Eo /Ph (V)

1

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Sl. No

1

If (A)

Isc (A)

2

Armature Resistance

Sl. No

I (A)

V (V)

R ()

%Regulation

Sl.

No

P.F.

% Regulation

Lag

Lead

1

2

3

4

If(A)

Voc(v)

EMF method Observations:

OCC:

ZPF characteristics

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V(v)

If(A)

Model Calculations

ZS

VOC

I SC

X S Z S2 Ra2

for the same If and speed:

[ Ra

RdC]

Generated emf of alternator on no load is

E0

v cos

I a Ra

v sin I a X S

% Re g

Where

E0 V

x 100

V

phase)

V Full load, rated terminal voltage per phase

.

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Model Graphs:

Precautions:

1) Connections must be made tight

2) Before making or breaking the circuit, supply must be switched

of

3) Readings should be taken without any parallax error

4) Apply ZPF load on the alternator only after the rated voltage is

generated

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Result:

Hence the regulation of alternator by

(1) EMF method =

(2) MMF method =lagging power factor. =

Leading power factor. =

(3) ZPF method = lagging power factor. =

Leading power factor. =

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Circuit diagram

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AIM:

To control the speed of a DC shunt motor using the following

methods

i). field flux control

ii). Armature voltage control

Apparatus required

S No

1

2

3

4

5

Equipment

DC shunt motor

Rheostat

Ammeter

Voltmeter

Tachometer

Range

DC

Wire wound

MC

MC

Digital

Type

Qty

220V

370/2.5A

(0-2)A

(0-220)V

(0-30000)rpm

1

2

1

1

1

Theory

The term speed control means intentional sped variation, carried out

manually or automatically. DC motors are most suitable for wide range speed

control and are therefore indispensible for many adjustable speed drives. The

speed of a motor is given by

Wm = (Vt-IaRa)/Ka

Where

Ka armature constant = PZ/2A and

is the flux per pole.

Hence it follows that, for a DC motor, there are basically three

methods of speed control and these are:

1. Variation of resistance in armature circuit

2. Variation of the field flux

3. Variation of armature terminal voltage.

Variation of the field flux: This method of speed control, also called as

flux weakening method or filed current control method gives speeds above

the base speed only. Base speed is nothing but the rated speed of the machine.

This is one of the simplest and economical methods and is, therefore

extensively used in modern electric drives. Under steady state running

conditions, if the field circuit resistance is increased, the field current and

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hence the field flux are reduced. Since the rotor speed cannot change

suddenly due to inertia, a decrease in field current causes a reduction of

counter emf. As a result of it, more current flows through armature. The

percentage increase in armature current is much more than the percentage

decrease in the field current. In view of this, the electromagnetic torque is

increased and this being more than the load torque, the motor gets

accelerated. The disadvantages of this method are:

a. The armature may get over heated at higher speeds, because the

increased armature current results in more ohmic losses whereas cooling by

ventilation does not improve proportionally.

b. If the field flux is weakened considerably, the speed becomes very high

and due to these changes; the motor operation may become unstable.

Variation of armature terminal voltage:

If the voltage applied to the armature changes the speed changes

directly with it. Using this method, speeds below rated speeds are attained.

Procedure

1. Make the connections as per the circuit diagram.

2. Keep the field rheostat in minimum position and armature in maximum

position and close the DPST switch.

3. Bring the motor to rated speed using field rheostat.

4. At this point take a note of the voltmeter and tachometer readings.

5. Now start varying the armature rheostat in steps and for each step note

down the voltmeter and tachometer readings. Take 10 to 15 such readings and

bring back the armature rheostat to initial position.

6. Bring back the field rheostat to initial position. Using the armature rheostat

set the motor at rated speed.

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Circuit diagram:

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E

xp no 6 Brake Test on Dc Shunt Motor. Determination of Its

Performance Curves

Aim: To conduct brake test on DC Shunt motor and to determine its performance

curves.

Apparatus:

S. No

1.

2.

3.

4.

Equipment

Voltmeter

Ammeter

Tachometer

Connecting wires

Range

0-300V

0-10A

Type

M.C.

M.C

Digital

type

Qty

1

1

1

Theory:

This is a direct loading test on motor. This is used for small motors only when

necessary. The motor is loaded directly by means of a belt and pulley arrangement. By

adjusting the tension of the belt, the load is adjusted to give the various values of

currents. The load is adjusted to get full load current. The power developed gets wasted

against the friction between belt and shaft. Due to the braking action of belt, this test is

called brake test. Hence in the case of shunt motor there is no drastic change in speed.

The Torque T = 9.81(S1 ~ S2) r N- M. where (S1 ~ S2) = the difference of spring

balance reading r = Break drum Radius P = Power developed. Hence directly the

efficiency = (Po/ Pi ) x 10

Model Graphs:

1. Speed Vs torque curve

2. Speed Vs current curve

3. Output Vs efficiency

4. Current Vs Torque

Procedure:1.

2.

3.

4.

Start the motor with the help of the stator

Adjust the speed of the motor to run at rated speed on no load.

Load the machine at the pulley and measure the speed in steps and note down the

values of s1 and s2.

5. Measure the effective weight (s1 ~ s2).

6. Calculations are done accordingly

Tabular columns:

S No

Voltage

(volts)

Current

(Amps)

Speed

(rpm)

Spring

Balance

Reading

(S1 ~ S2)

Torque =

9.81(S1-S2)r NM

Pin

Pout =

2 NT 60 =

VI

=

OP/IP

Precautions:

1. Take care that the machine and the brake do not get very hot.

2. Do not keep the brake on for long time.

3. Take readings quickly.

RESULT:

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