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Networks and electrical technology lab manual

SHRI VISHNU ENGINEERING COLLEGE FOR


WOMEN::BHIMAVARAM
(AUTONOMOUS)
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING

BASIC ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS LABORATORY


II B.TECH - I SEM
LIST OF EXPERIMENTS

PART-A: Electrical Engineering


1. Swinburnes Test on DC Shunt Machine (predetermination of efficiency of a
given d.c
Shunt machine working as motor and generator)
2. OC and SC Tests on 1- Transformer (predetermination of efficiency and
regulation at
Given power factors)
3. Brake Test on Three-phase Induction Motor (determination of performance
Characteristics).
4. Regulation of Alternator by Synchronous impedance method.
5. Speed control of DC Shunt Motor by
a) Armature voltage control b) Field flux control
6. Brake Test on DC Shunt Motor

Circuit diagram for Swinburnes Test:


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Circuit diagram for Armature Resistance:

Exp no 1 Swinburnes Test on DC shunt machine (Predetermination of


efficiency of a given DC Shunt machine working as motor and generator).
Aim: To conduct Swinburnes test on DC shunt motor and predetermine the
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efficiency of Generator and Motor.


Apparatus Required:
S. No

Equipment

Range
0-2A
0-2 A

Type
MC
MC

Qty
1No
1No

Ammeters

Voltmeters

0-300V

MC

1No

3
4
5

Rheostats
Tachometer
Connecting Wires

250/2A
0-9999rpm

Wire wound
Digital

2No
1No
LS

Name Plate details:

Theory
Swinburnes test:
It is a simple indirect method in which losses are measured separately and
the efficiency at any desired load can be predetermined. This test applicable to
those machines in which flux is practically constant i.e. shunt and compound
wound machines. The no load power input to armature consist iron losses in core,
friction loss, wind age loss and armature copper loss. It is convenient and
economical because power required to test a large machine is small i.e. only no
load power. The effect of commutation are not considered or tested. The iron
losses remains constant is insignificant.
Calculations:
IL = No Load Current
If = Shunt Field current
Then, no load armature current Ia = (IL If)
Also let, V is the supply voltage. Therefore, No load power input = IL watts.
Let

In Swinburne's test no load power input is only required to supply the


losses. The losses occur in the machine mainly are: Iron losses in the core Friction
and windings losses Armature copper loss.
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Since the no load mechanical output of the machine is zero in Swinburne's


test, the no load input power is only used to supply the losses.
The value of armature copper loss = (IL If)2 Ra
Here, Ra is the armature resistance.
Now, to get the constant losses we have to subtract the armature copper loss
from the no load power input.
Then, Constant losses WC = V IL - ( IL If)2 Ra
After calculating the no load constant losses now we can determine the
efficiency at any load.
Let, I is the load current at which we have to calculate the efficiency of the
machine.
Then, armature current (Ia) will be (I If), when the machine is motoring.
And Ia = (I + If), when the machine is generating.
Calculation of Efficiency When the Machine is Motoring on Load
Power input = VI
Armature copper loss, PCU = I2 Ra = (I If)2Ra
Constant losses, WC = VIL - (IL If)2 Ra
Total losses = PCU + WC
Efficiency of the motor:
m =

output inputlosses VI Pc U + wc
=
=
input
input
VI

Calculation of Efficiency When the Machine is Generating on Load


Power input = VI
Armature copper loss, PCU = I2 Ra = (I + IF)2 Ra
Constant losses, WC = VI0 - (I0 IF)2 Ra
Total losses = PCU + WC
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Efficiency of the generator:

g=

output Iinput output VIPC U +W c


=
=
input
input
VI

Procedure:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Connections are made as per the circuit diagrams


At no load, run the machine at rated speed using field rheostat.
Note down the readings of If, Ia, IL,V and N.
Find the armature resistance using V-I method.
Calculate the efficiency for and motor and Generator.

Observations
Tabular Form:

IL
()

IF

IA

For Ra
S.NO

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Ra=V/I

Networks and electrical technology lab manual

Precautions:
1. Swinburnes test should be conducted on no load.
Result:

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

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N2>N1
Fig-1 Open Circuit Test

N2<N1
Fig-2 Short Circuit Test

Exp no 2 OC & SC tests on Single-phase transformer (Predetermination


of efficiency and regulation at given power factors and determination of
equivalent circuit).
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Aim:
(a) To predetermine the efficiency and regulation of Single Phase Transformer by
conducting no-load test and short circuit test.
(b) To draw the equivalent circuit of single phase transformer referred to LV side as
well as HV side.
Apparatus:
S. No

Equipment
Voltmeter
Ammeter

1
2.
3.
.
4

Wattmeter

Range
0-300V
0-10A

Type
M.I
M.I

Qty
1
1

2.5A/150V,10A/75V

LPF,UPF

1,1

230V/(0-270V/2A)

-----------

Dimmer stat

1- Transformer

2KVA,230/115V

-----------

6
.

Connecting wires

---------

--------

as required

THEORY:
These two tests on a single-phase transformer help to determine;
I.
II.
III.

The parameters of the equivalent circuit.


The voltage regulation and
Efficiency.

The power required during these two tests is equal to the appropriate power loss
occurring in the transformer.
Open-circuit (or) no-load test:
The circuit diagram for performing open circuit test on a single-phase transformer
is as shown in fig.1. In this diagram a voltmeter, wattmeter and an ammeter are
shown, which are connected on the low voltage side of the transformer. The high
voltage side is left open circuited. The rated frequency voltage applied to the
primary .i.e. low voltage side, is varied with the help of a variable ratio autotransformer. When the voltmeter reading is equal to the rated voltage of the low
voltage winding, all the three instrument readings are recorded. The purpose of
this test is to determine no-load loss or core loss and no-load current I 0 which is

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helpful in finding X0 and R0. In the circuit left open as high voltage winging side.

Ie

The ammeter records the no-load current (I 0) or exciting current (

Ie

).since

is quite small 2 to 6% of rated current, the primary leakage impedance drop

is almost negligible. The applied voltageV1 is equal to the induced emf. V 11.the
input power given by the wattmeter reading consists of core loss and ohmic loss.
The exciting current being about 2 to 6% of the full-load current, the ohmic loss in
the primary Ie2.r1 varies from0.04% to 0.36% of the full-load primary ohmic loss.
In view of this, the ohmic loss during open-circuit test is negligible. Hence the
wattmeter reading can be taken as equal to transformer core loss.
Let V1=applied rated voltage on lv side.

Ie

=exciting current and

Pe

=core loss, then Pc=V1.

Ic

no-load pf. =cos0 =Pc / (V1.Ie);

.cos0
=

Ie

=V1/ (Ie.cos 0) =V12/ (V1.

Ie

Ie

Ie

.cos0 and

Im

.sin0

Ic
RCL

Core-loss resistance

=Pc/V1

Ic

=V1/

.cos0) =V12/Pc
Also Ic2.

RCL

=Pc;

Magnetizing reactance,

X ml

RCL

=Pc/Ic2=Pc/ (

=V1/

Im

=V1/ (

Ie
Ie

.cos0)2
sin0).

Short-circuit test:
This is an economical method for determining the following;
(i). the equivalent impedance, leakage reactance and total resistance of the
transformer as referred to the winding in which the measuring instruments are
placed.
(ii) Copper loss at full load; this loss is used in calculating the efficiency of the
transformer.
The low voltage side of the transformer is short-circuited and the instruments are
placed on the high-voltage side. The applied voltage is adjusted by autoDepartment of EEE-SVECW

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transformer, to circulate rated current in the high voltage side. In a transformer, the
primary mmf. is almost equal to the secondary mmf., therefore, a rated current in
the high voltage side winding causes rated current to flow in the low voltage
winding. A primary voltage of 2 to 12% of its rated value is sufficient to circulate
rated currents in both primary and secondary windings. about half(1 to 6%) of the
applied voltage appears across the secondary leakage impedance. the core flux
induces the voltage across the exciting branch. the core flux is 1 to 6% of its rated
value. hence the core loss being proportional to the square of its value at rated
voltage. the wattmeter, in short-circuit test records the core loss and the ohmic loss
in both the windings. since the core loss has been provided to be almost negligible.
the wattmeter can be taken to register only the ohmic losses in both the windings.
at rated voltage, the exciting current is 2 to 6% of full-load current. when the
voltage across the exciting branch is 1 to 6% of rated voltage, the exciting current
may be 0.02% to 0..36% of its full-load current.
Voltage regulation of a transformer can be determined from the data obtained from
short-circuit-test. Data of both open circuit and short-circuit tests is necessary;
(i)
(ii)
Let

For obtaining all the parameters of exact equivalent and


For calculating the transformer efficiency.

V sc

I sc

and

PSC

be the voltmeter, ammeter and wattmeter readings,

then equivalent leakage impedance referred to high voltage side,

Z eH

I sc

V sc

high voltage side, ReH = PSC / I sc 2 and


Equivalent resistance referred to
X eH = z2eH R2eH
equivalent leakage reactance referred to high voltage side,

PROCEDURE:

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1.

Connect the circuit for no-load test as per the circuit diagram. Shown in fig.
(1).

2.

Keep the variable ac in minimum output position and switch on the supply.

3.

Apply the rated voltage to the transformer by properly adjusting the variable
ac.

4.

Note down the readings of various meters i.e. wattmeter (W 0), ammeter (I0),
voltmeter (V1) and then bring back the variable ac to its original output position,
and then switch off the supply.

5.

Connect the circuit for SC test as per the circuit diagram, shown in fig (2) with
appropriate ranges of meters.

6.

Keep the variable ac in minimum output position and switch on the supply.

7.

Apply proper voltage (low voltage) to the transformer by adjusting the


variable ac such that rated current flows through the transformer.

8.

Note down the readings of various meters i.e. wattmeter (W 0), ammeter (I0),
voltmeter (V1) and then bring back the variable ac to its original output position,
then and switch off the supply.

TABULAR COLUMN:

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At full-load

Lag load

Lead load

(x=1)

regulation

regulation

1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2

OC Test:
S No

V1 (V)

Io(A)

Wo
(w)

SC Test:
S No

V sc (V)

Isc (A)

W sc

(w)

MODEL CALCULATIONS:
Find the equivalent circuit parameters R 0, X0, R01, R02, X01 and X02 from the O.C. and S.C.
test results and draw the equivalent circuit referred to L. V. side as well as H. V. side.
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From OC test:

Wo

cos0=

Ic
Im

=I0.cos0=
=I0.sin0=

R0=V0/
X0=V0/

/ (V0.I0) =

Ic

Im

=
=

From SC test:

cos sc
W sc
V sc
I
=
/(
. sc ) =
V sc
I sc

Z02=

X 02

/2

=2

Z 02 R02P.F.

Load

=
UPF

V HV

; R 02=
% efficiency
R01=R02xK2=

W sc

where

1(full)

UPF
1/2
% efficiency= ((x.V
2.I2.cos)/ ((x.V2.I2.cos) +w0+ (x2.wsc))) *100.
UPF
3/4
EFFICIENCY CALCULATIONS
UPF
P.F.

Load

1/4
%
efficienc
y

0.8

1(full)

0.8

1/2

0.8

3/4

0.8

1/4

Input = output + Cu. Loss + constant loss


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I sc

K=

V LV

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efficiency

Output
x 100
Input

%
Regulation: From open circuit and Short circuit test

% Re gulation

X * ( I 2 R02 cos I 2 X 02 sin )


x 100
V2

Where x = 1, 1/2, 3/4, 1/4.


+ for lagging power factors
- for leading power factors.
Model Graphs: Plots drawn between
(i)

% efficiency Vs output

(ii)

% regulation Vs power factor

PRECAUTIONS:
1.

Connections must be made tight

2.

Before making or breaking the circuit, supply must be switched off

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RESULT:
Hence the regulation of transformer is found by using OC and SC test data

Circuit diagram

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Exp no 3. Brake test on 3-phase Induction motor (performance


characteristics).
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Aim:
To conduct load test on the given 3 phase induction motor and to plot its
performance characteristics.
Apparatus:
S. No

1
2.
.3
.
4
5
.

Equipment
Voltmeter
Ammeter
Wattmeter

Range
0-300V
0-10A
300V/10A

Dimmerstat
Connecting wires

---------

Type
M.I
M.I
UPF

Qty
1
1
2

-----------

--------

as required

THEORY:
It is the direct method to find the efficiency of the induction motor. In this test the
breakig of the rotor is done with the help of the belt which surrounds the pulley by using
spring balances. When the braking power is increased by tightening the springs then the
line current is increased.
Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram shown the above fig.
2. Keep the 3 phase auto transformer in minimum output position and switch on the
supply.
3. Apply the rated voltage to the stator windings of 3 induction motor with the help
of 3 phase auto transformer.
4. Note down the readings of wattmeter ammeter and voltmeter on no-load.
5. Load the induction motor in steps using the brake-drum arrangement. At each step
note down the readings of all meters the speed and the spring balance readings S 1
and S2 up to 25% over load.
6. Stop the motor by gradually releasing the load.
Tabular column:
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Sl.

No.

(V)

(A)

Spring balance

Power, W
(Watts)

W1

W2

Speed
(RPM)

(Kg)

S1

Torque

S1S2

S2

Input

(N-m)

Model Calculations:
Input power drawn by the motor W = (W1+ W2) watts
Shaft Torque, Tsh = 9.81 (S1 ~ S2) R N-m
R Radius of drum in mts.

Output power in watts =

2 N Tsh
watts
60

% efficiency

% slip

output power in watts


x 100
Input power in watts

Ns N
x 100
Ns

where N s

120 x f
p

cos

W
3 VL I L

Power factor of the induction motor


Model Graphs:
Draw the graphs between

(i)

% efficiency () Vs Output

(ii)

Torque in N-m Vs Output

(iii)

Power factor Vs Output

(iv)
% Slip Vs Output
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%
Slip

Pf
Cos

Output
Power
(W)

Power
(W)

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Precautions:
1) Connections must be made tight
2) Before making or breaking the circuit, supply must be
switched of
Result:
Hence the performance characteristics of 3 phase induction motor is determined by
conducting load test

Circuit Diagram:
EMF:

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Exp no 4. Regulation of alternator by synchronous impedance method


Aim:

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To pre-determine the regulation of a given three-phase alternator by
conducting O. C. and S. C. tests by synchronous Impedance method
(EMF method)
Apparatus:
S. No

1
2.
3.
3
.
4
5
.

Equipment
Voltmeter
Ammeter
Ammeter
Rheostats

Range
(0-300)V
(0-5)A
(0-2)A

Tachometer

270/1.5A

Type
M.I
M.I
M.C
W.W

-----------------

Digital

---------

--------

as required

Connecting wires

Qty
1
1
1
2

THEORY:
The regulation may be found by direct loading. The procedure is as follows:
Diagram the alternator is driven at synchronous speed and the terminal voltage is adjusted
to its rated value v. the load is varied until the wattmeter and ammeter indicate the rated
values at desired p.f. then the entire load is thrown off while the speed and field excitation
are kept constant. Hence regulation can be found from,
% regulation= (E0-V)/V *100
In case of large machines, direct loading becomes prohibitive. Some methods differ the noload voltage is found below:
(1) Synchronous Impedance (or) EMF method
(2) The ampere turn (or) MMF method
(3) Zero power factor (ZPF) method
All the methods require :(i) `armature resistance Ra
(ii) open circuit characteristics
(iii) Short circuit characteristics.
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(1) Synchronous Impedance (or) EMF method:
In this, open circuit characteristics .is plotted from the given data. Similarly S.C.C is
drawn from SC test. It is a straight line passing through the origin. Consider a field current
(If), the OC voltage corresponding to this field current is E1. When winding is shortcircuited, the terminal voltage is zero. then whole voltage circulated the armature SC
current against the synchronous impedance Zs.

X S Z S2 Ra2
Therefore E1=I1.Zs;

Zs=E1oc/I1sc;

To know the Ra & Xs, vector diagram can be drawn for any load and any power factor.

E0

v cos

I a Ra

v sin I a X S

+ for lagging power factor.


-for leading power factor.

(2) The ampere turn (or) MMF method:


This method also utilizes OC. & SC data in the sense that armature leakage reactance is
treated as an additional armature reaction. Now, field AT required to produce a voltage of v
on full-load is the vector sum of the following:
(i). field AT required to produce v on no-load. This can be found from OCC and (ii)
field AT required to overcome the demagnetizing effect of armature reaction on full-load.
(3) Zero power factor (ZPF) method:
This method is based on the separation of armature leakage reactance drop and the
armature reaction effects. It makes use of the first two methods to some extent. The
experimental data required is (i) no-load curve and (ii) full-load zero power factor curves
also called wattles load characteristic. It is the curve of terminal volts against excitation.
When armature is delivering full-load current at zero power factor. The reduction in
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voltage due to armature reaction is found from above and (iii) voltage drop due to armature
leakage reactance XL is found from both. By combine these two, E0 can be calculated.
It should be noted that if we vector ally add to V the drop due to resistive and leakage
reactance (XL), we get E. if to E is further added. The drop due to armature reaction
(assume lag power factor.), then we get E0. The ZPF lagging curve can be obtained.
(a). if a similar machine is available which may be driven at no-load as a synchronous
motor at practically ZPF (or) by loading the alternator with pure reactors (c) by connecting
the alternator to a 3-phase line with ammeters and watt meters connected for measuring
current, power and by so adjusting current with zero wattmeter reading.
Therefore % regulation= (E0-V)/V *100.
To find armature resistance per phase of alternator

Procedure:
OCC test
1.
2.

The connections are made as shown in the diagram.


With the rectifier in the zero voltage position TPST switch open, and the
rheostats in their proper positions, the DC. Supply to the motor is switched on.

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3.

The dc motor is brought to its rated speed and thus the alternator by
properly varying the field rheostat of motor.

4.

Now, the alternator field is excited by applying the dc voltage through the
rectifier in steps. At each step the field current and the corresponding generated
voltage are noted. This procedure is repeated till the voltage generated is much
beyond rated value.
Reduce the alternator field excitation to zero level.

5.

SCC test:
1.

With the rectifier in the minimum voltage position, the TPST switch is
closed.

2.

Increase field excitation gradually till the S.C. current of the alternator
reaches the rated value.
Note down the field current required to circulate the rated short circuit
current tabulate. The readings taken during the O.C. and S.C tests.

3.

ZPF:
1. Connect the circuit as shown in fig.
2. Give supply to the dc motor and start if with the help of 3-point starter.
3. Adjust the speed of the alternator to its rated value by varying armature rheostat of
the dc motor
4. To obtain OCC, vary the field rheostat of the alternator and note down the field
current and generated emf of the alternator.
5. After rated emf is generated in the armature, close the switch s.
6. Vary the inductive load & the field rheostat of the alternator simultaneously such
that rated current is maintained. Ensure that the prime mover speed is kept
constant throughout the test.
7. Note down the field current and terminal voltage until the rated voltage is
generated.

Tabular Column:
OCC Test
Sl. No

SCC Test
If (A)

Eo /Ph (V)

1
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Sl. No
1

If (A)

Isc (A)

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2

Armature Resistance
Sl. No

I (A)

V (V)

R ()

%Regulation
Sl.
No

P.F.

% Regulation
Lag

Lead

1
2
3
4

If(A)
Voc(v)
EMF method Observations:
OCC:
ZPF characteristics

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V(v)

If(A)

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Model Calculations

ZS

VOC
I SC

X S Z S2 Ra2
for the same If and speed:

[ Ra

RdC]
Generated emf of alternator on no load is

E0

v cos

I a Ra

v sin I a X S

+ for lagging power factor;

-for leading power factor.

The percentage regulation of alternator for a given power factor. is

% Re g

Where

E0 V
x 100
V

E0 generated emf of alternator (or excitation voltage per

phase)
V Full load, rated terminal voltage per phase
.

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Model Graphs:

Precautions:
1) Connections must be made tight
2) Before making or breaking the circuit, supply must be switched
of
3) Readings should be taken without any parallax error
4) Apply ZPF load on the alternator only after the rated voltage is
generated

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Result:
Hence the regulation of alternator by
(1) EMF method =
(2) MMF method =lagging power factor. =
Leading power factor. =
(3) ZPF method = lagging power factor. =
Leading power factor. =

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Circuit diagram

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Exp no 5 SPEED CONTROL OF DC SHUNT MOTOR


AIM:
To control the speed of a DC shunt motor using the following
methods
i). field flux control
ii). Armature voltage control
Apparatus required
S No
1
2
3
4
5

Equipment
DC shunt motor
Rheostat
Ammeter
Voltmeter
Tachometer

Range
DC
Wire wound
MC
MC
Digital

Type

Qty

220V
370/2.5A
(0-2)A
(0-220)V
(0-30000)rpm

1
2
1
1
1

Theory
The term speed control means intentional sped variation, carried out
manually or automatically. DC motors are most suitable for wide range speed
control and are therefore indispensible for many adjustable speed drives. The
speed of a motor is given by
Wm = (Vt-IaRa)/Ka
Where
Ka armature constant = PZ/2A and
is the flux per pole.
Hence it follows that, for a DC motor, there are basically three
methods of speed control and these are:
1. Variation of resistance in armature circuit
2. Variation of the field flux
3. Variation of armature terminal voltage.
Variation of the field flux: This method of speed control, also called as
flux weakening method or filed current control method gives speeds above
the base speed only. Base speed is nothing but the rated speed of the machine.
This is one of the simplest and economical methods and is, therefore
extensively used in modern electric drives. Under steady state running
conditions, if the field circuit resistance is increased, the field current and
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hence the field flux are reduced. Since the rotor speed cannot change
suddenly due to inertia, a decrease in field current causes a reduction of
counter emf. As a result of it, more current flows through armature. The
percentage increase in armature current is much more than the percentage
decrease in the field current. In view of this, the electromagnetic torque is
increased and this being more than the load torque, the motor gets
accelerated. The disadvantages of this method are:
a. The armature may get over heated at higher speeds, because the
increased armature current results in more ohmic losses whereas cooling by
ventilation does not improve proportionally.
b. If the field flux is weakened considerably, the speed becomes very high
and due to these changes; the motor operation may become unstable.
Variation of armature terminal voltage:
If the voltage applied to the armature changes the speed changes
directly with it. Using this method, speeds below rated speeds are attained.
Procedure
1. Make the connections as per the circuit diagram.
2. Keep the field rheostat in minimum position and armature in maximum
position and close the DPST switch.
3. Bring the motor to rated speed using field rheostat.
4. At this point take a note of the voltmeter and tachometer readings.
5. Now start varying the armature rheostat in steps and for each step note
down the voltmeter and tachometer readings. Take 10 to 15 such readings and
bring back the armature rheostat to initial position.
6. Bring back the field rheostat to initial position. Using the armature rheostat
set the motor at rated speed.

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Networks and electrical technology lab manual

Circuit diagram:

Department of EEE-SVECW

BASIC ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINNERING Lab manual

E
xp no 6 Brake Test on Dc Shunt Motor. Determination of Its
Performance Curves
Aim: To conduct brake test on DC Shunt motor and to determine its performance
curves.
Apparatus:
S. No
1.
2.
3.
4.

Equipment
Voltmeter
Ammeter
Tachometer
Connecting wires

Range
0-300V
0-10A

Type
M.C.
M.C
Digital
type

Qty
1
1
1

Theory:
This is a direct loading test on motor. This is used for small motors only when
necessary. The motor is loaded directly by means of a belt and pulley arrangement. By
adjusting the tension of the belt, the load is adjusted to give the various values of
currents. The load is adjusted to get full load current. The power developed gets wasted
against the friction between belt and shaft. Due to the braking action of belt, this test is
called brake test. Hence in the case of shunt motor there is no drastic change in speed.
The Torque T = 9.81(S1 ~ S2) r N- M. where (S1 ~ S2) = the difference of spring
balance reading r = Break drum Radius P = Power developed. Hence directly the
efficiency = (Po/ Pi ) x 10

Department of EEE SVECW

BASIC ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINNERING Lab manual


Model Graphs:
1. Speed Vs torque curve
2. Speed Vs current curve
3. Output Vs efficiency
4. Current Vs Torque

Procedure:1.
2.
3.
4.

Connections are made as per the circuit diagram


Start the motor with the help of the stator
Adjust the speed of the motor to run at rated speed on no load.
Load the machine at the pulley and measure the speed in steps and note down the
values of s1 and s2.
5. Measure the effective weight (s1 ~ s2).
6. Calculations are done accordingly
Tabular columns:

S No

Voltage
(volts)

Current
(Amps)

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Speed
(rpm)

Spring
Balance
Reading
(S1 ~ S2)

Torque =
9.81(S1-S2)r NM

Pin
Pout =
2 NT 60 =
VI

=
OP/IP

BASIC ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINNERING Lab manual


Precautions:
1. Take care that the machine and the brake do not get very hot.
2. Do not keep the brake on for long time.
3. Take readings quickly.

RESULT:

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BASIC ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINNERING Lab manual

Department of EEE SVECW