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Joaqun Guzmn Loera

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Joaqun Archivaldo Guzmn Loera (Spanish


pronunciation: [xoakin artialdo uzman loea]; born either

Joaqun Guzmn Loera

25 December 1954 or 4 April 1957; disputed)[2] is a Mexican


drug lord who heads the Sinaloa Cartel, a criminal
organization named after the Mexican Pacific coast state of
Sinaloa where it was formed. Known as "El Chapo
Guzmn" ("The Shorty Guzmn", pronounced: [el tapo uz
man]) for his 1.68 m (5 ft 6 in) stature, he became Mexico's
top drug kingpin in 2003 after the arrest of his rival Osiel
Crdenas of the Gulf Cartel, and until his February 2014
arrest, he was considered the "most powerful drug trafficker
in the world" by the United States Department of the
Treasury.[3][4]
In 2011 Forbes magazine ranked Guzmn as one of the most
powerful people in the world every year since 2009, ranking
41st, 60th and 55th respectively.[5][6] He was named as the
10th richest man in Mexico (1,140th in the world) in 2011,

Mugshot of Joaqun Guzmn Loera


Born

with a net worth of roughly US$1 billion.[7][8] The magazine


also calls him the "biggest drug lord of all time",[9] and the
US Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) estimates he
has surpassed the influence and reach of Pablo Escobar, and
now considers him "the godfather of the drug world".[10] In
2013, the Chicago Crime Commission named Guzmn
"Public Enemy Number One" for the influence of his criminal
network in Chicago, though there is no evidence that Guzmn

Joaqun Archivaldo Guzmn Loera


25 December 1954
or
4 April 1957
La Tuna, Badiraguato, Sinaloa,
Mexico

Other names "El Chapo" Guzmn


Occupation

Leader of Sinaloa Cartel

Height

1.68 m (5 ft 6 in)

Weight

75 kg (165 lb)

Predecessor

Miguel ngel Flix Gallardo

Guzmn's Sinaloa Cartel smuggles multi-ton cocaine


shipments from Colombia through Mexico to the United

Criminal
charge

Drug trafficking, murder, money


laundering

States, the world's top consumer,[2] and has distribution cells

Spouse(s)

At least 4

throughout the U.S.[2] The organization has also been


involved in the production, smuggling and distribution of

Children

At least 10

Mexican methamphetamine, marijuana, ecstasy (MDMA)[13]

Reward
amount

Mexico: 3.8 million USD[1]

Capture
status

Escaped (2nd time)

Wanted by

The Mexican PGR and the US DEA

has ever been in that

city.[11]

notoriety was Al Capone in

The last person to receive such

1930.[12]

and heroin across both North America and Europe.[14][15] At


the time of his 2014 arrest, Guzmn imported more drugs into
the United States than anyone

else.[16]

United States: $5 million USD[2]

Guzmn was captured in 1993 in Guatemala, extradited and


sentenced to 20 years in prison in Mexico for murder and
trafficking.[2][17]

Wanted since 2001


Escaped

July 11, 2015

drug
After bribing prison guards, he was
able to escape from a federal maximum-security prison in
2001.[2] He was wanted by the governments of Mexico and the United States, and by INTERPOL.[18] The U.S.
offered a US$5 million reward for information leading to his capture, and the Mexican government offered a
reward of 30 million pesos (approximately US$2 million) for information on Guzmn.[2]
Guzmn was arrested by Mexican authorities in Mexico on February 22, 2014. He was found inside his fourthfloor apartment at 608 Avenida del Mar in the beachfront Miramar condominium in Mazatln, Sinaloa,[19] and
was captured without a gunshot being fired.[16][20] Guzmn escaped from prison again on July 11, 2015.[21]

Contents
1 Early life
2 Initial stages in organized crime
3 Conflict with the Tijuana Cartel: 19891993
3.1 Exodus and arrest: 1993
4 Drug empire
4.1 Methamphetamine
5 First arrest and escape: 19932001
6 Mexican Cartel Wars
7 Break with the Beltrn Leyva Cartel
8 Whereabouts and manhunt: 20012014
9 Rearrest: 2014
9.1 Reactions
9.2 Charges and imprisonment
10 Second escape: 2015
10.1 Manhunt and investigation
11 Family
12 See also
13 References
14 Bibliography
15 External links

Early life
Joaqun Archivaldo Guzmn Loera was born into a poor family in the rural community of La Tuna,
Badiraguato, Sinaloa, Mexico.[22][23] Sources disagree on the date of his birth, with some stating he was born
on 25 December 1954,[24] while others report he was born on 4 April 1957.[25] His parents were Emilio
Guzmn Bustillos and Mara Consuelo Loera Prez.[26] His paternal grandparents were Juan Guzmn and Otilia
Bustillos, and his maternal grandparents were Ovidio Loera Cobret and Pomposa Prez Uriarte. For many
generations, his family lived and died at La Tuna.[27] His father was officially a cattle rancher, as were most in

the area where Guzmn grew up; according to some sources, however, he may have possibly also been a
gomero, a Sinaloan word for opium poppy farmer.[28] Guzmn has two younger sisters, Armida and Bernarda,
and four younger brothers: Miguel ngel, Aureliano, Arturo and Emilio. He had three unnamed older brothers
who reportedly died of natural causes when he was very young.[27]
Few details are known of Guzmn's upbringing. As a child, Guzmn sold oranges, and dropped out of school in
third grade to work with his father.[17] Guzmn was regularly beaten and sometimes fled to his maternal
grandmother's house to escape such treatment. However, when he was home, Guzmn stood up to his father to
protect his younger siblings from being beaten.[29][30] It is possible that Guzmn incurred his fathers wrath for
trying to stop him from beating them. His mother, however, was the "foundation of [his] emotional support."[31]
As the nearest school to his home was about 60 mi (100 km) away, Guzmn was taught by traveling teachers
during his early years, just like the rest of his brothers. The teachers stayed for a few months before moving to
other areas.[30] With few opportunities for employment in his hometown, he turned to the cultivation of opium
poppy, a common practice among local residents.[32] During harvest season, Guzmn and his brothers hiked the
hills of Badiraguato to cut the bud of the poppy. Once the plant was stacked in kilos, his father sold the harvest
to other suppliers in Culiacn and Guamchil.[33] He sold marijuana at commercial centers near the area while
accompanied by Guzmn. His father spent most of the profits on liquor and women and often returned home
with no money. Tired of his mismanagement, Guzmn, at the age of 15, cultivated his own marijuana plantation
with four distant cousins (Arturo, Alfredo, Carlos, and Hctor), who lived nearby. With his first marijuana
productions, Guzmn supported his family financially.[29]
When he was a teenager, however, his father kicked him out of his house, and he went to live with his
grandfather.[34] It was during his adolescence that Guzmn earned the nickname El Chapo, Mexican slang for
"Shorty", for his 1.68 m (5 ft., 6 in.) stature and stocky physical appearance.[35][36] Though most people in
Badiraguato worked in the poppy fields of the Sierra Madre Occidental throughout most of their lives, Guzmn
left his hometown in search of greater opportunities; through his uncle Pedro Avils Prez, one of the pioneers
of Mexican drug trafficking, he left Badiraguato in his 20s and joined organized crime.[37]

Initial stages in organized crime


During the 1980s, the leading crime syndicate in Mexico was the Guadalajara Cartel,[38] which was headed by
Miguel ngel Flix Gallardo (alias "El Padrino" ["the Godfather"]), Rafael Caro Quintero, Ernesto Fonseca
Carrillo (alias "Don Neto"), Juan Jos Esparragoza Moreno (alias "El Azul" ["the Blue One"]) and others.[39] In
the 1970s, Guzmn first worked for the drug lord Hctor "El Gero" Palma by transporting drugs and
overseeing their shipments from the Sierra Madre region to urban areas near the U.S.-Mexico border by aircraft.
Since his initial steps in organized crime, Guzmn was ambitious and regularly pressed on his superiors to allow
him to increase the share of narcotics that were smuggled across the border. The drug lord also favored a
pragmatic and serious approach when doing business; if any of his drug shipments were not on time, Guzmn
would simply kill the smuggler himself by shooting him in the head. Those around him learned that cheating
him or going with other competitorseven if they offered better priceswas inconvenient. The leaders of the
Guadalajara Cartel liked Guzmn's business acumen, and in the early 1980s, they introduced him to Flix
Gallardo, one of the major drug czars in Mexico.[40] Guzmn first worked as a chauffeur for Flix Gallardo

before he put him in charge of logistics,[41] where Guzmn coordinated drug shipments from Colombia to
Mexico by land, air, and sea. Palma, on the other hand, made sure the deliveries arrived to consumers in the
United States. Guzmn soon earned enough standing and began working for Flix Gallardo directly.[40]
Throughout most of the late 1970s and early 1980s, the Mexican drug traffickers were middlemen for the
Colombian drug trafficking groups, and would simply move the drugs through the U.S.-Mexico border and
receive a fee for each kilogram. Mexico, however, remained a secondary route for the Colombians, given that
most of the drugs trafficked by their cartels were smuggled through the Caribbean and the Florida
corridor.[42][43] Flix Gallardo was the leading drug baron in Mexico and friend of Juan Ramn MattaBallesteros, but his operations were still limited by his counterparts in South America. In the mid-1980s,
however, the U.S. government increased law enforcement surveillance and put pressure on the Medell0n and
Cali Cartels by effectively reducing the drug trafficking operations in the Caribbean corridor. Realizing it was
more profitable to hand over the operations to their Mexican counterparts, the Colombian cartels gave Flix
Gallardo more control over their drug shipments.[44][45] This power shift gave the Mexican organized crime
groups more leverage over their Central American and South American counterparts.[42] During the 1980s,
however, the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) was conducting undercover groundwork in Mexico,
where several of its agents worked as informants.
One DEA agent, Enrique Camarena Salazar, was working as an informant and grew close to many top drug
barons, including Flix Gallardo.[46] In November 1984, the Mexican militaryacting on the intelligence
information provided by Camarenaraided a large marijuana plantation owned by the Guadalajara Cartel and
known as "Rancho Bfalo."[47] Angered by the suspected betrayal, Flix Gallardo and his men sought revenge
by kidnapping, torturing, and killing the DEA agent in February 1985.[48] Guzmn's life changed that day,
according to federal agents of the DEA; the drug lord took advantage of the internal crisis to gain ground within
the cartel and take over more drug trafficking operations.[29] The death of Camarena outraged Washington, and
Mexico responded by carrying out a massive manhunt to arrest those involved in the incident.[49] In 1989, Flix
Gallardo was arrested; while in prison and through a number of envoys, the drug lord called for a summit in
Acapulco, Guerrero. In the conclave, Guzmn and others discussed the future of Mexico's drug trafficking and
agreed to divide the territories previously owned by the Guadalajara Cartel.[50] The Arellano Flix brothers
formed the Tijuana Cartel, which controlled the Tijuana corridor and parts of Baja California; in Chihuahua
state, a group controlled by Carrillo Fuentes family formed the Jurez Cartel; and the remaining faction left to
Sinaloa and the Pacific Coast and formed the Sinaloa Cartel under the traffickers Ismael "El Mayo" Zambada,
Palma, and Guzmn.[51][38] Guzmn was specifically in charge of the drug corridors of Tecate, Baja
California,[51] and Mexicali and San Luis Ro Colorado, two border crossings that connect the states of Sonora
and Baja California with the U.S. states of Arizona and California.[52]
When Flix Gallardo was arrested, Guzmn reportedly lived in Guadalajara, Jalisco for some time. One of his
other centers of operation, however, was in the border city of Agua Prieta, Sonora, where he coordinated drug
trafficking activities more closely. The drug lord had dozens of properties in various parts of the country. People
he trusted purchased the properties for him and registered them under false names. Most of them were located
in residential neighborhoods and served as stash houses for drugs, weapons, and cash. Guzmn also owned
several ranches across Mexico, but most of them were located in the states of Sinaloa, Durango, Chihuahua, and
Sonora, where locals working for the drug lord grew opium and marijuana.[53] The first time Guzmn was
detected by U.S. authorities for his involvement in organized crime was in 1987, when several protected

witnesses testified in a U.S. court that the drug lord was in fact heading the Sinaloa Cartel. An indictment issued
in the state of Arizona alleged that Guzmn had coordinated the shipment of 4,600 pounds (roughly 2 085 kg)
of cannabis and 10,504 pounds (roughly 4 765 kg) of cocaine from 19 October 1987 to 18 May 1990, and had
received roughly US$1.5 million in drug proceeds that were shipped back to his home state. Another indictment
alleged that Guzmn earned US$100,000 for trafficking 35 tons (roughly 31.8 t) of cocaine and an unspecified
amount of marijuana in a period of three years.[54] In the border areas between Tecate and San Luis Ro
Colorado, Guzmn ordered his men to traffic most of the drugs overland, but also through a few aircraft. By
using the so-called piecemeal strategy, in which traffickers kept drug quantities relatively low, risks were
reduced. The drug lord also pioneered the use of sophisticated underground tunnels to move drugs across the
border and into the United States.[55] Aside from pioneering the tunnels, Palma and Guzmn packed cocaine
into chili pepper cans under the brand Comadre before they were shipped to the U.S. by train. In return, the drug
lords were paid through large suitcases filled with millions of dollars in cash. These suitcases were flown from
the U.S. to Mexico City, where corrupt customs agents at the airport made sure the deliveries were not
inspected. Large sums of that money were reportedly used as bribes for members of the Attorney General's
Office.[17]

Conflict with the Tijuana Cartel: 19891993


When Flix Gallardo was arrested, the Tijuana corridor was handed over
to the Arellano Flix brothers, Jess Labra viles (alias "El Chuy"), and
Javier Caro Payn (alias "El Doctor"), cousin of the former Guadalajara
Cartel leader Rafael Caro Quintero. In fears of a coup, however, Caro
Payn fled to Canada and was later arrested. Guzmn and the rest of the
Sinaloa Cartel leaders consequently grew angry at the Arellano Flix
clan about this.[56] In 1989, Guzmn sent Armando Lpez (alias "El
Rayo"), one of his most trusted men, to speak with the Arellano Flix
clan in Tijuana. Before he had a chance to speak face-to-face with them,
Lpez was killed by Ramn Arellano Flix. The corpse was disposed in
the outskirts of the city and the Tijuana Cartel ordered a hit on the
remaining members of the Lpez family to prevent future

Joaqun Guzmn Loera photographed


by Fabrizio Len Diez (1992)

reprisals.[57][58] That same year, the Arellano Flix brothers sent the Venezuelan drug trafficker Enrique Rafael
Clavel Moreno to infiltrate Palma's family and seduce his wife Guadalupe Leija Serrano.[59] After convincing
her to withdraw US$7 million from one of Palma's bank accounts in San Diego, California, Clavel beheaded her
and sent her head to Palma in a box.[60] It was known as the first beheading linked to the drug trade in
Mexico.[61] Two weeks later, Clavel killed Palma's children, Hctor (aged 5) and Nataly (aged 4), by throwing
them off a bridge in Venezuela. Palma retaliated by sending his men to kill Clavel while he was in prison.[62] In
1991, Ramn killed another Sinaloa Cartel associate, Rigoberto Campos Salcido (alias "El Rigo"), prompting
bigger conflicts with Guzmn.[57][58] In early 1992, a Tijuana Cartel-affiliated and San Diego-based gang
known as Calle Treinta kidnapped six of Guzmns men in Tijuana, tortured them to attain information, and
then shot them execution-style in the backs of their heads. Their bodies were dumped on the outskirts of the
city. Shortly after the attack, a car bomb exploded outside one of Guzmns properties in Culiacn. No injuries
were reported, but the drug lord became fully aware of the intended message.[63]

Guzmn and Palma struck back against the Arellano Flix brothers (Tijuana Cartel) with nine killings on 3
September 1992 in Iguala;[17][64] among the dead were lawyers and family members of Flix Gallardo, who
was also believed to have orchestrated the attack against Palma's family.[65] Mexico's Attorney General formed
a special unit to look into the killings, but the investigation was called off after the unit found that Guzmn had
paid off some of the top police officials in Mexico with $10 million, according to police reports and confessions
of former police officers.[17] In November 1992, gunmen of Arellano Flix attempted to kill Guzmn as he was
traveling in a vehicle through the streets of Guadalajara. Ramn and at least four of his henchmen shot at the
moving vehicle with AK-47 assault rifles, but the drug lord managed to escape unharmed. The attack forced
Guzmn to leave Guadalajara and live under a false name under fears of future attacks.[17][29] He and Palma,
however, responded to the assassination attempt in a similar fashion; several days later, on 8 November 1992, a
large commando of the Sinaloa Cartel posing as policemen stormed the Christine discothque in Puerto Vallarta,
spotted Ramn and Francisco Javier Arellano Flix, and opened fire at them. The shooting lasted for at least
eight minutes, and more than 1,000 rounds were fired by both Guzmn's and Arellano Flix's gunmen.[66] Six
people were killed in the shootout, but the Arellano Flix brothers were in the restroom when the raid started
and reportedly escaped through an air-conditioning duct before leaving the scene in one of their vehicles.[67][68]
On 9 and 10 December 1992, four alleged associates of Flix Gallardo were killed. The antagonism between
Guzmn's Sinaloa Cartel and the Arellano Flix clan left several more dead and was accompanied by violent
acts in the states of Baja California, Sonora, Sinaloa, Durango, Jalisco, Guerrero, Michoacn and Oaxaca.[69]
The war between both groups continued for six more months, yet none of their respective leaders was killed. In
mid-1993, the Arellano Flix clan sent their top gunmen on a final mission to kill Guzmn in Guadalajara,
where he moved around frequently to avoid any possible attacks. Having no success, the Tijuana Cartel hitmen
decided to return to Baja California on 24 May 1993. As Francisco Javier was at the Guadalajara International
Airport booking his flight to Tijuana, informant tips notified him that Guzmn was at the airport parking lot
awaiting a flight to Puerto Vallarta.[70] Having spotted the white Mercury Grand Marquis car where Guzmn
was thought to be hiding, about 20 gunmen of the Tijuana Cartel descended from three Jeep-like vehicles and
opened fire at around 4:10 p.m. However, the drug lord was inside a green Buick sedan a short distance from the
target. Inside the Mercury Grand Marquis was the Cardinal and Archbishop of Guadalajara Juan Jess Posadas
Ocampo, who died at the scene from fourteen gunshot wounds.[71] Six other people, including the cardinal's
chauffeur, were caught in the crossfire and killed.[72] Amidst the shootout and confusion, Guzmn escaped in a
taxi and headed to one of his safe houses in Bugambilias, a neighborhood 20 minutes away from the
airport.[70][73] News of the death of the cardinal quickly circulated across Mexico and the rest of the world.[74]

Exodus and arrest: 1993


The night the cardinal was killed, President Carlos Salinas de Gortari flew to Guadalajara and condemned the
attack, stating it was "a criminal act" that targeted innocent civilians, but he did not give any indications of the
involvement of organized crime.[71] The death of such a high-profile religious figure like Posadas Ocampo
outraged the Mexican public, the Catholic Church, and many politicians. The government responded by
carrying out a massive manhunt to arrest the people involved in the shootout, and offered about US$5 million
bounties for each of them.[75] Pictures of Guzmn's face, previously unknown to the public, started to appear in
newspapers and television programs across Mexico. Fearing his capture, Guzmn fled Guadalajara and hid in
Tonal, Jalisco, where he reportedly owned a ranch. The drug lord then fled to Mexico City and stayed at a hotel

for about ten days.[73] He met with one of his associates in an unknown location and handed him US$200
million to provide for his family in case of his absence. He gave that same amount to another of his employees
to make sure the Sinaloa Cartel ran its day-to-day activities smoothly in case he was gone for some time.[75]
After obtaining a passport with the fake name of Jorge Ramos Prez, Guzmn was transported to the southern
state of Chiapas by one of his trusted associates before leaving the country and settling in Guatemala on 4 June
1993.[75] His plan was to move across Guatemala with his girlfriend Mara del Roco del Villar Becerra and
several of his bodyguards and settle in El Salvador.[73] During his travel, Mexican and Guatemalan authorities
had the drug lord on their radar. Guzmn had bribed a Guatemalan military official with US$1.2 million in order
to hide south of the Mexican border. The unnamed official, however, was working as an infiltrated informant
and was passing down information about Guzmn's whereabouts to law enforcement.[76][77]
On 9 June 1993, Guzmn was arrested by the Guatemalan Army at a hotel near Tapachula, close to the
GuatemalaMexico border.[78][79] He was extradited back to Mexico two days later aboard a military
airplane.[73][80] Guzmn was flown from Guatemala to the airport in Toluca,[81] where he was immediately
taken to the Federal Social Readaptation Center No. 1 (often referred to simply as "La Palma" or "Altiplano"), a
maximum-security prison in Almoloya de Jurez, State of Mexico.[82]

Drug empire
Guzmn's Sinaloa Cartel, at the time of his arrest, was the wealthiest and most powerful of Mexico's drug
cartels. It smuggles multi-ton cocaine shipments from Colombia through Mexico to the United States by air, sea
and road, and has distribution cells throughout the U.S.[2][16] The organization has also been involved in the
production, smuggling and distribution of Mexican methamphetamine, marijuana, and heroin, as well as heroin
from Southeast Asia.[83]
When Palma was arrested by the Mexican Army on 23 June 1995, Guzmn took leadership of the cartel.[84][85]
Palma was later extradited to the United States, where he is in prison on charges of drug trafficking and
conspiracy.[17]
After Guzmn's prison escape nearly a decade after his initial arrest, he and close associate Ismael Zambada
Garca became Mexico's undisputed top drug kingpins after the 2003 arrest of their rival Osiel Crdenas of the
Gulf Cartel. Until Guzmn's arrest in 2014, he was considered the "most powerful drug trafficker in the world"
by the United States Department of the Treasury.[3][4] Guzmn also had another close associate, his trusted
friend Ignacio "Nacho" Coronel Villarreal.[86][87]
His drug empire made him a billionaire, and he was ranked as the 10th richest man in Mexico and 1,140th in the
world in 2011, with a net worth of roughly US$1 billion.[7] To assist his drug trafficking, the Sinaloa Cartel also
built a shipping and transport empire.[16] Guzmn has been referred to as the "biggest druglord of all time",[9]
and the U.S. DEA considered him "the godfather of the drug world" and strongly estimates he surpassed the

influence and reach of Pablo Escobar.[10] In 2013, the Chicago Crime Commission named Guzmn "Public
Enemy Number One" for the influence of his criminal network in Chicago (there is no evidence that Guzmn
has ever been in that city, however.)[11] The last person to receive such notoriety was Al Capone in 1930.[12]
At the time of his 2014 arrest, Guzmn imported more drugs into the United States than anyone else.[16] He
took advantage of the power vacuum created by crackdowns on cartels in Colombia, gaining business and
market share there as Colombia's own cartels were decimated.[88] He took similar advantage of the situation
when his rival cartels were brought down by an intense crackdown from the Mexican government, but the
Sinaloa gang emerged largely unscathed.[89]

Methamphetamine
After the fall of the Amezcua brothers founders of the Colima Cartel in 1999 on methamphetamine
trafficking charges, there was a demand for leadership throughout Mexico to coordinate methamphetamine
shipments north. Guzmn saw an opportunity and seized it.[90] Easily arranging precursor shipments, Guzmn
and Ismael Zambada Garca ("El Mayo") made use of their previous contacts on Mexico's Pacific coast.
Importantly, for the first time, the Colombians would not have to be paid they simply joined
methamphetamine with cocaine shipments. This fact meant no additional money was needed for planes, pilots,
boats and bribes; they used the existing infrastructure to pipeline the new product.[90]
Until this point, the Sinaloa Cartel had been a joint venture between Guzmn and Ismael Zambada Garca; the
methamphetamine business would be Guzmn's alone. He cultivated his own ties to China, Thailand and India
to import the necessary precursor chemicals. Throughout the mountains of the states of Sinaloa, Durango,
Jalisco, Michoacn and Nayarit, Guzmn constructed large methamphetamine laboratories and rapidly
expanded his organization.[90]
His habit of moving from place to place allowed him to nurture contacts throughout the country. He was now
operating in 17 of 31 Mexican states. With his business expanding, he placed his trusted friend Ignacio Coronel
Villarreal in charge of methamphetamine production; this way Guzmn could continue being the boss of bosses.
Coronel Villarreal proved so reliable in the Guzmn business that he became known as the "Crystal King".[91]

First arrest and escape: 19932001


Guzmn was captured in Guatemala on 9 June 1993,[17] extradited to Mexico and sentenced to 20 years, nine
months in prison on charges of drug trafficking, criminal association and bribery. He was jailed in at Federal
Social Readaptation Center No. 1, a maximum-security prison. On 22 November 1995, he was transferred to the
maximum security prison Federal Center for Social Rehabilitation No. 2 (also known as "Puente Grande") in
Jalisco, after being convicted of three crimes: possession of firearms, drug trafficking and the murder of
Cardinal Juan Jess Posadas Ocampo (the charge would later be dismissed by another judge). He had been tried
and sentenced inside the federal prison on the outskirts of Almoloya de Jurez, Mexico State.[90]
While he was in prison, Guzmn's drug empire and cartel continued to operate unabated, run by his brother,
Arturo Guzmn Loera, known as El Pollo, with Guzmn himself still considered a major international drug
trafficker by Mexico and the U.S. even while he was behind bars.[83] Associates brought him suitcases of cash

to bribe prison workers and allow the drug lord to maintain his opulent lifestyle even in prison, with prison
guards acting like his servants.[92][93] He met his longtime mistress and later Sinaloa associate, former police
officer Zulema Hernndez, while in prison, where she was serving time for armed robbery.[94] Hernndez later
controlled Sinaloa's expansion into Mexico City, but her body was found in a trunk, carved with multiple Zs,
signifying Los Zetas, Sinaloa's archrivals.[94]
While still in prison in Mexico, Guzmn was indicted in San Diego on U.S. charges of money laundering and
importing tons of cocaine into California, along with his Sinaloa attorney Humberto Loya-Castro, or Licenciado
Perez ("Lawyer Perez"), who was charged with bribing Mexican officials on Sinaloa's behalf and making sure
that any cartel members arrested were released from custody.[93][95] After a ruling by the Supreme Court of
Mexico made extradition between Mexico and the United States easier, Guzmn bribed guards to aid his escape.
On 19 January 2001, Francisco "El Chito" Camberos Rivera, a prison guard, opened Guzmn's electronically
operated cell door, and Guzmn got in a laundry cart that maintenance worker Javier Camberos rolled through
several doors and eventually out the front door. He was then transported in the trunk of a car driven by
Camberos out of the town. At a gas station, Camberos went inside, but when he came back, Guzmn was gone
on foot into the night. According to officials, 78 people have been implicated in his escape plan.[90] Camberos is
in prison for his assistance in the escape.[17]
The police say Guzmn carefully masterminded his escape plan, wielding influence over almost everyone in the
prison, including the facility's director, who is now in prison for aiding in the escape.[17] One prison guard who
came forward to report the situation at the prison was found dead years later, presumed to be killed by
Guzmn.[17] Guzmn allegedly had the prison guards on his payroll, smuggled contraband into the prison and
received preferential treatment from the staff. In addition to the prison-employee accomplices, police in Jalisco
were paid off to ensure he had at least 24 hours to get out of the state and stay ahead of the military manhunt.
The story told to the guards, being bribed not to search the laundry cart, was that Guzmn was smuggling gold,
ostensibly extracted from rock at the inmate workshop, out of the prison. The escape allegedly cost Guzmn
$2.5 million.[90][96]

Mexican Cartel Wars


Since his escape from prison, Guzmn had been wanting to take over the Ciudad Jurez crossing points, which
were under the control of the Carrillo Fuentes family of the Jurez Cartel.[90] Despite a high degree of mistrust
between the two organizations, the Sinaloa and Jurez cartels had an alliance at the time. Guzmn convened a
meeting in Monterrey with Ismael Zambada Garca ("El Mayo"), Juan Jos Esparragoza Moreno ("El Azul")
and Arturo Beltrn Leyva and they discussed killing Rodolfo Carrillo Fuentes, who was in charge of the Jurez
Cartel. On 11 September 2004, Rodolfo, his wife and two young children were visiting a Culiacn shopping
mall. While leaving the mall, escorted by police commander Pedro Prez Lpez, the family was ambushed by
members of Los Negros, assassins for the Sinaloa Cartel. Rodolfo and his wife were killed; the policeman
survived.[90]
This now meant the plaza would no longer be controlled only by the Carrillo Fuentes family. Instead, the city
found itself as the front line in the Mexican Drug War and would see homicides skyrocket as rival cartels fought
for control. With this act, Guzmn was the first to break the nonaggression "pact" the major cartels had agreed

to, setting in motion the fighting between cartels for drug routes that has claimed more than 50,000 lives since
December 2006.[97][98][99]
When Mexican President Felipe Caldern took office in December 2006, he announced a crackdown on cartels
by the Mexican military to stem the increasing violence.[100] After four years, the additional efforts had not
slowed the flow of drugs or the killings tied to the drug war.[100] Of the 53,000 arrests made as of 2010, only
1,000 involved associates of the Sinaloa Cartel, which led to suspicions that Caldern was intentionally
allowing Sinaloa to win the drug war, a charge Caldern denied in advertisements in Mexican newspapers,
pointing to his administration's killing of top Sinaloa deputy "Nacho" Coronel as evidence.[100] Sinaloa's rival
cartels saw their leaders killed and syndicates dismantled by the crackdown, but the Sinaloa gang was relatively
unaffected and took over the rival gangs' territories, including the coveted Ciudad Jurez-El Paso corridor, in the
wake of the power shifts.[88]

Break with the Beltrn Leyva Cartel


A Newsweek investigation alleges that one of Guzmn's techniques for maintaining
his dominance among cartels included giving information to the DEA and U.S.
Immigration and Customs Enforcement that led to the arrests of his enemies in the
Jurez Cartel, in addition to information that led to the arrests of some of the top
Sinaloa leaders.[93] The arrests are said to have been part of a deal Guzmn struck
with Caldern and the DEA, in which he intentionally gave up some of his
purported Sinaloa colleagues to U.S. agents in exchange for immunity from
prosecution, while perpetuating the idea that the Caldern government was heavily
pursuing his organization during the cartel crackdown.[101]
This became a key factor influencing the break between the Sinaloa Cartel and the
Beltrn Leyva brothers, five brothers who served as Guzmn's top lieutenants,

Guzmn's lieutenant
Alfredo Beltrn Leyva arrested

primarily working for the cartel in the northern region of Sinaloa.[102][103] Sinaloa lawyer Loya-Castro, who
like Guzmn had been wanted on federal charges in the United States since 1993, voluntarily approached the
DEA offering them information in 1998, eventually signing paperwork as a formal informant in 2005, and his
U.S. indictment was thrown out in 2008.[93] Loya-Castro's leaks to the DEA led to the dismantling of the
Tijuana Cartel, as well as the Mexican Army's arrest of Guzmn's lieutenant and the top commander of the
Beltrn Leyva organization, Alfredo Beltrn Leyva (also known as El Mochomo, or "Desert Ant"), in Culiacn
in January 2008, with Guzmn believed to have given up El Mochomo for various reasons.[93][101][103] Guzmn
had been voicing concerns with Alfredo Beltrn's lifestyle and high-profile actions for some time before his
arrest. After El Mochomo's arrest, authorities said he was in charge of two hit squads, money laundering,
transporting drugs and bribing officials for Sinaloa.[102][104]
That high-profile arrest was followed by the arrest of 11 Beltrn Leyva hit squad members in Mexico City, with
police noting that the arrests were the first evidence that Sinaloa had expanded into the capital city.[102][105]
United States Ambassador to Mexico Tony Garza called the arrests a "significant victory" in the drug war.[102]
With Alfredo in custody, his brother Arturo Beltrn Leyva took over as the brothers' top commander, but he was
killed in a shootout with Mexican marines the next year.[103]

Whether Guzmn was responsible for Alfredo Beltrn's arrest is not known. However, the Beltrn Leyvas and
their allies suspected he was behind it,[103] and after Alfredo Beltrn's arrest, a formal "war" was declared. An
attempt on the life of cartel head Zambada's son Vicente Zambada Niebla (El Vincentillo) was made just hours
after the declaration. Dozens of killings followed in retaliation for that attempt.[90] The Beltrn Leyva brothers
ordered the assassination of Guzmn's son, dgar Guzmn Lpez, on 8 May 2008, in Culiacn, which brought
massive retaliation from Guzmn. They were also fighting over the allegiance of the Flores brothers, Margarito
and Pedro, leaders of a major, highly lucrative cell in Chicago that distributed over two tons of cocaine every
month.[106] The Mexican military claims that Guzmn and the Beltrn Leyva brothers were at odds over
Guzmn's relationship with the Valencia brothers in Michoacn.[90]
Following the killing of Guzmn's son dgar, violence increased. From 8 May through the end of the month,
over 116 people were murdered in Culiacn, 26 of them police officers. In June 2008, over 128 were killed; in
July, 143 were slain.[90] Gen. No Sandoval ordered another 2,000 troops to the area, but it failed to stop the
war. The wave of violence spread to other cities like Guamchil, Guasave and Mazatln.
However, the Beltrn Leyva brothers were doing some double-dealing of their own. Arturo and Alfredo had met
with top members of Los Zetas in Cuernavaca, where they agreed to form an alliance to fill the power vacuum.
They would not necessarily go after the main strongholds, such as the Sinaloa and Gulf Cartel; instead, they
would seek control of southern states like Guerrero (where the Beltrn Leyvas already had a big stake), Oaxaca,
Yucatn and Quintana Roo. They worked their way into the center of the country, where no single group had
control.[90] The Beltrn Leyva organization allied with the Gulf Cartel and its hit squad Los Zetas against
Sinaloa.[105]
The split was officially recognized by the U.S. government on 30 May 2008. On that day, it recognized the
Beltrn Leyva brothers as leaders of their own cartel. President George W. Bush designated Marcos Arturo
Beltrn Leyva and the Beltrn Leyva Organization as subject to sanction under the Foreign Narcotics Kingpin
Designation Act ("Kingpin Act").[90][107]

Whereabouts and manhunt: 20012014


Guzmn was notable among drug lords for his longevity and evasion of authorities,
assisted by alleged bribes to federal, state and local Mexican officials.[16][17][108]
Despite the progress made in arresting others in the aftermath of Guzmn's escape,
including a handful of his top logistics and security men, the huge military and
federal police manhunt failed to capture Guzmn himself for years. In the years
between his escape and capture, he was Mexico's most-wanted man.[109] His
elusiveness from law enforcement made him a near-legendary figure in Mexico's
narcotics folklore; stories abounded that Guzmn sometimes strolled into restaurants,
confiscated peoples' cellphones, ate his meal, and then left after paying everyone's
tabs.[110] Rumors circulated of Guzmn being seen in different parts of Mexico and
abroad.[111]

For more than thirteen years, Mexican security forces coordinated many
operatives to rearrest him, but their efforts were largely in vain because Guzmn
appeared to be steps ahead from his captors.[112]

Photograph taken of El
Chapo.

Although his whereabouts were unknown, the authorities thought that he was likely hiding in the "Golden
Triangle" (Spanish: Tringulo Dorado), an area that encompasses parts of Sinaloa, Durango, and Chihuahua in
the Sierra Madre region. The region is a major producer of marijuana and opium poppy in Mexico,[113] and its
remoteness from the urban areas makes it an attractive territory for the production of synthetic drugs in
clandestine laboratories and for its mountains that serve as possible hideouts.[114][115][116] Guzmn reportedly
commanded a sophisticated security circle of at least 300 informants and gunmen resembling the manpower
equivalent to those of a head of state. His inner circle would help him move around through several isolated
ranches in the mountainous area and avoid capture.[111][117] He usually escaped from law enforcement using
bulletproof cars, aircraft, and all-terrain vehicles, and was known to employ sophisticated communications
gadgetry and counterespionage practices.[117][118] Since many of these locations in the Golden Triangle can
only be reached over single-track dirt roads, local residents easily detected the arrival of law enforcement or any
outsiders. Their distrust towards non-residents and their aversion towards the government, alongside a
combination of bribery and intimidation, helped keep the locals loyal to Guzmn and the Sinaloa Cartel in the
area. According to law enforcement intelligence, attempting to have launched an attack to capture Guzmn by
air would have had similar results; his security circle would have warned him of the presence of an aircraft 10
minutes away from Guzmns location, giving him ample time to escape the scene and avoid arrest. In addition,
his gunmen reportedly carried surface-to-air missiles that may bring down aircraft in the area.[117]

Rearrest: 2014
Although Guzmn had long hidden successfully in remote areas of the Sierra Madre mountains, the arrested
members of his security team told the military he had begun venturing out to Culiacn and the beach town of
Mazatln.[89] A week before his capture, Guzmn and Zambada were reported to have attended a family
reunion in Sinaloa.[119] The Mexican military followed the bodyguards' tips to Guzmns former wife's house,
but they had trouble ramming the steel-reinforced front door, which allowed Guzmn to escape through a
system of secret tunnels that connected six houses, eventually moving south to Mazatln.[89] He had planned to
stay a few days in Mazatln to see his twin baby daughters before retreating to the mountains.[120]
On 22 February 2014, at around 6:40 a.m.,[121] Mexican authorities arrested Guzmn at a hotel in a beachfront
area in Mazatln, following an operation by the Mexican Navy, with joint intelligence from the DEA and the
U.S. Marshals Service.[108][122] A few days before his capture, Mexican authorities had been raiding several
properties owned by members of the Sinaloa Cartel who were close to Guzmn throughout the state of
Sinaloa.[123][124] The operation that led to his capture started at 3:45 a.m., when ten pickup trucks of the
Mexican Navy carrying over 65 soldiers made their way to the resort area. Guzmn was hiding at the Miramar
condominiums, located at #608 on Avenida de Mar.[125][126] Mexican and U.S. federal agents had leads that the
drug lord had been at that location for at least two days, and that he was staying on the condominium's fourth
floor, in Room 401. When the Mexican authorities arrived at the location, they quickly subdued Carlos Manuel
Hoo Ramrez, one of Guzmn's presumed bodyguards, before quietly making their way to the fourth floor by
the elevators and stairs. Once they were at Guzmn's front door, they broke into the apartment and stormed the
two rooms it had. In one of the rooms was Guzmn, lying in bed with his wife (former beauty queen Emma
Coronel Aispuro).[126][127] Their two daughters were reported to have been at the condominium during the
arrest.[128] Guzmn tried to resist arrest physically,[126] but he did not attempt to grab an assault rifle he had

close to him.[129][130] Amid the quarrel with the marines, the drug lord was hit four times. By 6:40 a.m., he was
arrested, taken to the ground floor, and walked to the condominium's parking lot, where the first photos of his
capture were taken.[126][131] His identity was confirmed through a fingerprint examination immediately
following his capture.[132] He was then flown to Mexico City, the country's capital, for formal
identification.[133] According to the Mexican government, no shots were fired during the operation.[134]
Few details of the drug lord's arrest were available early in the morning while the mugshot of Guzmn,
handcuffed and with a few cuts on his face, circulated among law enforcement.[135][136] Guzmn was presented
in front of cameras during a press conference at the Mexico City International Airport that afternoon.[137]
Following the press conference, he was transferred to the Federal Social Readaptation Center No. 1, a
maximum-security prison in Almoloya de Jurez, State of Mexico, at around 2:55 p.m on a Federal Police
Black Hawk helicopter. The helicopter was escorted by two Navy helicopters and one from the Mexican Air
Force.[138][139] Surveillance inside the penitentiary and in the surrounding areas was increased by a large
contingent of law enforcement.[140]

Reactions
Mexican President Enrique Pea Nieto confirmed the arrest through Twitter and congratulated the Secretariat of
National Defense (SEDENA), Secretariat of the Navy (SEMAR), Office of the General Prosecutor (PGR), the
Federal Police, and the Centro de Investigacin y Seguridad Nacional (CISEN) for Guzmn's capture.[16][141]
Within Mexico, several politicians recognized the efforts of the Mexican government in capturing Guzmn,[142]
including the former Presidents Vicente Fox (20002006) and Felipe Caldern (20062012).[143][144] In the
United States, Attorney General Eric Holder said Guzmn had caused "death and destruction of millions of lives
across the globe" and called the arrest "a landmark achievement, and a victory for the citizens of both Mexico
and the United States".[108] Colombia's President Juan Manuel Santos telephoned Pea Nieto and congratulated
him for the arrest of Guzmn, highlighting its importance in the international efforts against drug
trafficking.[145] Colombia's Defense Minister, Juan Carlos Pinzn, congratulated Mexico on Guzmn's arrest
and stated that his capture "contributes to eradicate this crime (drug trafficking) in the region".[146] The
Guatemalan President Otto Prez Molina congratulated the Mexican government for the arrest. He said he
would communicate personally with Pea Nieto to congratulate him.[147] Costa Rica's President Laura
Chinchilla congratulated the Mexican government through Twitter for the capture too.[148] The French
government extended its congratulations on February 24 and supported the Mexican security forces in their
combat against organized crime.[149] News of Guzmn's capture made it to the headlines of many news outlets
across the U.S., Latin America, and Europe.[150][151] On Twitter, Mexico and Guzmn's capture were trending
topics throughout most of 22 February 2014.[152]
Bob Nardoza, a spokesman for the U.S. attorney's office for the District Court for the Eastern District of New
York, announced that U.S. authorities plan to seek the extradition of Guzmn for several cases pending against
him in New York and other United States jurisdictions.[153]

Charges and imprisonment

Guzmn was imprisoned in area #20, Hallway #1, on 22 February 2014.[154] The area where he lived was
highly restricted; the cells do not have any windows, inmates are not allowed to interact with one another, and
they are not permitted to contact their family members.[155] His cell was close to those of Jos Jorge Balderas
(alias "El JJ"), former lieutenant of the Beltrn Leyva Cartel, and Jaime Gonzlez Durn (alias "El Hummer"),
a former leader of Los Zetas drug cartel. In one of the other units is Miguel ngel Guzmn Loera, one of his
brothers.[156][157] Guzmn was alone in his cell, and had one bed, one shower, and a single toilet. His lawyer
was scar Quirarte, who was accredited by the government. Guzmn was allowed to receive visits from his
family members every nine days from 9:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. (if approved by a judge), and was granted by law
to receive MXN$638 (about US$48) every month to buy products for personal hygiene.[156][158] He lived under
23 hours of solitary confinement with an hour of outdoor exposure. He was only allowed to speak with people
during his judicial hearings (the prison guards that secured his cell 24 hours a day, 7 days a week were not
allowed to speak with him). Unlike the other inmates, Guzmn was prohibited from practicing sport or cultural
activities. These conditions were court-approved and could only be changed if a federal judge decided to amend
them.[158]
On 24 February, the Mexican government formally charged Guzmn for drug trafficking, a process that may
slow down his possible extradition to the U.S. The decision to initially file only one charge against him showed
that the Mexican government was working on gathering more formal charges against Guzmn, and possibly
including the charges he faced before his escape from prison in 2001. The kingpin also faces charges in at least
seven U.S. jurisdictions, and U.S. officials have called for his extradition (though no formal extradition request
by the U.S. government exists at this time).[159][160] Guzmn was initially granted a writ of amparo (effectively
equivalent to an injunction) preventing immediate extradition to the United States.[161] On 25 February, a
Mexican federal judge set the trial in motion for drug-related and organized crime charges.[162][163] According
to Mexican law, if Guzmn is found guilty of such charges, he may face 20 and up to 40 years in prison.[164] On
4 March 2014, a Mexican federal court issued a formal charge against Guzmn for his involvement in organized
crime.[165] A day later, another Mexican federal court charged him with organized crime and drug trafficking
violations.[166]
On 5 March 2014, a Mexico City federal court rejected Guzmn's injunction against extradition to the U.S. on
the grounds that the U.S. officials had not formally requested his extradition from Mexico. The court said that if
the U.S. files a request in the future, Guzmn can petition for another injunction.[167] The court had until 9 April
2014 to issue a formal declaration of the injunction's rejection, and Guzmn's lawyers can appeal the court's
decision in the meantime.[168] The same day that the injunction was rejected, another federal court issued
formal charges against Guzmn, totaling up to five different Mexican federal courts where he is wanted for drug
trafficking and organized crime charges.[169] The court explained that although Guzmn faces charges in several
different courts, he cannot be sentenced for the same crime twice because that would violate Article 23 of the
Constitution of Mexico.[170]
On 17 April 2014, the Attorney General of Mexico, Jess Murillo Karam, said that Mexico had no intention of
extraditing Guzmn to the U.S. even if a formal request were to be presented. He said he wished to see Guzmn
face charges in Mexico, and expressed his disagreement with how the U.S. cuts deals with extradited Mexican
criminals by reducing their sentences (as in Vicente Zambada Niebla's case) in exchange for
information.[171][172]

On 16 July 2014, Guzmn reportedly helped organize a five-day hunger strike in the prison in cooperation with
inmate and former drug lord Edgar Valdez Villarreal (alias "La Barbie"). Over 1,000 prisoners reportedly
participated in the protest and complained of the prison's poor hygiene, food, and medical treatment. The
Mexican government confirmed that the strike took place and that the prisoners' demands were satisfied, but
denied that Guzmn or Valdez Villarreal were involved in it given their status as prisoners in solitary
confinement.[173][174]
On 25 September 2014, Guzmn and his former business partner Zambada were indicted by the United States
District Court for the Eastern District of New York in Brooklyn.[175] According to the court documents, both of
them conspired to kill Mexican law enforcement officers, government officials, and members of the Mexican
Armed Forces. Among the people killed under the alleged orders of Guzmn were Roberto Velasco Bravo
(2008), the chief of Mexico's organized crime investigatory division; Rafael Ramrez Jaime (2008), the chief of
the arrest division of the Attorney General's Office; Rodolfo Carrillo Fuentes (2004), former leader of the Jurez
Cartel, among other criminals from the Tijuana, Los Zetas, Beltrn Leyva, and Jurez crime syndicates. Neither
Guzmn nor Zambada was charged for the killings of the individuals mentioned in the indictment.[176] The
court alleged that Guzmn used professional assassins to carry out "... hundreds of acts of violence, including
murders, assaults, kidnappings, assassinations and acts of torture".[177] In addition, it alleged that he oversaw a
drug-trafficking empire that transported multi-ton shipments of narcotics from South America, through Central
America and Mexico, and then to the U.S., and that his network was facilitated by corrupt law enforcement and
public officials.[176] It also alleged that Guzmn laundered more than US$14 billion in drug proceeds along with
several other high-ranking drug lords.[178]
On 11 November 2014, a federal court in Sinaloa granted Guzmn an injunction for weaponry charges, which
accused him of violating Mexico's Federal Law of Firearms and Explosives.[179] The weaponry charges were
dropped after the judge determined that the arrest was not carried out the way the Mexican Navy reported it.
According to law enforcement, the Navy apprehended Guzmn after they received an anonymous tip that
someone was armed in the hotel where he was staying. However, no evidence of the anonymous tip was
provided. The judge also determined that the investigations leading to his arrest were not presented in court. He
determined that law enforcement's version of the arrest had several irregularities because the Navy did not have
a raid warrant when they entered the premises and arrested Guzmn (when he was not the subject matter of the
anonymous tip in the first place).[180] The plaintiff plans to lay the firearms charges against him again once they
present a congruent, fact-based version of the arrest.[181]
On 20 January 2015, Guzmn requested another injunction through his lawyer Andrs Granados Flores to
prevent his extradition to the U.S.[182] His defense argued that if he were to be extradited and judged in a
foreign court, his constitutional rights would be violated as expressed in Articles 1, 14, 16, 17, 18 and 20 of the
Constitution of Mexico.[183] The decision of his defense was made after Attorney General Murillo Karam said
at a press conference that the U.S. was pushing to formally request his extradition.[184] The PGR and Mexico's
Secretariat of Foreign Affairs stated that Guzmn had a provisional arrest with extradition purposes from the
U.S. government since 17 February 2001, but that the formal proceedings to officiate the extradition were not
realized because investigators considered that the request was outdated and believed it would have been difficult
to gather potential witnesses.[185] Murillo Karam said that the Mexican government would process the request
when they deemed it appropriate.[186] He asked for a second injunction preventing his extradition on January
26. Mexico City federal judge Fabricio Villegas asked federal authorities to confirm in 24 hours if there was a

pending extradition request against Guzmn.[187] In a press conference the following day, Murillo Karam said
that he was expecting a request from Washington, but said that they would not extradite him until he faces
charges and completes his sentences in Mexico. If all the charges are added up, Guzmn may receive a sentence
between 300 to 400 years.[188][189]

Second escape: 2015


On 11 July 2015, Guzmn escaped from Federal Social Readaptation Center No. 1, a maximum-security
prison.[189] After receiving medication,[190] Guzmn was last seen by security cameras at 20:52 hours near the
shower area. The shower area was the only part of his cell that was not visible through the security camera.[191]
After the cameras did not see him for two hours, an alert was issued at 22:55 hours and personnel went looking
for him.[192] When they reached his cell, Guzmn was gone. It was discovered he had escaped through a tunnel
leading from the shower area to a house construction site 1.5 km (0.93 mi) away in a Santa Juanita
neighborhood.[193][194] The tunnel lay 10 m (32.8 ft) deep underground, and Guzmn used a ladder to climb to
the bottom. The tunnel was 1.7 m (5.7 ft) tall and 75 cm (29.5 in) in width. It was equipped with artificial light,
air ducts, and high-quality construction materials.[190] In addition, a motorcycle was found in the tunnel, which
authorities think was used to transport materials and possibly Guzmn himself.[195]
The escape of Guzmn triggered a wide-range manhunt.[196] According to Mexico's National Security
Commissioner Monte Alejandro Rubido Garca, the manhunt was instituted immediately in the surrounding
area by putting up several checkpoints and air searches by helicopter.[197] The entire prison was put on
lockdown and no one was allowed to enter or leave it.[198] The search was then extended to other federal
entities: Mexico City, the State of Mexico, Morelos, Puebla, Guerrero, Michoacn, Quertaro, Hidalgo and
Tlaxcala. However, most of the military officers involved in the search were sent to the State of Mexico.[199]
The Mexican government also issued an international warning to prevent Guzmn from escaping the country
through airports, border checkpoints, or ports. Interpol and other security organizations were alerted to the
possibility of him escaping into another country.[200] Flights at the Toluca International Airport were cancelled,
while soldiers occupied parts of Mexico City International Airport.[191] Out of the 120 employees that were
working at the prison that night, eighteen employees from the prison were initially detained for questioning;
those eighteen worked in the area of Guzmn's cell.[192] By the afternoon, a total of 31 people had been called
in for questioning. The director of the prison, Valentn Crdenas Lerma, was among those detained.[201]
When the news of the escape broke out, President Pea Nieto was heading to a state visit in France along with
several top officials from his cabinet and many others.[202] The Secretary of the Interior Miguel ngel Osorio
Chong, who was already in France waiting for them, returned to Mexico after learning of Guzmn's prison
break.[203][204] Pea Nieto is scheduled to return to Mexico on July 17.[205] In a press conference, Pea Nieto
said he was very shocked by Guzmn's escape, and promised that the government would carry out an intensive
investigation to see if officials had collaborated in the prison break. In addition, he claimed that Guzmn's
escape was an "affront" to the Mexican government, and that they would not spare any resources in trying to
recapture him.[206] Pea Nieto, however, was severely criticized for the incident, and media outlets pointed out

that this incident was among the administration's most embarrassing episodes. Critics stated that Guzmn's
escape highlighted the high levels of corruption within the government, and questioned the government's ability
to combat the country's organized crime groups.[207][208]

Manhunt and investigation


At 08:00 on July 13, Osorio Chong met with members of the cabinet that specialize in security and law
enforcement intelligence to discuss the escape of Guzmn. They scheduled a press conference at 19:00 that day.
The objective of the meeting and the conference was to analyze the actions the government employed to
recapture him. Among them were Rubido Garca, Arely Gmez Gonzlez, the Attorney General of Mexico and
Eugenio Imaz Gispert, head of the Center for Research and National Security.[209][210] At the press conference,
the government placed a $60 million MXN bounty (approximately US$3.8 million) for information that leads to
Guzmn's arrest.[211]

Family
Guzmn's family is heavily involved in drug trafficking, with several members killed by Sinaloa's archrival
cartels Los Zetas and the Beltrn Leyva Organization, including his brother and one of his sons.[92]
In 1977, Guzmn married Alejandrina Mara Salazar Hernndez in a small ceremony in the town of Jess
Mara, Sinaloa. They had at least three children: Csar, Ivn Archivaldo and Jess Alfredo. He set them up in a
ranch home in Jess Mara. In the mid-1980s, Guzmn remarried, this time to Griselda Lpez Prez, with whom
he had four more children: dgar, Joaqun, Ovidio and Griselda Guadalupe.[90] Guzmn's sons would follow
him into the drug business. Only one of his children, Irving Andre, is not involved. Lpez Prez was arrested in
2010 in Culiacn.[212]
In November 2007, Guzmn married 18-year-old beauty queen Emma Coronel Aispuro[213] the daughter of one
of his top deputies, Ins Coronel Barreras, in Canelas, Durango.[214][215][216] In August 2011, Coronel Aispuro,
a citizen of the United States, gave birth to twin girls in a Los Angeles (California) County Hospital.[217]
On 1 May 2013, Guzmn's father-in-law Ins Coronel Barreras was captured by Mexican authorities in Agua
Prieta, Sonora, with no gunfire exchanged. U.S. authorities believe that Coronel Barreras was a "key operative"
of the Sinaloa Cartel who grew and smuggled marijuana through the Arizona border area.[215]
On 15 February 2005, his son Ivn Archivaldo, known as "El Chapito", was arrested in Guadalajara on money
laundering charges.[218] He was sentenced to five years in a federal prison, but released in April 2008 after a
Mexican federal judge, Jess Guadalupe Luna, ruled that there was no proof his cash came from drugs other
than that he was a drug lord's son.[219] Luna and another judge were later suspended on suspicion of unspecified
irregularities in their decisions, including Luna's decision to release "El Chapito".[219]
Guzmn's son dgar Guzmn Lpez died after a 2008 ambush in a shopping center parking lot in Culiacn in
Sinaloa.[220] Afterwards, police found more than 500 AK-47 bullet casings (7.6239mm) at the scene.[220] His
brother Arturo, or "El Pollo", was killed in prison in 2004.[92]

Another of Guzmn's sons, Jess Alfredo Guzmn Salazar, known as "El Gordo" ("The Fat One"), then 23 years
old, was suspected of being a member of the cartel and was indicted on federal charges of drug trafficking in
2009 with Guzmn by the U.S. District Court of Northern Illinois, which oversees Chicago.[218][221] With
authorities describing Guzmn Salazar as a growing force within his father's organization and directly
responsible for Sinaloa's drug trade between the U.S. and Mexico and managing his billionaire father's growing
list of properties, Guzmn Salazar and his mother, Guzmn's former wife Mara Alejandrina Salazar Hernndez,
were both described as key operatives in the Sinaloa Cartel and added to the U.S.'s financial sanction list under
the Kingpin Act on 7 June 2012.[221][222][223]
The Treasury Department described Salazar as Guzmn's wife in its sanction against her and described Guzmn
as her husband.[223] The month before, the U.S. Treasury Department announced sanctions against Guzmn's
sons Ivn Guzmn Salazar and Ovidio Guzmn Lpez under the Kingpin Act, which prohibits people and
corporations in the U.S. from conducting businesses with them and freezes their U.S. assets.[224] Guzmn's
second wife, Griselda Lpez Prez, was also sanctioned by the U.S. under the Kingpin Act and also described
as Guzmn's wife.[225]
Jess Guzmn Salazar was reported to have been detained by Mexican Marines in an early morning raid in the
western state of Jalisco on 21 June 2012.[226] Months later, however, the Mexican Attorney General's Office
announced the Marines had arrested the wrong man and that the man captured was actually Flix Beltrn Len,
who said he was a used-car dealer, not the drug lord's son.[218] U.S. and Mexican authorities blamed each other
for providing the inaccurate information that led to the arrest.[218]
In 2012, Alejandrina Gisselle Guzmn Salazar, a 31-year-old pregnant physician and Mexican citizen from
Guadalajara, was said to have claimed she was Guzmn's daughter as she crossed the U.S. border into San
Diego.[227] She was arrested on fraud charges for entering the country with a false visa.[212] Unnamed officials
said the woman was the daughter of Mara Alejandrina Salazar Hernndez but did not appear to be a major
figure in the cartel. She had planned to meet the father of her child in Los Angeles and give birth in the United
States.[212]
On the night of 17 June 2012, Obied Cano Zepeda, a nephew of Guzmn, was gunned down by unknown
assailants at his home in the state capital of Culiacn while hosting a Father's Day celebration.[228] The gunmen,
who were reportedly carrying AK-47 rifles, also killed two other guests and left one seriously injured.[228]
Obied was a brother of Luis Alberto Cano Zepeda (alias "El Blanco"), a nephew of Guzmn who worked as a
pilot drug transporter for the Sinaloa cartel.[229] Nonetheless, he was arrested by the Mexican military in August
2006.[229] InSight Crime notes that the murder of Obied may have been a retaliation attack by Los Zetas for
Guzmn's incursions into their territory or a brutal campaign heralding Los Zetas' presence in Sinaloa.[230]

See also
List of Mexico's 37 most-wanted drug lords
The World's 10 Most Wanted

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External links
Joaqun Guzmn Loera's profile (http://www.forbes.com/profile/joaquin-guzman-loera/) at Forbes
Joaqun Guzmn Loera's profile (http://www.dea.gov/fugitives/elp/8EAD6E56-C8D6-42C6-879775D7ED3E6315.shtml) at the DEA
Joaqun Guzmn Loera's profile (http://www.interpol.int/en/layout/set/print/notice/search/wanted/1993-

25358) at the INTERPOL


Joaqun Guzmn Loera's profile (http://www.chicagocrimecommission.org/content.aspx?
page_id=22&club_id=783436&module_id=142291) at the Chicago Crime Commission
Joaqun Guzmn Loera's profile (http://www.state.gov/j/inl/narc/rewards/115366.htm) at the United States
Department of State
Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Joaqun_Guzmn_Loera&oldid=671724087"
Categories: 1950s births Living people 20th-century criminals 21st-century criminals
Mexican drug traffickers People of the Mexican Drug War Mexican mob bosses
Mexican money launderers People extradited to Mexico People extradited from Guatemala
People from Badiraguato Municipality Prisoners and detainees of Mexico Sinaloa Cartel traffickers
People sanctioned under the Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act Escapees from Mexican detention
Mexican escapees
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