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CRYPTOGRAPHY

BITS F463
Lecture 1

Learning Objectives
Cryptography is an indispensable tool for
protecting
information
in
computer
systems
Learning to reason about the security of
cryptographic constructions and to apply
this knowledge to real-world applications
forms the crux of this course

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Course Material
Textbooks:
T1: Cryptography and Network Security: Principles and Practice,
William Stallings, Fifth Edition, Pearson Education
Reference books:
R1: Cryptography and Network Security, Behrouz A. Forouzan,
McGraw-Hill, 2007
R2: Applied Cryptography, Bruce Schneier, Wiley Student Edition,
Second Edition, Singapore, 2010
R3: Handbook of Applied Cryptography: Alfred Menezes, Paul van
Oorschot, and ScoF Vanstone, CRC Press, NY
R4: Cryptography: Theory and Practice, Douglas Stinson, Chapman
and Hall/CRC, 3rd Edition, 2005.
R5: Cryptography and E-Commerce: A Wiley Tech Brief, Jon C. Graff,
John Wiley & Sons, 2000
Online Study Material:
http://online.stanford.edu/course/cryptography, https://www.coursera.org/course/crypto
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Course Administration and Evaluation


Evaluation
Component

Weightage

Date & Time

Mode

Test-1
Test-2
Assignments/
Term Projects
(Take Home)
Comprehensive

20%
20%
20%

Closed Book
Closed Book
Open Book

40%

Closed Book

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Roadmap
Cryptographic algorithms
symmetric ciphers
asymmetric encryption
hash functions

Mutual Trust

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What would you learn?


Cryptographic algorithms: This is the study of
techniques for ensuring the secrecy and/or authenticity
of information. The three main areas of study in this
category are: 1. symmetric encryption, 2. asymmetric
encryption, and 3. cryptographic hash functions, with the
related topics of message authentication codes and
digital signatures
Mutual trust: This is the study of techniques and
algorithms for providing mutual trust in two main areas.
First, key management and distribution deals with
establishing trust in the encryption keys used between
two communicating entities. Second, user authentication
deals with establish trust in the identity of a
communicating partner
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Standards Organizations
National Institute of Standards & Technology
(NIST)
Internet Society (ISOC)
International
Telecommunication
Union
Telecommunication Standardization Sector
(ITU-T)
International Organization for Standardization
(ISO)
RSA Labs (de facto)
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Computer Security
the protection afforded to an automated
information system in order to attain the
applicable objectives of preserving the
integrity, availability and confidentiality of
information system resources (includes
hardware,
software,
firmware,
information/data, and telecommunications)
->NIST95 definition
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Key Security Concepts (CIA triad)

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CIA triad
Confidentiality (covers both data confidentiality and privacy): preserving
authorized restrictions on information access and disclosure, including
means for protecting personal privacy and proprietary information. A loss of
confidentiality is the unauthorized disclosure of information.
Integrity (covers both data and system integrity): Guarding against
improper information modification or destruction, and includes ensuring
information non-repudiation and authenticity. A loss of integrity is the
unauthorized modification or destruction of information.
Availability: Ensuring timely and reliable access to and use of information.
A loss of availability is the disruption of access to or use of information or an
information system.
Authenticity: The property of being genuine and being able to be verified
and trusted; confidence in the validity of a transmission, a message, or
message originator.
Accountability: The security goal that generates the requirement for
actions of an entity to be traced uniquely to that entity.

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Levels of Impact
3 levels of impact from a security breach
Low
Moderate
High

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Low Impact
The loss could be expected to have a limited adverse effect on
organizational operations, organizational assets, or
individuals.
A limited adverse effect means that, for example, the loss of
confidentiality, integrity, or availability might
(i) cause a degradation in mission capability to an extent
and duration that the organization is able to perform its
primary functions, but the effectiveness of the functions is
noticeably reduced;
(ii) result in minor damage to organizational assets;
(iii) result in minor financial loss; or
(iv) result in minor harm to individuals.
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Moderate Impact
The loss could be expected to have a serious adverse effect on
organizational operations, organizational assets, or
individuals.
A serious adverse effect means that, for example, the loss
might
(i) cause a significant degradation in mission capability to
an extent and duration that the organization is able to
perform its primary functions, but the effectiveness of the
functions is significantly reduced;
(ii) result in significant damage to organizational assets;
(iii) result in significant financial loss; or
(iv) result in significant harm to individuals that does not
involve loss of life or serious, life-threatening injuries.
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High Impact
The loss could be expected to have a severe or catastrophic
adverse effect on organizational operations, organizational
assets, or individuals.
A severe or catastrophic adverse effect means that, for
example, the loss might
(i) cause a severe degradation in or loss of mission
capability to an extent and duration that the organization
is not able to perform one or more of its primary
functions;
(ii) result in major damage to organizational assets;
(iii) result in major financial loss; or
(iv) result in severe or catastrophic harm to individuals
involving loss of life or serious life threatening injuries.
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Examples of Security Requirements


confidentiality student grades
integrity patient information
availability authentication service
authenticity admission ticket
non-repudiation stock sell order

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Computer Security Challenges

not simple easy to get it wrong


must consider potential attacks
procedures used counter-intuitive
involve algorithms and secret info
must decide where to deploy mechanisms
battle of wits between attacker / admin
not perceived on benefit until fails
requires regular monitoring
a process, not an event
too often an after-thought
regarded as impediment to using system
Unusable security is not secure

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What is security all about?


Security is protecting assets
Prevention, detection, reaction are
the protective measures
Computer security rests on the basic
aspects
-- Confidentiality
-- Integrity
-- Availability
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How to realize Security?

mechanisms

models

policies

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What is a security policy?


A security policy is a statement that
partitions the states of the system into a
set of authorized or secure states and a
set of unauthorized or non secure states
(security policy theorem)
A security policy sets the context in which
we can define a secure system
A secure system is one which starts in an
authorized state and cannot enter an
unauthorized state
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What is a security model?


A Security Model is a formal description of a
security policy
A security policy captures the security
requirements of an enterprise and describes the
steps that have to be taken to achieve security in
the form of a model
Security models are used in security evaluation,
also as proofs of security
Among all the security models, Bell-LaPadula
model is treated as a milestone in computer
security

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What is a security mechanism?

secure

set of reachable states

precise

broad

set of secure states

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Security Objectives
Security objectives should include
Availability (of systems and data for intended
use only)
Integrity (of system and data)
Confidentiality (of data and system information)
Accountability (to the individual level)
Assurance (that the other four objectives have
been adequately met)

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Security Objective Dependencies

integrity

confidentiality
integrity

confidentiality

availability

accountability

confidentiality

integrity

confidentiality

integrity

assurance

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More on basics of security

Authentication
Verify identity

Authorization
Verify credentials Unauthorized
Grant rights
access

ID spoofing
ID Masquerade
Content modification

Accounting
auditing
repudiation

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More on basics of security contd..


Integrity
Correctness
Completeness
Validity
Authenticity
Non-repudiation

Availability
Continuity
Punctuality

Interruption
delay

manipulation
destruction
Falsification
repudiation

Confidentiality
exclusivity
divulging

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Classification of Security Services


Support. These services are generic and
underlie most information technology security
capabilities.
Prevent. These services focus on preventing a
security breach from occurring
Recover. The services in this category focus on
the detection and recovery from a security

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Security Services Model

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Security Life Cycle

Threats
Policy
Specification
Design
Implementation
Operation

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Definitions
Computer Security - generic name for the
collection of policies/tools/mechanisms designed
to protect data and to thwart hackers
Network Security - measures to protect data
during their transmission
Internet Security - measures to protect data
during their transmission over a collection of
interconnected networks
The focus is on measures to deter, prevent, detect
and correct security violations that involve the
transmission & storage of information
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Security Trends
Observed security trends, growth in sophistication
of attacks contrasting with decrease in skill &
knowledge needed to mount an attack.

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OSI Security Architecture


We need a systematic way of defining the
requirements for security and characterizing the
approaches to satisfy those requirements
ITU-T2
recommendation
X.800
Security
Architecture for OSI defines a systematic way of
defining and providing security requirements
It provides a useful overview of concepts

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Aspects of Security

security attack
security mechanism
security service

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OSI Security Architecture &


Aspects
The OSI security architecture focuses on security attacks,
mechanisms and services. These can be defined briefly as
follows:
Security attack: Any action that compromises the security of
information owned by an organization.
Security mechanism: A process (or a device incorporating
such a process) that is designed to detect, prevent, or
recover from a security attack.
Security service: A processing or communication service that
enhances the security of the data processing systems and
the information transfers of an organization. The services
are intended to counter security attacks and they make
use of one or more security mechanisms to provide the
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service.

Security Attack
Any action that compromises the security of
information owned by an organization
Information security is about how to prevent
attacks, or failing that, to detect attacks on
information-based systems
often threat & attack used to mean same thing
have a wide range of attacks
can focus on generic types of attacks
passive
active
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Threat and Attack


Threat:
A potential for violation of security, which exists when
there is a circumstance, capability, action or event that
could breach security and cause harm.

Attack:
An assault on system security that derives from an
intelligent threat; an intelligent act that is a deliberate
attempt (method/technique) to evade security services
and violate the security services and violate the security
policy of a system

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Threats
A potential occurrence that can have an undesirable effect
on the system assets or resources
Primary threats
Unauthorized access
User masquerading
Denial of service
Physical attacks
Secondary threats
Introduction of malware
Bad security administration
Bad architecture, implementation
misconfiguration
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Passive Attack - Interception

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Passive Attack: Traffic Analysis

Observe traffic pattern

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Active Attack: Interruption

Block delivery of message

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Active Attack: Fabrication

Fabricate message

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Active Attack: Replay

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Active Attack: Modification

Modify message

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Handling Attacks
Passive attacks focus on Prevention
Easy to stop
Hard to detect

Active attacks focus on Detection and Recovery


Hard to stop
Easy to detect

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Security Service
enhance security of data processing systems and
information transfers of an organization
intended to counter security attacks
using one or more security mechanisms
often replicates functions normally associated
with physical documents
which, for example, have signatures, dates; need
protection from disclosure, tampering, or destruction;
be notarized or witnessed; be recorded or licensed

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Security Services
X.800:
a service provided by a protocol layer of
communicating open systems, which ensures
adequate security of the systems or of data
transfers

RFC 2828:
a processing or communication service provided by
a system to give a specific kind of protection to
system resources
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Security Services (X.800)


Authentication - assurance that communicating
entity is the one claimed
have both peer-entity & data origin authentication

Access Control - prevention of the unauthorized use


of a resource
Data Confidentiality protection of data from
unauthorized disclosure
Data Integrity - assurance that data received is as
sent by an authorized entity
Non-Repudiation - protection against denial by one
of the parties in a communication
Availability resource accessible/usable
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Security Mechanism
a.k.a. control
feature designed to detect, prevent, or
recover from a security attack
no single mechanism that will support all
services required
however one particular element underlies
many of the security mechanisms in use:
cryptographic techniques

hence our focus on this topic


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Security Mechanisms (X.800)


specific security mechanisms:
encipherment, digital signatures, access controls,
data integrity, authentication exchange, traffic
padding, routing control, notarization

pervasive security mechanisms:


trusted functionality, security labels, event
detection, security audit trails, security recovery

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Model for Network Security

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Model for Network Security

using this model requires us to:


1. design a suitable algorithm for the security
transformation
2. generate the secret information (keys) used by
the algorithm
3. develop methods to distribute and share the
secret information
4. specify a protocol enabling the principals to use
the transformation and secret information for a
security service
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Model for Network Access Security

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Model for Network Access Security

using this model requires us to:


1. select appropriate gatekeeper functions to
identify users
2. implement security controls to ensure only
authorised users access designated information
or resources

note that model does not include:


1. monitoring of system for successful penetration
2. monitoring of authorized users for misuse
3. audit logging for forensic uses, etc.
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Summary
topic roadmap & standards organizations
security concepts:
confidentiality, integrity, availability

X.800 security architecture


security attacks, services, mechanisms
models for network (access) security

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