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Colegio San Agustin Bacolod

College of Engineering
ChELab 1: Chemical Engineering Laboratory 1

Laboratory Experiment #1:

Heat Loss in Bare, Finned, & Lagged Pipes

Group 3:
Aries, Allen Jerry
Bedrio, Shaira Karlene
Cabuguason, Paul Lyndon
Jardenil, Stephen Paul

Instructor:
Engr. Leovigildo Diopenes

Date Performed: June 19, 2015

ABSTRACT

Table of Contents

Introduction and Background


Heat Transfer Principles
The transport phenomena of energy or Heat Transfer occur in the unit processes and
operations in many industries. Different heat transfer mechanisms are used in the cooling or
heating of process materials in heat exchange equipment or more commonly known as heat
exchangers. Also, accounting for the heat loss in process plant is essential in minimizing the
economic value of energy being wasted. Hence, the knowledge of heat transfer principles is
important in the chemical engineering.
As in the transfer of momentum and mass, heat transfer occurs due to a driving force and
is impeded by a resisting quantity or dimension. The driving force is the temperature difference
between two bodies. Whenever, there is an imbalance between the temperatures of two bodies
heat transfer occurs. From the Kinetic Molecular Theory, the hotter body contains more energy
than the cold body and thus energy transfers from a hot body to a cold body which. This also
conforms to the Second Law of Thermodynamics which dictates that the normal flow of heat.
In many practical applications, heat transfer is assumed to be steady-state. The most basic
law which governs heat transfer is Fouriers Law of Conduction which is mathematically
expressed as:

q=kA

dT
dx

Where qrate of heat transfer


k thermal condu ctivity of the resisting material

Aresisting area

dT
temperature gradient between thetwo materials
dx

There are three ways in which heat can be transferred and these are conduction,
convection, and radiation. Conduction occurs when two materials with different temperatures
come into contact with each other. It is well understood by the Fouriers Laws of Convection.
Fouriers first law is usually used in steady-state conduction and the second law is used in the
analysis of unsteady-state conduction which is given below:
T
2 T
= 2
t
x

Where thermal diffusivity


The expression for Fouriers Law for Unsteady-state Conduction involves partial
differential equations and requires special techniques to obtain particular solutions.
Convection is also similar to conduction. However, due to the property of fluids to
change its density with temperature complicates the analysis. The equivalent equation to describe
convection is:
q=hA T

Where qrate of heat transfer


hheat transfer filmcoefficient

Aresisting area

T temperature driving force

There are two kinds of convection: Forced Convection and Natural Convection. Forced
Convection involves a fluid-motive device such as a fan or blower which forces the fluid to flow
past through a solid surface. On the other hand, in natural convection, the warmer or cooler fluid
next to the solid surface causes a circulation due to density differences resulting from the
temperature differences in the fluid.
Radiation is quite unique compared to conduction and convection because there is no
physical medium used in the transfer of heat. Thermal energy in here travels in the form of
electromagnetic waves.
Heat Transfer through a Hollow Cylinder
For a hollow cylinder such as a pipe with the specified dimensions in Figure 1, Fouriers
Law of Conduction can be rewritten as:

q=2 kL

T 1T 2
ln

r2
r1

()

Figure 1
Insulated Surface
An insulated pipe

Extended Surface
Fins are added to bare pipe heat exchangers to increase the surface area that will allow
transfer of heat. Also finned exchangers have relatively high heat-transfer coefficients compared
to the bare ones. The most common type of fin attached to the outside of a tube wall is a
longitudinal fin shown below:

Figure 2
The heat loss of the finned exchanger is given by the expression:
q= hPkA ( T 0T ) tanh mL

Where qheat transfer rate


k thermal conductivity of the fin material

hconvective heat transfer coefficient

P perimeter of the fin

Aconvection area

T 0 temeperature at the base of the fin

T ambient temperature

hP
kA

( )

m=

1
2

Objectives

1. To determine the heat loss of the hot air-heated bare pipe, finned pipe, insulated pipe and
compare their heat losses.
2. To estimate its over-all heat transfer coefficient, based on the experimental results of its
heat loss.
3. To calculate its average natural (or free) convective heat transfer coefficient.

Materials and Methods


The following are the materials, supplies, equipment, and apparatuses used in the conduct
of the experiment:

The Heat Exchangers set-up - Bare pipe / Insulated Pipe / Finned Pipe HE of
CSA-B
Thermometers, range 0-100oC (7 pieces.)
Anemometer ( 1 set )
Stop watch
GLX Explorer instrument for surface temperature measurement
Masking tape

Thermometers were placed in both ends of the pipe for the measurement of the inlet and
outlet hot air temperature. Five points (T1, T2, T3, T4 & T5) were equally located for the
measurement of the surface temperature. T1 is located near the hot air inlet thermometer and T2
near the hot air outlet. A thermometer was hanged at a convenient location within the vicinity of
the heat exchanger for measurement/monitoring the ambient temperature.

The air supply valves of the pipe being used were slightly opened. The main breaker was
then switched on. Then the air blowers were switched on. Each air heaters were switched on one
at a time for every minute with a valve opening for Trial 1 to open and for Trial 2 to full open.
The air temperatures at the inlet at outlet of the pipe were monitored andrecorded until it became
constant. GLX Explorer was used in measuring the surface temperature after the inlet and outlet
temperature of the pipes are stabilized. Temperature readings were recorded for each point or
location ((T1, T2, T3, T4 & T5). Three readings at different spots were taken for each location for
its average surface temperature.
Time-air speed was measured at the outlet of the pipe with the use of an anemometer and
a stopwatch with a 2-3 readings and getting its average. The same procedure was made for Trial
2, but this time the opening of the valve at the air inlet was to full open. Heaters, air-blowers and
the main switch were switched off after use and the area was cleared and cleaned up after the

THERMOMETERS

experiment.

THER
DIAGRAM OF SET-UP
Tair,in

T1

T2
Tair,in

T3
T1

C. FINNED PIPE

T4
T2

B.

Results and Discussion


Temperature Data
The tables below show the temperature readings in degrees Celsius of the ambient air, air
inlet, different surface temperatures, and air outlet.
Bare Pipe
Trial
1
2

Ambie
nt
0
30
30

Air
Inlet
1
46
65

Surface Temperature
3
4
5
36.9
36.1
35.6
40.5
38.6
37.8

2
40.5
43.4

6
35.2
36.8

Air
Outlet
7
40
52.5

6
33.4
34.1

Air
Outlet
7
45
63.8

Lagged Pipe
Trial
1
2

Ambie
nt
0
30.5
30.5

Air
Inlet
1
46.5
67

Surface Temperature
3
4
5
34.7
34.3
33.6
36.2
35.6
35.3

2
35.5
40.1

Finned Pipe
Trial
1
2

Surfac
e
Fin
Pipe
Fin
Pipe

Ambie
nt
0

Air
Inlet
1

30.5

44.7

30.5

62.5

Surface Temperature
2
39.4
41
44
48

3
35.9
37.1
42.7
46.3

4
35.7
36
39.9
42.4

5
35.5
35.8
39.5
40.8

6
35.1
35.3
39
40.1

Air
Outlet
7
39
50.5

The foregoing surface temperature data were graphed to see the temperature profiles:

Temperature Profile for Bare Pipe


44
43
42
41
Temperature (oC)

40
39
38
37
36
35
2

4
Point of Measurement

Trial 1

Trial 2

Temperature Profile for Lagged Pipe


41
40
39
38
Temperature (oC)

37
36
35
34
33
2

4
Point of Measurement

Trial 1

Trial 2

Temperature Profile for Finned Pipe


49
47
45
43
Temperature (oC)
41
39
37
35
2

Point of Measurement
Trial 1-Pipe

Trial2-Pipe

Trial 1 - Fins

Trial 2 - Fins

The average velocity of air in meters per second flowing inside the pipes has been
calculated from the anemometer data and stopwatch:
Trial\Pipe
1
2

Bare
1.53
1.93

Lagged
1.63
2.07

Finned
1.91
2.69

The average of the inlet and outlet air temperatures in each case has been evaluated and is
used as the basis temperature in determining the physical properties the air:

Pipe

Trial

Bare

Lagge
d

Density,

Average T,

kg /m

43.25

1.1159

59.75

1.0605

45.5

1.108

64.4

1.0458

41.85

1.1209

56.5

1.0709

Finned

Viscosity,

Pa s

0.00001929
8
0.00002005
0.00001940
2
0.00002025
8
0.00001923
3
0.00001990
3

Heat
Capacity,

J /kg K

Thermal Conductivity
(W/m-K)

1007.1
1008.0
1007.2
1008.3
1007.0
1007.8

0.027313
0.028499
0.027476
0.028829
0.027211
0.028267

Prandtl
Number,

N Pr

0.71155
0.70917
0.71121
0.70856
0.71177
0.70961

Source: http://www.mhtl.uwaterloo.ca/old/onlinetools/airprop/airprop.html
To determine the flow regime and for the proceeding calculations, the Reynolds Number
in each pipe and n each trial has been calculated. Also, the flow rates have been calculated:

Pipe

Bare
Lagge
d
Finned

Trial
1
2
1
2
1
2

Pipe ID
(m)

Average
Velocity
(m/s)

0.055
0.055
0.04064
0.04064
0.055
0.055

1.53
1.93
1.63
2.07
1.91
2.69

Volumetric Flow
Rate

Mass Flow
Rate

(m3/s)

(kg/s)

0.003635
0.004585
0.002114
0.002685
0.004538
0.006391

0.004056
0.004863
0.002343
0.002808
0.005086
0.006844

Heat Loss from each pipe can be calculated using the equation:
q=m
c p T
Where q rate of heat loss from the pipe
m

mass flow rate of air


c p heat capacity of air

Reynolds
Number

Flow
Regime

4866
5615
3783
4343
6122
7961

Turbulent
Turbulent
Transient
Turbulent
Turbulent
Turbulent

T difference in the inlet and outlet temperatures of air

Pipe

Bare
Lagged
Finned

Trial

Mass Flow
Rate

1
2
1
2
1
2

(kg/s)
0.004056
0.004863
0.002343
0.002808
0.005086
0.006844

Heat Capacity
(J/kg-K)

(K )

(W )

1007.1
1008.0
1007.2
1008.3
1007.0
1007.8

6.5
14.5
1.0
1.2
5.7
12.0

26.55
71.07
2.36
3.40
29.20
82.77

Comparing the calculations, the rate of heat loss in the lagged pipe is lower compared to
the bare pipe. This is due to the higher resistance to heat transfer in the lagged pipe due to the
insulation. The heat loss in the finned pipe showed the highest rate which conforms with theory
that extended surfaces allow higher rates of heat transfer.
Overall heat-transfer coefficients were calculated using the equation
q=UA T

Where
q rate of heat loss from the pipe
U overall heat-trasnfer coefficient

A heat transfer area


T temperature driving force

Pipe

Trial
T2
T6
Delta T
A
40.5
35.2
1
5.3
0.172787596
Bare
43.4
36.8
2
6.6
0.172787596
1
35.5
33.4
2.1
0.127674325
Lagged
2
40.1
33.4
6.7
0.127674325
1
41
35.3
5.7
0.172787596
Finned
2
48
40.1
7.9
0.172787596
The Dittus-Boelter correlation is used to solve for the convective heat-transfer
coefficient.
1

3
N Nu =0.023 N 0.8
N Pr

hD
0.8
=0.023 N N 3Pr
k

h=0.023 N

0.8

1
3
Pr

( Dk )

The calculated convective-heat transfer coefficient is tabulated as follows:


Pipe
Bare
Lagged
Finned

Trial

1
2
1
2
1
2

9.08
10.61
10.11
11.83
10.87
13.92

U
28.99542572
62.32399425
10.31248329
3.971996905
29.6436997
60.63625986