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Designation: D 6760 - 02

INTERNATIONAL

Standard Test Method for

Integrity Testing of Concrete Deep Foundations by


Ultrasonic Crosshole Testing1
Ths standard is issued under th fixed designatici! D 6760; th number immediately following th designatici! indicates th year of
originai adoption or, in th case of revision, th year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates th year of lasi reapprovai. A
superscript epsilon (e) indicale an editoria] change since th last revision or reapprovai.

1. Scope
1.1 This test method covers procedures for checking th
homogeneity and integrity of concrete in a deep foundation
such as bored piles, drilled shafts. concrete piles or augercast
piles. This method can also be extended to diaphragm walls,
banettes, dams etc. The test measures th propagation lime and
relative energy of an ultrasonic pulse between parallel access
ducts installed in th pile or structure. This method is most
applicatale when performed between tubes that are installed
during pile construction.
1.2 Similar lechniques with dilL'rerit excitation sources or
single access ducts, or both, exist. but these techniques are
outsicle th scope of this test metliod.
1.3 Ali observed and calculatec values shal! conform to th
guidelines for significant digits and rounding established in
Practice D 6026.
1.3.1 The method used to speci fy how data are collected,
calculated, or recorded in this standard is noi directly related to
th accuracy to which data can bo applied in design or other
uses, or boih. How one applies th results obtained using this
standard is beyond its scope.
1.4 LimitationsProper installinoli of th access ducts is
essentia! for effective testing and interpretalion. The method
does not give th exact type of de feci (for example, mclusion,
honeycombing, lack of cement pai icles, etc. i but rather only
lliat a defect exists. The method i.s iimited prirnarily lo testing
th concrete between th access ducis and thus gives little
i;iformation about th concrete outside th reinforcement cage
to which th access ducts are aiiached when th tubes are
attached to th inside of th reinforcement casre.
1.5 This standard does not pin-poit to ncidress ali of th
safetv concerns, if any, associa/i''./ \vith it.< use. l is th
responsibility of th user of this stuncard lo eitablisli appropriate safety and hcalth practiccs and detergine th applicabili ty of regulatory limitations prior U> use.
2. Rcferenced Documenti
2.1 ASTM Standards:

- ' This test method is under th jurisdiction of ASTM Committee DI X on Soil and
Rock and is th direct responsihility of Subcornnitu D ! 8. i ! on Deep Foundations.
Current edition approved Jan 10, 2002. Publishol Apri' -002.

D 1143 Test Method for Piles Under Static Axial Compressive Load2
D 3740 Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies
Engaged in th Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock
as Used in Engineering Design and Construction2
D 4945 Test Method High Strain Dynamic Testing of Piles2
D 5882 Test Method for Low Strain Integrity Testing of
Piles2
D 6026 Practice for Using Significant Digits in Calculating
and Reporting Geotechnical Test Data2
3. Terminology
3.1 Defintions ofTerms Specific to This Standard:
3.1.1 access ducts, npreformed steel or plastic tubes, or
drilled boreholes, placed in th concrete to allow probe entry in
pairs to measure pulse transmission in th concrete between th
probes.
3.1.2 anomaly, nirregularity or series of irregularities
observed in an ultrasonic profile indicating a possible defect.
3.1.3 depth interval, nth maximum incrementai spacing
along th pile shaft between ultrasonic pulses.
3.1.4 integrity evaluation, nth qualitative evalualion of
th concrete continuity and consistency between th access
ducts or boreholes.
3.1.5 specifier, nth party requesting that th tests are
carried out, for example, th engineer or client.
3.1.6 ultrasonic profile, na combined graphical output of
a series of measured or processed ultrasonic pulses with depth.
3.1.7 ultrasonic pulse, ndata for one specific depth of a
short duration generated by a transmitter probe or sensed by th
receiver probe.
4. Principle of th Test Method
4.1 The actual velocity of sound wave propagation in
concrete is dependent on th concrete material properties,
geometry of th element and wavelength of th sound waves.
When ultrasonic frequencies (for example, >20 000 Hz) are
generated, Pressure (P) waves and'Shear (S) waves travel
though th concrete. Because S waves are relatively slow, ihey
are of no further interest in this method. In good quality
concrete th P-wave velocity would typically range between

Annua! Book af ASTM Standards, Voi 04.08.

Copyright ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Dr,vc PO Box C7CC. West Corshohocken, PA 19428-2959, United States.

D6760
3600 to 4400 m/s. Poor quality concrete containing anomalies
(for example, soil inclusion, gnivel. water, drilling mud,
bentonite, voids, contaminated concrete, or excessive segregation of th constituent particles) bus a comparatively lower
P-wave velocity. By measuring th iransit time of an ultrasonic
P-wavc signal betvveen an ultrasonic iransmit'.er and receivef in
two paraliel water-filled access ducls cast into th concrete
during construction and spaced al a known distance apjirt, such
anomalies may be detected. Usualiy th transmitter and receiver are rnaintained al equal elevaiiorn as tliey are rnoved tip
or down th access ducts. In some cases and for special
processing ihe probes may be deliberately oiset in relative
elevatici! and th use of multiple receivers eilher in th same
access duci or in multiple access ducfs can also be allowed. The
principles and limitations of th test and interprelation of th
results are described in th Referer.ces section
4.2 Two ultrasonic probes, one a '.ransmitter and th other a
recciver. are lowered and lifted usually in unison in their
respective water-filled access ducts io test th full shafi length
from top to bottom. The transmitter probe generates ultrasonic
pulses at frequent and regular intcrvals during th probes'
controlied trave! rate. The probe depth and rcceiver probe's
ou'.put (limed relative to th transminer probe's ultrasonic
pulse generation) are recorded for e a eh pulso. The receiver's
output signals are sampled and saved as amphtude versus time
(see Fig. 1).
4.3 Alternately. th signals may be inodulaux! to a scries of
black and white lines corresponding respectivel) to thc positive
and negative peaks of th signal. In eilher case, th data are
tiiriher processed and presented lo show th firsi arriv;;] of th
ultrasonic pulse and th relative energ> of th signal to aid
merpretaiion. The processed data are plotted versus depth as a
..raphical representation of th iilirasonic proiile of th tested
;lruciure. Special test methods to funher investigate anomalies
ire einployed where th probes are noi raised toaether. Thc
<!eferences scction lists further soiuces of information about
hese special lest techn ques.
'. Significane? and Use
5.1 This method uses data from ultrasonic probes lowered
nto para!lei access ducts in th pile or siructure to assess th
>onogeneily and integrhy of concrete !>eiween th probes. The
kita are used to confimi adequate concrete quality or i denti fy
ones of poor quality. If defccts m e detected, then further
nvestigations should be inade by excavation or coruig th
olierete as appropriale, or by other lesimi such as Test Method
) 1143. D4945 or D 5882, and measurcs taker to remediate
ie stntcture if a defect is confirmed
Non: 1The quality of th result proJ'iivd by this stiiiiird is
i-pendent on th competence of thc persurme perforrniig il, and ihe
irability of thc equipinenl and fhciliiics uscd. Agendi's that nwet th
iitoria of Practice D 3740 are genera!!)' consideri capatile of conipctent
".d objcctivc tcsting and inspcciion. Users o f t h s stnnnard are umiioncd

FIG. 1 1 rns Duration Ultrasonic Pulso from Recever

that compliance with Practice D 3740 does noi in itself assure reliable
results. Reliable rcsulis depend on many factors; Practice D 3740 provides
a means of evaluating some of those factors.

6. Apparatus
6.1 Apparatiis for Alowing Internai Inspccton (Access
Ducts)To provide access for th probes, access ducts can be
preformed tubes, which are preferably installed during th pile
or structure installation. The tubes shall preferably be mild
steel. Plastic tubes. while not preferred, can be used in special
circumstances if approved by th test agency but require more
frequent attachment to th reinforcing cage to maintain alignment. The plastic malerial must not deform during th high
temperatures of concrete curing. If no tubes are installed during
construction, boreholes drilled into th pile or stnicture can be
installed after installation. The internai diameter of th access
ducts shall be suflcienl to allow th easy passage of th
ultrasonic probes over th entire access duci length. Jf th
access duci diameter is too large il infiuences th precision of
arrivai time and calculated concrete wave speed. Access ducts
typically have an internai diameter from 38 lo 50 mm.
6.2 Apparaius for Determinine Physical Test Parameters:
6.2.1 Weighted Measuring TapeA plunib bob connected
to a measuring lape shall be used as a dummy probe to check
free passage ihrough and detennine th unobstrucied length of
each access duci to th nearest 100 mm. The plumb bob shall
have a diameter similar to th diameter of th probes.
6.2.2 Mcignetic Compassh magnetic compass accurate to
wiihi 10 shall be used to documenl th access duci designations compared with th site layout pian. Alternately, access
ducls can be labeled based on th site pian, siruclure orientation or other methods to documem access duci designations
assigned and used for reponing test results.
6.3 Apparatiti for Obtaining Measurementr.
6.3.1 ProbesProbes shall allow a generated or detected
pulse within 100 rnm of th bottoni of th access duci. The
weight of each probe shall in ali cases be sufficient to allow it
to sink under its own weight in th access ducts. The probe
housing shall be waterproof to at least 1.5 times th maximum
depth of testing.
6.3.2 Transmitter Probe-The transmiiler probe shall generale an ultrasonic pulse with a minimum frequency of 30 000 ^ O ^\\
Hz.
6.3.3 Receivcr ProbeThe receiver probe shall be of a
similar size and compatile design lo th transmitter probe and
used to detect th arrivai of th uhrasonic pulse generated by
th transniitter probe.
6.3.4 Probe CentralizerIf th receiver or transmitler
probes. or both, are less than half th access duet diameter,
each probe shall be fitted wilh centralizers with eflective
diameter equivalent to al least 50 % of th access duci
diameter. It shall be designed to minimize any possible
snagging on irregularities in th inner access duci wall.
6.3.5 Signat Transmission CablesThe signal cables used
to deploy ihe probes and transmit data from th probes shall be
sufficiently robust lo supporl th probes' weight. The cable
shall be abrasion resistani to allow repeated iield use and
maintain flexibility in th range of anticipaied temperatures.
Ali cable connectors or splices. if any, shall be waterlight.

D6760
Where th signal transmission cubles exit th access duci,
suitable cable guides. pulleys or cushioning materia! shall be
fitted inside th access ducts to minimize abrasion and generally assist with smooth deploymcnl of th probes.
6.3.6 Probe Depth-Meaxuring DeviceThe signal cables
shall be passed over or through a pulley with a depth-encoding
device to determine th depth lo ilio localion of th transmitler
and receiver on th probes in th access ducts throughoui th
test. The design of th depth-measiiring device shall be such
ihal cable slippage shall not occur. Preierably a separate
deplh-measuring device, such as di ree i markings on ine cables,
shal! monitor each probe separate iy su th exact depth of each
probe is known al ali times. (Allernateiy a single pulley can be
connected to one electronic depth encuder, bui then th probes
must remain at th same known relative elevation difterence
for th entire test.) The deplh-measuriniz device shall be
accurate to wiihin 1 % of th access duci length, or 0.25 m,
whichever is larger.
6.4 Apparatus for Reconling, Pmcessin\> and Displaying
Data:
6.4.1 Genera/The signals freni th transmitter and receiver probes and th depth-measuring device shall be transmitted to a field riigged, de batiery powered. conputerized
apparatus for recording, processili'-.1 ar.d displaying th data in
th form of an ultrasonic profile. \l schernatic arrangement for th test apparatus is illustrated in Fig 2. The apparatus
shall generate pulses from th tra:!sini:ter probe either at fixed
depth inlervals or al fixed lime interva.s. In th latter case, ihe
deplh shall be recorded and assigned to eacli pulse captured by
th apparalus for th instani ofpuNe generat'.on. The rate of
pulse generation by either meihoJ sh;.ll generate ai leasl one
ulirasonic pulse for every required depth inservai, lypically 50
mm or less. The apparatus sh;:i liave adiustable gain to
optimize detection of ihe iransrm'iec: pulse t>\ receiver
probe for th concrete under test.
6.4.2 Recording Apparatus1 neh transmined ultrasonic
pulse shall immediately start th d;ita acquisiiion for th
receiver probe. Analog signais of ar ulirasonx 1 pulse measured
by th receving probe shall be dig:ti/eJ by an analog to digitai
conveller wilh a minimum amplkude lesoluion of 12 bits and
a minimum sampling irequency o:'25(< 000 H/. The apparatus
shall read th depth-measuring device and assign a depth to
each digitked ulirasonic pulse. Tlie apparalus shall store these
ravv digitized ultrasonic pulses a:id ine pr;>cessed data from
each ullrasonic profile for each pa;r of access clucis. Ali stored
data shall have identifying headf .marma:!.vi attached to il
describing th lesi localion. profile idenlifier. date siamp and ali
pertinent information regarding th te^.

FIG. 2 Test Arrangement

6.4.3 Apparatili- far Processing DataThe apparalus for


processing th data shall be a digitai computer or microprocessor capable of analyzing ali data to identify at leasl th first
arrivai and energy of th transmitied ultrasonic pulse at th
receiver probe for each depth interval. The data shall then be
compiled into a single ultrasonic profile for each duci pair.
6.4.4 Apparatus far Display of Measured DataThe apparatus shall be capable of displaying th raw receiver ultrasonic
pulses lo confimi data quality during acquisition. After data
acquisition. th apparatus shall be capable of displaying th
raw data of each ultrasonic pulse along th entire pile length.
The apparatus shall also display th processed ultrasonic
profile. The apparatus may optionally include a printer for on
site output of results.
7. Procedure
7.1 Jnsrallation of Preforme d Access Ducts:
7.1.1 GeneralThe access ducts shall be supplied and
installed during construction by or in cooperaiion with ihe
coniractor of th pile or structure to be tesled. The total number
of installed access ducts in th pile or structure should be
chosen consistenl wilh good coverage of ihe cross seciion. As
a guide, th number of access ducts is often selected as one
duci for every 0.25 to 0.30 m of pile diameler, wilh a minimum
of three access ducts. spaced equally around th circumterence.
Typical access duci layoul conigurations for various structural
elements are illustraled in Fig. 3.
7.1.2 Preformati Access Tube Preparano/!- The access
tubes shall be straight and free from internai obstructions. The
exierior tube surface shall be free from contaminaiion (for
example, oil. dirt, loose rust. mili scale, etc.), and for plastic
tubes th surface shall be fully roughened by abrasion prior io
installalion. to ensure a good bond between th tube surface
and th surrounding concrete. The ends of th tubes shall be
undamaged and suilably prepared for ihe end caps and coupling System adopted. The access lubes shall be close-ended al
th bollom and ftted with removable end caps ai th lop to
prevent eniry of concrete or foreign objecis, which could block
th tubes prior lo tesiing operaiions.
7.1.3 Preformaci Access Tube ExtenaionsIf extension of
th access tubes is necessary due io long tube lengths, access
tube couplings shall be used which prevent slurry or grout
ingress during construction. Butt welding for siee! tube couplings shall not be permilted. For coupling plastic tubes,

FIG. 3 Typical Access Duct Configurations

D6760
with th measured access duci ength. In comparing these
measurements a correction should he made to account for th
length between th bottom of th probe assembly to th exact
point of th transmitter and receiver on th probe. The
difference berween th corrected measurements shall not exceed 1 % of th measured length or (i.25 m. whichever is larger.
7.6.3 Ensure that th capiured data is labeled with th pile
idenlification, identitcation of th two access ducts for th data
set, date of test, identification of th test operator. and any
further necessary project informai i ori such as site and location
details as requested by th spentier. Store th data and
information safely.
7.7 Completing th Tesr.
7.7.1 If th ultrasonic profile indicntes an anomaly, then th
suspecl anomaly zone rnay be further invesiigated by special
test procedures such as fan shapecl tests, tests with th probes
raised at a fixed offset distante, or oliici tomographical
techniques (2, 3). The probes shail he lowered to a depili of at
least 1 m belovv th anomaly anc! raised to a deptfi of at least
1 m above th anomaly.
7.7.2 Repeat 7.5-7.7 for th reniaining pairs of access ducts.

SE
Lcngth-15.1212

raten

fluft 1
SE
Ungth<15.1212 meters
SpKng-0.4572 meters

Itmryy (log)

SadB

NOTI 5If specifice!, th accesa ductx ,nia\e grouu-d upor. completion


of th tcsting.

7.8 Analysis of Measurements'.


7.8.1 A hard copy of th ultrasonic profiles shall be clearly
presented and annotated. The uhnisonic profiles shall be
collated separately for each tesi pile or strutture. As a minimum, th profile shall include th culculated relative energy
and th arrivai time or calculated \>.i:vc speed derived from th
arrivai time and tube spacing. The lei; edge of th traditional
"waterfair diagram also defines ih; arrivai time. Fig. 4
illustrates both this traditional "vunerfall" dr.igram shown on
righi and processed signals on lei:. Tiiis dai;; shows a special
tesi pile with purposely instaHed anomalies at depihs of 1.8, 8.2
and 14.2 m below th top of th ucc.-ss ducts, showing both
arrivai time delay and loss of signa! sirength at each anomaly
location.
Non: 6It is strongly suggested that ih.- vatcrfal! diagram i which is a
nesting ot ultrasonic puises in an u!traso::ic piotile) b? include:! in thc data
presentation. If th waterfall diagram i- -o' presc'iK-c. in thc reper, th
originai data must be kept pennuncnily .mo K^ actxssihlc to censtruct th
waterfall diagram if requested during a posatile future review.
NOTE 7Filtering or smoothing of th. nrccessed re^ults shal be kept to
an absolute minimum since excessive sr.io,>thing or fiitenng can hide
defects and thus lead to improper inierpjcta'on o!' results. Thercfore, if
any tliering or smoothing of thc datt, is ;vrfonned for thc processed
results, thcn th waterfall diagram mus; ;i:so be pr.-scntctl in thc reper.

7.8.2 The results of th analysis shall include th time of


frst arrivai of th ultrasonic puises (or calcuiaied wave speed)
and Ihe relative energy ploited ivlalivc lo th pile depth to
quantify th exlent and location o' an> appurent anomaly. Any
further interpretaiion is qualitative- anc possibiy relative lo th
parlicular pile material, constru.'iion characteristics of th
tested structure, and th apparati^ ased. Interpreiaion therefore musi contain proper engineer::iL> jt dgment and experience.
Any evaluation of integrily is to he nude by :in engineer with
specialized experience in this fiele:. ;;m is bevond th scope of
this standard.

0 .1 .25
1 Airvai Tyre (ms)

FIG. 4 Typical Ultrasonic Profile

8. Report
8.1 GeneraiThe test report shall contain th following
infonnation when available or applicable:
8.1.1 Identification of lesting agency,
8.1.2 Project and client idenlification,
8.1.3 Daie of test,
8.1.4 Description of th testing apparalus unii and probes,
and
8.1.5 Identification of test staff and of person responsible for
th validity of thc test report.

8.2 Tesi PHe(s):


8.2.1 Identification and location of test pile.
8.2.2 As-built geometry of test pile including nominai
and/or acluai diameter and lengih,
8.2.3 Test pile installation daie and method, wiih any
specifc installation observations,
8.2.4 Arrangemenl and identification of access ducts, relative separation of ducts, and identifying designatici! documentation,
8.2.5 Any failure of th probes to penetrate th full depth of
th access ducts shall be repoited,
8.2.6 Cut-off and ground eievation of th pile, elevation of
each access duci top. or length of access duci above pile top al
time of test, and
8.2.7 Any other specific observation or given information
rel vani to each pile tesied (for example, excavaiion. soil