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Republic of the Philippines

Eastern Visayas State University


Tacloban City

CHAPTER 1:
INTRODUCTION
(CHE 523 Plant Design)

Production of
Taro Colocasia Esculenta Wine

Submitted by:
Digman, Krisdi Ria C.
Solano, Annerlyn M.
BSChE-5A

Submitted to:
Engr. Juvyneil Cartel
Instructor

July 19, 2015

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

1.1 Project Background and History


Nowadays, starch has a big role in industries, at home, different studies, and in
community. Potato starch, cornstarch and cassava starch are commonly well known for starch,
discovering new kind of starch can have a big help and can increase the peoples needs. Starch
also is known of rich in carbohydrates.
Taro, in English, but in the local language it is known as Gabi. Many studies involving
Taro has been performed by foreign countries, and also here in the country. Some studies succeed
and some do not. Taro is a common name for corms and tubers of several plants in Aracae
family. Of these, Colocasia esculenta is the most widely cultivated. Taro is native to Southern
India and Southeast Asia.

Taro is a large perennial herbaceous plant growing up to 5-6 feet.

It's rather large heart-shaped, frilly edged leaves at the end of long, stout petioles appear like
elephants ear. It grows best in marshy, wet soil and warm humid climates. The corm grows to a
size of a turnip1, has globular or oblong shape with brown fibrous skin. Its surface is marked by
circular rings indicating points of attachment of scaly leaves. Inside, its flesh is white to creamyellow, but may feature different colors depending upon cultivar types. An average-size corm
weighs about 2-4 pounds. Its delicious, crispy-textured meat becomes soft and edible once
cooked and has nutty flavor just like that of water chestnuts.
Leaves and petioles are excellent to taste, also rich in minerals. Leaf juice considered
expectorant, astringent, styptic, stimulant, rubifacient. Juice of corm is considered laxative,
demulcent and anodyne. Tubers are digestive, laxative, diuretic, lactagogue, and styptic. Pressed
juice of petioles are styptic. Acridity of leaves, petioles and tubers is due to raphides which

www.nutrition-and-you.com/taro.htmlwww.stuartxchange.com/Gabi.html

easily disappear on boiling or cooking. These crystals may cause irritation. Studies have
suggested analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, hypolipidemic properties.
Studies, Lactobacillus / The Medicinal Uses of Poi: The possibility of poi being a
probiotic in medical nutrition therapy was raised. Investigation has determined that the
predominant bacteria in poi are Lactobacillus lactis (95%) and Lactobacilli (5%), containing
more lactobacilli per gram than yogurt. It was also considered for use in infants with allergies
and failure-to-thrive. This review suggests a need to confirm these results. Anti-Colon
Cancer: The anti-cancer effects of poi (Colocasia esculenta) on colonic adenocarcinoma cells in
vitro: The study results suggest that poi may have a novel tumor specific anti-cancer activities
and suggests further animal studies and human clinical trials.Anti-inflammatory: An ethanol
extract study of the leaves of Colocasia esculenta in wistar rats showed significant antiinflammatory activity with inhibition of carrageenan induced rat paw edema and leukocyte
migration and reduction of pleural exudates. Antioxidant / Flavonoid Glycosides: Study isolated
6 C-glycosylflavonoids and one O-glycosylflavonoid from the shoot system of Taumu (CE)
identified as schaftoside, isoschaftoside, orientin, isovitexin, isoorientin, vitexin and luteolin 7O-sophoroside. Some of the compounds showed strong antioxidant activity. Study results
suggest the potential of the leaf of Colocasia esculenta as a source of dietary antioxidant.
Antihepatotoxicity: Study evaluated the antihepatotoxic and hepatoprotective activity of C.
esculenta against two well known hepatotoxins--paracetamol and CCl4. Results showed the leaf
juice to possess antihepatotoxic and hepatoprotective efficacy in vitro using rat liver slice
method. Anti-Diabetic: Study of an ethanol extract of leaves for antidiabetic activity in alloxaninduced diabetic rats showed antihyperglycemic activity. Phytochemical screening yielded
alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, and tannins as major constituents in the extract. Antimicrobial /
Anti-Vibrio spp / Aquaculture: Study evaluated the antimicrobial property of C. esculenta against
5 strains of Vibrio spp. Resistant pathogenic bacteria has posed a problem in the aquaculture
industry. Results showed only the leaf aqueous extract showed antimicrobial activity against all
tested bacterial strains (Vibrio alginolyticus, V. cholera, V. harveyi, V. parahaemolyticus and V.
vulnificus).
Wine is an alcoholic beverage made from fermented fruits or other fruits. Due to the
natural chemical balance, fruits ferment without the addition of sugars, acids, enzymes, water, or
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other nutrients. Yeast consumes the sugar in the grapes and converts it to ethanol and carbon
dioxide. Different varieties of grapes and strains of yeasts produce different styles of wine. The
well-known variations result from the very complex interactions between the biochemical
de2velopment of the fruit, reactions involved in fermentation, terroir and subsequent appellation,
along with human intervention in the overall process. Wine has been produced for thousands of
years. It has been consumed for its intoxicating effects throughout history and the psychoactive
effects are evident at normal serving sizes. Wines made from produce besides grapes include rice
wine, pomegranate wine, apple wine and elderberry wine and are generically called fruit wine.
Wine has played an important role in religion. Red wine was associated with blood by
the ancient Egyptians and was used by both the Greek cult of Dionysus and the Romans in
their Bacchanalia; Judaism also incorporates it in the Kiddush and Christianity in the Eucharist.
Wines can be matched with very rich food full of fats, oils and salt. The acidity dilutes
these and makes the food more palatable. Acidity in a wine is one of the major factors considered
in wine tasting as too little acidity could make a wine flat and tasteless while too much will make
the wine excessively sour. The presence of the right amount of acid in a wine not only enhances
its taste but also helps in preserving it.
The sweet taste in a wine is normally confused with the fruity flavor. Actually the
sweetness in a wine is determined by the amount of sugar present in it. All wines contain sugar in
varying degrees from 5% to 20%. This amount denotes the percentage of sugar left in the wine
after fermentation and is called the Residual Sugar. Dryness in a wine indicates high alcohol
content. Dryer the wine the more is the alcohol content in it and it contains less sugar. The level
of sugar is very low in dry wines and gets progressively higher with the decrease in alcohol
content and is highest in dessert wines. Sugar has the ability to cover up the effects of tannin and
acids in a wine. It dilutes the tanginess of a wine and lowers the bitter taste. This characteristic
allows some manufacturers to hide the defects in their wines by making it sweeter. A sweet wine
is generally heavier and richer and food matching these wines is generally the desserts. The bitter
taste is detected by the taste buds at the back of our tongues. This taste is created in a wine by the
2 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Winehttp://www.ineedto.com.au/article/physical-properties-of-wine.html

tannin present in it. Tannin increases the weight of a wine and so heavy wines have a more
tangible bitter taste. Proteins react with tannin and soften the bitter taste. Red meat dishes, hard
cheese, grilled and charred meat with a lot of fat are food matching highly tannic wines like
Cabernet Sauvignon and Barolo. The amount of acidity in a wine is directly responsible for its
sour taste and tanginess. Acidity is an important factor in wine and food matching as it acts in
various ways to enhance the flavor of the food and wine. There are three types of acid present in
wines; malic, lactic and tartaric. These acids are present more in the grapes that are on the verge
of ripening. This gives the tangy sour taste to wines like Chardonnay.
Chemical properties:
CARBOHYDRATES
In must, these can be divided up into the simple carbohydrates (sugars) and more complex ones
(pectins and glucans). Sugars are the raw material that wine yeasts convert to alcohol and
glycerol. The major sugars in grapes are glucose and fructose, present in approximately equal
quantities. Technically, a dry wine contains less than 2g/l sugar, but in commercial terms, a dry
wine might contain up to 10 g/l sugar. Pectins are present in grapes in small quantities. High
concentrations of pectins make it difficult to extract and/or clarify grape juice and filter wine.
Pectins can be broken down by pectolytic enzymes added during processing.
ACIDS
The main acids present in grapes are tartaric and malic. These are organic acids, as they contain
carbon atoms. They are responsible for the relatively high acidity and low pH (hydrogen ion
concentration) of grapes, compared with other fruits, and for the fresh crisp taste of wine. Grape
must also contains low levels of citric, ascorbic and acetic acids.
ALCOHOLS
Ethanol is produced during fermentation by yeast from sugar. Trace amounts of other alcohols
are also produced and these contribute to the flavour of the wine. Glycerol (glycerine) has an
effect on the viscosity and sweetness of wine. It can be produced in significant amounts when
grapes are infected with Botrytis as noble rot.

PHENOLICS
Phenolics are a group of chemical compounds that affect the wines colour, texture, astringency
and bitterness. Smaller phenolics can taste bitter, or develop bitter tastes on oxidation.
Anthocyanins are responsible for red wine colour and are generally found in pulp cells directly
underneath the skins of black grapes. Tannins largely determine the astringency and body of a
wine and are important antioxidants and preservatives.
NITROGENOUS COMPOUNDS
These are substances containing nitrogen, such as proteins, amino acids and ammonium salts.
Yeast and bacteria need nitrogen sources for growth. Most proteins in red wines are removed by
the tannins, but, in white wines, certain proteins can cause hazes.
INORGANIC CONSTITUENTS
Most inorganic ions (e.g. metals and nitrates) are not very important in juice and wine. The
potassium content is the exception as the potassium salts of the organic acids contribute to the
wines acidity: the level of potassium is lower in wine due to the precipitation of potassium
bitartrate. Iron and copper may be dissolved in wine from metal surfaces containing these metals.
They give rise to hazes in the wine called iron or copper casse. The major anions present are
phosphate, chloride and sulphate.
OTHER FLAVOUR COMPOUNDS
There are many other flavour compounds present in juice and wine in trace amounts, and these
are largely responsible for their characteristic aromas and flavours. The situation is very complex
with levels of volatility and the synergy between combinations of compounds often as important
as the individual compounds present. Winemaking is concerned with the extraction and
conservation of desirable flavour compounds and the minimisation of undesirable flavour
compounds.3
Wine making has been around for thousands of years. In its basic form, wine production is a
natural process that requires very little human intervention. Mother Nature provides everything
3 http://www.wineskills.co.uk/winemaking/winemaking-knowledge-base/chemical-composition
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that is needed to make wine; it is up to humans to embellish, improve, or totally obliterate what
nature has provided, to which anyone with extensive wine tasting experience can attest.
There are five basic stages or steps to making wine: harvesting, crushing and pressing,
fermentation, clarification, and then aging and bottling. Undoubtedly, one can find endless
deviations and variations along the way. In fact, it is the variants and little deviations at any point
in the process that make life interesting. They also make each wine unique and ultimately
contribute to the greatness or ignominy of any particular wine. The steps for making white wine
and red wine are basically the same, with one exception. The making of ros wines and fortified
or sparkling wines is also another matter; both require additional human intervention to succeed.
Harvesting or picking is certainly the first step in the actual wine making process. A
combination of science and old-fashioned tasting usually go into determining when to harvest,
with consultants, winemakers, vineyard managers, and proprietors all having their say.
Harvesting can be done mechanically or by hand. However, many estates prefer to hand harvest,
as mechanical harvesters can often be too tough on the grapes and the vineyard. Once the raw
materials arrive at the winery, reputable winemakers will sort the raw materials bunches, culling
out rotten or under ripe fruit before crushing.
Crushing the whole clusters of fresh ripe fruits traditionally the next step in the wine
making process. Today, mechanical crushers perform the time-honored tradition of stomping or
trodding the fruits into what is commonly referred to as must. For thousands of years, it was men
and women who performed the harvest dance in barrels and presses that began fruits juice's
magical transformation from concentrated sunlight and water held together in clusters of fruit to
the most healthful and mystical of all beverages - wine. As with anything in life, change involves
something lost and something gained. By using mechanical presses, much of the romance and
ritual has departed this stage of wine making, but one need not lament too long due to the
immense sanitary gain that mechanical pressing brings to wine making. Mechanical pressing has
also improved the quality and longevity of wine, while reducing the winemaker's need for
preservatives. Having said all this, it is important to note that not all wine begins life in a crusher.
Sometimes, winemakers choose to allow fermentation to begin inside uncrushed whole grape

clusters, allowing the natural weight of the fruits and the onset of fermentation to burst the skins
of the fruits before pressing the uncrushed clusters.
Up until crushing and pressing the steps for making white wine and red wine are
essentially the same. However, if a winemaker is to make white wine, he or she will quickly
press the must after crushing in order to separate the juice from the skins, seeds, and solids. By
doing so unwanted color and tannins cannot leach into the white wine.
Fermentation is indeed the magic at play in the making of wine. If left to its own devices
must or juice will begin fermenting naturally within 6-12 hours with the aid of wild yeasts in the
air. In very clean, well-established wineries and vineyards this natural fermentation is a welcome
phenomena. However, for a variety of reasons, many winemakers prefer to intervene at this stage
by inoculating the natural must. This means they will kill the wild and sometimes unpredictable
natural yeasts and then introduce a strain of yeast of personal choosing in order to more readily
predict the end result. Regardless of the chosen path, once fermentation begins, it normally
continues until all of the sugar is converted to alcohol and a dry wine is produced. Fermentation
can require anywhere from ten days to a month or more. The resulting level of alcohol in a wine
will vary from one locale to the next, due to the total sugar content of the must. An alcohol level
of 10% in cool climates versus a high of 15% in warmer areas is considered normal. Sweet wine
is produced when the fermentation process stops before all of the sugar has been converted into
alcohol. This is usually a conscious, intentional decision on the part of the winemaker.
Once fermentation is completed, the clarification process begins. Winemakers have the
option of racking or siphoning their wines from one tank or barrel to the next in the hope of
leaving the precipitates and solids called pomace in the bottom of the fermenting tank. Filtering
and fining may also be done at this stage. Filtration can be done with everything from a course
filter that catches only large solids to a sterile filter pad that strips wine of all life. Fining occurs
when substances are added to a wine to clarify them. Often, winemakers will add egg whites,
clay, or other compounds to wine that will help precipitate dead yeast cells and other solids out
of a wine. These substances adhere to the unwanted solids and force them to the bottom of the
tank. The clarified wine is then racked into another vessel, where it is ready for bottling or
further aging.
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The final stage of the wine making process involves the aging and bottling of wine. After
clarification, the winemaker has the choice of bottling a wine immediately. Further aging can be
done in bottle, stainless steel or ceramic tanks, large wooden ovals, or small barrels, commonly
called barriques. The choices and techniques employed in this final stage of the process are
nearly endless, as are the end results. However, the common result in all cases is wine.4

1.2 Project Proponent


The proponents of this project are Krisdi Ria C. Digman and Annerlynn M. Solano where this
people are law abiding citizen of the republic of the Philippines. The proponents are Filipino and
take twenty percent (20%) of the ownership of the company.

1.3 Proponent Name of the Company


The proposed name of the company is Krisann Wine Manufacturing Inc., (KAWMI) as
agreed upon by the proponents which is named after Krisdi Ria C. Digman and Annerlyn M.
Solano for being first proponent of the project followed by the product that classify the
manufacturing plant.

1.4 Type of Business Organization


The proponents used is partnership as the type of business organization to be set up. A
partnership is an agreement where parties known as partners, agree to cooperate to advance their
mutual interests. The partner organization(s) may partner together to increase the likelihood of
each achieving their mission and to amplify their each. In what is usually called an alliance.
4 http://www.winemonthclub.com/the-wine-making-process.htm
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Partnerships present the involved parties with special challenges that must be navigated unto
agreement. Overarching goals levels of give-and-take, areas of responsibility, lines of authority
and succession, how success is evaluated and distributed and often a variety of other factors must
all be negotiated.

1.5 Location of the Firm


The proposed location had been chosen by the proponents considering such factors as the
availability of resources, accesibility to the potential customers, location cost and the
environment of the business. A none-residential area has been the prime consideration of the
proponents in choosing the site of the business.The plant location shall be located at Barangay
Cangumbang, Palo, Leyte .The location area is free from environmental pollution and any
industrial activities that can pose a serious threat to contaminating food. There is an access to
water, electric lines, creek drainage and road for bringing in raw materials and packaging, and
sending out products which are usually essential.
The location of head office will be situated in Tacloban City since it is an urbanized first
class city and the capital of the Philippine province of Leyte. The distance from Barangay
Cangumbang, Palo, Leyte to Tacloban City, Leyte is approximately 17 kilometers.

1.6 Brief History of the Project


The project of making wine out from Taro was first introduced by the proponents Taro
wine can give extra benefits to the industry.

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