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FOUNDATION Ny (OE Biv\ OU (Os KARUNA MOY GHOSH FOUNDATION DESIGN IN PRACTICE Karuna Moy Ghosh (© 2009 by PHI Leaming Prvate Limited, Now Delhi. All rights resewed, No part of this book may bbe reproiuced in eny form, by mimeograph or any other means, without permission in writing from the publisher ISBN-978-81-203-35: The export rights of ths book are vested solely with the publisher. ‘Second Printing January, 2010 Published by Asoko K. Ghosh, PHI Learning Private Limited, M:97, Connaught Circus, [New Dehi-110001 and Printed by Mudrak, 90-8, Patpargan), Delhi-1 10091 Contents Preface 1 PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE 1.0 General 1.1 Contact Soil Pressure 1.2. Pressure Distribution .. 1.2.1 Variation of Pressure Intensity under Small end Large Foundation at Various Depths... 1.2.2 Effect on the Intensity of Pressure due to Proximity of Foundations 1.2.3 Shear Stress in Soil 1.2.4 Location of Foundation Near Excavation. 1.2.3 Settlements. References 2 GEOTECHNICS 2.0 Description .. Site Exploration Laboratory Tests... Bearing Capacity of Soil. 2.3.1 Definition soon 2.3.2 Plastic Equilibrium beneath Shallow Continuous Footing 2.3.3 Bearing Capacity of Circular and Square Footings. 234 Bearing Capacity for Deep Foundation 2.3.5 Stability of Found: 2.3.6 Depth of Foundation... 23.7 Factor of Safety 12-58 iv __conrenrs 24 Settlement... siracticemsaiaanicanaeascaeai DS Causes for Settlement i28 General Principles when Studying the Problems of Settlement of Foundations 26 24.3 Types of Settlement... 27 2.4.4 Methods of Predicting Settlement 28 2.4.5 Pressure Distribution beneath Foundations .. 28 2.4.6 Vertical Stress Distribution in Depth beneath the Foundation Base... 28 2.4.7 Estimation of Settlements of Foundations of Cobesionless Scils 2.4.8 Estimation of Settlements on Cohesive Soils... 2.5 Example 1—Estimation of Settlement of Foundation of Building ... 2.5.1 To Determine Deformation Modulus (Eq) 2.5.2 To Determine the Bearing Capacity of Deep Foundation at 8.0 m Depth 45 2.53 To Calculate the Net Immediate Setement (Ai) at the Cenire of Column Base 46 2.5.4 To Calculate the Net Immediate Settlement (Ai) at the Centre of Foundation Raft... . ais saci 2.55 To Calculate the Consolidation Settlement (Ac) : 48 2.5.6 To Calculate the Rate of Consolidation Settlement... si 31 2.6 Example 2—Estimation of Settlements of Bridge Pier 52 2.6.1 To Calculate Immediate Settlements. 2.6.2 To Caleulate Net Consolidation Settlement of Clay Stratum 55 2.6.3 To Calculate the Rate of Seitlement.. References ISOLATED FOOTING FOUNDATIONS. 3.0 3 Definition and Description. oe Behaviour of Footing under the Action of Contact Pressure 59 3.1.1 Behaviour of Circular Footing under the Action of Contact Pressure a 3.1.2. Behaviour of Square of Rectangular Footing under the Action of Contact Pressure Ultimate Bearing Capacity 3.2.1 For Spread Footing of Shallow Depth.. 3.2.2. Spread Footing in Deep Strip Foundations . 3.2.3. Spread Footing in Deep Square or Rectangular Foundations .. Bending Moment and Shear in Square and Rectangular Footings... 3.3.1 For Square Footing a : 3.3.2. For Rectangular Footing Reinforced Concrete Design of Spread Footing 3.4.1 Method of Design .. - 3.4.2 Partial Safety Factors (7) 3.4.3. Strength of Materials CONTENTS Vv 3.5 Example I—Design of a Square or Rectangular Footing, 69 3.5.1 To Determine Bearing Capacity of Soil 70) 3.5.2 Size of Footing 74 3.53 To Calculate the Actual Gross and Net Pressures in Soil due to Vertical Loads and: Moments... 15 3.5.4 Structural Design of Reinforced Concrete Footing 76 References .. COMBINED SPREAD FOOTING FOUNDATIONS .. 4.0 Definition and Deseriptions HEN; Bebasiou of Combi a tay Subhaa Upa Soil Contact Pressure. 4.2 Bearing Capacity of Soil 4.2.1 To Determine the Allowable Bearing Capacity of Soil using BS 8004: 1986 (Foundations)... 4.2.2. To Determine the Allowable Bearing Capa Burocode 7: 2004 (Geotechnical Desizn) 4.3. Size of Footing... 44 Design Example I—Design of a Combined Spread Footing . 4.4.1 Design Data 44.2 ‘The Bearing Capacity of Soil in Sandy Clay 4.4.3. To Calculate the Size of Footing 4.4.4 To Caleulate the Actual Gross Contact Pressure duc to Vertical Loads and Moments Developed ... 4.4.5 To Calculate Net Contact Pressure 4.4.6 To Design Reinforced Concrete Footing Slab 4.5 Design Example 2 4.5.1 To Determine the Bearing Capac 4.5.2. To Caleullate the Size of Footing... 4.53. To Design the Reinforced Conerete Foundation References STRIP FOOTING FOUNDATIONS . ity of Soi of Soil at 3 m Depth .. 5.0 Definition and Descriptions co 5.1 Behaviour of Foundation under the Action of Column Loads... 5.2 Allowable Bearing Pressure .... 5.3 To Determine the Size of Footing ... 54 Design Example |—Design of a Continuous Strip Footing 54.1 Design Data. 542 To Determine the Allowable Bear Soil at 2 m Depth... 5.43 To Caleulate the Size of Footing... oo S44 To Design the Reinforced Conerete Strip Footing References vi conrenrs 6 MAT OR RAFT FOUNDATION 6.0 6.1 62 63 64 References we 7 PILED FOUNDATION 7.0 cal 12 73 14 1S 16 1 18 79 7.10 711 7:12 Definition and Descriptions Structural Behaviour of Mat Foundation... Allowable Bearing Capacity of Soil Method of Analysis of Mat Foundation... Design Example | 64.1 To Determine the Bearing Capacity of Soil et 3 m Depth . 6.4.2 To Calculate the Contact Pressure under the Foundation Raff...u. 124 6.4.3 To Design the Reinforced Concrete Foundation Mat (Raft) General Principles .eo.nn Choice of Alternative Types of Foundations. Functions of Piles. Selection of Construction Material Types Of Pleo Behaviour of Piles Subjected to Compressive and Lateral Loads Principles in the Analysis of the Load Bearing Capacity of Piles... Characteristics of Load-settlement Curve for a Pile under Compressive Load eo. Allowable Load Carrying Capacity of Piles Piles in Cohesionless Soil. 7.9.1 Based on British Standard Codes of Practice for Foundations BS 8004: 1986 7.9.2 Based on Eurocode 7: 2004 (Geotechni Characteristics of Piles in Cohesionless Soil ee 7.10.1 Characteristics of Driven Piles in Cohesionless Soil 147 7.10.2 Characteristics of Driven and Cast-in-place Piles in Cohesionless Soil. 147 7.10.3 Piles in Cohesionless Soil... 147 7.104 The Influence of Time Period on the Load Carrying Capacity of Piles in Cobesionless Soil .. 148 Piles in Cohesive Soil 148 7.1L Load Carrying Capacity of Driven Displacement Piles... 148 7.11.2 Load Carrying Capacity of Driven and Cast-in situ Displacement Piles 152 7.11.3 Load Carrying Capacity of Bored and Cast-in situ Nor-displacement Piles . 153 7.14. Time Effect on the Load Carrying Capacity of Pile wa. 154 Load Carrying Capacity of Pile in Soil with Mixed Properties of C, and 9’... . 7.12.1 Based on BS 8004: 1986. 154 154 conrenrs vit 7.13 Piles Subjected to Horizontal Load at the Head...» sina 156 7.14 Pile Groups Subjected to Compressive Load... 158 7.14.1 Load Carrying Capacity of Pile Groups Driven Cohesive Soil. same is 7.15 Example |—Design the Pile Foundation of @ Stanchion Base Subjected to the Following Loadings and Ground Conditions 160 7.18.1 To Calculate the Safe Load Carrying Capacity of 400 mm? Prestressed Pre-cast Concrete Piles.. 7.18.2. Determination of Size, Number and Length of Pile of Piled Foundation... . m 7.153 Structural Design of Pre-stressed Pre-cast Concrete Piles 400 mm? and 37 m Long. 1.154 Design of Reinforced Concrete Pile Cap and Pedestal 5 Based on BS 8110: Part 1: 1997... 7.16 Example 2—Design of Load Canying Capacity of @ Pile GrOUP wacsnenens 182 7.16.1 To Calculate the Load Carrying Capacity of Pile 183 References . 8 DIAPHRAGM WALL FOUNDATION. 8.0 81 Description Method of Construction of Diaphragm Wall . 8.1.1 Method of Construction of Contiguous Piled Diaphragm Wall. Geotechnical Aspects of Soil Behaviour on the Diaphragm Wall To Calculate the Safe Capacity of Diaphragm Wall Subjected to Vertical Load. . 191 8.3.1 Based on BS 8004: 1986 Foundations 191 8.3.2 Based on Eurocode 7: 2004 ..rcomnuenene aes 191 84 Design Example 1... 8.4.1 Design Data... 8.42 To Calculate the Londs Supported by Fach Diaphragm Wallim run _ 195 8.43 To Check the Safe Load Carrying Capacity of Diaphragm Wallim Run a 8.44 Method of Construction of Tunnel in Relation to Diaphragm Wall 8.4.5 Analysis of Diaphragm Wall Subjected to Soil Pressure 8.4.6 Analysis of Diaphragm Wall as an Individual Structural Member Subjected to Soil and Water Pressure during Sequence of Construction of Tunnel .. soon 206, References 234 9 SHEET PILING FOUNDATION 9.0 o) Description .. se Types of Embedment Soil vil conrenTs 10 W 92 Earth Pressure Calculations against a Sheet Piling Wall 9.3 Earth Pressure in Cohesionless Soil 9.4 Earth Pressure in Cohesive Soi 9.5 Earth Pressure in Cohesive and \ 9.6 Method of Anal 9.7 Analysis of C: 94 Desien Example 1, 9.8.1 To Determine the Depth of Embedment and to. Design the Section 9.9 Analysis of Anchored Sheet Piling, Wall... 88 246 9.9.1 Methods of Support... 246 9.9.2 Analysis of Anchored Shect Piling Wall by Free Earth Method wa... 246 9.10. Design Example 2... 9.10.1 Based on BS Code $004: 1986... 9.10.2 Based on Eurocode 7; 2004 References RETAINING WALLS 10.0. Descriptions ... 10.1 Classification of Retaining Wall 102 Concept of Development of Earth Pressure 254 103 Rankine's Theory of Earth Pressure of Cohesionless Soil against Retaining Walls. 10.3.1. When the Embankment Surface is Horizontal 10.3.2 Rankine’s Method when the Embankment is Inclined to the Horizontal 257 10.4 Rankine’s Method of Analysis of Passive Resistance of Cohesionless Soil. 10.1 When the Embankment Surface is Horizontal 10.4.2 When the Embankment Surface is Inclined to the Horizontal 10.5. Bell's Method of Analysis of Earth Pressure of Cohesive Soil. 10.5.1 Active Pressure Analysis. 10.5.2. Passive Pressure Analysis... 10.6 Design Example 1. . 10.6.1. To Calculate the Bearing Capacity of Soil under the Base Slab 10.6.2 To Determine the Geotechnical Characteristics and Selection of Backfilled Material 10.6.3. Analysis of Retaining Wall... 10.6.4 Design of Reinforced Concrete of Countertor Retaining Wall. References 287 LATERAL SUPPORTS IN OPEN CUTS 10 md General Types of Open Cuts. conrenrs ix 112. Method of Constructing Open Cuts 289 113 Pressure Distribution on Struts in Open Cut Trenches . 290 1131 Analysis of Pressure on the Strat 291 References 292 12 BRIDGE PIER AND FOUNDATION....... sist ++ 293-314 120. Description 293 12.1 Types of Superstructure . 293 122 Dimensions of Superstructure 293 12.3 Loadings on Supersiructure lente fenne 204 124 Geotechnical Ground Conditions 204 294 294 296 12.5 Design of Bridge Pier... 12.5.1 Type and Shape of Bridge f 12.5.2 Forces Acting on Piers 12.6 Design Example 1 302 12.6.1 Structural Design of Foundation... sn 306 References 314 13 UNDERPINNING 315-318 130 Description .. ss senna we 31S 13.1 General Philosophy of Underpinning vce 31S, 132. Underpinning Operations of Various Structural Elements, Dunham so. 316 13.2.1 Underpinning of Columns . 316 13.2.2. Underpinning of Walls si — 317 Reference 318 14 CAISSON FOUNDATION... 319-923 140 Description 319 14.1 Types of Caissons 319 4:11 Mint Opentiog sinking Oper ied Caen 319 14.1.2 Pneumatic Caiss 321 References 323 ANNEX D OF EUROCODE 7 (INFORMATIVE) (325-328 INDEX 329-332 aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. 2 FOUNDATION DESIGN IV PRACTICE In the case of relatively compressible soil (say clay), the intensity of pressure at the edges is higher than the average pressure p» and lower at the centre of foundation, The distribution of pressure assumes the shape ofa shallow bow, as shown in Figure 1.1 (c) (Terzaghi and Peck [1.1)). However, in compressible plastic clay soil with continuous loading overa sustainable period, greater degree of compaction of soil takes place, and thus it gradually brings an even distribution of contact pressure. On granular soil, a slight deformation of soil at the centre of foundation due to loading will tend to decrease pressure intensity at the centre, whereas increasing the pressure intensity towards the edges, thus bringing an average pressure intensity over the entire area. Following the above reasons, we may conclude that the average contact pressure pp may be assumed for all practical design purposes, as shown in Figure 1.1 (¢). 'P = Equal and opposite resisting contact force (a) Isolated footing foundation w Ground level ema Relatively incompressibe sandy sol 1 Intensity of contact pressure is p kw contact pressure tighe at ote atone at go Pressure diagram assumed oval shape" (0 Pressure dagramin sandy si w Ground level Relatively compressible clayey soil, itn of cic pens’ emotes | LLL Nin? contact pressure Pressure diagram assumed Salon bon ape (c) Pressure diagram in clayey soil io vidneecpenes Silom ene presto! sos peroses TIAL +4 coin pressure (6) Unorm prossure detribution in praction FIGURE 1.1 Coniact pressure distribution in variable ceils aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. 6 FOUNDATION DESIGN IV PRACTICE Both the foundations are placed on the same type of scil as shown in Table |.1. ‘The small footing is loaded with 17; = 450 KN and the large raft foundation is subjected to a total load of H3= 31250 KN. ‘The intensity of contact pressure under the small footing 7-22 =s0 KW? 9 and the intensity of contact pressure under the large foundation 31250 bs 50 kN/m? 25° o, the contact pressure under both foundations is the same. The intensity of pressures for these two foundations at various depths below the foundation bases are shown in Table 1.2. TABLE 1.2. Showing pressure variations between small and large foundation For large foundation 50,0 kN/m= IAN 31230027, At base level 5 mbelow base 42.5 kN 7.5m below base 1B kN 31250028. 18 = 39.4 kNia 17.5 melow base 143 kNime 31250/39.72= 19.8 kNim? 52.3 m below base S1230/372= 9.6 Nin? ‘The results in Table 1.2 show that at 32.5 m depth below the foundation base, the pressure intensity for small foundation is practically insignificant, whereas for large foundation base the pressure intensity has dropped only by 19%. At such a depth, the large foundation forms large bulb of pressure which may cause undue settlement and results foundation failure, Example 1.3: A medium size oil tank fora refinery was built ona raft constructed on soil of silty clay. The long-term settlement of foundation was found satisfactory. A fer a long period of time, it ‘was necessary to build 2 larger diameter tank replacing the old tank, The new foundation was. designed keeping the contact pressure under the foundation same as the old one. The steel tank wall was built up gradually after the erection of staging floated on water filled in tank. After the completion of construction of tank the foundation showed unequal seitlement and collapsed one day. The reason of failure of foundation may have been the following facts: © Although the contact pressure remained same as the old one, yet the intensity of pressure at greater depths did not decrease appreciably. ©. The bulb of pressure developed was quite enormous, affecting the surrounding soil creating, ‘unequal settlements, hence finally collapsed. ‘Thus, we may conclude that the large foundation base does not appreciably lower the pressure intensity at greater depths. 1.2.2 Effect on the Intensity of Pressure due to Proximity of Foundations When a number of foundations is situated close by, the intensity of pressure from each foundation is superimposed on each other at some depth. Thiskind of superimposition increases the pressure intensity which may sometimes exceed the permissible value. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. 410 FOUNDATION DESIGN IN PRACTICE in deciding the types and location of foundation in view of attaining the reasonable settlement of foundation to avoid foundation failure: © Sandy soil of gravel, coarse and medium sand: ‘The settlement occurs immediately (instantaneous) in such a case but is of very low amount afterthe foundation is subjected to load. There is no more continuity of settlement afterwards, The subsidence is negligible to cause any structural damage. © Silty soil of fine sand: In such soil, greater part of settlement takes place when the foundation is loaded. The residual settlement continues gradually over a period as the moisture content squeezes out in time. Sometimes, ifthe moisture gets a free flow path, the squeezing action takes place fest resulting unfavourable vertical and horizontal seitlement which may cause failure of the foundation. © Clay soil: In such soil, certain amount of initial settlement occurs due to compression ‘when the soil is loaded. Most of the settlement takes place for a long period of time, but at a decreasing rate, as the consolidation process goes on with the squeezing out of water content in the clay. So, itis a very difficult task to predict the exact final settlement of foundation even by any complex method of analysis, Therefore, one should be cautious in designing the foundation in clay, particularly, the blue and London clay. Differential settlements When a foundation is placed on soil and is subjected toa load, the contact pressure under the base is constant with the assumption that the soil undemeath the foundation base is homogeneous in geotechnical aspect and will settle uniformly over the whole area of foundation, thus creating, apparently no problem, But in reality it may not be the true case. The geotechnical properties of soil may be different from one part tothe other under the base area. Due to this reason, one part of foundation may settle more than the other part causing differential settlement. As a result, the superstructure will be subjected to stresses beyond limit and may create undue cracksin the super- structure elements, The following few illustrations will show the types of settlements due to non-uniformity of soil properties and their effect on the superstructure. ¢ Firstly, consider that the foundation ofa long building rests on soil of non-homogeneous properties Example When one end of a long building settles more than the other end, a crack will develop at the top of mid length, as shown in Figure 1.8 (a. Example 1.6: When one part of a foundation rests on soft plastic clay and the other part is placed on sandy soil, the soft clay soil seitles more than the other part. As a result, an unsightly crack will develop all along the middle of the building with crack width widening at lower portion of the building, as shown in Figure 1.8 (b). Example 1.7: When the middle part ofthe foundation rests on hard sandy soil and the ends of the foundation lies on soft soil, the ends settle more than the central part. Asa result, a crack ‘may open out at the centre of the building with increasing width as we go up, as shown in Figure 1.8(c). aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. 44 FOUNDATION DESIGN IN PRACTICE Groundievelt 0.0 Made ground ——— eee Ne ELAlivium yng.0[0.0 600 100 18 200 280 300m traver Undiained shear strength (cohesion) C, nkNim® NTS ~80 a oe (geniion aan London -120 oer “140 Cretan wi Stu heceecn ~160 Mean tive of 102 p diameter sample Depth below | avian “10.0 =20.0 m -200 Lower bound ine of 102 mm diamet rea) Woolwich Jane Reading ~220 beds (dense sand) 24.0 26.0 Borehole og FIGURE 2.1. Graph showing undisturbed shear strength versus depth. ‘The value of C,, increases as the depth increases as set in the following expression: Cu yt 12x depth from clay layer increased value of C, at a depth z Example 2.2: Ata depth 20 m trom the ground level C1,= 75 +1209) =207 KNim? C1,= Effective cohesion intercept in kN/m? o = Effective angle of shearing resistance degrees Angle of wall friction between soil and retaining wall surface in degrees. ‘Maximum effective wall friction may be taken as: In active zone, B= 23% 8 In passive zone, = 12x 0" Ky Coefficient of horizontal earth pressure at rest = 1 — sin 6” aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. 48 FOUNDATION DESIGN IN PRACTICE 2.3. BEARING CAPACITY OF SOIL 2.3.1 Definition Consider a foundation base of either continuous long rectangular shape or square or circular shape is placed on the surface of soil at ground level, and subjected to a load. Due to the application of loading the soil settles, There is a relationship between the settlement and the load per unit area of loading surface, as shown in Figure 23. Te 5, (settlement) Sea | Wren | \e ‘sandy stif soll Ly 15.0) EE 0.0 100.0 200.0 dbo 4000 5000 ‘Loaa/unit area of sit support (in kN?) FIGURE 2.3 Graph showing load versus settlement of foundation, If the soil is of stiff dense sandy type, the settlement curve is shown by the curve 4). The critical load is the load per unit of length of a continuous footing of the load on a spread footing at Which the soil suport fails. The abscissa s; of the vertical tangent to the curve may be defined asthe bearing capacity of sol In the case of scil of sofi clayey plastic type, the settlement curve is of similar shape but the bearing capacity is not well defined, as shown by the curve 42. In this case, the bearing capacity ‘may be assumed to be equal to the abscissa s2 of the point at which the settlement curve becomes. steep and straight, ‘The foundation base is not generally placedat the ground level, but ata certain depth, depending oon the design criteria. The distance from the ground level to the base of the foundationis termed as depth of foundation =, The base of the foundation that has a width B equal or greater than the depth. + isconsidered as shallow footing. 2.3.2 Plastic Equilibrium beneath Shallow Continuous Footing Mathematical investigations concerning the state of plastic equilibrium beneath the continuous footing have led to the following general conclusions; If the base of the footing is perfectly smooth, the loaded soil fails by plastic flow within the region located by the composite curve abede as shown in Figure 2.4, aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. 30 FOUNDATION DESIGN IN PRACTICE TABLE 2.6 Showing influence factors for various ratios of diameter (D) to vertical depth (2) Influence fectors Dz Influence factors uence factors 0.00 0.00) 20 0.6465 40 0.9106 02 oo1as 22 0.6956 60 0.9684 o4 0.0571 24 0.7376 80 0.9887 06 0.1213 26 0.773 100. 0.9925 08 0.1966 28 10,8036 0. 0.9956 10 gas 30 0.8203 140 0.9972 12 0.3698 32 0.8511 160 0.9981 4 0.4302 a 0.8697 200 0.9990 16 0.3939 36 0.8855 400 0.9999 1s 0.5893 38 0.8990 2000 10 Note. influence factor x contact pressure q Example 2.9: Diameter D=3 127 KN/m?; Diz 127= 11.4 kN/n : depth beneath foundation. 3/6 =0.5 (from Table 2.6). Influence factor 6m: 0=900 0.0892 (average). 0. i: g = 900/mr 0892 x Method 3: Based on the coeificiems for rigid rectangular foundations for various depths: ‘The coefficients of vertical stresses at any depth beneath the foundation level for rigid Foundation ‘may be obtained from curves, as shown in Figure 2.12. for sands, gravel, ete. (Sutherland [2.6)). oa 9202 047706 08 10 02 o4 06 os 1.0 zie Values ota 14 16 18 20 22 24 2s Relationship between z/b and 0/9 FIGURE 2.12 Vertical stresses beneath foundation. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. 34 FOUNDATION DESIGN IN PRACTICE ‘was derived. This is used to compute the magnitude of consolidation settlement under any given loading, Assessment of loading causing settlement When considering long-term consolidation settlement, it is essential that the foundation loading used in the analysis should be realistic and representative of the sustained loading over the time period under consideration, ‘The live loading used in a settlement analysis is an average value representing the continuous live load over the time period considered. The wind load is only considered in settlement analyses for high structures where it represents a considerable proportion of the total loads, and then only the wind loads representing the average of continuous winds over the full period are allowed for. The calculation of consolidation settlement is based on the inereases in effective vertical stress induced by the loads from the structure, Before we calculate the effective vertical stress, the following points should be explained: Total overburden pressure (p): Total overburden pressure (p) is defined asthe intensity of total pressure duc to the weights of both soil and soil water on any horizontal plane, at and below foundation level, before the construction of structure stats it the depth of foundation from ground level ‘water table from foundation level =A density of dry soil x submersed density of soil ha then, total overburden pressure at (2 — i) m depth =p, = (=~) and total overburden pressure at : m depth P=Pit Kar Xh= 7X M+ YaXh 2.13) Example 2.11: Consider that a foundation is placed in the sandy soil. Depth of foundation below ground level, == 2.0 m Water table from foundation level, Lam Density of dry soil, y= 17.SKNin? Submersed density of soil, Yau ~ 20.0 kN/m* ‘Therefore, total overburden pressure at 0.6 m depth 7.5 x 0.6 = 10.5 KN/m? P= 7XG=h and total overburden pressure at 2.0 m depth P= D+ far X A= 10S +20 1.4 = 385 N/m? Effective overburden pressure (p,): Effective overburden pressure is defined as the intensity of intergranular pressure on any horizontal plane at and below the foundation level before the construction operations are commenced. It is the total overburden pressure (p) minus the pore- ‘water pressure whichis, in general, equal to the head of water above the horizontal plane considered below foundation level aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. 38 FOUNDATION DESIGN IN PRACTICE Calculation of consolidation settlement (Ac) Consolidation settlement (Ac) is calculated preferably from the values ofthe coefficient of volume compressibility (,) as determined from a number of ocdometer test results. Skempton and Bjerrum [2.11] derived a formula for the calculation of consolidation settlement as follows: C= HX Pact 2.19) where He Coetiient depending on the type of soil Poxd Settlement as caleulated from oedometer tess Values of fi: Skempton and Bjerrum [2.11] have related 4), to the pore pressure coefficient of the soils as determined from triaxial compression tests and to the dimensions of the loaded area. Generally, forall practical purposes the values, given in Table 2.8, are sufficiently accurate in calculating the consolidation sertlement. TABLE 2.8 Showing the values af 1, relating to the types of soil Types of soil Ye ‘Very sensitive clays (soft alluvial, estuarine and marine class) 10-12 Normally-consolidaied clays 07-10 ‘verconsolidated clays (London clay, Weald, Kimmeridge, Oxtord and Las clays) 05-07 Heavily overcoasolidated clays (placial. till. Keuper mat) 02-05 Note: ‘The values off for London clay is generally taken to be equal t 0.5 When the variation in compressibility of a soil is known from the results of a number of oedometer tests, the values of the coefficient of volume of compressibility (m,) are determined, and the consolidation settlement can easily be calculated. ‘The oedometer settlement (Pyeq) of a soil layer is calculated from the following formula: Poot = thy XOX H (2.20) where ‘my = average coefficient of volume compressibility obtained forthe effective pressure increment the particular layer under consideration. average effective vertical stress imposed on the particular layer resulting from the net foundation pressure (q,) H= thickness of particular layer under consideration ‘The values of 2a. and hence Ac, obtained for each layer are added together to obiain the total consolidation settlement beneath the loaded area. In the absence of oedometer tests, some typical Values of m, for different types of soil are given in Table 2.9. TABLE 2.9. Showing the values of (m,) for different types of soil Thpes of 011 Quatirarive Coefficient of volume description _ compressibility (m,) in m?/MN) Heavily overconsolidated boulder lays Very low Below 0.05 (<2. many Scottish boulder clays), sift weathered rocks compressibility (eg. weather siltstone), hard London clay. Gault clay and Oxford ela (at depth) Contd aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. 42 FOUNDATION DESIGN IN PRACTICE Calculation for the estimation of rate of consolidation settlement It is necessary to know the rate of consolidation settlement and the time required. In practice, itis caleulated for the time required for 50% and 90% of the final seitlement. ‘The time required is calculated based on the following equation: a "ime required = Tx (2.22) ime require, a (222) or expressed in units of metres/year 1 xd? x10" 19200) = ee time factor H-= thickness of compressible stratum measured from underneath the foundation level to the point, where ois small, say, 10-20 kN/m? for drainage in one direction, or H2 for drainage at top and bottom of clay stratum C,= average coetficient of consolidation over the range of pressu triaxial compression or oedometer tests, degree of consolidation (%). Values of time factor (7) for various degrees of consolidation (L) in per cent is shown in Figure 2.20. wolved (obtained from Time factor, T 02 o4 088 tO 20) [= type 1 (u, Teurve) |e Type 2 (U, Teurve) “al Type 3 (U, Teurve) I | Sx 50% sonecldation AS idtion, U8) per cent conscldation i SSS a vie catetree 072 0.85 0.08 FIGURE 2.20 Curves showing relationship between degree of consolidation ((%) and time factor T: Total settlement at any time (1) is given by An art Ux de (224) aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. 46 FOUNDATION DESIGN IN PRACTICE The basic equation q, = C, x Ne for ultimate bearing capecity of soil is based on the consideration that the foundation is a strip footing. Ifthe foundation is not a stip footing but is, square, rectangle, or circular, the support given by the soil isa three-dimensional bulb of pressure. ‘The bearing capacity may be expected to be greater than for a strip footing, For square base, Terzaghi suggests the following equation with 4° = 0; 4, =13XC,xN, For rectangular foundation. Skempton suggests the following: If L= length of base and B = breadth of base, then, for rectangle O16 xB ost XN, (lor square) ‘Therefore, for rectangle, 084+0.16 x23 I N, 45 0.92 x N, (for square) So, ultimate be: capacity of qu= 3X C,X 0.92 N,= 1,3 X75 % 0.92 X 7.5 = 673 KN/ Overburden pressure = Weight of soil at the level of the base of slab 19 x 8= 152 KN/m? PF You X2 (considering that the water table is only 1m below ground level, the weight of soil is taken as saturated soil). This weight of soil shall be deducted from the ultimate bearing capacity of soil to obtain the net ultimate bearing capacity of soil Hence, net ultimate bearing capacity, uitel) = 13 x Cy XN; ~ p= 683 ~ 152 = 531 KN Assuming a safety factor = 2.5 and adding the weight of column of soil excavated, safe bearing capacity of soil, cA “25+ p 254152 4 164 kN/m? Actual foundation pressure under the column base of (2.3 m x 4.5 m) assumed, P19 BxL 23K45 =144 N/m? = 0.849 for (P+ 6 KN/m?; €) = 0.847 9. Ratio (e, ~ es)/(1 + ey) tio (ey ~e:/(1 +e) = (0.86 ~ 0.857)/(1 + 0:86) = 0.00162 — e)/(1 + e)) = 0.858 — 0.855)/(1 + 0.858) = 0,00162 e:)/(1-+ &)) = (0.856 ~ 0.853)/(I + 0.856) = 0.00161 ry = ratio (¢, ~e3)/(1 + e)) = (0.854 ~0.851)/(1 + 0.854) = 0.00161 tio (2 — e2)/(1 + €1) = (0.852 ~ 0.849)/(1 + 0.852) = 0.00161 7g = ratio (e) — e3)/(1 + €,) = (0.85 ~ 0.847)/(1 + 085) = 0.00161 /. Consolidation settlemem: Bey =r, X HX 1000= 0.0016 x 2x 1000= 3.24 mm. Ac) =r, X HX 1000 = 0.00162 x2 x 1000 = 3.24 mm, Acs =r) x Hx 1000 = 0.00161 x2 x 1000 = 3.22 mm, Aey = ry x Hx 1000 = 0.00161 x2 x 1000 = 3. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. 54 FOUNDATION DESIGN IN PRACTICE vertical stress for qy,= 220 KNim?, ©, = 0.3 x 220 = 66 kN/m® y= 360 kN/m?; 3. 360 = 108 kN/m? Ata depth 10.5 m below foundation level, layer I: 2/B = 10.5/7.5 = 1.45 0:/qy = 0.195 vertical stress for jy = 220 KN/?: 19x 220 = 42 kNim? y= 360 KN/?: Ata depth 13.5 m below foundation level, layer I vertical stress for y= 220 Nin? p= 360 KN/n?s Consider at a depth 6 m below foundation: Vertical stress 0. for (qq = 220 kN/m*) = 81 kN/m? Let the loaded area at 6 m below foundation level 0.12% 220 = 26 kN/n? 0.12 360 = 43 kN/m? 35 Assume, width of dispersion is a. Therefore, (Qa+7.5) (a+ 85) m, So, the verti Solving the equation I stress 26 KN/m? is distributed over an area (75 +2.5 x 2)= 125 mby (85+ x2)=13.5m The loaded area 12.5 x 13.5 is divided into 4 rectangles of B = 6.25 m and L = 6.75 m. Referring to Figure 2.14 (curves showing the values of F, and F; corresponding (0 ratios of #/B and L/B), where H = thickness of clay layer with u os H_ (8-9) _ 9 Lig B 625 625 L_ 673 B 625 F,=018=i, for gy ~220 KNim? and m= 0.5 Immediate settlement at the corner of rectangle (from Eq. 2.16) (=m) +i, Ey Al= 4, x Bx (1-0.5) x0.15 40000 = 81x 625 x = 14mm aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. 58 2.8] [2.9] (2.13) [2.14] [2.15] [2.16] FOUNDATION DESIGN IN PRACTICE Steinbrenner, W,, Taflen zur setzungs berechnung, Die Sirasse, 1: 121-124, 1934. De Beer, E. and A. Martens, Method of Computation of an Upper Limit for the Influence of the Heterogeneity of Sand Layers in the Settlement of Bridges, in Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Soil Mechanics, Nol.1, pp. 275-282, London, 1957. Janbu, N., L. Bjeerum and B. Kjaemli, Veiledning ved! @sning avfundamenterings oppgarer, Publication n0.16, Norwegian Geotechnical Institute, 1956. ‘Skempton, A. and L. Bjerrum, A Contribution o the Settlement Analysis of Foundation in Clay, Geotechnique 7: 168-178, 1957. Fox, E.N., The Mean Elastic Settlement ofa Unifommly Loaded Areaat aDepth below the Ground Surface, in Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Soil Mechanics, Vol, pp. 129-132, Rotterdam, 1948. BS 8004: 1986: British Standard Code of Practice for Foundations. Eurmeode 7: 2004: Geotechnical Design. Part I: General Rules. CIRIA Report 104, Design of Retaining Walls Embedded in Stiff Clays, London, Construction Industry Research and Information Association, 1984, Butler, F.G., Review Paper: Heavily Overconsolidated Clays, in proceedings of the conference on settlement of structures, pp. 531-578, Pentech Press, Cambridge, 1974 hapter Isolated Footing Foundations 3.0 DEFINITION AND DESCRIPTION The isolated footing foundation may be defined as spread footing which supports the column load individually and independently, and spreads the point load of column to the soil by its spread footing so that the contact pressure under the base does not exceed the allowable bearing capacity of soil (Terzaghi and Peck [3.1). ‘The depth of the isolated footing below ground level is generally kept shallow, but should be kept below the level to avoid any weathering action, say frost The foundation may be defined as shallow if the depth of the foo width of footing (B). ‘The shape of the footing may be square or rectangular, depending on the space (area) provided for the placement of base on the soil ing (z) does not exceed the 3.1. BEHAVIOUR OF FOOTING UNDER THE ACTION OF CONTACT PRESSURE 3. 1 Behaviour of Circular Footing under the Action of Contact Pressure Consider a circular spread footing with circular column subjected to upward contact pressure due to the action of vertical downward point load on the column. The contact pressure under the entire footing tries to bend the slab into curved shape upward so as to form a saucer that is concave on top, as shown in Figure 3.1(a) (Dunham [3.2]). The qualitative contour planis shown in Figure 3.1(b). The footing, therefore, elongates radially near the bottom whereas shortens radially near the top. ‘The footing acts like a cantilevered member that bends in radial directions about acentrally located column base as shown in Figure 3.1(c). Due to the elongation of concrete near the bottom, there will be the development of tension and cracks in the conerete. Furthermore, the radial elongation. of the bottom must be accompanied by a circumferential elongation of the seme region. 59 60 FOUNDATION DESIGN IN PRACTICE Reinforcements are used radially and circum ferentially to resist the tension and to minimize the extent of cracks, as shown in Figure 3.1(d). PIN column load : Cieulat Drissal LAd LSS) Pee jot eked nant Ea ake (2) Circular footing bends upwards (6) Pian showing radial lke a saucer subjected © upward feinforcement atbottem contact pressure developing tension cracks at bottom . (ZEEE, VEE lati T_ paintorcement FIGURE 3.1. Circular footing under the action of contact pressure. 3.1.2 Behaviour of Square or Rectangular Footing under the Action of Contact Pressure It is not possible under normal circumstances to adopt circular footing as itis difficult and time consuming to place reinforcement radially and circumferentially with circular framework and the construction work becomes costly So, square or rectangular footing is generally used. The square or rectangular footing deforms the same way as that of circular footing, as shown in Figures 3.2(a) and 3.2(b) Dunham [3.2] Referring to Figure 3.2 (a) for square footing, we may assume that the corners of the column is likely to control the base due to high stiffness and are the points of high pressure. It also seems likely that contours nearthe column will be squares with rounded corners, whereas those further away become nearly circular. The corners of the footing obviously curve upwards the most. For rectangular footing, as shown in Figure 3.2(b), the deformation contour is the same as that of square footing, with one exception that the ends of footing must deflect more than the sides. ISOLATED FOOTING FOUNDATIONS 61 og 4 36 45 4 43 (6) Square toting (©) Rectangular footing Note:The mode of deformation of square and rectangular footing due to upward Contact scl pressure, as shown in Figure 32 (a) and 8.2 (b) is somewhat the ‘same as fora cicular one shown in Figue 3. ‘The contouts of curvature nea the column are rounded squares, whereas those further away become very nearly cicule. FIGURE 3.2 Imaginary contours to show curvature of the top of square and rectangular feotings 3.2 ULTIMATE BEARING CAPACITY ‘The basic equations for bearing capacity, as described in Chapter 2, are based on the consideration of a strip footing, i.e. the two-dimensional case. In cases of footings of square, rectangular, or circular bases, the support given by soil is by a three-dimensional bulb of pressure. The bearing. capacity of such footings may be expected to be greater than that for a strip footing. The ultimate bearing capacity of footings of square and rectangular bases are given by the following expressions: 3.2.1. For Spread Footing of Shallow Depth When the depth of foundation does not exceed the breadth of footing, the ultimate bearing capacity is expressed as follows: ‘To determine allowable bearing capacity of soil using BS 8004 :1986 (foundations) [3.3] 1. Spread footing of square hase on cohesiontess soil ofshatlowdepih: The ultimate bearing, capacity of spread footing with square bases (B x B) on dense or stiff soil is given by Eq, (2.9) based on experiments as stated in Chapter 2. Qu= 13 XEXNe+ YX 2XNyt OA X 7 XBXN, where, N,N, and N, are the bearing capacity factors. ‘The values of these factors may be obtained from the graphs (in Figure 2.5 in Chapter 2) prepared by Terzaghi, and are dependent on the angle of intemal frietion (9°) of soils = cohesion of soil; 7 = density of soil; and B = width of base. 62 FOUNDATION DESIGN IN PRACTICE If the soil is cohesionless (say sandy soil with ), Eg. (2.9) becomes Qu= YX 2X N+ 04x XBXN, 2. Spread footing of square base on cohesive soil of shallow depth If 9” = 0 and c > 0, the above equation becomes qe= 13 XEX Ne Referring to the graphs in Figure 2.5 in Chapter 2. ‘Therefore, ultimate bearing capacity on cohesive soil (clay) Wu 13X87 XO= TAKE 3. Spread footing of rectangular aye: Skempton [3.7] suggests that the value of Ny in Eq. (2.9) as stated above for arectangular footing of lenath J and breadth B, may be found by linear interpolation as given by the expression: / B 08440.16% 2)». forsquae [eae nse a 1N, for rectangl To determine the allowable hearing eapaeity of soil using of Euroeode 7:2004 (Geotechnical design) by analytical method (see Annex D of Eurocode 7) [3.4] 1. Undrained conditions: The design (allowable) bearing pressure may be calculated in the following expression Rg 34g =(842)K xd, x8, xi +g 6a) (based on Eq. (D.1) of Annex D of Eurocode 7) whore R= design bearing resistance 44 design (allowable) bearing pressure; y= desian bearing pressure A’ = BX L!= design effective foundation base area (see Figure (D. 1)of Annex of Eurvcode 7) C, = undrained shear strength of soil Yo, = Pattial factor for soil parameter; Yo, = partial safety factor 4g ~ surcharge pressure at the level of the foundation base with the following dimensionless factors: +, = dimensionless factor for base inclination b 2 ‘oJ see Annex D) (+2) where ‘= inclination of base with the horizontal {,= inclination factor of the load 140.2 x (BUL’) for a rectangular shape: s_~ 1.2 for square or circular base ISOLATED FOOTING FOUNDATIONS 63 The inclination of load caused by a horizontal load at base where H= horizontal thrust with HSA'x Cy 2. Drained conditions: Based on Eq. (D.2) of Annex D of Eurocode 7, we find: Bg RN BIHAN DM 405% x BX N, %by %8y Xiy 62) where 7 ultimate effective cohesion ‘Ye partial factor for soil parameter ‘With the following design values of dimensionless factors for the bearing resistance: (al Where Yy-= partial factor for the angle of shearing resistance (‘an 9’) y w, -tyoot{ " =) where structure-ground interface friction angle, 5> £ (rough base) For inclination of the foundation base: ) for arecangular shape for acircular shape for a rectangular shape 64 FOUNDATION DESIGN IN PRACTICE for a square or circular shape for arectangular, square or circular shape For inclination of the load caused by a horizontal load H (see Annex D): fo=(2) if = rdsenca( *) h p+an’] when acts in the direction of [B87] [De u78| [ere] where m= my when i acts in the direetion of L B’ and L’ are effective width and length of foundation base (see Figure D.1 of Annex D) 3.2.2 Spread Footing in Deep Strip Foundations As described in Chapter 2, when the footing is founded to a considerable depth below the ground level (when the depth of foundation exceeds the width of footing), the weight of the overburden failure, The effect of overburden pressure increases the bearing capacity factors and also the value of ultimate bearing capacity. The graphs in Figure 2.8in Chapter 2, prepared by Meyerhop, shows the bearing capacity factors for net ultimate bearing capacity for a deep strip foundation ‘Skempton, aftera comprehensive study together with various experimental data and laboratory test results and full-scale observations, concluded that for cohesive soil the factor increases ‘with depth to a maximum of 7.5 for depths exceeding 2.5 times the width of footing. Ie prepared the graphs shown in Figure 2.9 in Chapter 2. around the foundation changes the pattern of the zones of plastic shea 3. 3 Spread Footing in Deep Square or Rectangular Foundations When ¢” = 0; for footing at a depth exceeding 2.5 times the width, the value may be taken equal to N.=9 in Eq. (2.9) asstated in Chapter 2 (value of N, and N, from Figure 2.5). Therefore, ultimate bearing capacity in deep square foundation, Wun 13X9XC+Y XZXN, 404K YX BXN, ISOLATED FOOTING FOUNDATIONS 65 and ultimate bearing capacity for deep rectangular foundation, 3.3 BENDING MOMENT AND SHEAR IN SQUARE AND RECTANGULAR FOOTINGS 3.3.1 For Square Footing Contact pressure Referring to Figure 3.3 (a) the contact pressures on four equal symmetrical trapezoidal areas, as defined by comer lines (‘ap’, “bi”, ‘em’ and ‘dn’), give the equal loads due to upward contact, pressure, and thus generate equal bending moments and shears upon all four parts assuming that the parts act as cantilever about sides ‘ab’, ‘bc’, ‘ed" and ‘da") of column. P cotunn —s—| Focing © f 7 ——= eat sriiecinoine Portion acts as ‘This rectangular B= Elfecti eantlover along portion acts 2s design wictt ‘column face cantilever along $ $ uence o—< tore Womentsane—8) L-shearplare ——-Momenpane ‘shea plane (2) Square froin (@) Rectangular footng ecanoular methed Fectargularmetod a Shee ane no ‘iat earn ne voz meneame eee Potomac. fiona coum ace caunntace |--8. recive desi ‘with of member width of calumn + 2 effective depth (@). L_ ‘ attoating 1 [b) Square footng (@) Rectangular ooting ‘Trapezoidal method “Trepezodal method FIGURE 33 Computing bending moment. 66 FOUNDATION DESIGN IN PRACTICE ‘Methods of computing bending moment and shear due to contact pressure as suggested by Dunham (3.2). Method 1: Rectangular method 1. In computing bending moment to be resisted by the footing: Wt is assumed that the reciangular projecting portion ‘kim’ or ‘pgen’ as shown in Figure 3.3 (a) acts as a cantilever beam about linekl or gr subjected to upward contact pressure. As we find that the square “kdm’ is taken twice in calculating the bending moments of rectangles at right angles to ‘one another. $0, 85% of computed moments may be considered in the design of footing. 2. In computing shear to be resisted by the footing: Under the action of contaet pressure the rectangular projecting portion “kimn’ or ‘pqrn* of footing is subjected to diagonal shear along a plane at a distance d (effective depth of footing), i.e. 4S degree from the face of column or pedestal. For the same reason as described before. the total shear should be multiplied by 0.85 to obtain the design shear. So, 85% of computed shear may be considered in the design of footing. In BS code of practice BS 8110: part 1:1997 (structural use of concrete) does not mention any reduction of moment and shear in this method. Method 2: Trapezoidal method. Rarely used in practice 1. Incomputing, bending moment tobe resisted by the footing: Referring to Figure 3.3(b), it is assumed that under the oction of contact pressure the trapezoidal projecting portion ‘edmn’ or ‘adpn’ of footing acts as a cantilever beam along the face of column. The effective width of footing for the design purpose shall be taken equal to the width of column plus twice the effective depth of footing. So, the effective width of footing, B= b (size of column +2 xd (effective depth of footing) In computing shear to be resisted by the footing: Referring to Figure 3.3 (a), the shear should be calculated at a distance d (effective depth) from the face of the column. 3.3.2. For Rectangular Footing Contact pressure Referring to Figure 3.3 (c), if we draw lines at 45° from the comers of column ‘abed! and extend them to reach the edges of footing, we find that the area ‘abefpg" is greater than the area “cbe’ So, the total pressure on the bigger area is greater than that of the smaller area, resulting higher ‘moment and shear force on the bigger area than those on the smaller area, Methods of computing bending moment and shear due to contact pressure Method 1: Rectangular method 1. In computing bending moment die to coniact pressure: Referringto Figure 3.3 (c), we shall consider thatthe total load on the greater area ‘kimn” (Jong direction) issubjected to cantilever action along the face of column generating bending moment, Similar to square footing, 85% of total moment may be taken in the design of section. 2. Incomputing shear due to contaci pressure: Referring to Figure 3.3 (c), shear should be calculated on the toial load on the greater area *kimn’ at a distance d (effective depth) from the face of column, and 85% of total shear may be taken in the design. British codes of practice do not mention the reduction of design value. ISOLATED FOOTING FOUNDATIONS 67 Method 2: Trapezoidal metho Referring to Figure 3.3 (d), the slab ‘edjnmh” acts as cantilever along the column face. This ‘method is not used much in practice. 3.4 REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN OF SPREAD FOOTING The spread footing may be designed in plain conerete without any reinforcement. But for heavily loaded structures, the footing may have to be massive and it becomes uneconomical. So, itis a general practice and is economical to use reinforced concrete in the design of spread foundation. In the design, any standard code of practice may be followed in reinforced concrete design. In reinforced concrete design we will follow British code of practice BS 8110:part 1:1997; the structural use of concrete. so we shall use Eurocode 7 (Geotechnical design )as a comparison. The following procedures should be followed as specified in the above codes. 3.4.1 Method of Design ‘The design of reinforced concrete spread footing shall be carried out by the ultimate limit state (ULS) method in structural strength calculations and serviceability limit state (SLS) method for calculating deflection and crack width and also the effect of temperature, creep and shrinkage of members. 3.4.2 Partial Safety Factors (7) In the ultimate limit state and servicibility limit stare design, the characteristic values of loads are ‘multiplied by the partial safety factors (7) which varies according to types of loads and combinations of loads (say dead, imposed, wind, and earth and water pressure). Using British code of practice (BS8110): part 1:1997 structural use of concrete {3.5| ‘The values of 7/for various load combinations are specified (see Table 2.1). Example 3.1: ‘for dead load (Gi) only = 14 7; for imposed load (Q,) only 7p for wind load (WV) only = 1.4 7 for earth pressure (E,) and water pressure (1 7 for (dead + imposed + earth + water) combinations = 1.4 Gy + 1.6 Opt 1A Ey + 14 Wy 7 for (dead + imposed + earth + water + wind) combinations = 1.2 (G+ Oc+ By + W7,+ Wi), 16 Using Eurocode 2: Part 1: 2004 |3.6| Referring to Table A 1.2 (B) of EC provides the partial factors 7 for dead (permanent) and imposed (variable) loads in ultimate load combinations. Thus, for dead loads, 7G = 1.35 for imposed loads (leading) 7Q = for imposed loads (accompanying) 7X yo=1.5X Ys 6B FOUNDATION DESIGN IN PRACTICE where Wo = reduction factor for buildings 06 for wind 1.0 live loads on storage area = 0.7 live loads on tratfic, shopping, office areas [yp values are given in Table A11.1 of EC Basis of structural design BS EN 1990: 2002] Design values of actions (STR/GEO) (Set B) of EN 1990:2002 (E) Eurocode—basis of structural design (partial factors on actions, 7). Moments and shear forces should be assessed by using structural combinations, Untavourable combinations FG * YO.1% Ds YO.1% D1 Vos = 13S Gy FS Op when wind force is not acting. For stability analysis: [Referring to Table A 1.2(A)—Design values of actions (EQU) (Set A) of EN 1990.2002(E) Eurocode—basis of structural design}, Unfavourable combinations: Was ® Gay Wo Qe Yo. 1¥ Oe, ® Yo, = 135 Gy, + 1.5 Oy with wind action + 1.5% 0.6 x Oy, where 7%, = partial factor for permanent actions = 1.35 Yo..~ partial factor for leading variable action /=1.5 ¥o..= partial factor for combination value of a variable action (wind = 0.6) [recommended values for yo shall be obtained from Table A 1.1 of EN 1990-2002 (E)] 1 XG, = design values for permanent action = ULT. D.L, Yo,.% Ox. = design value for leading variable action = ULT. L.L, Yo. O4..% Wo, = design value for accompanying variable actions. where Gy ~ dead loads (D-L.) (Q, = imposed loads (LL, W.L., moving loads, ete. WL = Wind Loads) 3.4.3 Strength of Materials In accordance with BS 8110:1997 [3.5] Forconcrete: Thestrength of concrete for design purposes is based on tests made on cubes at an age of 28 days. These 28-day characteristic strengths determine the giade of conerete and it is important to select the correct grade appropriate for use. The concrete should have the quality of adequate durability and strength for the environmental conditions as well as loading requirements, respectively ‘The grades of conerete is expressed in terms of strength in N/mm Example 3.2: Grade C,, concrete indicates the concrete of 40 N/mm? design strength at 28-day cube strength. ‘The grades of concrete used in practice for structural members are Cs, C35. Cao» Cas and C5 The lowest recommended grade to be used in structures should be grade Cp ISOLATED FOOTING FOUNDATIONS 69 For reinforcement: ‘The characteristic strengths of reinforcement should comply with British codes of practices BS 4449, BS 4482, and BS 4483 and are shown in Table 3.1 (strength of reinforcement) in BS 8110: Part 1: 1997. In reinforced concrete design itis the normal practice to use high yield steel of characteristic strength f, = 460 N/mm? as recommended by British code of practice BS 8110. TABLE 3.1 Selected concrete properties (based on Eurocode 2, Part 1.1) ‘Sjabol Deciption Properties Tati) Charactevsticeylinderswengh—12—~16~=20«25-«30 «33 WSS Lacie (N/mm?) Characteristic cube strength 15 20 25 30 37 45 50 55 60 F,Nimm?) Mean tensile srengh 16 19 22 26 29 32 35 3841 Secant modulus of elas Ey (EN y 29 30 31 33 M35 36 37 Useof Eurocode? [3.6] _In structural design, Eurocode 2 (design of eonerete structures)shall be followed. For concrete: The design of reinforced concrete is based on the characteristic eylinder strength. Of conerete rather than the cube strength (see Table 3.1). ‘Thus, if characteristic cylinder strength of concrete f, = 40 Nim Then, characteristic cube strength of concrete fy cane = 50 Némm?, So, the ratio of fa__ 0 Fscae 0 For reinforcing steel: ‘The characteristic yield strength of high tensile sieel (/,,) varies from 400/10 600 Nimm?, The properties of steel reinforcement in the UK for use with Eurocode 2 are given in BS 4449 (2005): specification for carbon steel bars for the reinforcement of conerete are summarized in Table 3.2. (ore: The required properties of reinforcement steel shall be verified in accordance with EN 10080) TABLE 3.2. Characteristic tensile properies of reinforcement (Class (BS 4449) and designation (BS 8665) a # “ ‘Characteristic yield strength /, oF, in Nine 500 500 300 Minimum value of k= (fk SOs 210k BLAS 1.3s Characteristie strain at maximum force (€,,) 228 25.0 278 A characteristic yield strength of 500 N/mm? has been adopted by the UK reinforcement industry. ‘There are three classes of reinforcement A, B, and C which provide increasing ductility. Class A is, not suitable where redistribution of 20% or more has been assumed in the design. There is no provision for the use of plain or mild stee! reinforcement. 3.5 EXAMPLE 1—DESIGN OF A SQUARE OR RECTANGULAR FOOTING Design data A column (size 500 x 500) of a storage bin for limestone and coke is subjected to the following, loadings at ground level 70 FOUNDATION DESIGN IN PRACTICE Characteristic dead load G,= 1984 kN Characteristic live load 4 = negligible Characteristic wind load W,= 141 kN Characteristic moment due to wind My = 1166 kNm Characteristic shear due to wind at ground level, = 75.2/2 = 37.6 KN Characteristic moment developed due to shear at base level (2 m below GL) 37.6% 2= 75.2 KN m Therefore, total characteristic moment developed at base level M, = 116.6 + 75.2 = 191.8 (say 192 kN m) Geotecknical data ‘Top 300 mm of soil is underlain by 1.5 m of sandy clay. Below sandy layer lies medium sand of adequate depth. We are to design a square or rectangular footing foundation to sustain these loadings. The principles of design of square or rectangular footing are the same. In our case we adopt a square footing because the wind loads may act in either direction on the storage bin structure. a2 ‘The following principal steps are taken in the design © To determine the bearing capacity of soil. To compute the size of footing. To calculate the actual pressure in soil due to vertical loads and moments. To calculate the net contact pressure under the footing, due to vertical loads and moments. To design the reinforced concrete footing foundation To calculate the ultimate moment. To calculate the reinforcement with an assumed thickness of footing. To check the shear stress in concrete. If the concrete shear stress exceeds the allowable shear stress in concrete, increase the thickness so as to lower down the shear stress in concrete to the allowable value of shear stress in concrete. ‘© To check the punching shear stress in concrete, 1 To Determine Bearing Capacity of Soil To determine the allowable bearing capacity using of BS 8004:1986 (foundations) Asstume the foundation to be founded on soil of medium sand at a depth of 2 m from the ground level. From soil investigation report, the following geotechnical design data are obtained for medium sand: Soil density, Ye= 20 kNim? Angle of internal friction, 9” = 30°; C,= 0 (assumed) Number of blows in SPT tests, N= 25 Ultimate bearing capacity for square footing may be calculated from the following, semi-empirical equation: n= 13 XC,XNe+ YX EX Ny + O4 XX BN, ISOLATED FOOTING FOUNDATIONS 71 indrained shear strength of soil for cohesionless soil = 0 bearing capacity factor = 0 bearing capacity factor for (6” = 30°) = 22 .N,= beating capacity factor for (g” = 30°) = 20 The bearing capacity factors are obtained from graph prepared by Terzagl B= width of footing 2 = depth of foundation below ground level =2.0 m. Now, we have to find out the approximate value of B. Refer to Table 2.3 in Chapter 2 (Geotechnies). In soil type medium sand at2 m depth, allowable bearing capacity of soil 2204390) sys in? areragebtnsen fe and ou snd) In calculating the allowable bearing capacity of soil, the characteristic value of loads shall be considered. So, the characteristic (dead + wind) loads = (1984 + 141) KN = 2125 kN Area of footing required, ‘Therefore, size of base required Assume, size of square footi Now, referring to equation for ultimate bearing capacity of soil, y= WX 2K N+ OA x HX BXN, = 20% 2x22 + 0.4 x20 x 2.8 x 20 = 1328 KN/m? and the net ultimate bearing capacity of soil is given by E 2 mofsoil. ‘Therefore. du et) = 4X2 (N,~ I) + 04x Hx BXN, = 20% 2 (22-1) 40.4 x 20% 28 x 20 = 1288 KN/m? 2.6) by deducting the column of Using a factor of safety of 3 taking into consideration the excessive differential seitlement, net safe bearing capacity of soil dy, _ 1288 oe q (net) = 429 kN/m? Adding the weight of 2 m column of soil, gross sal bearing capacity of soil 4g (gross) ~ 429 +2 20 ~ 429 + 40 ~ 469 kN/m? So, adopt an allowable safe bearing capacity of soil, ¢= 400 KN/n’ 72__ FOUNDATION DESIGN IN PRACTICE ‘To determine allowable bearing capacity using of Eurocode 7: Part 1: 2004 (Geotechnical design) Tocalculate the allowable bearing pressure of soil at 2m depth of medium sand, assume = 30° and C, =O and also c’ = 0 Following the expression, as given in Eurocode 7 (Annex D) for drained condition, the design allowable bearing pressure uf == u X Ny Xb, XS Ki, +05 XY XB'X N, Xb, X 5, Kip (Note: the first term containing, where R= design bearing resistance A’ = BY L’= design effective foundation base area BY = the design effective foundation base width L’= the design effective foundation base length. With the design values of dimensionless factors for the bearing resistance factors. Referring to Table A.2 in Annex A of EC 7: Partial faciors for soil parameters: 1. Angle of shearing resistance, %y = 1.25; this factor is applied to tan 9” is neglected, since o” assumed 2. Undrained shear strength, Y, = 14 3. Effective cohesion, 7,- = 1.2! ae: rca eo te (+2) 125 n,=2xt,-xim(22)-2%006-0 112366 The inclination factors of the foundation hase: ) ‘= inclination of base with the horizontal = 0 Since where ISOLATED FOOTING FOUNDATIONS 73 The shape factors of foundation: ‘ 1.25, ‘sy = 0.7 for a square or circular shape. ‘The inclination af the load caused by a horizontal load HF a " V+ Axe xeot| % te where [+e] [er] = when H acts in the direction of L’ Assumed, B= 3.0 m; L= 3.0m, and // acts in the direction of L’ 192. 192. —_ =0. 19844141) 2125 Lf =L-2xe,=2.82m 0; A = 2.82 x3 = 8.461 Therefore, 1.52 [Since c= 0 (cohesion intercept in terms of effective stress)] 132 ] =097 7 = efletive density of soil = 20 kNim? q’ = effective overburden pressure at foundation base = 2 x 20= 40 kNim? Hence, 4, jesign allowable bearing pressure = AO x 96% 1% 1X 0.97 + 0.5 20% 3 1.66% 1% 0.7% 0.95 = 445 KNim? Adopt: g, = allowable bearing capacity of soil = 400 kN/m?. 74 __ FOUNDATION DESIGN IN PRACTICE 3.5.2. Size of Footing With the above value of allowable bearing capacity of soil, the area of base required is Required Till now, we have only considered the vertical loads, But the footing is also subjected to a moment is 192 kN m. So, the size of base should be increased to cater for this moment in order to keep the bearing pressure within the allowable value. Therefore, adopt the size of footing, BxB=3.0mx3.0m [see Figure 3.4(a)] 1984 WN Nat KN) M, = 196.648 Cee nen aral ‘Section A-A. sed Le 500800 cota 2000 - = 800 100 a ; : t H Yas kum? 220KNIn? { #4 Gress sl pressure diagram IL fo 1. a 279 kN? 0 Net contact pressure dagrrh (a) Plan (b) Pressure diagrams Memontplano—m + Srea plane Mamentplane—s, _¢—Shear lane 120 @200 cle sum mma totion bot. 20, Sonat ol ga t= 720 waysand'16 “sachiace fe | Trolins Tie 000% Bice Jeree*|_| @ ss0ce A d= 720) T T16 closed | t Ain @ 200 cc (c)Plan (@) Showing rein‘orcement details Note: 4All loads and moments are urfactored 2. Consrete strength f,, = 49 Nimm* 43. High strength reinforcement f, = 460 Nim” FIGURE 3.4 Size of iooting ISOLATED FOOTING FOUNDATIONS 75 3.5.3 To Calculate the Actual Gross and Net Pressures in Soil due to Vertical Loads and Moments To assume the thickness of footing Itis desirable to design a footing thick enough so that no web reinforcement is required, inorder to attain stiffness and simplicity of reinforcement. ‘The minimum design concrete shear stress at the edges of 45 degree slopes from the faces of column should not exceed v,= 0.34 N/mm* for the thickness of 400 mm and more with minimum percent of steel of 100 x 4,/(b, * d) = 0.15, where A, = area of tension reinforcement 15, = breadth of section d= effective depth of section (The above minimum design shear stress criterion is specitied in British Standard Code of Practice BS 8110: part 1: 1997, Table 3.8 in ultimate limit state method). Eurocode 2 states that it is not usual to provide shear reinforcement in a pad (spread) foundation. So, it is necessary to ensure that the allowable concrete shear stress without shear reinforcement is greater than the applied shear stress. Considering this point, assume the total depth of footing, D = 600 mm Loadings Vertical dead load: Characteristic dead load from column, Gy = 1984 kN. Self-weightof footing 0. 3.0.x 0.6 24= 130 kN Soil overburden on footing 3.00.52) x 14 x20= 245 kN Total = 2359 KN, Vertical load due to wind: Characteristic load 1, (already calculated) LL KN “Total vertical load, 17 = 2500 KN In addition, the foundation is subjected toa moment due to wind, A= 192 KN m Gross foundation pressures With 3.0 m> 3.0 m footing, modulus of section, And area of footing base ‘Therefore, maximum gross pressure on soil WM 200 1 or AZT 9 4s 76 __ FOUNDATION DESIGN IN PRACTICE and minimum pressure on soil WM _2500_ 192 AZ 9 45 ‘So, maximum soil pressure is within the allowable bearing capacity of soil 400 KN/m® ‘Therefore, the size of footing 3.0 m square is adopted in the design is satisfactory [see Figure 3.4 (a) 235 kN/m? fos ‘To caleulate the net contact pressure at the underside of footing base To calculate the net contact in the design of footing. the weight of overburden soil and the weight of concrete of footing shall be deducted. So Total gross downward load = 2359 KN Deduct: self-weight of footing = ~130 KN overburden soil weight = 245 kN Net vertical load, G, = 1984 KN Additional vertical load on column due to wind, JY,— 141 KN ‘Total net vertical load, = G, + 17, = (1984+ 141) In addition, moment due to wind ‘Therefore, maximum net upward contact pressure WM _ 2125 192 Pe A Eg as, Minimum upward contact pressure wom ” at ALeto3knim? [see Figure 3.4 (b)]. Pain =F [see Fiat I 3.5.4 Structural Design of Reinforced Concrete Footing In the structural design of reinforced conerete spread footing, any standard codes of practice may be followed, Structural design using BS 8110: part 1: 1997 (Structural use of concrete code of practice for design and construction) Ultimate moment: The cantilever bending moment due to net upward soil pressure shall be calculated along the face of column [see Figure 3.4 (c) and (d)]. Upward pressure at the face of column 175 243. KN/im? (p= 193 + Q79— 103) x 3 Considering whole 3.0 m width of slab cantilevered from the face of column, characteristic moment at the face of column 3199.2 KN m ~[ po AE s05x 9-21 x! Fcras] ISOLATED FOOTING FOUNDATIONS 77 Since (dead and wind) loads acting simultaneously, the partial safety factor (74) for the ultimate ‘moment calculation should be taken equal to 1.4. $0, 7/= 14 ‘Therefore, ultimate moment M, Ax 507.6 = $36.6 KN m 10 mm, effective width ofslab= 3000 mm. 20 mm, effective depth of footing Design of seetion: Assume: the depth of footing. D- With cover = 50 mm, and assuming diameter of ba 4= 600- 30-20- 2 = 600-0 20- 520 mm 2 (Note: Asthe reinforcement is provided in both directions, the cemtre line of upper layerof bar is, considered in calculating the effective depth.) Assumed: the characteristic strength of reinforcement, f, the characteristic cube strength of concrete, fy Then 60 Nimm? ‘0. Nim? 836.610? BXd? x fig 3000 520° x 40 = 0.026 K 156 Since K< K’, compression reinforcement is not required as os ne 520 os+( 2—0m2e) /=519 mm 09 But should not be greater than 0.95 x 520 494 mm, So, adopt 2=404mm ‘Therefore, area of steel required My, —___836.6x10° a =3875 mm? 95x f,x 2 095% 460% 487 ‘Therefore, Using 20 mm high strength bar at 200 mm e/e area provided = 1571 mm? Therefore, adopt 20 bar at 200 mm e/c bottom both ways [see Figure 3.4 (e) and (d)} (Note: T20= High strength reinforcement bar of 20 mm diameter) To check for shear: The shear to be checked at a distance d from the face of column and forthe whole width of base. The concrete shear stress should not be greater than the allowable shear stress in concrete [Referring to Pigure 3.4 (c) and (d)] 78 FOUNDATION DESIGN IN PRACTICE Shear at d (520 mm) from face of column (258 +279) 2x07%30 (With a combined partial safety factor, 77 = 1.4) V = Net upward soil pressure x width of base (2) =588kN Ultimate shear at the face of column Y= yx¥ Ax S88 = 823 KN (With depth of base, D= 600 mm: and Therefore, concrete shear stress 23x — 1 9.52. N/mm? 520 x 3000 Percentage of steel provided 100% Av _ 199x157 _ 9 39 1000 a 1000 x 520 Referring to Table 3.8 of BS 8110 (values of v, design conerete shear stress), and with effective depth of slab = 520 mm > 400, Allowable shear stress in concrete 1, (0.52 Nimm?) 1.= 0.4 Nim The values given in Table 3.8 of BS 8110 have been derived from the expression, 0.79 (‘se A ye \" Ym | bed d where J, = 1.25 and 400/d should not be greater than | So, we need shear reinforcement, but it should be avoided for footing slab. In this case, it will be rather justified to increase the depth of base trom 600 mm to 800 mm. With increased value of D = 800 mm: d= 800 ~ S0 (cover) ~ 30 (1.5 x bar diametes) = 720 mm. Shear ata distance d/(720 mm) from the face of column, v net upward soil pressure x width of base O53 = 432 kN 0 (B= 3000 mm) = (264 + 279) x (With y= 14) Ultimate shear V,= 1.4 x 432= 604 kN (With increased depth D = 800 mm and d= 720 mm) Concrete shear stress ISOLATED FOOTING FOUNDATIONS 79 Percentage of steel provided 1s7i 100 x —*s <0 2" _ 1000 720 1000 x 720 022 Referring to Table 3.8 (BS 8110: part 1: 1997) with effective depth = 720 mm > 400 m, allowable shear stress in eonerete (0.34 + 0.40) eae 0.37 Nimm? (average) > 0.22 Therefore, no shear reinforcement is required, and adopt 800 mm thick footing slab [see ure 3.4 (d)). To check for punching shear: Punching shear stress shall be calculated along the perimeter at a distance 1.5 x effective depth of base [see Figure 3.4 (c)]. ‘The distance of perimeter line from the face of column LS x d= 1.5% 720 = 1080 mm Assume, average contact pressure 1934279 i lave) Total punching shear Vruncn = pave) x (B 54 kN (IS dx2+¢P] =236x Untimate Veunch= 1.4% 454 = 636 KN Punching shear stress Younha _ 636% 10° perimeter x effective depth 4x 266x720 anc 08 Nimm? < 1, 0.37 Nim? Therefore, the depth 800 mm provided is adequate in punching shear stress. Structural design using Eurocode 2: 2004 (design of conerete structures) Nei upward pressure: From previous Section 3.5.3 Net characterisie upward pressure due to dead load 80 FOUNDATION DESIGN IN PRACTICE Characteristic mi imum upward pressure due to wind load WM AZ At ultimate limit state, load combinatio: ‘Therefore, at ultimate load combination: 27 ENA 35G,+ 1.5 Wy Ultimate upward pressure due to dead load = 1,35 x Wy= 1.35 x220 = 297 kN/mn? Ultimate maximum pressure due to wind load = 1.5 x59 = 89 kN/? Ultimate minimum pressure due to wind load = 1.5 x= 27=—41 KN/m? So, total ultimate maximum upward pressure = 297 +89 = 386 KN/m? and total ultimate minimum upward pressure = 297 —41 = 256 kNim* Ultimate moment: Moment shall be calculated at the face of column with footing slab cantilevered from the face of column assuming whole width of slab of 3.0 m Ultimate upward soil pressure at the face of column 256+ 86 ~ 256) x47 322 kNin? ‘Therefore, ultimate moment at the face of column, 12s? 1 Be aa s 863 Mm width = 288 kN m 3 Design of section: With characteristic cube strength of concrete (BS 8110) = fg .yy.= 40 Némm?, characteristic cylinder strength of concrete (EC 2) = f, = 30 N/mm? (approx.) (see Table 3.1 of EC 2, part 1.1) Concrete clas f= 30Nim Assumed depth, allowable shear stress). Effective depth d = 800 ~ 40 (cover) ~ 10(1/2 bar diameter) = 750 mm 30/40 fuy= 500 Néinm® = 800 mm (to ensure that actual shear stress in concrete does not exceed M, 288 x 10° k= Me BRN 750m (bxd?X fg) 1000 750? x30 0.21 = 0,60 x 10.18 x 10.21 = al (assuming 5= 1) = 0.60 x 5- 0.18 x Since Kis less than K”, no compression reinforcement is required. 4 a Lever arm ¢= ———"* = —____*_____. 98 2+ =3.53K""] 21 +0 -3.53x0017)"") ISOLATED FOOTING FOUNDATIONS 81 but should be limited to 0.95d. ‘Therefore, area of steel required M,__ 28810" 2 2 Gxd~ 00x75 7" Adopt: T20 at 200 mm e/e bottom both ways (As provided: Minimum % of tensile reinforcement, 1571 mm?) 0.0015 x b d= 1000 750 = 1125 mm?< 1571 m Satisfactory. Check for shear: Actual shear stress at a distance d from the face of column, Vea= Varo a Upward pressure at a distance 750 mm from the face of column 2.5 , 256 + 130 x > = 364 kNim? ‘Total shear at 750 mm from the face of column Vod= X 0.5 x (364+ 386) = 188 KN Applied shear stress in concrete Vey _ 188% 10° bxd 000% 750 Yea Conereie shear stress capacity Vode = O12 Kx (100 px fox) where sets eno bxd” 100x750 and rate(22 214 2») 152 d 750, ‘Therefore, Voge “0.12 X 1.52 x (100 20,0021 x 30)"9= 0.33 Nimm? and should be 20.035 x kx fog" > 0.035 x 1,52!$ x 30° = 0.36 N/mm? Therefore, concrete shear capacity stress Vigo =0.36 Nimm? > v,g(0.25 Nimm?) So, OK 82 FOUNDATION DESIGN IN PRACTICE To check for punching shear: The punching shear shall be calculated around a perimeter of from the face of column. Assume, average upward soil pressure aa} 2364386) =521100 ‘Total shear in conerete around the perimeter of d from the face of column Vog= qa (3X 3 ~ (0.25 + 0.75)*] =321 x (9 — 7) = 1880 KN Applied punching shear stress Vea 1880 x10" #X(O25+07S) (2x AXIO ‘And concrete shear stress capacity =0.3Nimm? 36 Nimm?> vqi (0.3 Nimm?) REFERENCES [B.1] Terzaghi, K. and R.B, Peck, Soil Mechanics in Engineering Practice, Wiley, New York, 1962. [3.2] Dunham, C.W., Foundations of Structures, MeGraw-Hill, New York, 1950. [3.3] BS 8004: 1986: British Standard Code of Practice for Foundations. [3.4] Eurocode 7: 2004: Geotechnical Design, Part 1: General Rules [3.5] BS 8110; 1997: Structural Use of Conerete, Part 1: Code of Practice for Design and, Construction [3.6] Eurocode 2: 2004: Design of Concrete Siructures-Part- Buildings. [3.7] Skempton, A.W., The bearing capacity of clays, Building Research Congress, Division 1, 1951, 180. Nae General Rules and Rules for hapter Combined Spread Footing Foundations 4.0 DEFINITION AND DESCRIPTIONS When the size of isolated footings for individual columns are large enough to nearly touch the footing of neighbouring column, it is advisable to use a large slab or combined footing under two or more columns instead of isolated spread footing under each one and connected together. This type of footing is defined as combined spread footing (Peck, Hansen and Thorburn [4.1p. ‘The following are some of the conditions under which the combined spread footings are adopted (Dunham [4.2)): 1. When a row of columns is so close to the neighbouring building line that the individual spread footing near the neighbouring building line will be loaded eccentrically, then the footing of the outer column is joined together to the footing of the interior column to form the combined footing [see Figure 4.1(a)]. 2. When two nearby columns are so close that their individual spread footings nearly coincide, itis advisable to connect the individual footings to act as combined footing, [see Figure 4.1 (b)] 3. When two columns in a row at the ground level are subjected to uplift, overturning moment and horizontal forces, the combined spread footing provides the most satisfactory solution in construction [see Figure 4.1 (c)}, Sometimes the columns are tied together by introducing a beam to create more structural rigidity and allowing the footing slab to act transversely. and also the beam to span between the columns. 4, When the individual footing of two or more columns is founded on soil of variable and ow bearing value and subjected to differential settlements, a combined spread footing under the columns is recommended [see Figure 4.1 (d)] 33, 84 FOUNDATION DESIGN IN PRACTICE “wef inercumnrow —al Isolated footings shown in doted Ines Le iter | f ae aur | cammerereaT Reng (a) Showing outer column row, so cose to the ouldng line thet isolated footing will be eccentrcaly loaded. Combined {eoting recommended Te beam between pedestals (eptioral) carly ta (0) Showing isolated fcotings (in dttod lines) of two nearby columns too chse to nearly coincide. is advisable to have combines footing. Isolated footings shown in dated nes “t y ‘Camibined footing [0) Showing twe pedestals of atest subjected to vertical loads, uplift and nerizonlal forces. A combined footing provides satstactory solution. ‘Sometimes, a beam is introduced to Combined oot 1 (1 eames} (@) Showing igolated footings (in dotted lines) subjected to diferent sottements ‘due 1 variabe and low bearing value of Soil and high differences in colurm Foaaings. in tis conaton, a combined tie up the pedestals and also to bring focting is recommended ‘igity to the fourdation, FIGURE 4.1. Combined spread footings under various conditions. 5. The important point to be bore in mind in determining the dimensions of the combined footing that the dimensions of the footing should be so chosen that the resultant the column loads passes through the centroid of the base area to give a uniform bearing, pressure so as to avoid differential settlements. A rectangular footing is always preferred. 4.1 BEHAVIOUR OF COMBINED FOOTING SUBJECTED TO UPWARD SOIL CONTACT PRESSURE The combined spread footing under two or more vertically loaded columns will behave as a slab of simply supported or continuous member under the vertical point loads of columns and subjected to upward contact pressure. The contact pressure will tend to deflect the footing slab upwards in the regions between the spacing of columns, thus creating tensions at the top face of slab and also botiom face of slab under the column. The tension in the concrete is resisted by introducing, reinforcement [see Figure 4.2 (a). When the upward contact pressure is very high and the spacing of columns is large, the beams are introduced between the columns to bring high stiffness to the footing and at the same COMBINED SPREAD FOOTING FOUNDATIONS 85 time to resist greater moments and shear. The introduction of this inverted T-beam will reduce the thickness of slab of the footing and the slab will act transversely as cantilevers over the beam a. Tension face 1 | e-catumn st mid-epen Combined spread feoting slab Tension face Provision of tocdor colin relnfercertont - ‘Bending moment : ‘Sapam 4 Shen force degra (a) Snowing combined spread footing Heaviy loaded Colm _Forlong span and heavily loaded columns: xe Erte etary sesnarantt 4 Colune and east rgra wh slab ou IIIT i i Coo OO Inverted T-boam (6) Plan showing combined epread footing wih connected atfening bear, FIGURE 4.2 Combined footing, 4.2 BEARING CAPACITY OF SOIL 4.2.1 To Determine the Allowable Bearing Capacity of Soil using BS 8004: 1986 (Foundations) Before determining the size of footing, we should at first determine the bearing capacity of soi Referring to Chapter 2 (Geotechnies): Ultimate bearing capacity as formulated by ‘Terzaghi [4.7] the semi-empirical equation for square footing Eq. 2.9) in Chapier 2, 86 FOUNDATION DESIGN IN PRACTICE Wa=13xexNty Nj+ 04% 7x Bx. For rectangular footing, the above equation may be modified as skempion [4.8] where B= width of footing L= length of footing. 4.2.2 To Determine the Allowable Bearing Capacity of Soil using Eurocode 7: 2004 (Geotechnical Design) Refer to Annex D: A sample analytical method for bearing resistance calculation. 4.3 SIZE OF FOOTING In determining the size of the footing, the resultant of column loads should coincide with the CG of footing base area so that a uniform contact pressure may be obtained. The footing may be trapezoidal or of any shape, but rectangular base is preferable for reinforcement detailing, 4.4 DESIGN EXAMPLE 1—DESIGN OF A COMBINED SPREAD FOOTING 4.4.1 Design Data Consider the foundation of a tower of two legs subjected to the following loadings: The left leg loadings at base: Vertical downward thrust (unfactored), 7= 2000 kN 4 The right leg loadings at base: Vertical downward thrust (unfactored), V2 = 2500 kN L The size of columns 600 mm x 600 mm; the foundation depth from ground level = 2.0 m; the spacing of column is 6.0m Geotechnical dota of ground: The top 300 mm of soil is made up of ground underlain by sandy clay of considerable depth. We are to design a combined spread footing. The following procedures are carried out: © To determine the bearing capacity of soil © To obtain the sizing of the footing © To calculate the net upward contact pressure of soil under the footing © To design the reinforced concrete footing foundation, COMBINED SPREAD FOOTING FOUNDATIONS 87 4. ‘To determine bearing capacity of soil using BS 8004: 1986 (Foundations) [4.3] Referring to Table 2.4 (approximate allowable bearing capacity of soil) in Chapter 2, approximate bearing capacity of soil type clay and sand mixed at 2.m depth, g =275 kNim? ‘Total loads 2 The Bearing Capacity of Soil in Sandy Clay V+ V= (2000 +2500) = 4500 KN Therefi f footing ba ined = “20 = 16.4 ne erefore, area of footing base required = S75" = 16.4 mv Assume the width of footing is 2.5 m. So, the length of base required is tos 2 Assume a length, L Therefore, assume approximate size of footing base is 2.5 m x 8.0 m. Now, referring to Eq. (2.9) for ultimate bearing capacity of soil 0 (spacing of columns) + 0.6 m (width of column) + 1.4 (overhang) = 8.0 m Ge=WXEX Ng AVAXBXBXN, — assuming Assuming, = 20KNim> 2.5 m (width of footing) 2.0 m (depth of foundation below ground) o= 30° and referring to Terzagh''s graph (Figure 2.5, Chapter 2) of bearing capacity factors N,=22andN, = 20 ‘Therefore, u=20X 2X 22 + 0.4 X20 x 2.5 x 20 = 1280 KNin Deduct the weight of overburden 2 m of soil at foundation depths 20 2=40 KNim? Hence, net ultimate bearing capacity of soil, aos) = 1280 —40= 1240 KN/m? using a factor of safety = 3.0 (as the footing is subjected to heavy unequal loadings). Hence, net safe bearing capacity of soil, Ge= = 413 RNin? again adding 2 m column of soil excavated. Thus, gross safe bearing capacity of soi eros = 413 +40 = 453 KN/m? 88 FOUNDATION DESIGN IN PRACTICE So, adopt a safe bearing capacity of soil, q= 450k) ‘To determine bearing capacity of soil using Eurocode 7: 2004 (Geotechnical design) [4.4] Referring to Annex D of Eurocode 7, allowable bearing pressure in clayey sand at 2 m depth (assuming c’ = 0) R Gap MYX NR DX Sy Xi t OS XY KBE XN YX By Xy % by (For drained condition) where R= design besring resistance B'xL’ (where B’ and 1’ are effective foundation width and length, respectively) 5 m;L’=L=8.6m q’ = design effective overburden pressure at 2 m depth = 2 x 20 kN/m? = 40 kN/m? += b= inclination factor of foundation = {1 ~ ax tan (0°/%)] where 9 ~ effective angle of shearing resistance of soil = 30° 125 “= partial factor for angle of shearing resistance (see Table A.2 of Eurocode 7) 135 = inclination of foundation base = 0° oax(23)-08 8.6 inclination factor of the load, caused by a horizontal load £7 r ‘m) =|!1- if veatucreca{ # tonearm L Ww : if me) [rsseaersn{ 2”) (sine =O ane = 0) % COMBINED SPREAD FOOTING FOUNDATIONS 89 where 2+) [5 @m) my when Hf acts in the direction of [2+ (LB) =m TB) m when H acts in the direction of L’ BY and L’ are effective width and length of foundation base. lesign effective weight of soil = 20 kN/m’ wed ED cu’ a(*) 2 = el 1241 tan?|45 + 12] =9.6 2x8.6 x tan 24 = 7.66 Ny =2x(N, ~» xin) ‘Therefore, . da Allowable design bearing capacity of oi HY AN Spee OS IEN, BB) 24, 15 10 X 9.6K 1X 1K1+0.5x 20% 2.5 x 7.66 x 1x 0.91 K1 558 KN/m? Adopt allowable design bearing capacity of soil qa= 450 KN/m? 4.4.3. To Calculate the Size of Footing With the above safe bearing capacity of soil of 450 kN/m?, ‘Area of combined footing required is 4500 450 Tillnow we have considered only the vertical loads without considering the eccentricity developed due to unequal loadings. Moment developed due to unequal loadings, Vyx3 So, the size of the footing should be increased to keep the actual contact pressure within allowable value. In order to attain equal uniform contact pressure (that is ideal), the CG of load system should coincide with the CG of base. To find the CG of load system, take moments about left hand load line. Therefore, 0m? (2500 ~ 2000) = 500 x 3 = 1500 KN m. (yt Vy xx= Wax 500 x x The CG of load system acts at a distance 3.33 m from left load. 250 x 6; = 2500 x 350 90 FOUNDATION DESIGN IN PRACTICE So, to bring the contact pressure uniform for the whole length of footing, the footing to be extended is 1.6 m from the centre of right-hand column, ‘Therefore, adopt the size of foi BXL=25mx8.6m [see Figure 4.3(a)] 4.4.4 To Calculate the Actual Gross Contact Pressure due to Vertical Loads and Moments Developed Asit is difficult to install shear reinforcement in slab, the thickness is to be so designed that the actual shear stress in concrete shall be within the allowable value. ‘The minimum design concrete shear stress (v,) should not exceed 0.34 N/mm: for conerete thickness of 400 mm oF more with minimum % of steel (0.15). Considering the above point, assume a minimum thickness of footing slab, D = 800 mm. Vertical loads Characteristic dead load from column, G, 984 KN Unfactored vertical loads from columns = (2000 +2500) KN = 4500 KN Self-weight of footing =25x8.6% 08x24 = 413 KN Soil overburden over footing = 2.5 x 8.6~2%0.6 x 0,6) x 1.220 = 499 KN Toul TKN 2000 KN 2500 { (0) Peintercoment GL | [== 600 x 600 column neeaee Wil i 7s ..| | [Tis eosea snearinnsstezgea) @ 200ccq—| | [+ — shear lanes wo TT I -= fo-o0] [= ZS +000 wo -TmeTeae —| ao (oe te ee NTC CE kvm? (6) 8M dagram { 403 ktm (6) SF diagram st, 2260 i! +1260 4a A) TiBsausage: Tinks) 2200 ve Cae one (2600 (NTS) T 16 inks @290 le ‘Section A-A (1) Foundation reinforcement (@) Pan FIGURE 4.3 Combined spread footing COMBINED SPREAD FOOTING FOUNDATIONS 94 Therefore, gross uniform contact pressure S412 Paws) ~ Gse85) ~25ZKN™ 2.5 =—158x25 =395kNm and net Fve moment at mid-span 2 315x = (cers), 8 2 2. To calculate shears at various sections (see Figure 4.3 (@)|: To find reaction at left hand support, take moments about right hand support. So, 843KNm [see Figure 4.3 (@)] Ry = 1219 x 2.5 = 3048 KN R,=315X 86 x 2.5 ~ 3048 = 3725 kN 92 FOUNDATION DESIGN IN PRACTICE Hence, = shear at a distance 4 = 700 from face of right support (600 mm) 1 = 315 2.5 X0.6= 473 KN = shear at right of right-hand support = 315 X 2.5 x 1.6= 1260 kN = shear at left of right-hand support ~ R, ~V~ 3725 ~ 1260 ~ 2465 kN hear at from left face of right support = 2465 ~ 315 x 1 x 2.5 = 1678 kN hear at lef of left support =315 x 2.5 x 1 = 788 kN hear at right of left support = R,— V, = 3048 — 788 = 2260 kN shear at d trom face of left support = V7,—315 2.5 x 1 = 1473 KN. To calculate the reinforcement and depth of footing slab at mid span: Consider section at mid span, M, = 2843 KN m (calculated above). Assume, the depth of footing, D= 800 mm. ‘The effective depth, d= 800 ~75 (cover) ~ 12 (link) ~ 2 (main bar) = 700 mm (vith f= 40 N/mm; f,= 460 N/mm?) k=“ __~843x_10 ___ oss Bed? x fy 2500% 700? x 40 K’ = 0.156 (where redistribution does not exezed 10% and assumed NA depth ~ 0.5) Since K is less than K’, no compression reinforcement is required. ver ern ~ifos-(os—K)"=a[ose(ao2s-2288)"] 00 09) which fs within 0.954 Hence, My 10° _ 5 area of steel = G95, ~°89* So5x-460x053% 700 Area required per m width of footing = 2223 = 3697 mm? Adopt: T32 @ 175 mm ¢/c top and T20 @ 175 mm e/c bottom [see Figure 4.3 (e)]. Area of reinforcement provided = 4596 mm?, and 800 mm depth of footing slab. To check the shear stress: Maximum shear at d from left face of right suppor, ‘Shear stress 1674 KN Vy _1674x:10° Na 8 TOT = 0.96 Nim? (Bxd) 2500x700 COMBINED SPREAD FOOTING FOUNDATIONS 93 less than 08 Jfa, =0.8x V40 =5 Némm* Now, to check if shear reinforcement is required % of reinforcement 100 x 4 = 100 x —4596___ =. xa "* G000x 700) Therefore, os (0) 0179(100x *.) 50200) 945 N/mm? by 1.25 As vis greater than (+ 0.4), ie. (0.45 + 0.8)= 0.95, the area of shear reinforcements as links to be provided where readth of section = 2500 mm pacing of links = 200 mm hear strength of links = 460 Nimi 200 (0.96 - 0.45) (0.95x 460) 4 583mm" Adopt: 3, T16 close links @ 200 c/e for the whole length of slab (area provided = 603 mm*) [see Figure 4.3 (9) To design the inforced conerete footing foundation using Eurocode 2: 2004 [4.6] Netupwardsoilpressure pygi Assuming a thickness of slab of 800 mm to avoid the application of shear reinforcement, Net upward soil pressure Pe Ultimate moment: As the vertical column loads are combined dead and live loads, we may assume an average partial safety factor 10 kN/m? (as calculated in previous section) Las +h5 % =143 ‘Therefore, net ultimate uniform upward contact pressure = 143 210 = 300 KN/m? Now to calculate moments and shear at various sections for whole width of slab: 16? (@) ultimate eantitever-ve moment at right suppert = 300% *F— x 2.5= 960 kN m 1 (b) ultimate cantilever -ve moment at left support = 300 x x 2.5=375 kN m 94 FOUNDATION DESIGN IN PRACTICE é (©) ultimate +e moment at mid span ofslab = 300% x 2.5 — Design of section: Consider the section at mid span: Ultimate design moment = 2708 KN m ‘Assume depth D= 800 mm; d= 800 — 40 (cover) ~ 16 (1/2 bar diameter) — 12 (link) = 732 mm My oma!" __- 067 (bd fad (2500 x 732° x 30) and K’=0.6-0.18~0.21 =0.21 Since K < K*, no compression reinforcement is required, pies A+ (1—3.53x0067)"] 21.87 My, 2708 x10° x2 G00x0.93x 732) 1956 mn A, required per m width 795 3182 mm? 25 Adopt: T32 at 175 mm e/e top and 20 al 175 mm ele bottom (Area of reinforcement provided = 4596 mm). ‘Check for shears Consider shear at a distance d from leit face of right column: Shear at a distance d (0.732 m) from left face of right support 2500 - 210 x 2.63 x 2.5 = 1180 KN With a partial safety factor 7; = 1.43 (average) Ultimate shear A3 x 1180 KN = 1687 kN Ultimate applied shear stress Vea 1687 x10" = 9 95 Nijisan? (xd) (2500732) AL _ 4596 — 496 _ 9.0063 bxd 1000x732 05 os e=1+(2) =1-(2) d 72. A 52<20 COMBINED SPREAD FOOTING FOUNDATIONS 95 Vie =allowable design shear stress = 0.12 x £x (100 x py fe)! 12 1.52 x (100 x 0.0063 x 30)! = 0.48 Némm?< 0.92. Nimm Asallowable design shear stress is less than the applied shear stress, the slab shall be designed as beam with shear reinforcement in form of links. In Eurocode, the capacity of assumed conerete strut in beam shall be considered. Maximum strut capecity in terms of stress .2 Nimm? va X max cot 9= 0.48 x Ultimate applied shear stress at from left face of right support 1687 x 10° (6, 2) 2500 09x 732 02 Nmm? Since vag At base of left leg of tower: upl At base of right leg of tower: downward vertical = 200 kN J; horizontal fore = 40 kN —> The foundation is placed at @ depth 3.0 m from the ground level. Geotechnical data of ground ‘Top two metre of made-up ground is underlain by alluvium of $m depth under which lies 2 m of gravel river terrace depos Yo ~ Weight of soil = 20 kN/m* 96 FOUNDATION DESIGN IN PRACTICE C= undisturbed undrained shear strength of soil = 20 kN‘m? ¢” = effective angle of shearing resistance of soil in degrees = 25 To design a combined footing 4.5.1. To Determine the Bearing Capacity of Soil at 3 m Depth ‘To calculate the bearing capacity using BS 8004: 1986 (Foundations) Referring, to Eq. (2.9) in Chapter 2, ultimate bearing capacity of soil for square bases: G2 1B KEXNG+ YX 2%N, + OA HK BX where ©, = 20 KN/m? 5 (from Figure 2.5); (20-10) = 10 kim? 0 m from GL. 2 (rom Figure 2.5) As the water table is nearly at ground level, weight of water to be deducted. B=2.5 m (assumed) and N,=10 (from Figure 2.5) As the base is rectangular, the value of N, is modified as, (oss +016x4)xw, =(os4+0 16x22), oss +0192) ; Gu= 13 X20 X22 +103 x 12 +04 x 10 x 2.5 x 10 = 1032 KN/m? Deduct 3 m of soil overburden Therefore, net ultimate bearing capacity of soil Gu (ney = 1032-60 = (subjected to high overturning moment), net safe bearing capacity 12 KN/m? Assuming a factor of safe of soil pros 243 +60 = 303 (say 300 KN/m?) With undrained conditions 20 kim? COMBINED SPREAD FOOTING FOUNDATIONS 97 Design bearing capacity = (4+ 2)x ——_u__ = OF DT xs Reg (+2) factor for the inclination of foundation base -2x = 1.0 (since @= inclination of base = 0) shape factor for the foundation base = 1 + 0.2 x (2) for rectangular base 25 =140.2x 06 9 (where A and 1’ = effective width and length = 2.5 m and 9m) factor due to horizontal force ——_—} _. 2h ae a] alvlass: a Therefore, design bearing capacity of soil qq = +) x 9 __s 00 xn? 1.4.x 1x 1.06 x 0.91 +(20-10)3 4.5.2 To Calculate the Size of Footing Assume, The size of footing ~ 2.5 mwide x 9 m long x 0.5 m thick ‘The size of pedestal= $00 mm? Connecting beam = 0.4 m wide x 2.2 m depth Weight of foundation: Base =2.5x9x0Sx24 = 270kN Pedestal = 0.5X05%2.7x24 = 16 KN Beam -5.5%2.2%04%24 = 11GKN otal 402 iN Soil overburden = (9 x 2.5? 2.x 0.5* 2.7 -5.5X 2.2 x 0.4) 10= 509 kN (submerged weight of soil considered) total = OLN Net vertical column loads = (200-150) = 50 kN Total vertical downward load, W 961 KN 98 FOUNDATION DESIGN IN PRACTICE In addition, moments due to unbalanced loads and horizontal forces: Take moments about the right-hand edge of base slab, M= 150. 7.5 ~ 200% 1.5 +40X23.2= 1081 KN m Z, (section modulus), Therefore, maximum soil pressure WM __961_, 1081 AZ, 9x25" 3375 Fos 75 kN/m? <100 N/m? Minimum soil pressure, Iran = 43-32 = 11 kN/m? So, the assumed size of base (2.5 m x 9 m) is satisfactory. Hence, adopt size of footing base. 2.5 mwide x 9 m long x 0.5 m thick [see Figure 4.4¢a)] 4.5.3 To Design the Reinforced Concrete Foundation To design the reinforced conerete foundation using BS 8110: Part 1: 1997 The design of bottom slab: 1. To calculate the net upward contact pressure: Maximum net upward contact pressure 200-150, 1081 "25x9 "338 2432-342 (say 34 kN/m?) Minimum net upward contact pressure (say—30 kim?) [see Figure 4.4 (b)] To calculate the distance where the pressure is zero, let.x be the distance from maximum contact pressure to zero pressure. Then x4 (9-x) 30 ‘Therefore, x= 4.8 m. To calculate the net contact pressure at centre of right-hand pedestal pat3.3=34 x SS =23 kNim? COMBINED SPREAD FOOTING FOUNDATIONS 99 150iN 200k a soi sow —4 sep | t 20. Made ground | ! | "300 x 500 pedestal —{»/ Inverted T-beam z200 {000 | | 400 wide x 2700 depth 490 Foothg sb —e] : #00 1500 | 6900 1500 som s3 kien? FETT Alluvium T fre contact pressure diagram ae 34 in arom? —! | 25 kNnt | L—29 kNim® |__s00 1500, 400 00 t 0, = ——_] a [ K So, no compression reinforcement is required lever arm factor al(oso2s-4) Jre{05+(025—20%27) | ove But should not be more than 0.95d. ‘Therefore, area of steel per m - 91x10° My (095% 460 x 095% 400)] 1 2 095% f, Ke as um Therefore, adopt T12 @ 200 e/e bottom both ways (area provided = 565 mn [see Figure 4.4(¢)]. Minimum area of steel required ~ 0.013 x 1000 x400~ 520 mm: ‘< 565 mm?. It is satisfactory Also, provide TLO @ 200 e/e top bothways. 4. To check for shear siress: Contact pressure at d from fuee of pedestal 3.95 pB.95) =34 x > = 28 kN/m? COMBINED SPREAD FOOTING FOUNDATIONS 101 Consider the whole width of slab of 2500 mm. Ultimate shear at a distance 400 mm from the face of pedestal, V, =15%2.5 x 3434 99 ky, 2x08: Shear sress, vg = = IO 9. N/mm? xd 2500% 400 %of sec, 100x—4 = 100x—° _ ed 0 F000 x 400 Allownbie shea seo, 079100 ae ) (2) oxa) “GG =079 0.14" x1 =0.24>¥, 125 Therefore, no shear reinforcement is required. Design of inverted T-beam connecting the pedestal 1. Net contact pressure: Net contact pressure at 1.5 m from right support = 34 kN/m? (calculated before) Net contact pressure at centre of right support = 23 kN/m?(calculated before) 3.05 Net contact pressure at left fice of right support = 34 x “> = 21.6 kN/m? 0.55 2 Net contact pressure ato (2500 mm) from left of ight support= 34 x “==> = 4 KNim? At3.3 m left of right support = 0 X33x23%2 ‘Total net upward contact pressure on the beam -95 kNim? 2 ‘To find reactions at supports, take moments about right support a x6n25(Leaseaoxd or 5 1 XNSXBIX25— R= 2O1KN sce Figure 4.4(6)] 2. To calculate moments: Moment at the inner face of pedestal 402 FOUNDATION DESIGN IN PRACTICE 5 With a partial safety factor y= M,=15%66.5=100kKNm [see Figure 4.4 (©)] To calculate the reinforcement: ‘The beam will be designed as inverted T-beam with the botiom slab acting as compression member. Beam width, = 2500 mm Rib By = 400 min x = neutral axis depth = (d ~ z)/0.45 = 278 mm is within the slab. So, to be treated as. beam, My 100 10° 095% f, xz 0.95 460x 0.95 x 2500 With 400 A =0.16<04 2500 Minimum area of steel required 0.0018 b, x D = 0.0018 x 400 x 2600 = 1872 mm? Adopt: 4,125 bar at bottom and 2,120 bar at top Area of tension stec! provided = 1963 m [see Figure 4.4(c]] |. To check shear stress: Shear at a distance d (2500 mm) from left face of right-hand column v-[x V,=15xV=23KN [see Figure 4.4 (d)] 0.3-275)x2.0%25]=1 55 kN, vw 10° xd 725% 4902500 ~ 0-002 Nim? (Negligibley Percentage of steel 196: = 100% = 100 x —* 13-02 100% Goa) 400 x 2500 Allowable shear stress 079 ys 9 5000.47 Nimmo 123 *?' Se = 0.37 N/mm: Ve Theoretically, no shear reinforcement required. Provide nominal T 12 shear links @300 e/e for the whole length of beam [see Figure 4.4 (e)} COMBINED SPREAD FOOTING FOUNDATIONS 403 To design the reinforced concrete foundation using Eurocode 2: 2004: Refer to Figure 4.5. 15010 200KN ot 40% soi 8 i ian sie | wnt | i Inverted T-boam | Sooxso0petsi—/* | scowidena7on ors | | Lago (#00 soon a ————_ L Ly 6000 Lyi 11500 5.0m 1kNm*® 1 mca TE sg i oi ey |_| Gress contac pressurediagram = || = 45 kN? ih + | 415 kim? a omen CT | 1 | 4 se eum? 20m | For beam 84 kNm—1 | | 3650 Ll oo | 6000) in Gu l 2.725 main bare _ fee Tinks@300 ce PUAN et 2200 wo unl ralewole | ‘Showing RC details ‘Section A-A 6000) Plan FIGURE 4.5 Combined spread footing subjected to uplit and horizontal thrust. 404 FOUNDATION DESIGN IN PRACTICE Design of bottom slab 1 To calculate the net upward contact pressure: Netsoil pressure due to vertical dead load, so Oo Ox2H Net soil pressure due to wind load 2.2 N/m? inet ez (Gee previous section) With partial factor for dead load, Gi ‘Ani partial factor for wind load, 1, = yy = 1.5 Ultimate net soil pressure due to Gy = 1.35 x 2.2 = 3 N/m? Ultimate soil pressure due to. W,=+ 1.5 x32 = 48 kN/m? Therefore, maximum ultimate soil pressure Pat max 3+ 48 = 51 KNim? Minimum ultimate soil pressure Patinas=—45 kN/? To calenlate ultimate moment in slab at foce of right column: Consider the slab of fall 2.5 m wide acts as cantilever. Ultimate soil pressure at face of right column 48 Ultimate moment at face of column ee +Berasasx2 xias)x25 (slab width) = 88 KN m ) M, =|38x . To determine reinforcement: Assume the slab thickness, D = 500 m Effective depth = 500 — 40 (cover) ~1.5 x 16 (bar diameter) = 436 mm My 88x10" ORE K fq) 2500 436? x30) 0062 K’ =0.6 ~ 0.18 ~ 0.21 = 0.21 (assuming 0% redistribution) ASK A, required Therefore, adopt: T16 @ 200 e/e bottom both ways (area provided = 1005 mm?) And T12 @ 200 e/e top both ways (see Figure 4.3). 4. To check for shear siress in Slab: The shear stress to be calculated at a distance d from the face of column: Ultimate soil pressure ata distance 436 mm fiom the face of column 3.986 six Ultimate shear at a distance 436 mm from the face of column (2 kNim? 1 Veg 3 X 0814 (42 + 51) x2.5= 95 KN Ultimate applied shear stress ¥, 95x 10° Ved <= = 0.09 Nimm* (xd) (2500x436) ‘Concrete shear stress capacity without shear reinforcement Va = O12 KX (100 X 2,Xfa)!? where ra1e(™) +(22) 145<2 (OK) 36 aa 1003 _ 5993 Gay 600% 436) “Therefore Vpd= 0.12 x 1.45 x (100 x 0.0023 x 30)" = 0.33 Nimm* >>v,4(0.09 Nimm?) So, no shear reinforcement is required in stab Design of inverted T-beam connecting the pedestal L. Net ultimate contact pressure: From netultimate pressure diagram as stated previously ‘and assuming whole width of slab of 2.5 m: Maximum net ultimate upward soil pressure/m at 1.5 m from the right support 512.5 128 KNim 106 FOUNDATION DESIGN IN PRACTICE Net ultimate soil pressure at the centre of right-hand pedestal 355 128 x Fos =90 kNim Net ultimate soil pressure at the inner face of right support ney 33 128 x 595 Net ultimate soil pressure at a distance d irom inner face of right column 84kNim sox 22 0x PT = BkNM Gee Figue 4.) Right reaction 1 505% 138 x 582 % 5.05% 128 x =F 14 kN Left reaction 1 Ry= 3 X5.05 128-314 =9 KN Ultimate moment and shear: Ultimate moment at the centre of right suppor, 130 KN m Ultimate moment at inner face of right support, 115? et 84x Ultimate moment at3.: m from right support, 1 2 =F 5.05 128 x 5 x 5.05 +314 x3.55= +27 KN m With the above values, draw BM diagram (see Figure 4.5) Ultimate shear at centre of right support 1