Contents
[hide]
1 Introduction
2 General Methodology
2.1 Step 1: Data Gathering
2.2.3.1 Feeders
2.2.3.2 Motors
2.3 Step 3: Voltage Drop
4 Waterfall Charts
5 Template
6 International Standards
6.1 IEC
6.2 NEC
6.3 BS
6.4 AS/NZS
Introduction
This article examines the sizing of electrical cables (i.e. crosssectional area) and its
implementation in various international standards. Cable sizing methods do differ across
international standards (e.g. IEC, NEC, BS, etc) and some standards emphasise certain things
over others. However the general principles underlying any cable sizing calculation do not
change. In this article, a general methodology for sizing cables is first presented and then the
specific international standards are introduced.
Withstand the worst short circuits currents flowing through the cable
Provide the load with a suitable voltage (and avoid excessive voltage drops)
General Methodology
All cable sizing methods more or less follow the same basic six step process:
1) Gathering data about the cable, its installation conditions, the load that it will carry,
etc
2) Determine the minimum cable size based on continuous current carrying capacity
3) Determine the minimum cable size based on voltage drop considerations
4) Determine the minimum cable size based on short circuit temperature rise
5) Determine the minimum cable size based on earth fault loop impedance
6) Select the cable based on the highest of the sizes calculated in step 2, 3, 4 and 5
Load Details
The characteristics of the load that the cable will supply, which includes:
Full load current (A)  or calculate this if the load is defined in terms of power (kW)
Distance / length of cable run from source to load  this length should be as close as
possible to the actual route of the cable and include enough contingency for vertical
drops / rises and termination of the cable tails
Cable Construction
The basic characteristics of the cable's physical construction, which includes:
Conductor surface coating  e.g. plain (no coating), tinned, silver or nickel
Installation Conditions
How the cable will be installed, which includes:
Cable bunching, i.e. the number of cables that are bunched together
For single core threephase cables, are the cables installed in trefoil or laid flat?
Table 1. Example of base current rating table (Excerpt from IEC 60364552)
International standards and manufacturers of cables will quote base current ratings of different
types of cables in tables such as the one shown on the right. Each of these tables pertain to a
specific type of cable construction (e.g. copper conductor, PVC insulated, 0.6/1kV voltage grade,
etc) and a base set of installation conditions (e.g. ambient temperature, installation method,
etc). It is important to note that the current ratings are only valid for the quoted types of cables
and base installation conditions.
In the absence of any guidance, the following reference based current ratings may be used.
where
For example, suppose a cable had an ambient temperature derating factor of kamb =
0.94 and a grouping derating factor of kg = 0.85, then the overall derating factor kd =
0.94x0.85 = 0.799. For a cable with a base current rating of 42A, the installed current
rating would be Ic = 0.799x42 = 33.6A.
In the absence of any guidance, the following reference derating factors may be used.
Where
Where
Current flow through the cable the higher the current flow, the higher the voltage
drop
Impedance of the conductor the larger the impedance, the higher the voltage drop
Cable Impedances
The impedance of the cable is a function of the cable size (crosssectional area) and the
length of the cable. Most cable manufacturers will quote a cables resistance and reactance
in /km. The following typical cable impedances for low voltage AC and DC single core and
multicore cables can be used in the absence of any other data.
Where
Where
Where
It is customary for standards (or clients) to specify maximum permissible voltage drops, which is
the highest voltage drop that is allowed across a cable. Should your cable exceed this voltage
drop, then a larger cable size should be selected.
Maximum voltage drops across a cable are specified because load consumers (e.g. appliances)
will have an input voltage tolerance range. This means that if the voltage at the appliance is
lower than its rated minimum voltage, then the appliance may not operate correctly.
In general, most electrical equipment will operate normally at a voltage as low as 80% nominal
voltage. For example, if the nominal voltage is 230VAC, then most appliances will run at
>184VAC. Cables are typically sized for a more conservative maximum voltage drop, in the
range of 5 10% at full load.
Where
Where
(m)
is the maximum permissible single phase voltage drop (V)
is the nominal full load or starting current as applicable (A)
is the ac resistance of the cable (/km)
Where
Where
Limiting TemperatureoC
PVC
75
160
EPR
90
250
XLPE
90
250
could potentially experience. However for circuits with current limiting devices (such as HRC
fuses), then the short circuit energy chosen should be the maximum prospective letthrough
energy of the protective device, which can be found from manufacturer data.
current must exceed the fuse melting current at 5s (which can be found by crossreferencing the
fuse timecurrent curves).
By simple application of Ohm's law:
Where
is the earth fault current required to trip the protective device within the
Where
Where
and
(/km)
and
are the reactances of the active and earth conductors respectively (/km)
Where
Where
(/km)
and
are the reactances of the active and earth conductors respectively (/km)
Note that the voltage V0 at the protective device is not necessarily the nominal phase to earth
voltage, but usually a lower value as it can be downstream of the main busbars. This voltage is
commonly represented by applying some factor
of
Worked Example
In this example, we will size a cable for a 415V, 37kW threephase motor from the MCC to the
field.
Cable installation: above ground on cable ladder bunched together with 3 other cables
on a single layer and at 30C ambient temperature
Motor load: 37kW, 415V three phase, full load current = 61A, power factor = 0.85
Protection: aM fuse of rating = 80A, max prospective fault I2t = 90 A2s , 5s melt time
= 550A
101A = 73.71A respectively. Given that the full load current of the motor is 61A, then the
installed current rating of the 16 mm2 cable is lower than the full load current and is not suitable
for continuous use with the motor. The 25 mm2 cable on the other hand has an installed current
rating that exceeds the motor full load current, and is therefore the cable that should be
selected.
In this example, we also use the fuse for earth fault protection and it needs to trip within 5s,
which is at the upper end of the adiabatic period where the short circuit temperature rise
equation is still valid. Therefore, it's a good idea to also check that the cable can withstand the
short circuit temperature rise for for a 5s fault. The 80A motor fuse has a 5s melting current of
550A. The short circuit temperature rise is thus:
The cable run is 90m and the maximum length allowed is 108m, therefore our cable is suitable
based on earth fault loop impedance. In fact, our 25 mm2 cable has passed all the tests and is the
size that should be selected.
Waterfall Charts
Sometimes it is convenient to group together similar types of cables (for example, 415V PVC
motor cables installed on cable ladder) so that instead of having to go through the laborious
exercise of sizing each cable separately, one can select a cable from a precalculated chart.
These charts are often called "waterfall charts" and typically show a list of load ratings and the
maximum of length of cable permissible for each cable size. Where a particular cable size fails to
meet the requirements for current carrying capacity or short circuit temperature rise, it is
blacked out on the chart (i.e. meaning that you can't choose it).
Preparing a waterfall chart is common practice when having to size many like cables and
substantially cuts down the time required for cable selection.
Template
A professional, fully customisable Excel spreadsheet template for cable sizing waterfall charts can
be purchased from Tradebit.
The template is based on the calculation procedure described in this page and includes waterfall
charts for:
International Standards
IEC
IEC 60364552 (2009) "Electrical installations in buildings  Part 552: Selection and erection of
electrical equipment  Wiring systems" is the IEC standard governing cable sizing.
NEC
NFPA 70 (2011) "National Electricity Code" is the equivalent standard for IEC 60364 in North
America and includes a section covering cable sizing in Article 300.
BS
BS 7671 (2008) "Requirements for Electrical Installations  IEE Wiring Regulations" is the
equivalent standard for IEC 60364 in the United Kingdom.
AS/NZS
AS/NZS 3008.1 (2009) "Electrical installations  Selection of cables  Cables for alternating
voltages up to and including 0.6/1 kV" is the standard governing low voltage cable sizing in
Australia and New Zealand. AS/NZS 3008.1.1 is for Australian conditions and AS/NZS 3008.1.2 is
for New Zealand conditions.
Computer Software
Cablesizer is a free online application for sizing cables to NEC and IEC standards.
Most of the major power systems analysis software packages (e.g. ETAP, PTW, etc) have a cable
sizing module. There also exists other (offline) software packages that include cable sizing (for
example from Solutions Electrical UK).
Android application
Cablesizer for Android is a free (beta) version of the cable sizing tool "Cablesizer".
Earthing Calculation
Contents
1 Introduction
2 Calculation Methodology
2.1 Prerequisites
3 Worked Example
5 What next?
Introduction
The earthing system in a plant / facility is very important for a few reasons, all of which are
related to either the protection of people and equipment and/or the optimal operation of the
electrical system. These include:
The earthing system provides a low resistance return path for earth faults within the
plant, which protects both personnel and equipment
For earth faults with return paths to offsite generation sources, a low resistance
earthing grid relative to remote earth prevents dangerous ground potential rises
(touch and step potentials)
The earthing system provides a low resistance path (relative to remote earth) for
voltage transients such as lightning and surges / overvoltages
Equipotential bonding helps prevent electrostatic buildup and discharge, which can
cause sparks with enough energy to ignite flammable atmospheres
The earthing system provides a reference potential for electronic circuits and helps
reduce electrical noise for electronic, instrumentation and communication systems
This calculation is based primarily on the guidelines provided by IEEE Std 80 (2000), "Guide for
safety in AC substation grounding". Lightning protection is excluded from the scope of this
calculation (refer to the specific lightning protection calculation for more details).
Determine the minimum size of the earthing conductors required for the main earth
grid
Ensure that the earthing design is appropriate to prevent dangerous step and touch
potentials (if this is necessary)
Calculation Methodology
This calculation is based on IEEE Std 80 (2000), "Guide for safety in AC substation grounding".
There are two main parts to this calculation:
IEEE Std 80 is quite descriptive, detailed and easy to follow, so only an overview will be
presented here and IEEE Std 80 should be consulted for further details (although references will
be given herein).
Prerequisites
The following information is required / desirable before starting the calculation:
Soil resistivity measurements at the site (for touch and step only)
Resistivity of any surface layers intended to be laid (for touch and step only)
Where
is
is the thermal capacity of the conductor per unit volume(Jcm  3C  1)
The material constants Tm, r, r and TCAP for common conductor materials can be found in IEEE
Std 80 Table 1. For example. commercial harddrawn copper has material constants:
Tm = 1084 C
r = 0.00381 C  1
r = 1.78 .cm
As described in IEEE Std 80 Section 11.3.1.1, there are alternative methods to formulate this
equation, all of which can also be derived from first principles).
There are also additional factors that should be considered (e.g. taking into account future
growth in fault levels), as discussed in IEEE Std 80 Section 11.3.3.
Touch voltages  there is a dangerous potential difference between the earth and a
metallic object that a person is touching
Step voltages  there is a dangerous voltage gradient between the feet of a person
standing on earth
The earthing grid can be used to dissipate fault currents to remote earth and reduce the voltage
gradients in the earth. The touch and step potential calculations are performed in order to assess
whether the earthing grid can dissipate the fault currents so that dangerous touch and step
voltages cannot exist.
order to compute the effective foot resistance (with respect to earth) in the presence of a finite
thickness of surface layer material. This derating factor can be approximated by an empirical
formula as per IEEE Std 80 Equation 27:
Where
Where
The Schwarz equations are a series of equations that are more accurate in modelling the effect of
earthing rods / electrodes. The equations are found in IEEE Std 80 Equations 53, 54,
55(footnote) and 56, as follows:
Where
And the grid, earthing electrode and mutual earth resistances are:
Where
The coefficient
:
is the lengthtowidth ratio of the earthing grid.
manual calculation. Generally speaking, the highest relevant earth fault level will be on the
primary side of the largest distribution transformer (i.e. either the terminals or the delta
windings).
Current Division Factor
Not all of the earth fault current will flow back through remote earth. A portion of the earth fault
current may have local return paths (e.g. local generation) or there could be alternative return
paths other than remote earth (e.g. overhead earth return cables, buried pipes and cables, etc).
Therefore a current division factor
is calculated by:
Decrement Factor
The symmetrical grid current is not the maximum grid current because of asymmetry in short
circuits, namely a dc current offset. This is captured by the decrement factor, which can be
calculated from IEEE Std 80 Equation 79:
Where
The dc time offset constant is derived from IEEE Std 80 Equation 74:
Where
50kg person:
70kg person:
Step voltage limit  is the maximum difference in surface potential experience by a person
bridging a distance of 1m with the feet without contact to any earthed object:
50kg person:
70kg person:
Where
Where
Where ::
Where
With
are the maximum length of the grids in the x and y directions (m)
is the maximum distance between any two points on the grid (m)
Irregularity Factor Ki
Where
is found as follows:
Where
For grids with earthing electrodes on the corners and along the
perimeter:
Where
(m)
is the total length of earthing electrodes / rods (m)
is the length of each earthing electrode / rod (m)
and
are the maximum length of the grids in the x and y directions (m)
Step Voltage Calculation
The maximum allowable step voltage is calculated from
IEEE Std 80 Equation 92:
Where ::
Where
Where
What Now?
Now that the mesh and step voltages are calculated, compare them to the maximum tolerable
touch and step voltages respectively. If:
, and
Redesign the earthing grid to lower the grid resistance (e.g. more grid conductors,
more earthing electrodes, increasing crosssectional area of conductors, etc). Once
this is done, recompute the earthing grid resistance (see Step 3) and redo the touch
and step potential calculations.
Limit the total earth fault current or create alternative earth fault return paths
Worked Example
In this example, the touch and step potential calculations for an earthing grid design will be
performed. The proposed site is a small industrial facility with a network connection via a
transmission line and a deltawye connected transformer.
A rectangular earthing grid (see the figure right) with the following parameters is proposed:
22 earthing rods will be installed on the corners and perimeter of the grid
Using the simplified equation, the resistance of the earthing grid with respect to remote earth is:
kA
Based on the average weight of the workers on the site, a body weight of 70kg is assumed for
the maximum touch and step potential. A maximum fault clearing time of 150ms is also
assumed.
The maximum allowable touch potential is:
V
The maximum allowable step potential is:
V
The GPR far exceeds the maximum allowable touch and step potentials, and further analysis
of mesh and step voltages need to be performed.
and
is:
where
is:
and
are the width and length of the grid respectively (e.g. 50m and 90m)
and
is:
is:
is:
m
Finally, the maximum mesh voltage is:
V
The maximum allowable touch potential is 1,720V, which exceeds the mesh voltage calculated
above and the earthing system passes the touch potential criteria (although it is quite marginal).
is:
is:
m
Finally, the maximum allowable step voltage is:
V
The maximum allowable step potential is 5,664V, which exceeds the step voltage calculated
above and the earthing system passes the step potential criteria. Having passed both touch and
step potential criteria, we can conclude that the earthing system is safe.
Figure 2. PTW GroundMat software output (courtesy of SKM Systems Analysis Inc)
As can be seen from above, touch and step potential calculations can be quite a tedious and
laborious task, and one that could conceivably be done much quicker by a computer. Even IEEE
Std 80 recommends the use of computer software to calculate grid resistances, and mesh and
step voltages, and also to create potential gradient visualisations of the site.
Computer software packages can be used to assist in earthing grid design by modeling and
simulation of different earthing grid configurations. The tools either come as standalone
packages or plugin modules to power system analysis software (such as PTW's GroundMat or
ETAP's Ground Grid Design Assessment. Examples of standalone packages include SES
Autogrid and SafeGrid.
What next?
The minimum size for the earthing grid conductors can be used to specify the earthing grid
conductor sizes in the material takeoffs and earthing drawings. The touch and step potential
calculations (where necessary) verify that the earthing grid design is safe for the worst earth
faults to remote earth. The earthing drawings can therefore be approved for the next stage of
reviews.
Load Schedule
Contents
1 Introduction
2 Calculation Methodology
5 Computer Software
6 What Next?
Introduction
Figure 1. Example of an electrical load schedule
The electrical load schedule is an estimate of the instantaneous electrical loads operating
in a facility, in terms of active, reactive and apparent power (measured in kW, kVAR and
kVA respectively). The load schedule is usually categorised by switchboard or occasionally
by subfacility / area.
Preparing the load schedule is one of the earliest tasks that needs to be done as it is
essentially a prerequisite for some of the key electrical design activities (such as
equipment sizing and power system studies).
The electrical load schedule can typically be started with a preliminary key single line
diagram (or at least an idea of the main voltage levels in the system) and any preliminary
details of process / building / facility loads. It is recommended that the load schedule is
started as soon as practically possible.
Calculation Methodology
There are no standards governing load schedules and therefore this calculation is based on
generally accepted industry practice. The following methodology assumes that the load schedule
is being created for the first time and is also biased towards industrial plants. The basic steps for
creating a load schedule are:
Step 2: For each load, collect the electrical parameters, e.g. nominal / absorbed
ratings, power factor, efficiency, etc
Step 3: Classify each of the loads in terms of switchboard location, load duty and load
criticality
Step 5: For each switchboard and the overall system, calculate operating, peak and
design load
Process loads  are the loads that are directly relevant to the facility. In factories and
industrial plants, process loads are the motors, heaters, compressors, conveyors, etc
that form the main business of the plant. Process loads can normally be found on
either Mechanical Equipment Lists or Process and Instrumentation Diagrams (P&ID's).
Nonprocess loads  are the auxiliary loads that are necessary to run the facility, e.g.
lighting, HVAC, utility systems (power and water), DCS/PLC control systems, fire
safety systems, etc. These loads are usually taken from a number of sources, for
example HVAC engineers, instruments, telecoms and control systems engineers,
safety engineers, etc. Some loads such as lighting, UPS, power generation auxiliaries,
etc need to be estimated by the electrical engineer.
Rated power is the full load or nameplate rating of the load and represents the
maximum continuous power output of the load. For motor loads, the rated power
corresponds to the standard motor size (e.g. 11kW, 37kW, 75kW, etc). For load items
that contain subloads (e.g. distribution boards, package equipment, etc), the rated
power is typically the maximum power output of the item (i.e. with all its subloads in
service).
Absorbed power is the expected power that will be drawn by the load. Most loads
will not operate at its rated capacity, but at a lower point. For example, absorbed
motor loads are based on the mechanical power input to the shaft of the driven
equipment at its duty point. The motor is typically sized so that the rated capacity of
the motor exceeds the expected absorbed load by some conservative design margin.
Where information regarding the absorbed loads is not available, then a load factor of
between 0.8 and 0.9 is normally applied.
Power factor of the load is necessary to determine the reactive components of the
load schedule. Normally the load power factor at full load is used, but the power
factor at the duty point can also be used for increased accuracy. Where power factors
are not readily available, then estimates can be used (typically 0.85 for motor loads
>7.5kW, 1.0 for heater loads and 0.8 for all other loads).
Efficiency accounts for the losses incurred when converting electrical energy to
mechanical energy (or whatever type of energy the load outputs). Some of the
electrical power drawn by the load is lost, usually in the form of heat to the ambient
environment. Where information regarding efficiencies is not available, then estimates
of between 0.8 and 1 can be used (typically 0.85 or 0.9 is used when efficiencies are
unknown).
Voltage Level
What voltage level and which switchboard should the load be located? Large loads may need to
be on MV or HV switchboards depending on the size of the load and how many voltage levels are
available. Typically, loads <150kW tend to be on the LV system (400V  690V), loads between
150kW and 10MW tend to be on an intermediate MV system (3.3kV  6.6kV) where available and
loads >10MW are usually on the HV distribution system (11kV  33kV). Some consideration
should also be made for grouping the loads on a switchboard in terms of subfacilities, areas or
subsystems (e.g. a switchboard for the compression train subsystem or the drying area).
Load duty
Loads are classified according to their duty as either continuous, intermittent and standby loads:
1) Continuous loads are those that normally operate continuously over a 24 hour period,
e.g. process loads, control systems, lighting and small power distribution boards, UPS
systems, etc
2) Intermittent loads that only operate a fraction of a 24 hour period, e.g. intermittent
pumps and process loads, automatic doors and gates, etc
3) Standby loads are those that are on standby or rarely operate under normal
conditions, e.g. standby loads, emergency systems, etc
Note that for redundant loads (e.g. 2 x 100% duty / standby motors), one is usually classified as
continuous and the other classified as standby. This if purely for the purposes of the load
schedule and does not reflect the actual operating conditions of the loads, i.e. both redundant
loads will be equally used even though one is classified as a standby load.
Load criticality
Loads are typically classified as either normal, essential and critical:
1) Normal loads are those that run under normal operating conditions, e.g. main process
loads, normal lighting and small power, ordinary office and workshop loads, etc
2) Essential loads are those necessary under emergency conditions, when the main
power supply is disconnected and the system is being supported by an emergency
generator, e.g. emergency lighting, key process loads that operate during emergency
conditions, fire and safety systems, etc
3) Critical are those critical for the operation of safety systems and for facilitating or
assisting evacuation from the plant, and would normally be supplied from a UPS or
battery system, e.g. safetycritical shutdown systems, escape lighting, etc
Where
Operating load
The operating load is the expected load during normal operation. The operating load is calculated
as follows:
Where
Peak load
The peak load is the expected maximum load during normal operation. Peak loading is typically
infrequent and of short duration, occurring when standby loads are operated (e.g. for
changeover of redundant machines, testing of safety equipment, etc). The peak load is
calculated as the larger of either:
or
Where
Design load
The design load is the load to be used for the design for equipment sizing, electrical studies, etc.
The design load is generically calculated as the larger of either:
or
Where
The design load includes a margin for any errors in load estimation, load growth or the addition
of unforeseen loads that may appear after the design phase. The load schedule is thus more
conservative and robust to errors. On the other hand however, equipment is often oversized as
a result. Sometimes the design load is not calculated and the peak load is used for design
purposes.
Worked Example
Step 1: Collect list of loads
Consider a small facility with the following loads identified:
Load Description
Abs. Load
Rated Load
PF
Eff.
750kW
800kW
0.87
0.95
750kW
800kW
0.87
0.95
Recirculation pump A
31kW
37kW
0.83
0.86
Recirculation pump B
31kW
37kW
0.83
0.86
Sump pump
9kW
11kW
0.81
0.83
Firewater pump A
65kW
75kW
0.88
0.88
Firewater pump B
65kW
75kW
0.88
0.88
HVAC unit
80kW
90kW
0.85
0.9
AC UPS System
9kW
12kW
0.85
0.9
7kW
10kW
0.8
0.9
4kW
5kW
0.8
0.9
Rated Load
Voltage
Duty
Criticality
800kW
6.6kV
Continuous
Normal
800kW
6.6kV
Standby
Normal
Recirculation pump A
37kW
415V
Continuous
Normal
Recirculation pump B
37kW
415V
Standby
Normal
Sump pump
11kW
415V
Intermittent
Normal
Firewater pump A
75kW
415V
Standby
Essential
Firewater pump B
75kW
415V
Standby
Essential
HVAC unit
90kW
415V
Continuous
Normal
AC UPS System
12kW
415V
Continuous
Critical
10kW
415V
Continuous
Normal
5kW
415V
Continuous
Essential
Abs
Description
Load
Vapour recovery
PF
Eff.
Intermittent
Standby
(kW)
(kVAr)
(kW)
(kVAr)
(kW)
(kVAr)
750kW
0.87
0.95
789.5
447.4
750kW
0.87
0.95
789.5
447.4
31kW
0.83
0.86
36.0
24.2
31kW
0.83
0.86
36.0
24.2
9kW
0.81
0.83
10.8
7.9
65kW
0.88
0.88
73.9
39.9
65kW
0.88
0.88
73.9
39.9
HVAC unit
80kW
0.85
0.9
88.9
55.1
AC UPS System
9kW
0.85
0.9
10.0
6.2
7kW
0.8
0.9
7.8
5.8
4kW
0.8
0.9
4.4
3.3
936.6
542.0
10.8
7.9
973.3
551.4
compressor A
Vapour recovery
compressor B
Recirculation
pump A
Recirculation
pump B
Sump pump
Firewater pump
A
Firewater pump
B
Normal lighting
distribution
board
Essential lighting
distribution
board
SUM TOTAL
P (kW)
Q (kW)
936.6
542.0
5.4
4.0
97.3
55.1
789.5
447.4
Operating load
942
546.0
Peak load
1,731.5
993.4
Design load
1,825.7
1,047.9
Normally you would separate the loads by switchboard and calculate operating, peak and
design loads for each switchboard and one for the overall system. However for the sake of
simplicity, the loads in this example are all lumped together and only one set of operating,
peak and design loads are calculated.
Operating Scenarios
It may be necessary to construct load schedules for different operating scenarios. For example,
in order to size an emergency diesel generator, it would be necessary to construct a load
schedule for emergency scenarios. The classification of the loads by criticality will help in
constructing alternative scenarios, especially those that use alternative power sources.
Computer Software
In the past, the load schedule has typically been done manually by hand or with the help of an
Excel spreadsheet. However, this type of calculation is extremely wellsuited for database driven
software packages (such as Smartplant Electrical), especially for very large projects. For smaller
projects, it may be far easier to simply perform this calculation manually.
What Next?
The electrical load schedule is the basis for the sizing of most major electrical equipment, from
generators to switchgear to transformers. Using the load schedule, major equipment sizing can
be started, as well as the power system studies. A preliminary load schedule will also indicate if
there will be problems with available power supply / generation, and whether alternative power
sources or even process designs will need to be investigated.
Motor Starting
Contents
[hide]
1 Introduction
2.2.3 Transformers
2.2.4 Cables
2.2.6 Motors
Introduction
This article considers the transient effects of motor starting on the system voltage. Usually only
the largest motor on a bus or system is modelled, but the calculation can in principle be used for
any motor. It's important to note that motor starting is a transient power flow problem and is
normally done iteratively by computer software. However a static method is shown here for firstpass estimates only.
The motor itself may not start as torque is proportional to the square of the stator
voltage, so a reduced voltage equals lower torque. Induction motors are typically
designed to start with a terminal voltage >80%
Tolerable voltage drop limits during motor starting, which are typically prescribed by
the client
Calculation Methodology
This calculation is based on standard impedance formulae and Ohm's law. To the
author's knowledge, there are no international standards that govern voltage drop
calculations during motor start.
It should be noted that the proposed method is not 100% accurate because it is a
static calculation. In reality, the voltage levels are fluctuating during a transient
condition, and therefore so are the load currents drawn by the standing loads. This
makes it essentially a load flow problem and a more precise solution would solve the
load flow problem iteratively, for example using the NewtonRhapson or GaussSiedel
algorithms. Notwithstanding, the proposed method is suitably accurate for a first pass
solution.
The calculation has the following six general steps:
Step 1: Construct the system model and assemble the relevant equipment
parameters
Step 2: Calculate the relevant impedances for each equipment item in the model
Step 4: Construct the equivalent circuit for the voltage levels of interest
Step 5: Calculate the initial steadystate source emf before motor starting
Network feeders: fault capacity of the network (VA), X/R ratio of the network
Standing loads: rated load capacity (VA), average load power factor (pu)
Motor: full load current (A), locked rotor current (A), rated power (W), full load power
factor (pu), starting power factor (pu)
Network Feeders
Given the approximate fault level of the network feeder at the connection point (or point of
common coupling), the impedance, resistance and reactance of the network feeder is calculated
as follows:
Where
Synchronous Generators
The transient resistance and reactance of a synchronous generator can be estimated by the
following:
Where
100MVA, and
1kV
is a voltage factor which accounts for the maximum system voltage (1.05 for voltages
<1kV, 1.1 for voltages >1kV)
is the power factor of the generator (pu)
Transformers
The impedance, resistance and reactance of twowinding transformers can be calculated as
follows:
Where
Cables
Cable impedances are usually quoted by manufacturers in terms of Ohms per km. These need to
be converted to Ohms based on the length of the cables:
Where
Standing Loads
Standing loads are lumped loads comprising all loads that are operating on a particular bus,
excluding the motor to be started. Standing loads for each bus need to be calculated.
The impedance, resistance and reactance of the standing load is calculated by:
Where
Motors
The motor's transient impedance, resistance and reactance is calculated as follows:
Where
Where
Using the winding ratio, impedances (as well as resistances and reactances) can be referred to
the primary (HV) side of the transformer by the following relation:
Where
Conversely, by rearranging the equation above, impedances can be referred to the LV side:
The equivalent circuit essentially consists of a voltage source (from a network feeder or
generator) plus a set of complex impedances representing the power system equipment and load
impedances.
The next step is to simplify the circuit into a form that is nearly the Thvenin equivalent circuit,
with a circuit containing only a voltage source (
load impedance (
), source impedance (
) and equivalent
).
This can be done using the standard formulae for series and parallel impedances, keeping in
mind that the rules of complex arithmetic must be used throughout. This simplification to a
"Near" Thvenin equivalent circuit should be done both with the motor off (open circuit) and the
motor in a starting condition.
The system is at a steadystate, i.e. there is no switching taking place throughout the
system
Since we assume that there is nominal voltage at the PCC, the initial source emf can be
calculated by voltage divider:
Where
Next, we need to calculate the overall system current that is supplied by the power source during
the motor starting period. To do this, we use the "Near" Thevenin equivalent circuit derived
earlier, but now include the motor starting impedance. A new equivalent load impedance during
motor starting
will be calculated.
Where
Where
Worked Example
The worked example here is a very simple power system with two voltage levels and supplied by
a single generator. While unrealistic, it does manage to demonstrate the key concepts pertaining
to motor starting calculations.
The power system has two voltage levels, 11kV and 415V, and is fed via a single 4MVA generator
(G1). The 11kV bus has a standing load of 950kVA (S1) and we want to model the effects of
starting a 250kW motor (M1). There is a standing load of 600kVA at 415V (S2), supplied by a
1.6MVA transformer (TX1). The equipment and cable parameters are as follows:
Equipment
Parameters
= 4,000 kVA
Generator G1
= 11,000 V
= 0.85 pu
Generator Cable C1
= 0.33 pu
Length = 50m
= 950 kVA
= 11,000 V
= 0.84 pu
Motor M1
= 250 kW
= 11,000 V
= 106.7 A
= 6.5 pu
= 0.85 pu
= 0.30 pu
Length = 150m
Motor Cable C2
Size = 35 mm2
= 1,600 kVA
= 11,000 V
= 415 V
Transformer TX1
= 0.06 pu
= 12,700 W
= 0%
Transformer Cable C3
Length = 60m
= 600 kVA
= 415 V
= 0.80 pu
Resistance ()
Reactance ()
Generator G1
0.65462
9.35457
Generator Cable C1
0.00261
0.00413
106.98947
69.10837
Motor M1
16.77752
61.02812
Motor Cable C2
0.1002
0.01725
0.60027
4.49762
Transformer Cable C3
0.01176
0.00576
0.22963
0.17223
The resistance and reactance of the standing load referred to the 11kV side is now, R =
161.33333 and X = 121.00 .
The equivalent circuit for the system is shown in the figure to the right. The "Near"
Thevenin equivalent circuit is also shown, and we now calculate the equivalent load
impedance
in the steadystate condition (i.e. without the motor and motor cable
impedances included):
Similarly the equivalent load impedance during motor starting (with the motor
impedances included) can be calculated as as follows:
Assuming that there is nominal voltage at the 11kV bus in the steadystate condition, the initial
generator emf can be calculated by voltage divider:
Vac
Computer Software
Motor starting is a standard component of most power systems analysis software (e.g. ETAP,
PTW, ERAC, etc) and this calculation is really intended to be done using this software. The
numerical calculation performed by the software should also solve the power flow problem
through an iterative algorithm (e.g. such as NewtonRhapson).
What Next?
If the results of the calculation confirm that starting the largest motor does not cause any
unacceptable voltage levels within the system, then that's the end of it (or perhaps it could be
simulated in a power systems analysis software package to be doubly sure!). Otherwise, the
issue needs to be addressed, for example by:
Reduce the motor starting current, e.g. via softstarters, stardelta starters, etc
Reduce the source impedances, e.g. increase the size of the generator, transformer,
supply cables, etc
The calculation should be performed iteratively until the results are acceptable.
1 Introduction
2 AC ShortCircuit Analysis
3 DC ShortCircuit Analysis
4 Trivia
Introduction
Some of the related terms defined by the IEC's Electropedia:
ShortCircuit Operation: noload operation with zero output voltage (Note Zero output
voltage can be obtained when the output terminals are shortcircuited).
AC ShortCircuit Analysis
according to the IEC 60909
DC ShortCircuit Analysis
according to the IEC 61660
according to the ANSI/IEEE 946
Trivia
Introduction
This calculation outlines the sizing of a standalone solar photovoltaic (PV) power system.
Standalone PV systems are commonly used to supply power to small, remote installations (e.g.
telecoms) where it isn't practical or costefficient to run a transmission line or have alternative
generation such as diesel gensets.
Although this calculation is biased towards standalone solar PV systems, it can also be used for
hybrid systems that draw power from mixed sources (e.g. commercial PV, hybrid windPV
systems, etc). Loads must be adjusted according to the desired amount that the solar PV system
will supply.
This calculation is based on crystalline silicon PV technology. The results may not hold for other
types of solar PV technologies and the manufacturer's recommendations will need to be
consulted.
Autonomy time or minimum tolerable downtime (i.e. if there is no sun, how long can
the system be out of service?)
GPS coordinates of the site (or measurements of the solar insolation at the site)
Calculation Methodology
The calculation is loosely based on AS/NZS 4509.2 (2002) "Standalone power systems  System
design guidelines". The methodology has the following six steps:
Step 1: Estimate the solar irradiation available at the site (based on GPS coordinates
or measurement)
Step 3: Construct a load profile and calculate design load and design energy
Step 4: Calculate the required battery capacity based on the design loads
Step 5: Estimate the output of a single PV module at the proposed site location
The first step is to determine the solar resource availability at the site. Solar resources are
typically discussed in terms of solar radiation, which is more or less the catchall term for
sunlight shining on a surface. Solar radiation consists of three main components:
Diffuse radiation is scattered light reaching the surface from the whole sky (but not
directly from the sun)
Albedo radiation is is light reflected onto the surface from the ground
Solar radiation can be quantitatively measured by irradiance and irradiation. Note that the terms
are distinct  "irradiance" refers to the density of the power that falls on a surface (W / m2) and
"irradiation" is the density of the energy that falls on a surface over some period of time such as
an hour or a day (e.g. Wh / m2 per hour/day).
In this section, we will estimate the solar radiation available at the site based on data collected in
the past. However, it needs to be stressed that solar radiation is statistically random in nature
and there is inherent uncertainty in using past data to predict future irradiation. Therefore, we
will need to build in design margins so that the system is robust to prediction error.
the site as they would capture site specific characteristics, e.g. any obstructions to solar radiation
such as large buildings, trees, mountains, etc.
Where
The handbook also suggests a polynomial approximation for the solar irradiation at the optimal
tilt angle:
Where
is the solar irradiation on a surface at the optimal tilt angle (Wh / m2)
is the solar irradiation on the horizontal plane (Wh / m2)
is the optimal tilt angle (deg)
Alternatively, the estimated irradiation data on tilted planes can be sourced directly from the
various public databases listed above.
Solar Trackers
Solar trackers are mechanical devices that can track the position of the sun throughout the day
and orient the PV array accordingly. The use of trackers can significantly increase the solar
irradiation collected by a surface. Solar trackers typically increase irradiation by 1.2 to 1.4 times
(for 1axis trackers) and 1.3 to 1.5 times (for 2axis trackers) compared to a fixed surface at the
optimal tilt angle.
NonStandard Applications
A solar irradiation loss factor should be used for applications where there are high tilt angles
(e.g. vertical PV arrays as part of a building facade) or very low tilt angles (e.g. NorthSouth
horizontal trackers). This is because the the solar irradiation is significantly affected
(detrimentally) when the angle of incidence is high or the solar radiation is mainly diffuse (i.e. no
albedo effects from ground reflections). For more details on this loss factor, consult the
standard ASHRAE 93, "Methods of testing to determine the thermal performance of solar
collectors".
(Wp)
Nominal voltage
(Vdc)
(Vdc)
(Vdc)
(A)
(A)
(% per deg C)
(%)
Manufacturers usually quote these PV module parameters based on Standard Test Conditions
(STC): an irradiance of 1,000 W / m2, the standard reference spectral irradiance with Air Mass 1.5
(see the NREL site for more details) and a cell temperature of 25 deg C. Standard test conditions
rarely prevail on site and when the PV module are installed in the field, the output must be derated accordingly.
Where
Standard Regulator
For a solar power system using a standard switched charge regulator / controller, the derated
power output of the PV module can be calculated using AS\NZS 4509.2 equation 3.4.3.9(1):
Where
is the derated power output of the PV module using a standard switched charge
controller (W)
is the daily average operating voltage (Vdc)
is the module output current based on the daily average operating voltage, at the
effective average cell temperature and solar irradiance at the site  more on this below
(A)
is the manufacturer's power output tolerance (pu)
is the derating factor for dirt / soiling (Clean: 1.0, Low: 0.98, Med: 0.97, High:
0.92)
To estimate
, you will need the IV characteristic curve of the PV module at the effective cell
temperature calculated above. For a switched regulator, the average PV module operating
voltage is generally equal to the average battery voltage less voltage drops across the cables and
regulator.
MPPT Regulator
For a solar power system using a Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) charge regulator /
controller, the derated power output of the PV module can be calculated using AS\NZS 4509.2
equation 3.4.3.9(2):
Where
is the derated power output of the PV module using an MPPT charge controller (W)
is the nominal module power under standard test conditions (W)
is the manufacturer's power output tolerance (pu)
is the derating factor for dirt / soiling (Clean: 1.0, Low: 0.98, Med: 0.97, High:
0.92)
is the temperature derating factor  see below (pu)
The temperature derating factor is determined from AS\NZS 4509.2 equation 3.4.3.9(1):
Where
Standard Regulator
The number of PV modules required for the PV array can be found by using AS\NZS 4509.2
equation 3.4.3.11(1):
Where
designing solar power systems where future solar irradiation is not deterministic. AS/NZS 4509.2
Table 1 recommends oversupply coefficients of between 1.3 and 2.0.
A battery coulombic efficiency of approximately 95% would be typically used.
MPPT Controller
The number of PV modules required for the PV array can be found by using AS\NZS 4509.2
equation 3.4.3.11(2):
Where
designing solar power systems where future solar irradiation is not deterministic. AS/NZS 4509.2
Table 1 recommends oversupply coefficients of between 1.3 and 2.0.
The efficiency of the PV subsystem
controller, battery and transmission through the cable between the PV array and the battery. This
will depend on specific circumstances (for example, the PV array a large distance from the
battery), though an efficiency of around 90% would be typically used.
Worked Example
A small standalone solar power system will be designed for a telecommunications outpost located
in the desert.
For this example, we shall use the same loads and load profile detailed in the Energy Load Profile
Calculationexample. The load profile is shown in the figure right and the following quantities were
calculated:
Wp
Nominal voltage
Vdc
% per deg C
%
Suppose the average daytime ambient temperature is 40C. The effective PV cell temperature is:
deg C
An MPPT controller will be used. The temperature derating factor is therefore:
Given a medium dirt derating factor of 0.97, the derated power output of the PV module is:
10.9588 modules
For this PV array, 12 modules are selected.
Computer Software
It is recommended that the solar PV system sized in this calculation is simulated with computer
software. For example, HOMER is a popular software package for simulating and optimising a
distributed generation (DG) system originally developed by the National Renewable Energy
Laboratory (NREL).
Screenshots from HOMER software
PV Output
What Next?
Battery Output
With the sizing calculation completed, the solar PV equipment (PV array, batteries, charge
controllers, etc) can be specified and a cost estimate or budget enquiry / requisition package
issued. The approximate dimensions of the equipment (especially the PV array and batteries) can
also be estimated and a design layout can be produced.
1 Introduction
2 Calculation Methodology
3 International Standards
4 Computer Software
5 What Next?
6 Selected References
Introduction
Low frequency induction (LFI) in metal pipelines is a form of electromagnetic interference that
occurs when high voltage transmission lines are run in parallel with metallic pipelines.
The loaded phases on a transmission line and the pipeline act like singleturn windings on a large
aircore transformer. Current flowing through the transmission line induces a voltage at the
pipeline.
During normal operation, each loaded phase of the transmission line induces a voltage on the
pipeline. If the threephases are balanced, then most of the induced voltage will cancel each
other out, but the spatial assymetry of the phases on the transmission line will prevent the
induced voltages from fully cancelling out. Thus a nonzero induced voltage results on the
pipeline. This condition is usually called "Load LFI".
During an earth fault condition, the phases of the transmission line are no longer balanced and
as a result, a more significant voltage is induced on the pipeline. This condition is usually called
"Fault LFI".
The calculation should be done whenever HV transmission lines are installed in the vicinity of
pipelines, and vice versa. Of particular concern is when the pipeline is run nearby and parallel to
the transmission line for long distances. On the other hand, if a pipeline crosses the transmission
line perpendicularly, then the magnitude of LFI would be low.
Calculation Methodology
The LFI calculation has nine general steps:
Plan layouts of pipeline(s) and transmission line(s), to scale with enough resolution to
measure horizontal distances between pipeline and transmission line
Distance along
Section Length
pipeline (km)
(m)
to pipeline (m)
Start
End
0.0
300
140
190
0.3
200
190
200
The geometry of the transmission line towers (and the spatial geometry of the
individual conductors on the tower)
In order to construct the effective distances, we first need to define the spatial geometry of the
transmission line with respect to the pipeline. This could be the geometry of transmission line
towers or the spatial arrangement of underground conductors.
The figure to the right, showing a double conductor tower with two earth wires, gives an example
of the kind of data that is required:
Of course your data requirements may vary depending on the transmission line type, but you
need enough data to fully describe the spatial relationships between the phase conductors and
the pipeline geometrically.
Effective Distances
As the horizontal distance between the transmission line and the pipeline is not necessarly
constant along each section, we want to calculate an average horizontal distance for each line
section. Typically, the geometric mean distance is used:
Where
Similarly for double conductors arranged horizontally, we use the geomtric mean distance to
obtain an effective distance between double conductors and the pipeline:
Where
is the effective horizontal distance between double conductors (of phase a) and the
pipeline (m)
is the effective horizontal distance calculated above (m)
is the horizontal distance between the two conductors of phase a (m)
Note that the above show only horizontal distances. We can use simple Pythagoras to calculate
the overall effective distance between phase a and the pipeline, taking into account the vertical
arrangement of the conductors (relative to the pipeline). Below, we do this for a tower line:
Where
is the overall effective distance between the phase a and the pipeline
is the effective horizontal distance between double conductors (of phase a) and the
pipeline (m)
is the height from the pipeline to phase a (m)
The same process above is repeated to calculate the effective distances for the other phases and
the earth wire (if applicable).
The effective distances can be calculated also for other spatial conductor arrangements, using
the geometric mean as a basis. Ultimately for each line section, we'd like to end up with only a
single effective distance between the pipeline and a phase of the tower line.
Where
Where
The pipeline shunt impedance is simply the reciprocal of the admittance (remember that it is
complex quantity):
Where
Where
Where
and pipeline
and pipeline
( / km)
(m)
Where
Where
Using the formula above, you can calculate the mutual impedances
and
between the pipeline and phase a, b and c of the transmission line respectively. To calculate the
impedances in Ohms, multiply the mutual impedances by the sectional length of the pipeline.
Where
,
are the load current for phase a, b and c respectively (A). Note that
and
Overhead earth wires and counterpoise earth conductors provide a shielding effect (since a
voltage is induced in them and they in turn induce an opposing voltage in the pipeline). The
interaction of the overhead earth wires or counterpoise earth conductors with the pipeline can be
modelled and a shielding factor computed (more on this later).
Where
Shielding Factor
The shielding factor is the shielding effect caused by earth wires, counterpoise earths and
perhaps other metallic structures, which serves to lower the LFI voltage induced on the pipeline.
There a number of mechanisms that bring about this shielding effect, for example:
If there are overhead earth wires, then not all of the earth fault current will return to
the source via the earth. Some of the fault current will return via the earth wires. The
current flowing through the earth wire will induce a voltage on the pipeline opposed
to the voltage induced by the faulted line.
There is the interaction between the faulted line and overhead earth wires, where the
faulted line induces a voltage on the overhead earth wires, which in turn induce an
opposing voltage on the pipeline.
There are similar inductive coupling interactions between the faulted line, the pipeline
and counterpoise earths or other metallic structures located in the vicinity
For an overhead earth wire, the shielding factor can be calculated as follows:
Where
is the mutual coupling impedances between the faulted line and the earth wire ()
is the self impedance of the earth wire ()
is the mutual coupling impedances between the pipeline and the earth wire ()
is the mutual coupling impedances between the pipeline and the faulted line ()
depends on the phase of the faulted line and it's spatial orientation relative to the pipeline. You
could calculate the mutual coupling impedance between the closest phase and the pipeline,
which would represent the worst case scenario.
Alternatively, you could calculate the mutual coupling impedance for a group of conductors (e.g.
all three phases) by considering the geometric mean separation distance between the pipeline
and the group of conductors. This will result in an induced LFI voltage that is an average of the
conductor group.
Similarly for groups of earth wires (e.g. two overhead earth wires), a geometric mean can be
selected to represent the group rather than selecting a single wire, or modelling interactions
between the wires, faulted line and the pipeline (which becomes increasingly complicated).
impedances in Ohms, multiply the mutual impedances by the sectional length of the pipeline.
Where
For a pipeline with "n" linear sections, the overall equivalent circuit model is therefore:
Where
is the admittance of a pipeline shunt earthing conductor (  1). The inverse of the
pipeline characteristic impedance can be used if no shunt earthing conductors are installed at the
ends of the pipeline. In the model above, shunt earthing conductors can be connected to any of
the linear pipeline sections, modelled in series with the pipeline section shunt admittance.
The equivalent circuit can now be readily analysed using Kirchhoff's laws and converted into a
system of linear equations. The unknown pipelinetoearth node voltages can then be solved
using matrix operations. Depending on the number of line sections, you will probably need to use
a computer program to solve this linear algebra problem.
Increasing the distance between the pipeline and the transmission line
Modifying the design of the pipeline, e.g. coating specification, diameter, etc
International Standards
Most countries have their own standards for electromagnetic interference on pipelines.
In Europe, EN 50443:2011 is the standard for low frequency induction, conductive coupling and
capacitive coupling. This has also been adopted by the British Standard BS EN 50443:2011.
In Australia, AS/NZS 4853:2000 stipulates the limits on pipelinetoearth touch voltages. There
are two main categories: Category A for pipelines with access to the public or unskilled staff, and
Category B for pipelines with restricted access to skill personnel. For Category A, the load LFI
limit is 32 Vac and fault LFI limit is between 32 and 350 Vac depending on the fault clearing time.
For Category B, the load LFI limit is also 32 Vac, but the fault LFI limit is 1000 Vac (for faults
cleared in less than 1s).
Computer Software
The LFI calculation is greatly simplified by using a computer software package, especially for
more complicated joint rightsofway. The following commercial software packages are among
the most popular:
Elsyca IRIS
What Next?
The LFI calculation is typically done to confirm the pipeline and / or transmission line design and
to determine if mitigation is required. If mitigation measures are required, then the next step
would be to design and specify these mitigation works.
Selected References
[2] CIGRE Guide 95, WG 36.02, "Guide on the Influence of High Voltage AC Power
Systems on Metallic Pipelines", 1995
[3] Schlabbach, J., "Shortcircuit Currents (IET Power and Energy Series 51)", 2005,
IEE
[4] Tleis, N. D., "Power System Modelling and Fault Analysis", 2008, Elsevier Ltd
[5] Sunde, E. D., "Earth Conduction Effects in Transmission Systems", 1968, Dover
Publications
[6] Carson, J., "Wave Propagation in Overhead Wires with Ground Return", 1926, Bell
System Technology Journal, Vol 5, pp. 539554
Battery Sizing
Contents
[hide]
1 Introduction
5.1 Step 1 and 2: Collect Battery Loads and Construct Load Profile
Introduction
This article looks at the sizing of batteries for stationary applications (i.e. they don't move).
Batteries are used in many applications such as AC and DC uninterruptible power supply (UPS)
systems, solar power systems, telecommunications, emergency lighting, etc. Whatever the
application, batteries are seen as a mature, proven technology for storing electrical energy. In
addition to storage, batteries are also used as a means for providing voltage support for weak
power systems (e.g. at the end of small, long transmission lines).
Autonomy time(s)
IEEE Definitions
IEEE Std. 4851997 provides some definitions related to the battery sizing terminology:
battery duty cycle: The loads a battery is expected to supply for specified time periods.
cell size: The rated capacity of a leadacid cell or the number of positive plates in a cell.
equalizing charge: A prolonged charge, at a rate higher than the normal float voltage, to
correct any inequalities of voltage and specific gravity that may have developed between
the cells during service.
full float operation: Operation of a dc system with the battery, battery charger, and load
all connected in parallel and with the battery charger supplying the normal dc load plus any
charging current required by the battery. (The battery will deliver current only when the
load exceeds the charger output.)
period: An interval of time in the battery duty cycle during which the load is assumed to be
constant for purposes of cell sizing calculations.
rated capacity (leadacid): The capacity assigned to a cell by its manufacturer for a
given discharge rate, at a specified electrolyte temperature and specific gravity, to a given
endofdischarge voltage.
valveregulated leadacid (VRLA) cell: A leadacid cell that is sealed with the exception
of a valve that opens to the atmosphere when the internal gas pressure in the cell exceeds
atmospheric pressure by a preselected amount. VRLA cells provide a means for
recombination of internally generated oxygen and the suppression of hydrogen gas
evolution to limit water consumption.
vented battery: A battery in which the products of electrolysis and evaporation are
allowed to escape freely to the atmosphere. These batteries are commonly referred to as
flooded.
Battery Lifespan
Most of the loss incurred in charging and discharging batteries is due to internal resistance,
which is eventually wasted as heat. Efficiency ratios are relatively high considering that most
lead acid batteries are 85 to 95 percent efficient at storing the energy they receive. Deep cycle
batteries used in renewable energy applications are designed to provide many years of reliable
performance with proper care and maintenance. Proper maintenance and usage play a major role
in battery lifespan. Toiling over your battery bank daily with complex gadgets and a gallon of
distilled water, however, is not necessary. The most common causes of premature battery failure
include loss of electrolyte due to heat or overcharging, undercharging, excessive vibration,
freezing or extremely high temperatures, and using tap water among other factors
There are a few ways to determine the state of charge on a battery, each with their own level of
accuracy. As there is no direct method to measure a batterys state of charge, there are
numerous ways to go about it. One way to gauge a battery is by measuring its static voltage and
comparing it to a standardized chart. This is the least accurate method, but it only involves an
inexpensive digital meter. Another method of gauging the battery involves measuring the density
or specific gravity of the sulfuric acid electrolyte. This is the most accurate test, yet it is only
applicable to the flooded types. This method involves measuring the cells electrolyte density with
a battery hydrometer. Electrolyte density is lower when the battery is discharged and higher as
the cells are charged. The batterys chemical reactions affect the density of the electrolyte at a
constant rate that is predictable enough to get a good indication of the cells state of charge.
Using an amphour meter one can also obtain an accurate indication of the batterys state of
charge. Amphour meters keep track of all power moving in and out of the battery by time, and
the state of charge is determined by comparing flow rates.
Renewable Applications
There are three main types of batteries that are commonly used in renewable energy systems,
each with their own advantages and disadvantages. Flooded or wet batteries are the most cost
efficient and the most widely used batteries in photovoltaic applications. They require regular
maintenance and need to be used in a vented location, and are extremely well suited for
renewable energy applications. Sealed batteries come in two varieties, the gel cell and Absorbed
Glass Mat (AGM) type. The gel cell uses a silica additive in its electrolyte solution that causes it
to stiffen or gel, eliminating some of the issues with venting and spillage. The Absorbed Glass
Mat construction method suspends the electrolyte in close proximity with the plates active
material. These batteries are sealed, requiring virtually no maintenance. They are more suitable
for remote applications where regular maintenance is difficult, or enclosed locations where
venting is an issue.
a) Flooded Lead Acid (FLA)
Flooded lead acid batteries are the most commonly used batteries, and have the longest track
record in solar electric systems. They usually have the longest life and the lowest cost per amphour of any of the other choices. The downside is that they do require regular maintenance in the
form of watering, equalizing charges and keeping the terminals clean. These cells are often
referred to as wet cells, and they come in two varieties: the serviceable, and the maintenancefree type (which means they are designed to die as soon as the warranty runs out). The
serviceable wet cells come with removable caps, and are the smarter choice, as they allow you to
check their status with a hydrometer.
b) Gelled Electrolyte Sealed Lead Acid (GEL)
Gel sealed batteries use silica to stiffen or gel the electrolyte solution, greatly reducing the
gasses, and volatility of the cell. Since all matter expands and contracts with heat, batteries are
not truly sealed, but are "valve regulated". This means that a tiny valve maintains slight positive
pressure. AGM batteries are slowly phasing out gel technology, but there still are many
applications for the gel cells. The recharge voltage for charging Gel cells are usually lower than
the other styles of lead acid batteries, and should be charged at a slower rate. When they are
charged too fast, gas pockets will form on the plates and force the gelled electrolyte away from
the plate, decreasing the capacity until the gas finds its way to the top of the battery and
recombines with the electrolyte.
c) Sealed Absorbed Glass Mat (AGM)
Absorbed Glass Mat (AGM) is a class of valveregulated lead acid battery (VLRA) in which the
electrolyte is held in glass mats as opposed to freely flooding the plates. This is achieved by
weaving very thin glass fibers into a mat to increase surface area enough to hold sufficient
electrolyte for the lifetime of the cell. The advantages to using the AGM batteries are many, yet
these batteries are typically twice the cost of their floodedcell counterpart. On the plus side,
these cells can hold roughly 1.5 times the amp hour capacity of a similar size flooded battery due
to their higher power density. Another factor that improves their efficiency is the higher lead
purity used in AGM cells. Because of their sandwich construction, each plate no longer has to
support its own weight. Their low internal resistance allows them to be charged and discharged
much faster than other types. AGM cells function well in colder temperatures and are highly
resistant to vibration. There are many advantages to using the AGM cells over their flooded
counterpart that are beyond the scope of this article.
Proper maintenance and monitoring will greatly extend the life of your batteries. Flooded
batteries need to be checked regularly to make sure electrolyte levels are full. The chemical
reaction releases gases, as water molecules are split into hydrogen and oxygen. This, in turn,
consumes water and creates the need to replace it regularly. Only distilled water should ever be
used in batteries, and you should never add any kind of acid solution. The connections from
battery to battery and to the charging and load circuits should always be kept clean and free of
corrosion. Corrosion is created upon charging, when a slight acid mist forms as the electrolyte
bubbles. Corrosion buildup will create a good deal of electrical resistance, eventually contributing
to a shortened battery life and malfunctions. A good way to keep up on the terminals is to
regularly clean them with a baking soda solution
Future Trends
Companies worldwide are quickly adjusting to the increased global market for solar systems by
developing batteries that are better suited for photovoltaic systems. At some distant point in the
future, it is likely that leadacid batteries will become extinct, as newer technologies in lithium
ion and Nickel metal hydride continue to evolve. Because leadacid batteries are under the hood
of virtually every car, advancements in leadacid technology, however are still being made. New
developments in leadacid technology usually originate in the auto industry. Efficiency ratings are
constantly going up, as new sensors and improved materials are helping batteries achieve longer
lifespan.
Calculation Methodology
The calculation is based on a mixture of normal industry practice and technical standards IEEE
Std 485 (1997, R2003) "Recommended Practice for Sizing LeadAcid Batteries for Stationary
Applications" and IEEE Std 1115 (2000, R2005) "Recommended Practice for Sizing NickelCadmium Batteries for Stationary Applications". The calculation is based on the amperehour
method for sizing battery capacity (rather than sizing by positive plates).
The focus of this calculation is on standard leadacid or nickelcadmium (NiCd) batteries, so
please consult specific supplier information for other types of batteries (e.g. lithiumion, nickelmetal hydride, etc). Note also that the design of the battery charger is beyond the scope of this
calculation.
There are five main steps in this calculation:
1) Collect the loads that the battery needs to support
2) Construct a load profile and calculate the design energy (VAh)
3) Select the battery type and determine the characteristics of the cell
, in VAh.
The autonomy time is often specified by the Client (i.e. in their standards). Alternatively, IEEE
446, "IEEE Recommended Practice for Emergency and Standby Power Systems for Industrial and
Commercial Applications" has some guidance (particularly Table 32) for autonomy times. Note
that IEEE 485 and IEEE 1115 refer to the load profile as the "duty cycle".
Ambient temperature
Charging characteristics
Maintenance requirements
Ventilation requirements
Next, find the characteristics of the battery cells, typically from supplier data sheets. The
characteristics that should be collected include:
Cell temperature
Battery manufacturers will often quote battery Ah capacities based on a number of different
EODVs. For leadacid batteries, the selection of an EODV is largely based on an EODV that
prevents damage of the cell through overdischarge (from overexpansion of the cell plates).
Typically, 1.75V to 1.8V per cell is used when discharging over longer than 1 hour. For short
discharge durations (i.e. <15 minutes), lower EODVs of around 1.67V per cell may be used
without damaging the cell.
NickelCadmium (NiCd) don't suffer from damaged cells due to overdischarge. Typical EODVs for
NiCd batteries are 1.0V to 1.14V per cell.
LeadAcid
NiCd
12V
910
24V
12
1820
48V
24
3640
125V
60
92100
250V
120
184200
However, the number of cells in a battery can also be calculated to more accurately match the
tolerances of the load. The number of battery cells required to be connected in series must fall
between the two following limits:
(1)
(2)
where
where
Table 1. Temperature correction factors for vented leadacid cells (from IEEE 485)
Select a battery Ah capacity that exceeds the minimum capacity calculated above. The battery
discharge rate (C rating) should also be specified, approximately the duration of discharge (e.g.
for 8 hours of discharge, use the C8 rate). The selected battery specification is therefore the Ah
capacity and the discharge rate (e.g. 500Ah C10).
An explanation of the different factors:
Ageing factor captures the decrease in battery performance due to age.
The performance of a leadacid battery is relatively stable but drops markedly at latter
stages of life. The "knee point" of its life vs performance curve is approximately when the
battery can deliver 80% of its rated capacity. After this point, the battery has reached the
end of its useful life and should be replaced. Therefore, to ensure that battery can meet
capacity throughout its useful life, an ageing factor of 1.25 should be applied (i.e. 1 /
0.8). There are some exceptions, check with the manufacturer.
For NiCd batteries, the principles are similar to leadacid cells. Please consult the battery
manufacturer for suitable ageing factors, but generally, applying a factor of 1.25 is
standard. For applications with high temperatures and/or frequent deep discharges, a
higher factor of 1.43 may be used. For more shallower discharges, a lower factor of 1.11
can be used.
Capacity rating factor accounts for voltage depressions during battery discharge.
Leadacid batteries experience a voltage dip during the early stages of discharge
followed by some recovery. NiCds may have lower voltages on discharge due to
prolonged float charging (constant voltage). Both of these effects should be
accounted for by the capacity rating factor  please see the manufacturer's
recommendations. For NiCd cells, IEEE 1115 Annex C suggests that for float
charging applications, Kt = rated capacity in Ah / discharge current in Amps (for
specified discharge time and EODV).
Worked Example
The loads and load profile from the simple example in the Energy Load Profile Calculation will be
used (see the figure right). The design energy demand calculated for this system is Ed = 3,242.8
VAh.
cells
cells
cells
Ah
Computer Software
Some battery manufacturers (such as Alcad) also provide software programs to size batteries
using basic input data such as load profiles, autonomies, etc. The software will size the batteries
and will often also provide details regarding different battery rack (or enclosure) dimensions.
Android App
If you have an android phone then we suggest using our app "Battery Sizing Tool".
What Next?
Using the results of the battery sizing calculation, the approximate dimensions of the batteries
can be estimated based on typical vendor information. This will assist in determining the size,
number and dimensions of the battery racks or cabinets required, which can then be used as
input into the equipment / room layouts. Preliminary budget pricing can also be estimated based
on the calculation results.
Load Profile
Contents
[hide]
1 Introduction
o
2 Calculation Methodology
2.1 Step 1: Prepare the Load List
Introduction
The energy load profile (hereafter referred to as simply "load profile") is an estimate of the total
energy demanded from a power system or subsystem over a specific period of time (e.g. hours,
days, etc). The load profile is essentially a twodimensional chart showing the instantaneous load
(in VoltAmperes) over time, and represents a convenient way to visualise how the system loads
changes with respect to time.
Note that it is distinct from the electrical load schedule  the load profile incorporates a time
dimension and therefore estimates the energy demand (in kWh) instead of just the
instantaneous load / power (in kW).
Calculation Methodology
2) 24 Hour Profile method displays the average or expected instantaneous loads over a
24 hour period. This method is more commonly associated with standalone power system
applications, e.g. solar systems, or energy efficiency applications.
Both methods share the same three general steps, but with some differences in the
details:
Where
Suppose the following loads were identified based on the Autonomy Method:
Description
Load (VA)
Autonomy (h
DCS Cabinet
200
ESD Cabinet
200
Telecommunications Cabinet
150
Computer Console
90
The load profile is constructed by stacking "energy rectangles" on top of each other. An energy
rectangles has the load VA as the height and the autonomy time as the width and its area is a
visual representation of the load's total energy. For example, the DCS Cabinet has an energy
rectangle of height 200 (VA) and width 4 (hours). The load profile is created by stacking the
widest rectangles first, e.g. in this example it is the Telecommunications Cabinet that is stacked
first.
For the 24 Hour method, energy rectangles are constructed with the periods of time that a load
is energised (i.e. the time difference between the ON and OFF times).
Where
It is common to make considerations for future load growth (typically somewhere between 5 and
20%), to allow future loads to be supported. If no future loads are expected, then this
contingency can be ignored. A design margin is used to account for any potential inaccuracies in
estimating the loads, lessthanoptimum operating conditions due to improper maintenance, etc.
Typically, a design margin of 10% to 15% is recommended, but this may also depend on Client
preferences.
Example: From our simple example above, the peak load apparent power is 640VA. Given a
future growth contingency of 10% and a design margin of 10%, the design load is:
VA
Where
Example: From our simple example above, the total load energy from the load profile is
2,680VAh. Given a future growth contingency of 10% and a design margin of 10%, the design
energy demand is:
Vah
Computer Software
The load profile is normally done manually with the help of a spreadsheet. Since it's such a
simple calculation, it's hard to argue that special software is warranted.
What Next?
The load profile is usually an intermediate step in part of a larger calculation (for example, AC
UPS System or Solar Power System calculations). Alternatively, constructing a load profile may
be the first step to analysing energy use, for example in energy efficiency applications.
AC UPS Sizing
Contents
[hide]
1 Introduction
o
3.1 Step 1 and 2: Collect the AC UPS Loads and Construct Load Profile
Introduction
This calculation deals with the sizing of an AC uninterruptible power supply (UPS) system (i.e.
rectifier, battery bank and inverter). In this calculation, it is assumed that the AC UPS is a double
conversion type with a basic system topology as shown in Figure 1.
An external maintenance bypass switch and galvanic isolation transformers are other common
additions to the basic topology, but these have been omitted from the system as they are
irrelevant for the sizing calculation.
Autonomy time(s)
Battery type
Calculation Methodology
The calculation procedure has four main steps:
1) Determine and collect the prospective AC UPS loads
2) Construct a load profile and determine the UPS design load (VA) and design energy
(VAh)
3) Calculate the size of the stationary battery (number of cells in series and Ah capacity)
4) Determine the size of the inverter, rectifier/ charger and static switch
and HMI's, telecommunications equipment and sensitive electronics. The necessary load data
should be available from the instrumentation and control engineers.
For commercial facilities, UPS loads will mainly be server, data / network and telecommunications
hardware.
DC output voltage range of the rectifier the rectifier must be able to output the
specified DC link voltage
DC input voltage range of the inverter the DC link voltage must be within the input
voltage tolerances of the inverter. Note that the battery end of discharge voltage
should be within these tolerances.
Number of battery cells required in series this will affect the overall dimensions and
size of the battery rack. If physical space is a constraint, then less batteries in series
would be preferable.
Total DC link current (at full load) this will affect the sizing of the DC cables and
intercell battery links. Obviously the smaller the better.
In general, the DC link voltage is usually selected to be close to the nominal output voltage.
(1)
(2)
where Nmax is the maximum number of battery cells
Nmin is the minimum number of battery cells
Vdc is the nominal battery / DC link voltage (Vdc)
Vi,max is the inverter maximum input voltage tolerance (%)
Vi,min is the inverter minimum input voltage tolerance (%)
Vf is the nominal cell float (or boost) voltage (Vdc)
Veod is the cell end of discharge voltage (Vdc)
The limits are based on the input voltage tolerance of the inverter. As a maximum, the battery at
float voltage (or boost if applicable) needs to be within the maximum input voltage range of the
inverter. Likewise as a minimum, the battery at its end of discharge voltage must be within the
minimum input voltage range of the inverter.
Select the number of cells in between these two limits (more or less arbitrary, though
somewhere in the middle of the min/max values would be appropriate).
rating that exceeds the design load. Vendors typically have standard UPS ratings, so it is possible
to simply select the first standard rating that exceeds the design load. For example, if the design
load 12kVA, then the next size unit (e.g. 15kVA UPS) would be selected.
Select the next standard rectifier / charger rating that exceeds the total minimum DC current
above.
Inverter Sizing
The inverter must be rated to continuously supply the UPS loads. Therefore, the inverter can be
sized using the design AC load current (based on the selected UPS kVA rating).
For a threephase UPS:
Like the inverter, the static switch must be rated to continuously supply the UPS loads.
Therefore, the static switch can be sized using the design AC load current (as above for the
inverter sizing).
Worked Example
Step 1 and 2: Collect the AC UPS Loads and Construct Load Profile
For this example, we shall use the same loads and load profile detailed in the Energy Load Profile
Calculationexample. The load profile is shown in the figure right and the following quantities were
calculated:
Rectifier Sizing
Given a nominal dc link voltage of 120Vdc, the design DC load current is:
A
Suppose the minimum battery recharge time is 2 hours and a recharge efficiency factor of 1.1 is
used. The maximum battery charging current is:
A
Therefore the total minimum DC rectifier / charger current is:
A
A DC rectifier rating of 40A is selected.
A
An inverter and static switch rating of 5A is selected.
Template
A professional, fully customisable Excel spreadsheet template of the AC UPS calculation can be
purchased from Tradebit.
The template is based on the calculation procedure described in this page and includes the
following features:
Battery sizing
UPS Conf
Computer Software
Template
A professional, fully customisable Excel spreadsheet template of the AC UPS calculation can be
purchased from Tradebit.
The template is based on the calculation procedure described in this page and includes the
following features:
Battery sizing
UPS Configuration
Load Profile
Battery Sizing
Preliminary sizing is normally done manually. Notwithstanding this, many AC UPS manufacturers
provide sizing tools as part of their service package (for example, see the APC online UPS
selector tool)
What next?
Using the results of the UPS sizing calculation, the approximate dimensions of the batteries and
UPS cabinet can be estimated based on typical vendor information. This will assist in developing
the equipment / room layouts. Preliminary budget pricing can also be estimated based on the
calculation results.
AC Reactance
Typical AC reactances for copper and aluminium insulated cables operating at 50Hz are based on
values given in AS/NZS 3008.1.
Multicore Cables
AC Reactance (\km)
Size (mm2)
PVC
XLPE
EPR
Circular
(1)
Shaped
(1)
Circular
(1)
Shaped
(1)
0.119
0.139
0.114
1.5
0.111
0.129
0.107
2.5
0.102
0.118
0.0988
0.102
0.11
0.093
0.0967
0.104
0.0887
10
0.0906
0.0967
0.084
16
0.0861
0.0794
0.0913
0.0805
0.0742
25
0.0853
0.0786
0.0895
0.0808
0.0744
35
0.0826
0.0761
0.0863
0.0786
0.0725
50
0.0797
0.0734
0.0829
0.0751
0.0692
70
0.077
0.071
0.0798
0.0741
0.0683
95
0.0766
0.0706
0.079
0.0725
0.0668
120
0.0743
0.0685
0.0765
0.0713
0.0657
150
0.0745
0.0687
0.0765
0.0718
0.0662
185
0.0744
0.0686
0.0762
0.072
0.0663
240
0.0735
0.0678
0.0751
0.0709
0.0653
300
0.0732
0.0675
0.0746
0.0704
0.0649
400
0.0728
0.0671
0.074
0.0702
0.0647
500
0.0723
0.0666
0.0734
0.07
0.0645
PVC
Flat
(1)
EPR
Trefoil
Flat
(1)
XLPE
Trefoil
Flat
(1)
Trefoil
0.184
0.168
0.194
0.179
0.181
0.166
1.5
0.172
0.157
0.183
0.167
0.17
0.155
2.5
0.159
0.143
0.168
0.153
0.156
0.141
0.152
0.137
0.157
0.142
0.146
0.131
0.143
0.128
0.148
0.133
0.138
0.123
10
0.134
0.118
0.138
0.123
0.129
0.114
16
0.126
0.111
0.13
0.114
0.122
0.106
25
0.121
0.106
0.125
0.109
0.118
0.102
35
0.117
0.101
0.12
0.104
0.113
0.0982
50
0.111
0.0962
0.114
0.0988
0.108
0.0924
70
0.107
0.0917
0.109
0.0941
0.104
0.0893
95
0.106
0.0904
0.108
0.0924
0.102
0.0868
120
0.102
0.087
0.104
0.0889
0.0996
0.0844
150
0.102
0.0868
0.104
0.0885
0.0996
0.0844
185
0.101
0.0862
0.103
0.0878
0.0988
0.0835
240
0.0999
0.0847
0.101
0.0861
0.097
0.0818
300
0.0991
0.0839
0.1
0.0852
0.0961
0.0809
400
0.0982
0.0829
0.0993
0.0841
0.0955
0.0802
500
0.0973
0.082
0.0983
0.083
0.0948
0.0796
630
0.0952
0.08
0.0961
0.0809
0.094
0.0787
Note (1): Single core cables are laid flat and touching
Back to Low Voltage Cable Data Reference
AC Resistance
Typical AC resistances for copper and aluminium insulated cables operating at 50Hz are based on
values given in AS/NZS 3008.1.
Contents
[hide]
1 Multicore Cables
o
Multicore Cables
Copper Conductors
Note that for tinned copper conductors, a scaling factor of 1.01 should be applied.
AC Resistance (\km) of Multicore Copper Cables
Size (mm2)
Circular Conductors
Shaped Conductors
45oC
60oC
75oC
90oC
110oC
45oC
60oC
75oC
90oC
23.3
24.5
25.8
27
28.7
1.5
14.9
15.7
16.5
17.3
18.4
2.5
8.14
8.57
9.01
9.45
10
5.06
5.33
5.61
5.88
6.24
3.38
3.56
3.75
3.93
4.17
10
2.01
2.12
2.23
2.33
2.48
16
1.26
1.33
1.4
1.47
1.56
1.26
1.33
1.4
1.47
25
0.799
0.842
0.884
0.927
0.984
0.799
0.842
0.884
0.927
35
0.576
0.607
0.638
0.669
0.71
0.576
0.607
0.638
0.669
50
0.426
0.449
0.471
0.494
0.524
0.426
0.448
0.471
0.494
70
0.295
0.311
0.327
0.343
0.364
0.295
0.311
0.327
0.342
95
0.214
0.225
0.236
0.248
0.262
0.213
0.224
0.236
0.247
120
0.17
0.179
0.188
0.197
0.209
0.17
0.179
0.187
0.196
150
0.139
0.146
0.153
0.16
0.17
0.138
0.145
0.153
0.16
185
0.112
0.118
0.123
0.129
0.136
0.111
0.117
0.123
0.128
240
0.087
0.0912
0.0955
0.0998
0.105
0.0859
0.0902
0.0945
0.0988
300
0.0712
0.0745
0.0778
0.0812
0.0852
0.0698
0.0732
0.0766
0.08
400
0.058
0.0605
0.063
0.0656
0.0685
0.0563
0.0589
0.0615
0.0641
500
0.0486
0.0506
0.0525
0.0544
0.0565
0.0465
0.0485
0.0508
0.0526
Aluminium Conductors
AC Resistance (\km) of Multicore Aluminium Cables
Size (mm2)
Circular Conductors
Shaped Conductors
45oC
60oC
75oC
90oC
45oC
60oC
75oC
90oC
16
2.1
2.22
2.33
2.45
2.1
2.22
2.33
2.45
25
1.32
1.39
1.47
1.54
1.32
1.39
1.47
1.54
35
0.956
1.01
1.06
1.11
0.956
1.01
1.06
1.11
50
0.706
0.745
0.784
0.822
0.706
0.745
0.783
0.822
70
0.488
0.515
0.542
0.569
0.488
0.515
0.542
0.568
95
0.353
0.373
0.392
0.411
0.353
0.372
0.392
0.411
120
0.28
0.295
0.31
0.325
0.279
0.295
0.31
0.325
150
0.228
0.241
0.253
0.265
0.228
0.24
0.253
0.265
185
0.182
0.192
0.202
0.212
0.182
0.192
0.202
0.211
240
0.14
0.148
0.155
0.162
0.139
0.147
0.154
0.162
300
0.113
0.119
0.125
0.131
0.112
0.118
0.124
0.13
400
0.0897
0.0943
0.0988
0.103
0.0886
0.0932
0.0978
0.102
500
0.073
0.0765
0.08
0.0835
0.0716
0.0752
0.0788
0.0824
Aluminium Conductors
45oC
60oC
75oC
90oC
45oC
60oC
75oC
90oC
110oC
23.3
24.5
25.8
27
28.7
1.5
14.9
15.7
16.5
17.3
18.4
2.5
8.14
8.57
9.01
9.45
10
5.06
5.33
5.61
5.88
6.24
3.38
3.56
3.75
3.93
4.17
10
2.01
2.12
2.23
2.33
2.48
16
2.1
2.22
2.33
2.45
1.26
1.33
1.4
1.47
1.56
25
1.32
1.39
1.47
1.54
0.799
0.842
0.884
0.927
0.984
35
0.956
1.01
1.06
1.11
0.576
0.607
0.638
0.668
0.71
50
0.706
0.745
0.783
0.822
0.426
0.448
0.471
0.494
0.524
70
0.488
0.515
0.542
0.568
0.295
0.311
0.327
0.342
0.363
95
0.353
0.372
0.392
0.411
0.213
0.225
0.236
0.247
0.262
120
0.279
0.295
0.31
0.325
0.17
0.179
0.188
0.197
0.208
150
0.228
0.24
0.253
0.265
0.138
0.145
0.153
0.16
0.169
185
0.182
0.192
0.202
0.212
0.111
0.117
0.123
0.129
0.136
240
0.14
0.147
0.155
0.162
0.0862
0.0905
0.0948
0.0991
0.105
300
0.113
0.119
0.125
0.13
0.0703
0.0736
0.077
0.0803
0.0846
400
0.089
0.0936
0.0981
0.103
0.0569
0.0595
0.062
0.0646
0.0677
500
0.0709
0.0744
0.0779
0.0813
0.0467
0.0487
0.0506
0.0525
0.0547
630
0.0571
0.0597
0.0623
0.0649
0.0389
0.0404
0.0418
0.0432
0.0448
Note (1): for tinned copper conductors, a scaling factor of 1.01 should be applied.
Diameter
AWG / kcmil
mm2
kcmil
mm
inch
20
0.518
1.02
0.812
0.0320
19
0.653
1.29
0.912
0.0359
18
0.823
1.62
1.024
0.0403
17
1.04
2.05
1.15
0.0453
16
1.31
2.58
1.291
0.0508
15
1.65
3.26
1.45
0.0571
14
2.08
4.11
1.628
0.0641
13
2.62
5.18
1.828
0.072
12
3.31
6.53
2.053
0.0808
11
4.17
8.23
2.305
0.0907
10
5.26
10.4
2.588
0.1019
6.63
13.1
2.906
0.1144
8.37
16.5
3.264
0.1285
10.5
20.8
3.665
0.1443
13.3
26.3
4.115
0.162
16.8
33.1
4.621
0.1819
21.2
41.7
5.189
0.2043
26.7
52.6
5.827
0.2294
33.6
66.4
6.544
0.2576
42.4
83.7
7.348
0.2893
1/0
53.5
106
8.252
0.3249
2/0
67.4
133
9.266
0.3648
3/0
85
168
10.404
0.4096
4/0
107
212
11.684
0.46
250
127
250
12.700
0.5000
300
152
300
13.912
0.5477
350
177
350
15.027
0.5916
400
203
400
16.064
0.6325
500
253
500
17.960
0.7071
600
304
600
19.675
0.7746
700
355
700
21.251
0.8367
750
380
750
21.997
0.8660
800
405
800
22.718
0.8944
900
456
900
24.096
0.9487
1000
507
1000
25.400
1.0000
1250
633
1250
28.398
1.1180
1500
760
1500
31.108
1.2247
1750
887
1750
33.601
1.3229
2000
1013
2000
35.921
1.4142
Category: Cables
3rd. letter:
Armouring/Screen
Aluminium (optional
with corrosion
protection)
Strength member
yarn
Yarn + bitumen
Corrogated aluminium
(o.w.c.p.)
Hydrocarbon resistant
sehath
Polychloroprene
(Neoprene) PCP, or
chlorinated
polyethylene  CPE
Polychloroprene
(Neoprene) PCP, or
chlorinated
polyethylene  CPE
Galvanized steel
wire braid
Polychloroprene
(Neoprene) PCP, or
chlorinated
polyethylene  CPE
Aluminium + Plastics
Polyethylene  PE
Polypropylene  PP
Polyethylene  PE
Polypropylene  PP
Polyethylene  PE
Polypropylene  PP
PE or PP + filling
compound
Bedding or taping
(Halogenfree)
Semiconducting PE
Polyamid  PA
PE + PA
Chlorosulphonated
polyethylene  CSP
Chlorosulphonated
polyethylene  CSP
Chlorosulphonated
polyethylene  CSP
Thermoplastic
compound (Halogenfree)
Thermoplastic
compound (Halogenfree)
Thermoplastic
compound (Halogenfree)
Paper
Lead
Lead
Aluminium laminate +
plastics sheath
Aluminium
(laminated to outer
jacket)
Expanded PE or PP +
Polyester
Polyester
filling compound
N
Impregnated paper
Polyurethane
Steel (laminated to
outer jacket)
Impregnated paper,
oilfilled cable
Lead + Plastics
Polyvinylchloride PVC
Polyvinylchloride PVC
Phosphorbronze
wire braid
Steel wires +
counter steel tape
(optional)
Ethylenepropylene
rubber  EPR
Ethylenepropylene
rubber  EPR
Ethylenepropylene
rubber  EPR
Silicone rubber
Bedding or taping +
concentric conductor
Concentric
conductor (Screen)
Silicone rubber
Crosslinked
polyethylene XLPE
PE + aluminium wire +
steel tape
Crosslinked
polyethylene XLPE
Halogenfree thermoset
compound EMA or
EVA
Halogenfree thermoset
compound EMA or
EVA
Halogenfree thermoset
compound EMA or EVA
Aluminium screen
Other halogenfree
thermoset materials
Other materials
Other materials
Catenary wire
Other materials
No insulation
No bedding or
equivalent
No armour
No sheath7
Screen
Flour plastics
Y
Z
Polyurethane
Polyvinylchloride PVC
Flour plastics
3rd. letter:
Armouring/Screen
Aluminium (optional
with corrosion
protection)
Strength member
yarn
Yarn + bitumen
Corrogated aluminium
(o.w.c.p.)
Hydrocarbon resistant
sehath
Polychloroprene
(Neoprene) PCP, or
chlorinated
polyethylene  CPE
Polychloroprene
(Neoprene) PCP, or
chlorinated
polyethylene  CPE
Galvanized steel
wire braid
Polychloroprene
(Neoprene) PCP, or
chlorinated
polyethylene  CPE
Polyethylene  PE
Polypropylene  PP
Aluminium + Plastics
Polyethylene  PE
Polypropylene  PP
Polyethylene  PE
Polypropylene  PP
(Transverse only)
F
PE or PP + filling
compound
Bedding or taping
(Halogenfree)
Semiconducting PE
Polyamid  PA
PE + PA
Chlorosulphonated
polyethylene  CSP
Chlorosulphonated
polyethylene  CSP
Chlorosulphonated
polyethylene  CSP
Thermoplastic
compound (Halogenfree)
Thermoplastic
compound (Halogenfree)
Thermoplastic
compound (Halogenfree)
Paper
Lead
Lead
Aluminium laminate +
plastics sheath
Aluminium
(laminated to outer
jacket)
Expanded PE or PP +
filling compound
Polyester
Impregnated paper
Polyurethane
Impregnated paper,
oilfilled cable
Lead + Plastics
Polyvinylchloride PVC
Polyvinylchloride PVC
Ethylenepropylene
rubber  EPR
Silicone rubber
Polyester
Steel (laminated to
outer jacket)
Polyurethane
Phosphorbronze
wire braid
Steel wires +
counter steel tape
(optional)
Ethylenepropylene
rubber  EPR
Ethylenepropylene
rubber  EPR
Bedding or taping +
concentric conductor
Concentric
conductor (Screen)
Silicone rubber
Crosslinked
polyethylene XLPE
PE + aluminium wire +
steel tape
Crosslinked
polyethylene XLPE
Halogenfree thermoset
compound EMA or
EVA
Halogenfree thermoset
compound EMA or
EVA
Halogenfree thermoset
compound EMA or EVA
Aluminium screen
Other halogenfree
thermoset materials
Other materials
Other materials
Catenary wire
Other materials
No insulation
No bedding or
equivalent
No armour
No sheath7
Polyvinylchloride PVC
Y
Z
Screen
Flour plastics
Flour plastics
Three Phase
Single Phase
DC
Country
/ Region
Phase
A
European
Union
Phase
B
Phase C
Purple (1
Neutra
l
Positiv
e
Protectiv
e Earth
Code
Referenc
e
IEC
60445
(2010) (4)
Neutra
l
Active
Negativ
e
Light
Blue
Black
or
Brown
Light
Blue
 (2)
 (2)
Green /
Yellow
(with blue
markings
at ends) (3)
Black
(120V)
, Red
(208V)
or Blue
(240V)
White
or Grey
Green or
Green /
Yellow
NFPA 70
(NEC) (5)
Red
Black
Red
Black
Green /
Yellow
AS/NZS
3000
(2007)
Brown
Black
United
States
Black
or
Brown
Red,
Orange
(delta)
or
Violet
(wye)
Blue or
Yellow
White
or Grey
Australia
n / New
Zealand
Red (6)
White (6)
Dark
Blue(6)
Black (6
People's
Republic
of China
Yellow
Green
Red
Light
Blue
Light
Blue
Green /
Yellow
GB 50303
(2002)
Black
or
Brown
Light
Blue
 (2)
 (2)
Green or
Green /
Yellow
IEC
60445
(2010) (4)
Japan
Brown
Black
Purple
White
or
Natural
Grey
Russia
Brown
Black
Purple
Blue
Brown
Blue
Brown
Grey
Green /
Yellow
IEC
60445
(2010) (4)
South
Africa
Red
White
or
Yellow
Blue
Black
Red
Black
Green /
Yellow
IEC
60445
(2010) (4)
Notes
(1) In the UK, grey can be also be used
(2) No recommendations given
(3) In Denmark, Italy and Poland, light blue along the entire length with green / yellow
markings at the ends
(4) In 2007, IEC 60446 was merged with IEC 60445 (2010), "Basic and safety principles
for manmachine interface, marking and identification Identification of equipment
terminals, conductor terminations and conductors". IEC 60446 is no longer used.
(5) Since 1975, NFPA 70, "The National Electricity Code (NEC)" has not prescribed colours
for active conductors (except for orange for earthed delta). Local regulations take
precedence.
(6) These are preferred colours. Active conductors can be any colour except for green /
yellow, green, yellow, black or light blue
Cable colors
identification colors of cores in cables have been subject to
developments that results in the harmonization document HD 308
S2. These rules do not apply to conductors used in the materials
and sets assembled at the factory although compliance is strongly
recommended. For information, old national habits are reminded in
the table below. These cables are still widely present in existing
installations.
Copper
material than aluminium and has a higher melting point, hence has better performance under
short circuit conditions and is mechanically stronger. However the high density of copper makes
it less flexible than aluminium. Copper conductors also need to be very pure, and small traces of
impurities (e.g. phosphorous) can significantly affect conductivity.
Copper is typically used more commonly in industrial plants, generating stations and portable
equipment because of its mechanical properties. Furthermore, it is used in applications where
space restrictions abound, e.g. offshore platforms and aircraft
Aluminium
The resistivity of aluminium is around 2.8
conductive than copper. Therefore, aluminium conductors need to be oversized by a factor of 1.6
in order to have the equivalent resistance of copper conductors. However aluminium is also 50%
lighter in mass than copper so it has a weight advantage. Additionally, it is more malleable and
flexible than copper.
Aluminium is inherently corrosion resistant due to the thin oxide layer that is formed when
aluminium is exposed to the air. Aluminium also performs better than copper in sulfur laden
environments (in terms of corrosion resistance).
Aluminimum is typically used for overhead aerial lines because of its light weight and high
conductivity. It is also used in applications where space restrictions are not a large factor, e.g.
underground cables
Summary
The table below summarises the pros and cons of copper and aluminium as conductor materials:
Copper
Advantages
Aluminium
High conductivity
Lower weight
Corrosion resistant
Disadvantages
Category: Cables
1 Cable Resistance
1.1 DC Resistance
1.2 AC Resistance
2 Cable Reactance
3 References
Cable Resistance
The dc and ac resistance of cable conductors can be calculated based on IEC 602871 Clause
2.1.
DC Resistance
The dc resistance of cable conductors is calculated as follows:
Where
= 1.7241 x 108
= 2.8264 x 108
= 3.93 x 103
= 4.03 x 103
AC Resistance
The ac resistance of cable conductors is the dc resistance corrected for skin and proximity
effects.
Where
Where
is the dc resistance at the conductor operating temperature ( / m)
is the supply frequency (Hz)
is a constant (see table below)
Note that the formula above is accurate provided that
2.8.
The proximity effect factor varies depending on the conductor geometry. For round conductors,
the following formulae apply.
For 2C and 2 x 1C cables:
Where
is the dc resistance at the conductor operating temperature ( / m)
is the supply frequency (Hz)
is the diameter of the conductor (mm)
is the distance between conductor axes (mm)
is a constant (see table below)
Note that the formula above is accurate provided that
2.8.
For shaped conductors, the proximity effect factor is twothirds the values calculated above, and
with:
equal to the diameter of an equivalent circular conductor of equal crosssectional
area and degree of compaction (mm)
where
Type of Conductor
Round, stranded
Yes
Round, stranded
No
Round, segmental
Sectorshaped
Yes
Sectorshaped
No
Aluminium
Round, stranded
Either
Round, 4 segment
Either
Round, 5 segment
Either
Round, 6 segment
Either
Cable Reactance
The series inductive reactance of a cable can be approximated by the following equation:
Where
References
IEC 6028711, Electric cables Calculation of current rating Part 1: Current rating
equations (100% load factor) and calculation of losses Section 1: General, 2006
G.F. Moore, Electric Cables Handbook, Third Edition, 1997, an excellent reference
book for cables
1 Thermoplastic
2 Thermosetting
3 Paper Based
4 Comparison of Materials
Thermoplastic
Thermoplastic compounds are materials that go soft when heated and harden when cooled:
PVC (Polyvinyl Chloride) is the most commonly used thermoplastic insulator for
cables. It is cheap, durable and widely available. However, the chlorine in PVC (a
halogen) causes the production of thick, toxic, black smoke when burnt and can be a
health hazard in areas where low smoke and toxicity are required (e.g. confined areas
such as tunnels). Normal operating temperatures are typically between 75C and 105C
(depending on PVC type). Temperature limit is 160C (<300mm2) and 140C
(>300mm2).
Thermosetting
Thermosetting compounds are polymer resins that are irreversibly cured (e.g. by heat in the
vulcanization process) to form a plastic or rubber:
Paper Based
Paper Based insulation is the oldest type of power cable insulation and is still used mainly for
high voltage cables. The paper insulation must be impregnated with a dielectric fluid (e.g. oil
resin or a synthetic fluid). A lead sheath is commonly applied over the insulation to prevent
water or moisture ingress into the paper insulation, which is sensitive to moisture.
Comparison of Materials
A comparison of common insulating materials is as follows:
Material
Advantages
Disadvantages
Cheap
Melts at high temperatures
PVC
Durable
Widely available
PE
Contains halogens
XLPE
at high temperatures
XLPE polymers are watertree resistant)
Does not melt but thermal
expansion occurs
EPR
Increased flexibility
MediumHigh dielectric losses
(relative to XLPE)
Requires inorganic filler / additive
High weight
Paper / Oil
Category: Cables
1 Introduction
2 Method A
3 Method B
High cost
Difficult to repair
Degrades with moisture
4 Method C
5 Method D
6 Method E
7 Method F
8 Method G
9 Related topics:
Introduction
The IEC 60364 standard defines a number of installation methods which represent the various
installation conditions. By the following icons, they are divided into groups and defined by the
letters A to G which determine how to read the table of the currentcarrying capacities in
conductors.
Method A
This method also applies to single core or multicore cables installed directly in a thermally
insulated wall (use methods A1 and A2 respectively), conductors installed in mouldings,
architraves and window frames.
Method B
This method applies when a conduit is installed inside a wall, against a wall or spaced less than
0.3 x D (overall diameter of the cable) from the wall. Method B also applies for cables installed in
trunking / cable duct against a wall or suspended from a wall and cables installed in building
cavities.
Method C
This method also applies to cables fixed directly to walls or ceilings, suspended from ceilings,
installed on unperforated cable trays (run horizontally or vertically) and installed directly in a
masonry wall (with thermal resistivity less than 2 K.m/W).
Method D
Method E
This method applies to cables installed on cable ladder, perforated cable tray or cleats provided
that the cable is spaced more than 0.3 x D (overall diameter of the cable) from the wall. Note
that cables installed on unperforated cable trays are classified under Method C.
Method F
This method applies to cables installed on cable ladder, perforated cable tray or cleats provided
that the cable is spaced more than 0.3 x D (overall diameter of the cable) from the wall. Note
that cables installed on unperforated cable trays are classified under Method C.
Method G
This method applies to cables installed on cable ladder, perforated cable tray or cleats provided
that the cable is spaced more than 0.3 x D (overall diameter of the cable) from the wall and with
at least 1 x D spacings between cables. Note that cables installed on unperforated cable trays are
classified under Method C. This method also applies to cables installed in air supported by
insulators.
Related topics:
Thermoplastic
Thermoplastic compounds are materials that go soft when heated and harden when cooled:
PVC (Polyvinyl Chloride) as a sheath material, PVC is used extensively because of its
low cost and good overall properties high physical strength, good moisture resistance,
adequate oil resistance, good flame resistance and excellent resistance to weathering and to
soil environments. PVC contains halogens which produces thick, black toxic smoke when
burnt. Most commonly used sheath material for LV cables.
CPE (Chlorinated Polyethylene) similar to PVC, but with better high temperature
properties. Contains halogens.
Nylon provides good physical strength, reasonable abrasion resistance, very low friction
when in contact with conduit materials which aids in pulling cables. Excellent resistance to
oils and organic solvents, but very sensitive to strong acids and oxidizing agents.
Thermosetting
Thermosetting compounds are polymer resins that are irreversibly cured (e.g. by heat in the
vulcanization process) to form a plastic or rubber:
PCP (Polychloroprene) or trade name "Neoprene" provides good heat resistance, flame
resistance, resistance to oil, sunlight and weathering, low temperature resistance and
abrasion resistance. Due to its ruggedness, neoprene is used widely in the mining industry.
Does not deform with high temperatures and does not contain halogens.
EPR (Ethylene Propylene Rubber) not commonly used as a sheath material, but can be
useful if increased cable flexibility is required (especially in low temperature applications).
Cable Terminology
List of electrical and instrumentation cable terminology and definitions.
Contents
[hide]
Dekoron
Registered trade name for a range of instrumentation cables insulated and sheathed with a flame
retardant PVC. The standard range includes up to 50 pairs and up to 36 triples in either 0.5mm2
or 1.5mm2 conductors. Larger conductors may be specified, as can options of Lead Sheathing,
SWA, or HF insulation and sheath materials.
HF (Halogen Free)
Halogenated plastics (ie. those that contain chlorine, fluorine, bromine, iodine and astatine)
when ignited will tend to release toxic and corrosive gases, which has potential safety
implications, eg. obstruction of escape routes. Halogen free plastics, as the name suggests, do
not contain halogens.
Neoprene
Refer to PCP (polychroloprene)
PCP (Polychloroprene)
This is an oil resistant, tough sheating material, that is used mainly in mining cables as an outer
sheath. DuPont registered trade name for this product is "Neoprene".
PE (Polyethylene)
Thermoplastic used as a insulation and sheating material.
SCN (Screen)
A tape or braid, usually metallic (copper, aluminium) or semimetallic (PETP/Al), wrapped around
the cable cores to keep out or contain unwanted radiation / interference.
SHF2
Halogen free elastomeric compound commonly used for inner sheath / bedding and
outer sheating materials.
Current Ratings
Contents
[hide]
1 Table 52G
2 Table 52H
3 Table 52I
4 Table 52J
Table 52G
Multicore cables with individual screening with voltage levels from 3,6/6 (7,2) kV to 18/30 (36)
kV and PR/EPR insulation.
Copper (Cu)
CrossSection
Aluminium (Al)
Air
Ground
mm2
Air
Ground
156
160
25
121
125
189
192
35
146
148
227
226
50
175
175
282
277
70
220
215
345
331
95
268
257
400
377
120
309
292
456
423
150
351
327
523
478
185
407
372
619
554
240
479
431
718
627
300
552
487
Table 52H
Multicore cables with collective screening with voltage level 6/6 (7,2) kV and PR/EPR insulation.
Copper (Cu)
CrossSection
Aluminium (Al)
Air
Ground
mm2
Air
Ground
100
110
16
79
86
130
145
25
105
110
165
170
35
125
135
205
215
50
160
165
255
260
70
195
205
310
315
95
240
245
360
360
120
280
280
410
405
150
320
315
460
450
185
360
350
550
525
240
430
410
Table 52I
Multicore cables with collective screening with voltage level 6/6 (7,2) kV and PVC insulation.
Copper (Cu)
CrossSection
Aluminium (Al)
Air
Ground
mm2
Air
Ground
81
94
16
62
72
105
120
25
82
94
130
145
35
100
115
165
185
50
130
145
205
225
70
160
175
250
270
95
195
210
290
310
120
225
240
330
345
150
255
270
370
385
185
285
300
440
445
240
345
350
Table 52J
Singlecore cables with individual screening with voltage levels from 3,6/6 (7,2) kV to 18/30 (36)
kV and PR/EPR insulation.
Copper (Cu)
Air
CrossSection
Aluminium (Al)
mm2
Ground
Trefoil
Flat
Trefoil
Flat
157
161
161
165
190
195
192
233
244
292
Air
Ground
Trefoil
Flat
Trefoil
Flat
25
122
125
125
128
197
35
147
151
149
153
225
231
50
185
189
175
179
304
276
283
70
226
236
214
220
356
369
330
338
95
266
285
252
262
409
423
375
383
120
318
330
291
299
465
478
420
430
150
360
370
325
334
533
549
474
484
185
417
430
370
379
630
646
549
559
240
490
504
428
439
724
735
619
623
300
567
579
485
492
836
838
698
703
400
662
669
554
562
959
958
786
785
500
771
776
631
637
1108
1108
887
886
630
897
905
720
727
1255
1244
980
970
800
1037
1040
810
812
1390
1366
1063
1042
1000
1165
1160
895
890
1480
1445
1117
1087
1200
1264
1252
957
945
[hide]
1 Table B.2
2 Table B.3
3 Table B.4
4 Table B.5
5 Table B.6
6 Table B.7
7 Table B.8
8 Table B.9
Table B.2
Current ratings for singlecore cables with XLPE insulation Rated voltage 3,6/6 kV to 18/30 kV
Copper conductor
CrossSection
In ground (direct)
In ground (duct)
In air
(mm2)
Trefoil
Flat
Trefoil
Flat
Trefoil
Flat touching
Flat spaced
16
109
113
103
104
125
128
150
25
140
144
132
133
163
167
196
35
166
172
157
159
198
203
238
50
196
203
186
188
238
243
286
70
239
246
227
229
296
303
356
95
285
293
271
274
361
369
434
120
323
332
308
311
417
426
500
150
361
366
343
347
473
481
559
185
406
410
387
391
543
550
637
240
469
470
447
453
641
647
745
300
526
524
504
510
735
739
846
400
590
572
564
571
845
837
938
Table B.3
Current ratings for singlecore cables with XLPE insulation Rated voltage 3,6/6 kV to 18/30 kV
Aluminium conductor
CrossSection
In ground (direct)
In ground (duct)
In air
(mm2)
Trefoil
Flat
Trefoil
Flat
Trefoil
Flat touching
Flat spaced
16
84
88
80
81
97
99
116
25
108
112
102
103
127
130
153
35
129
134
122
123
154
157
185
50
152
157
144
146
184
189
222
70
186
192
176
178
230
236
278
95
221
229
210
213
280
287
338
120
252
260
240
242
324
332
391
150
281
288
267
271
368
376
440
185
317
324
303
307
424
432
504
240
367
373
351
356
502
511
593
300
414
419
397
402
577
586
677
400
470
466
451
457
673
676
769
Table B.4
Current ratings for singlecore cables with EPR insulation Rated voltage 3,6/6 kV to 18/30 kV
Copper conductor
CrossSection
In ground (direct)
In ground (duct)
In air
(mm2)
Trefoil
Flat
Trefoil
Flat
Trefoil
Flat touching
Flat spaced
16
106
109
99
100
116
119
138
25
136
140
128
129
153
156
181
35
162
167
153
154
186
190
221
50
192
198
181
183
224
229
266
70
234
242
222
224
280
287
334
95
280
289
266
269
343
352
409
120
319
329
303
306
398
407
474
150
357
369
341
344
454
465
540
185
403
417
386
390
522
534
621
240
467
484
449
454
619
634
736
300
526
545
509
515
712
728
843
400
597
618
580
588
825
843
977
Table B.5
Current ratings for singlecore cables with EPR insulation Rated voltage 3,6/6 kV to 18/30 kV
Aluminium conductor
CrossSection
In ground (direct)
In ground (duct)
In air
(mm2)
Trefoil
Flat
Trefoil
Flat
Trefoil
Flat touching
Flat spaced
16
82
84
77
78
90
92
107
25
105
109
99
100
119
121
141
35
126
130
118
120
144
147
171
50
149
153
140
142
174
178
207
70
182
188
172
174
218
223
259
95
217
224
206
208
266
273
317
120
247
256
235
238
309
317
368
150
277
287
264
267
352
361
419
185
314
325
300
303
406
417
484
240
364
377
350
354
483
495
575
300
411
426
397
401
556
570
659
400
471
487
456
462
651
667
770
Table B.6
Current rating for threecore XLPE insulated cables Rated voltage 3,6/6 kV to 18/30 kV
Copper conductor, armoured and unarmoured
CrossSection
Unarmoured
Armoured
(mm2)
Buried direct
Buried in ducts
In air
Buried direct
Buried in ducts
In air
16
101
87
109
101
88
110
25
129
112
142
129
112
143
35
153
133
170
154
134
172
50
181
158
204
181
158
205
70
221
193
253
220
194
253
95
262
231
304
263
232
307
120
298
264
351
298
264
352
150
334
297
398
332
296
397
185
377
336
455
374
335
453
240
434
390
531
431
387
529
300
489
441
606
482
435
599
400
553
501
696
541
492
683
Table B.7
Current rating for threecore XLPE insulated cables Rated voltage 3,6/6 kV to 18/30 kV
Aluminium conductor, armoured and unarmoured
CrossSection
Unarmoured
Armoured
(mm2)
Buried direct
Buried in ducts
In air
Buried direct
Buried in ducts
In air
16
78
67
84
78
68
85
25
100
87
110
100
87
111
35
119
103
132
119
104
133
50
140
122
158
140
123
159
70
171
150
196
171
150
196
95
203
179
236
204
180
238
120
232
205
273
232
206
274
150
260
231
309
259
231
309
185
294
262
355
293
262
354
240
340
305
415
338
304
415
300
384
346
475
380
343
472
400
438
398
552
432
393
545
Table B.8
Current rating for threecore EPR insulated cables Rated voltage 3,6/6 kV to 18/30 kV
Copper conductor, armoured and unarmoured
CrossSection
(mm2)
Unarmoured
Buried direct
Buried in ducts
Armoured
In air
Buried direct
Buried in ducts
In air
16
98
84
104
98
85
104
25
125
109
135
125
109
136
35
150
130
164
150
131
164
50
176
154
195
177
155
197
70
216
189
243
216
190
244
95
258
227
296
257
227
296
120
292
258
339
292
259
339
150
328
291
385
327
291
385
185
371
330
441
368
328
439
240
429
384
519
424
381
513
300
482
434
590
475
429
583
400
545
494
678
534
485
666
Table B.9
Current rating for threecore EPR insulated cables Rated voltage 3,6/6 kV to 18/30 kV
Aluminium conductor, armoured and unarmoured
CrossSection
Unarmoured
Armoured
(mm2)
Buried direct
Buried in ducts
In air
Buried direct
Buried in ducts
In air
16
76
65
80
76
66
81
25
97
84
105
97
85
105
35
116
101
127
116
101
127
50
137
119
151
137
120
153
70
167
147
189
168
147
190
95
200
176
229
200
176
230
120
227
201
263
227
201
264
150
255
226
299
254
226
300
185
289
257
343
288
257
343
240
335
300
406
332
299
402
300
378
340
462
374
338
459
400
432
392
538
426
387
530
DC Resistance
Typical DC resistances for copper and aluminium conductors operating at 20oC are based on
values given in AS/NZS 1125.1.
Background information can be found in the calculation of DC resistances article.
Maximum DC Resistance (\km) at 20oC
Copper
Size
(mm2)
Aluminium
Stranded Conductors
Solid Conductors
Nicke
l
Silve
r
Tinne
d
Nicke
l
Stranded
Conductors
Solid
Conductors
Plain
Silver
Tinned
0.5
38.4
38.4
39.6
36
36.7
39.6
0.75
25.3
25.3
26
24.5
24.8
19.7
21.2
21.2
21.6
23.3
18.1
18.2
13.2
1.5
13.6
13.6
13.8
14.9
12.1
12.2
2.5
7.41
7.41
7.56
8.14
7.41
7.56
12.1
4.61
4.61
4.7
5.06
4.61
4.7
7.41
7.54
3.08
3.08
3.11
3.34
3.08
3.11
4.61
5.01
10
1.83
1.83
1.84
1.83
1.84
3.08
3.08
16
1.15
1.15
1.16
1.15
1.16
1.91
1.91
25
0.727
0.727
0.734
0.727
1.2
1.2
35
0.524
0.524
0.529
0.868
0.868
50
0.387
0.387
0.391
0.641
0.641
70
0.268
0.268
0.27
0.443
0.443
95
0.193
0.193
0.195
0.32
0.32
120
0.153
0.153
0.154
0.253
0.253
150
0.124
0.124
0.126
0.206
0.206
185
0.0991
0.0991
0.1
0.164
0.164
240
0.0754
0.0754
0.0762
0.125
0.125
300
0.0601
0.0601
0.0607
0.1
0.1
400
0.047
0.047
0.0475
0.0778
500 (1)
0.0366 /
0.0366 /
0.0369 /
0.0605 /
630 (1)
0.037332
0.037332
0.037638
0.0283 /
0.028866
0.0283 /
0.028866
0.0286 /
0.029172
0.06171

0.0469 /
0.047838
Note (1): resistance values are quoted for single core / multicore cables
Back to Low Voltage Cable Data Reference
Insulation thickness
Contents
[hide]
1 Note
2 IEC 60502  1
o
Note
The nominal insulation thicknesses are specified in Tables 5 to 7. The thickness of any separator
shall not be included in the thickness of the insulation.
IEC 60502  1
Typical insulation thickness (in mm) for cables 0,6/1 and 1,8/3 kV according to the IEC 605021.
Table numbers correspond to the standard.
0,6/1 kV
1,8/3 kV
0,8
2,2
1,5
0,8
2,2
2,5
0,8
2,2
2,2
2,2
10
2,2
16
2,2
25
1,2
2,2
35
1,2
2,2
50
1,4
2,2
70
1,4
2,2
95
1,6
2,2
120
1,6
2,2
150
1,8
2,2
185
2,2
240
2,2
2,2
300
2,4
2,2
400
2,6
2,6
500
2,8
2,8
630
2,8
2,8
800
2,8
2,8
1000
Crosssection (mm2)
0,6/1 kV
1,8/3 kV
0,7
1,5
0,7
2,5
0,7
0,7
0,7
10
0,7
16
0,7
25
0,9
35
0,9
50
70
1,1
95
1,1
120
1,2
150
1,4
185
1,6
240
1,7
300
1,8
400
500
2,2
2,2
630
2,4
2,4
800
2,6
2,6
1000
2,8
2,8
Crosssection (mm2)
0,6/1 kV
1,8/3 kV
2,2
1,5
2,2
2,5
2,2
2,2
2,2
10
2,2
16
2,2
25
1,2
2,2
35
1,2
2,2
50
1,4
2,2
70
1,4
2,2
95
1,6
2,4
120
1,6
2,4
150
1,8
2,4
185
2,4
240
2,2
2,4
300
2,4
2,4
400
2,6
2,6
500
2,8
2,8
630
2,8
2,8
800
2,8
2,8
1000
IEC 60502  2
Typical insulation thickness (in mm) for cables 3,6/6, 6/10, 8,7/15, 12/20, 18/30 kV according to
the IEC 605022. Table numbers correspond to the standard.
3,6/6 kV
1,5
2,5
10
3,4
16
3,4
25
3,4
35
3,4
50
3,4
70
3,4
95
3,4
120
3,4
150
3,4
185
3,4
240
3,4
300
3,4
400
3,4
500
3,4
630
3,4
800
3,4
1000
3,4
1200
3,4
1400
3,4
1600
3,4
3,6/6 kV
6/10 kV
8,7/15 kV
12/20 kV
8/30 kV
1,5
2,5
10
2,5
16
2,5
3,4
25
2,5
3,4
4,5
35
2,5
3,4
4,5
5,5
50
2,5
3,4
4,5
5,5
70
2,5
3,4
4,5
5,5
95
2,5
3,4
4,5
5,5
120
2,5
3,4
4,5
5,5
150
2,5
3,4
4,5
5,5
185
2,5
3,4
4,5
5,5
240
2,6
3,4
4,5
5,5
300
2,8
3,4
4,5
5,5
400
3,4
4,5
5,5
500
3,2
3,4
4,5
5,5
630
3,2
3,4
4,5
5,5
800
3,2
3,4
4,5
5,5
1000
3,2
3,4
4,5
5,5
1200
3,2
3,4
4,5
5,5
1400
3,2
3,4
4,5
5,5
1600
3,2
3,4
4,5
5,5
3,6/6 kV
6/10 kV
8,7/15 kV
12/20 kV
8/30 kV
1,5
2,5
10
16
3,4
25
3,4
4,5
35
3,4
4,5
5,5
50
3,4
4,5
5,5
70
3,4
4,5
5,5
95
3,4
4,5
5,5
120
3,4
4,5
5,5
150
3,4
4,5
5,5
185
3,4
4,5
5,5
240
3,4
4,5
5,5
300
3,4
4,5
5,5
400
3,4
4,5
5,5
500
3,2
3,4
4,5
5,5
630
3,2
3,4
4,5
5,5
800
3,2
3,4
4,5
5,5
1000
3,2
3,4
4,5
5,5
1200
3,2
3,4
4,5
5,5
1400
3,2
3,4
4,5
5,5
1600
3,2
3,4
4,5
5,5
Category: Cables
LV Cable Commissioning
Visual Inspection
Check that cable colour codes conform to project specifications and/or national
standards
Electrical Testing
For each test, record the testing instrument make / model and serial number.
1 Introduction
Introduction
Almost all utilities and large industrial facilities have extensive systems of power cables. Many of
these cable systems are ageing and failures are becoming common. Finding the root cause of
cable failures can lead to better maintenance practices and produce more reliable operation in
the future. This in turn will lead to lower operating costs. As an example, the final result of a
cable failure may be that the insulation failed and the cable flashed over. The root cause may in
fact be a building contractor removing thermally conducting backfill around the ducts thereby
causing local overheating. Determining the root cause of the failure can help prevent future
failures. Root cause analysis requires a systems approach.
Always keep in mind the installation when looking for the cause of a failure. Cable accessories
are often the most prone to failure of any part of the cable system. Accessories include
terminations and joints, also called splices. Terminations are required to connect the conductor of
the cable to a bus or other cable conductor. Within the termination the cables metallic and
semiconducting shields must also be properly terminated. Splices may be simply considered two
terminations, connected back to back.
Another aspect of the cable system is the operating environment. Some points of the operating
environment, which must be considered, are:
Ambient temperature
Switching operations.
is looked at as an effect, which had a cause. Then each cause is looked at in turn as the possible
effect of a previous cause. This cause/effect trail is followed to the fundamental or root cause.
The amount of evidence that can be gathered will depend on the condition of the sample, what
has happened to the sample since the failure, and the availability of information about the failure
and previous conditions that the cable or accessory has undergone. Often direct evidence at the
failure site is destroyed by the fault. An important factor in failure analysis is of course the
amount of time and money one can spend on the analysis.
Two important things that must be done in any failure analysis are a close visual examination of
the sample at and near the failure site, and talking to or reading accounts of the failure from the
personnel involved. Depending on the circumstances more investigations or tests may be
required, or more information may be requested from the cable user.
If the failure occurred in a polymeric cable, other work may include:
Performing ac breakdown level tests on a long sample near the failure site
Water trees can grow in both polyethylene and EPR insulation. Figure 3 shows a large vented
water tree growing from the insulation shield. This water tree has a fault through it. Figure
4 shows a cable with a forest of water trees, which can be seen without dissecting the insulation.
Water trees require both moisture and an electric field in the insulation to grow. If the cable is an
older design made and installed before or about 1980, and has extensive water tree growth, one
may conclude that the root cause of failure is simply that the cable has reached its normal endoflife. If newer TRXLPE has extensive water treeing, a manufacturing problem may be the cause.
If the cable is supposed to have strand blocking, water absorbing tape, or a hermetically sealed
LC shield, and develops extensive water treeing in a short time, investigate the possible root
cause as a manufacturing problem, mechanical damage or shield corrosion.
Other sources
To investigate a failure in an accessory, in addition to the usual visual examination and gathering
of environmental and operating information, other work specific to accessory failure analysis may
include:
Problems in connectors are a common cause of accessory failure. Figure 7 shows a drawing of a
loadbreak separable insulated connector (SIC). Within the elbow, bushing insert, and bushing
well that make up the SIC, there can be up to eight electrical contacts. Usually problem
connectors overheat, which is evidenced by a discolored or burned conductor or insulation. Root
cause of the failure is often improper installation including bad connector crimps, cross threading
of the elbow probe, or a broken stud in the bushing well. Some older loadbreak SICs had design
flaws in the contacts in the load break mechanism.
Figure 8 shows an XLPE cable end, which was removed from a failed premolded splice. The
results of arcing can be seen on the insulation surface. When the installer penciled the insulation,
burrs were left on the end of the insulation and the surface was very roughly sanded. When the
insulation was inserted into the splice body, semicon material was dragged over the surface. The
semicon material led to surface tracking and eventual flashover. The cause of the failure was
poor workmanship. One might conclude that the root cause is poor training, installation
processes or standards.
Figure 6. Lab test showing shield arcing due to elevated semicon temperature
Summary
Determining the root cause of a cable failure can lead to better maintenance practices, produce
more reliable operation, and lower operating costs. Root cause analysis requires a systems
approach, which includes understanding the cables, their accessories and operating environment.
References
Finding the Root Cause of Power Cable Failures By: Vern Buchholz, P.Eng., Director of
Electrical Technologies, Powertech Labs Inc.
0.5
0.5
0.75
0.75
1.5
1.5
2.5
2.5
10
10
16
16
26
16
35
16
50
25
70
35
95
50
120
70
150
95
185
95
240
120
300
150
400
240
500
300
630
400
800
400
1000
500
For protective earth conductors that are not of the same material as the phase conductors, a
factor
The numerator k1 is the k value for the phase conductors and the denominator k2 is the k value
for the PE conductor. Calculation of the k values are described on this page.
Sizing by Calculation
As per Clause 543.1.2 of IEC 60463554, the size of protective earth conductors can be
calculated by the adiabatic short circuit temperature rise equation (for disconnection times <5s):
Where
is a constant term (this article has guidance for selecting the constant term)
Category: Cables
1 Introduction
2 Transformers
3 Motors and Generators
4 Cables
Introduction
Most IEC rated equipment have standard sizes that correspond to full sets or subsets of Renard
numbers, especially from the four preferred series of Renard numbers outlined in ISO3: R5,
R10, R20 and R40.
Transformers
For transformer ratings under 10MVA, IEC 600761 suggest preferred values based on the R10
series: 10, 12.5, 16, 20, 25, 31.5, 40, 50, 63, 80, 100, and multiples of 10 n. For example, the
preferred transformer sizes from 500kVA to 4000kVA are: 500, 630, 800, 1000, 1250, 1600,
2000, 2500, 3150, 4000.
0.
09
0.
12
0.
18
0.
25
0.
37
0.
55
0.
75
1.
1
1.
5
1.
8*
2.
2
3
*
3.
7
4*
5.
5
6.3
*
7.
5
1
0
*
11
1
3
*
1
5
17
*
18
.5
20
*
22
25
*
30
32
*
37
40
*
45
5
0
*
5
5
63
*
7
5
8
0
*
9
0
10
0*
11
0
12
5*
1
3
2
1
5
0
1
6
0
1
8
5
2
0
0
22
0
25
0
28
0
30
0
31
5
33
5
35
5
37
5
40
0
42
5
4
5
0
4
7
5
50
0
5
3
0
5
6
0
6
0
0
63
0
6
7
0
71
0
7
5
0
8
0
0
8
5
0
9
0
0
9
5
0
10
00
(*) Note that these are "secondary series" ratings and are only to be used in cases of special
need.
Cables
Standard cable sizes (in mm2) are as follows:
0.
5
0.7
5
1.
5
2.
5
4 6
1
0
1
6
2
5
3
5
5
0
7
0
9
5
12
0
15
0
VSD Cable
18
5
24
0
30
0
40
0
50
0
63
0
80
0
100
0
The use of fast switching circuitry in variable speed (or frequency) drives result in output
waveforms with higher levels of harmonic components. These harmonics can cause:
High electromagnetic interference (EMI)  where the cable is the antenna and the
radiated EMI from the cable can induce voltages and currents on nearby cables and
electrical equipment. This can especially be a problem when EMI causes noise and
crosstalk in control and instrumentation cables.
High earth currents  due to harmonics causing unbalances in the threephase output.
A portion of the unbalanced currents return to the source (i.e. inverter) via the earth
conductor.
Therefore, VSD cables often have the following special characteristics:
Heavy duty screen  usually copper, applied over the entire cable bundle to reduce
EMI
Three earth conductors  located symmetrically in the cable crosssection so that the
phasetoearth distance is identical for each phase, and the cable is "electrically
balanced". Sometimes you'll see the designation "3C + 3E"  this isn't a mistake!
Larger earth conductors  to further reduce the impedance of the earth conductor
return parth and therefore reduce earth currents
Robust insulation grades  such as XLPE is commonly used over PVC, so that the cable
can better withstand transient voltage spikes
Category:Control
Contents
[hide]
The basis for analysis of a control system is the foundation provided by linear system theory,
which assumes a causeeffect relationship for the components of a system. A component or
process to be controlled can be represented by a block. Each block possesses an input (cause)
and output (effect). The inputoutput relation represents the causeandeffect relationship of the
process, which in turn represents a processing of the input signal to provide an output signal
variable, often with power amplification. An openloop control system utilizes a controller or
control actuator in order to obtain the desired response (Figure 1).
systems, biomedical experimentation and biological control systems, and social, economic, and
political systems.
AC Drives
DC Drives
Droop Control
PLC
Electrical Power
How do the various formulae for electrical power fit together? What is the difference between DC,
AC and complex power and how do they harmonise with our physical conceptions of energy and
power.
Contents
[hide]
1 Definition
2 DC Power
o
3.1 Derivation
4.1 Derivation
Definition
By formal definition, any form of power (e.g. electrical, mechanical, thermal, etc) is the rate at
which energy or work is performed. The standard unit of power is the watt (or joules per
second). Electrical power is the rate at which electrical energy is delivered to a load (via an
electrical circuit) and converted into another form of energy (e.g. heat, light, sound, chemical,
kinetic, etc). In terms of electrical quantities current and voltage, power can be calculated by the
following standard formula:
Where P is power in watts, V is potential difference in volts and I is current in amperes. But
how did this relationship come about?
DC Power
Historical Derivation
19th century English physicist James Prescott Joule observed that the amount of heat energy (H)
dissipated by a constant (DC) electrical current (I), through a material of resistance R, in time t,
had the following proportional relationship:
As power is the rate of change of energy over time, Joules observation above can be restated in
terms of electrical power:
since P = H/t.
Now applying Ohms law R = V/I we get:
Alternative Derivation
The SI unit for energy is the joule. For electrical energy, one joule is defined as the work required
to move an electric charge of one coloumb through a potential difference of one volt. In other
words:
Where E is electrical energy (in joules), Q is charge (in coulombs) and V is potential difference
(in volts). Given that electric current is defined as the amount of charge flowing per unit time (I
= Q/t), then
As power is the rate of change of energy over time, this reduces to:
AC Power
In its unaltered form, the power equation P = VI is only applicable to direct current (DC)
waveforms. In alternating current (AC) waveforms, the instantaneous value of the waveform is
always changing with time, so AC power is slightly different conceptually to DC power.
Derivation
AC waveforms in power systems are typically sinusoidal with the following general form, e.g. for
a voltage waveform:
and
, then
and
The term P is called the active (or real) power and the term Q is called the reactive power.
Note that the term cos is called the power factor and refers to the proportion of active or real
component of AC power being delivered. The active power is the component of power that can do
real work (e.g. be converted to useful forms of energy like mechanical, heat or light).
Physical Interpretation
From the basic power equation:
We can see that power flow is a sinusoidal waveform with twice the frequency of voltage and
current.
From the power equation, we can also break p(t) down into two components:
An alternating term,
Notice that the alternating term fluctuates around zero and the constant term in the above
example is positive. It turns out that the alternating term always fluctuates around zero and the
constant term (active power) depends on the power factor cos. But what does the power factor
represent?
Power Factor
Power factor is defined as the cosine of the power angle
voltage and current. People will often refer to power factor as leading or lagging. This is because
the power angle can only range between 90 and +90, and the cosine of an angle in the fourth
quadrant (between 0 and 90) is always positive. Therefore the power factor is also always
positive and the only way to distinguish whether the power angle is negative or positive from the
power factor is to denote it leading or lagging.
Lagging power factor: when the current lags the voltage, this means that the current
waveform comes delayed after the voltage waveform (and the power angle is
positive).
Leading power factor: when the current leads the voltage, this means that the current
waveform comes before the voltage waveform (and the power angle is negative).
Unity power factor: refers to the case when the current and voltage are in the same
phase.
The physical significance of power factor is in the load impedance. Inductive loads
(e.g. coils, motors, etc) have lagging power factors, capacitative loads (e.g.
capacitors) have leading power factors and resistive loads (e.g. heaters) have
close to unity power factors.
Relation to Energy
By definition, power is the rate at which work is being done (or the rate at which energy is being
expended). As AC power varies with time, the amount of energy delivered by a given power flow
in time T is found by integrating the AC power function over the specified time:
We can see that power is made up of a constant component VrmsIrmscos and an alternating
component VrmsIrmscos(2t  ). The integration can therefore be broken up as follows:
).
The alternating component drops out and the integration is solved as follows:
From this we can see that work is done by the active power component only and the alternating
component does zero net work, i.e. the positive and negative components cancel each other out.
Complex Power
Books often mention AC power in terms of complex quantities, mainly because it has attractive
properties for analysis (i.e. use of vector algebra). But often, complex power is simply defined
without being derived. So how do complex numbers follow from the previous definitions of
power?
For more information on how complex numbers are used in electrical engineering, see the related
article on complex electrical quantities. Much of the derivation below is reproduced from this
article.
Derivation
Back in 1897, Charles Proteus Steinmetz first suggested representing AC waveforms as complex
quantities in his book "Theory and Calculation of Alternating Current Phenomena". What follows
is a sketch of Steinmetzs derivation, but specifically using AC power as the quantity under
consideration.
Previously, we found that AC power is a sinusoidal waveform with the general form (for lagging
power factors):
Where V and I are the rms values for voltage and current (A rms)
For a fixed angular frequency , this waveform can be fully characterized by two parameters: the
rms voltage and current product VI and the lagging phase angle  .
Using these two parameters, we can represent the AC waveform p(t) as a twodimensional
vector S which can be expressed in polar coordinates with magnitude VI and polar angle  :
This vector S can be converted into a pair of rectangular coordinates (x, y) such that:
It can be shown trigonometrically that the addition and subtraction of AC power vectors follow
the general rules of vector arithmetic, i.e. the rectangular components of two or more sinusoids
can be added and subtracted (but not multiplied or divided!).
However working with each rectangular component individually can be unwieldy. Suppose we
were to combine the rectangular components using a meaningless operator j to distinguish
between the horizontal (x) and vertical (y) components. Our vector S now becomes:
Note that the addition sign does not denote a simple addition because x and y are orthogonal
quantities in a twodimensional space. At the moment, j is a meaningless operator to distinguish
the vertical component of V. Now consider a rotation of the vector by 90:
Is referred to as complex power or sometimes apparent power (refer to the section below). It
is most commonly written in this form:
Where
and
Where
is the power angle (i.e phase difference between voltage and current)
Complex Exponentials
Using Eulers formula, we can represent our complex power vector as a complex exponential
using the original polar parameters:
The use of complex exponentials gives us an alternative way to think about complex power. We
have seen that the vector S rotates around the origin when we vary the phase angle . The
complex exponential
ThreePhase Power
So far, we have only been talking about DC and singlephase AC power. The power transferred in
a balanced threephase system is equal to the sum of the powers in each phase, i.e.
where
and
For a delta connected load:
and
where
and
Therefore, threephase active power is the same for both star and delta connected loads (in
terms of line quantities):
Feeder
Short description
A circuit, such as conductors in conduit or a busway run, which carries a large block of power
from the service equipment (or genertor switchboard) to a subfeeder panel or a branch circuit
panel or to some point at which the block power is broken into smaller circuits. Subfeeders
originate at a distribution center other than the service equipment or generator switchboard and
supply one or more other distribution panelboards, branch circuit panelboards, or branch circuits.
Code rules on feeders also apply to subfeeders. Feeders and subfeeders must be capable in
carrying the amount of current required by the load, plus any current that may be required in the
future. Selection of the size of a feeder depends upon the size and nature of the known load as
computed from the branch circuits, the unknown but anticipated future loads and the voltage
drop.
Ampacity 100 A
4.) The Busbar in the panelboard shall have a minimum ampacity of 100 A
5.) The mains of the Panelboard shall be rated at 100 A, 3poles, 240 V
6.) The equipment grounding (4th wire) is recommended 16 mm2 PVC insulated cable.
( Reminder: the system in this example is a 3phase 3 wire. The 4th wire is not a current
carrying conductor but is intended for equipment grounding)
Category: Fundamentals
IP Rating
Contents
[hide]
1 Introduction
2 Summary of IP Ratings
3 Examples
Introduction
IP Rating refers to the International Protection or Ingress Protection of electrical enclosures,
against the intrusion of solid objects, water, dust and accidental contact to live parts, as defined
by IEC 60529. The rating comprises the letters "IP" followed by two numbers (and an optional
letter), where the numbers and letters refer to conformity to levels of protection.
The Wikipedia article gives a fairly detailed account of IP ratings. Therefore this page is only
intended to be a summary of the ratings and more importantly, highlight some key points from
IEC 60529 that are commonly overlooked.
Summary of IP Ratings
Leve
Not protected
objects
N/A
N/A
Examples
An IP54 enclosure is dust protected (1st number = 5) and protected against splashing wayer
(2nd number = 4).
An IP66/67 enclosure is dual protected, both for immersion up to 1m and powerful water jets.
Note that it is not always true that an enclosure with a single rating such as IP68 is suitable for
use in lower IP environments, such as IP66 (for more details, see the next section below).
Important Points from IEC 60529
Section 6 of IEC 60529 makes an important point about backward compliance of IP ratings for
water protection, as per the extract below:
"Up to and including second characteristic numeral 6, the designation implies compliance with
the requirements for all lower characteristic numerals. However, the tests establishing
compliance with any one of the lower degrees of protection need not necessarily be carried out
provided that these tests obviously would be met if applied.
An enclosure designated with second characteristic numeral 7 or 8 only is considered unsuitable
for exposure to water jets (designated by second characteristic numeral 5 or 6) and need not
comply with requirements for numeral 5 or 6 unless it is dual coded."
Category: Fundamentals
Infinite Bus
The infinite bus concept is a simplifying assumption that is applied to buses or nodes with an
infinite upstream fault capacity (or an equivalent upstream source impedance of zero). What this
means is that the voltage at this bus or node is always constant and any downstream
disturbances do not affect the voltage. Obviously, there is no such thing as an infinite bus in
practice, but it is a useful approximation to make when modelling a connection to a large utility
or grid network (that is, large relative to the downstream system). Such large networks are
sometimes called "stiff" networks or systems.
Infinite Bus Concept
An infinite bus assumed in many small electrical applications. As an example, we take for
granted that the voltage supply to a residential outlet will be 230 V and 50 Hz: the voltage and
frequency are not changed when you turn the TV on.
Frequencypower and voltagereactive power plots for an infinite bus are shown on Figure 1.
Operating a generator connected to an infinite bus
2. The noload settings of the mechanical system governor can be adjusted to supply
more or less power
Other impacts on operation can be best understood by considering the phasor diagram.
Phasor Diagrams
To simplify analysis and aid understanding, neglect armature resistance
Since voltage is constant and assuming synchronous reactance is also constant, changing the
power (with the mechanical system) will set E sin and E will control the reactive power. These
effects can be seen be considering two cases.
Category: Fundamentals
AC Power Transmission
Contents
[hide]
1 Introduction
2 PowerAngle Relationship
4 Related Topics
Introduction
Consider the following model depicting the transfer of AC power between two buses across a
line:
Where
At this stage, the impedance is purposely undefined and in the following sections, two different
line impedance models will be introduced to illustrate the following fundamental features of AC
power transmission:
PowerAngle Relationship
In its simplest form, we neglect the line resistance and capacitance and represent the line as
purely inductive, i.e.
Where
is called the power angle, which is the phase difference between the
, we get:
The figure above is often used to articulate the PowerAngle Relationship. We can see that in
this simple model, power will only flow when there is a phase difference between the voltages at
the sending and receiving ends. Moreover, there is a theoretical limit to how much power can be
transmitted through a line (shown here when the phase difference is 90 o). This limit will be a
recurring theme in these line models, i.e. lines have natural capacity limits on how much power
they can transmit.
SteadyState Voltage Stability Limits
The lossless (L) line model can be made more realistic by adding a resistive component,
i.e.
From the above equation, the active and reactive power transfer can be shown to be:
From the active power equation, we can solve for the voltage at bus 2 using the quadratic
equation, i.e.:
Where
By keeping the voltage at bus 1, power angle and line impedance constant, we can plot the
effect of increasing the active power on the voltage at bus 2 on a PV curve:
A short circuit is an electrical fault where a conductive path (usually of low impedance) is formed
between two or more conductive parts of an electrical system (e.g. phasephase, phaseearth,
phaseneutral, etc). This article looks at the nature of short circuits and tries to break down and
explain the constituent parts of fault currents. Note that the terms "short circuit" and "fault" are
often used interchangeably.
In most networks, a short circuit is similar to the closing transient of an RL circuit, where the R
and L components are the impedances of the source(s). The transient characteristics of short
circuit currents vary depending on whether they are near or far from synchronous generators.
The sections below describe the two general types of short circuits:
NeartoGenerator Short Circuit
A fault close to a synchronous generator has the following maximum short circuit current isc(t):
Where
And a series of three damped sinusoidal waveforms corresponding to the following distinct
stages:
This period typically lasts 10 to 20ms from the start of the fault. The subtransient reactance is
due to the flux casued by the stator currents crossing the air gap and reaching the rotor surface
or amortisseur / damper windings.
This period typically lasts 100 to 400ms after the subtransient period. The transient reactance
occurs when all the damping currents in the rotor surface or amortisseur / damper windings have
decayed, but while the damping currents in the field winding are still in action.
Putting these all together, we get the familiar neartogenerator short circuit waveform:
Where
During the transient period, the peak transient current is typically 1.5 to
Electrical Power
(Redirected from Complex Power)
How do the various formulae for electrical power fit together? What is the difference between DC,
AC and complex power and how do they harmonise with our physical conceptions of energy and
power.
Contents
[hide]
1 Definition
2 DC Power
3 AC Power
o
3.1 Derivation
4 Complex Power
4.1 Derivation
5 Apparent Power
6 ThreePhase Power
Definition
By formal definition, any form of power (e.g. electrical, mechanical, thermal, etc) is the rate at
which energy or work is performed. The standard unit of power is the watt (or joules per
second). Electrical power is the rate at which electrical energy is delivered to a load (via an
electrical circuit) and converted into another form of energy (e.g. heat, light, sound, chemical,
kinetic, etc). In terms of electrical quantities current and voltage, power can be calculated by the
following standard formula:
Where P is power in watts, V is potential difference in volts and I is current in amperes. But how
did this relationship come about?
DC Power
Historical Derivation
19th century English physicist James Prescott Joule observed that the amount of heat energy (H)
dissipated by a constant (DC) electrical current (I), through a material of resistance R, in time t,
had the following proportional relationship:
As power is the rate of change of energy over time, Joules observation above can be restated in
terms of electrical power:
since P = H/t.
Now applying Ohms law R = V/I we get:
Alternative Derivation
The SI unit for energy is the joule. For electrical energy, one joule is defined as the work required
to move an electric charge of one coloumb through a potential difference of one volt. In other
words:
Where E is electrical energy (in joules), Q is charge (in coulombs) and V is potential difference
(in volts). Given that electric current is defined as the amount of charge flowing per unit time (I
= Q/t), then
As power is the rate of change of energy over time, this reduces to:
and
, then
and
The term P is called the active (or real) power and the term Q is called the reactive power.
Note that the term cos is called the power factor and refers to the proportion of active or real
component of AC power being delivered. The active power is the component of power that can do
real work (e.g. be converted to useful forms of energy like mechanical, heat or light).
Physical Interpretation
From the basic power equation:
We can see that power flow is a sinusoidal waveform with twice the frequency of voltage and
current.
From the power equation, we can also break p(t) down into two components:
An alternating term,
Notice that the alternating term fluctuates around zero and the constant term in the above
example is positive. It turns out that the alternating term always fluctuates around zero and the
constant term (active power) depends on the power factor cos. But what does the power factor
represent?
Power Factor
Power factor is defined as the cosine of the power angle
voltage and current. People will often refer to power factor as leading or lagging. This is because
the power angle can only range between 90 and +90, and the cosine of an angle in the fourth
quadrant (between 0 and 90) is always positive. Therefore the power factor is also always
positive and the only way to distinguish whether the power angle is negative or positive from the
power factor is to denote it leading or lagging.
Lagging power factor: when the current lags the voltage, this means that the current
waveform comes delayed after the voltage waveform (and the power angle is positive).
Leading power factor: when the current leads the voltage, this means that the current
waveform comes before the voltage waveform (and the power angle is negative).
Unity power factor: refers to the case when the current and voltage are in the same
phase.
The physical significance of power factor is in the load impedance. Inductive loads (e.g. coils,
motors, etc) have lagging power factors, capacitative loads (e.g. capacitors) have leading power
factors and resistive loads (e.g. heaters) have close to unity power factors.
Relation to Energy
By definition, power is the rate at which work is being done (or the rate at which energy is being
expended). As AC power varies with time, the amount of energy delivered by a given power flow
in time T is found by integrating the AC power function over the specified time:
We can see that power is made up of a constant component VrmsIrmscos and an alternating
component VrmsIrmscos(2t  ). The integration can therefore be broken up as follows:
).
The alternating component drops out and the integration is solved as follows:
From this we can see that work is done by the active power component only and the alternating
component does zero net work, i.e. the positive and negative components cancel each other out.
Complex Power
Books often mention AC power in terms of complex quantities, mainly because it has attractive
properties for analysis (i.e. use of vector algebra). But often, complex power is simply defined
without being derived. So how do complex numbers follow from the previous definitions of
power?
For more information on how complex numbers are used in electrical engineering, see the related
article on complex electrical quantities. Much of the derivation below is reproduced from this
article.
Derivation
Back in 1897, Charles Proteus Steinmetz first suggested representing AC waveforms as complex
quantities in his book "Theory and Calculation of Alternating Current Phenomena". What follows
is a sketch of Steinmetzs derivation, but specifically using AC power as the quantity under
consideration.
Previously, we found that AC power is a sinusoidal waveform with the general form (for lagging
power factors):
Where V and I are the rms values for voltage and current (A rms)
For a fixed angular frequency , this waveform can be fully characterized by two parameters: the
rms voltage and current product VI and the lagging phase angle  .
Using these two parameters, we can represent the AC waveform p(t) as a twodimensional
vector S which can be expressed in polar coordinates with magnitude VI and polar angle  :
This vector S can be converted into a pair of rectangular coordinates (x, y) such that:
It can be shown trigonometrically that the addition and subtraction of AC power vectors follow
the general rules of vector arithmetic, i.e. the rectangular components of two or more sinusoids
can be added and subtracted (but not multiplied or divided!).
However working with each rectangular component individually can be unwieldy. Suppose we
were to combine the rectangular components using a meaningless operator j to distinguish
between the horizontal (x) and vertical (y) components. Our vector S now becomes:
Note that the addition sign does not denote a simple addition because x and y are orthogonal
quantities in a twodimensional space. At the moment, j is a meaningless operator to distinguish
the vertical component of V. Now consider a rotation of the vector by 90:
Is referred to as complex power or sometimes apparent power (refer to the section below). It
is most commonly written in this form:
(for lagging power factor)
(for leading power factor)
Where
and
Where
is the power angle (i.e phase difference between voltage and current)
Complex Exponentials
Using Eulers formula, we can represent our complex power vector as a complex exponential
using the original polar parameters:
The use of complex exponentials gives us an alternative way to think about complex power. We
have seen that the vector S rotates around the origin when we vary the phase angle . The
complex exponential
ThreePhase Power
So far, we have only been talking about DC and singlephase AC power. The power transferred in
a balanced threephase system is equal to the sum of the powers in each phase, i.e.
where
and
For a delta connected load:
and
where
and
Therefore, threephase active power is the same for both star and delta connected loads (in
terms of line quantities):
The PV curve shows that the voltage at bus 2 falls as the active power loading increases. The
voltage falls until it hits a critical point (around 2.7pu loading) where the quadratic equation is no
longer solvable. This is referred to as the "nose point" or "point of voltage collapse", and is the
theoretical steadystate stability limit of the line.
Related Topics
Power Flow
Electrical Power
(Redirected from Complex Power)
How do the various formulae for electrical power fit together? What is the difference between DC,
AC and complex power and how do they harmonise with our physical conceptions of energy and
power.
Contents
[hide]
1 Definition
2 DC Power
3 AC Power
o
3.1 Derivation
4 Complex Power
o
4.1 Derivation
5 Apparent Power
6 ThreePhase Power
Definition
By formal definition, any form of power (e.g. electrical, mechanical, thermal, etc) is the rate at
which energy or work is performed. The standard unit of power is the watt (or joules per
second). Electrical power is the rate at which electrical energy is delivered to a load (via an
electrical circuit) and converted into another form of energy (e.g. heat, light, sound, chemical,
kinetic, etc). In terms of electrical quantities current and voltage, power can be calculated by the
following standard formula:
Where P is power in watts, V is potential difference in volts and I is current in amperes. But how
did this relationship come about?
DC Power
Historical Derivation
19th century English physicist James Prescott Joule observed that the amount of heat energy (H)
dissipated by a constant (DC) electrical current (I), through a material of resistance R, in time t,
had the following proportional relationship:
As power is the rate of change of energy over time, Joules observation above can be restated in
terms of electrical power:
since P = H/t.
Now applying Ohms law R = V/I we get:
Alternative Derivation
The SI unit for energy is the joule. For electrical energy, one joule is defined as the work required
to move an electric charge of one coloumb through a potential difference of one volt. In other
words:
Where E is electrical energy (in joules), Q is charge (in coulombs) and V is potential difference
(in volts). Given that electric current is defined as the amount of charge flowing per unit time (I
= Q/t), then
As power is the rate of change of energy over time, this reduces to:
and
, then
and
The term P is called the active (or real) power and the term Q is called the reactive power.
Note that the term cos is called the power factor and refers to the proportion of active or real
component of AC power being delivered. The active power is the component of power that can do
real work (e.g. be converted to useful forms of energy like mechanical, heat or light).
Physical Interpretation
From the basic power equation:
We can see that power flow is a sinusoidal waveform with twice the frequency of voltage and
current.
From the power equation, we can also break p(t) down into two components:
An alternating term,
Notice that the alternating term fluctuates around zero and the constant term in the above
example is positive. It turns out that the alternating term always fluctuates around zero and the
constant term (active power) depends on the power factor cos. But what does the power factor
represent?
Power Factor
Power factor is defined as the cosine of the power angle
voltage and current. People will often refer to power factor as leading or lagging. This is because
the power angle can only range between 90 and +90, and the cosine of an angle in the fourth
quadrant (between 0 and 90) is always positive. Therefore the power factor is also always
positive and the only way to distinguish whether the power angle is negative or positive from the
power factor is to denote it leading or lagging.
Lagging power factor: when the current lags the voltage, this means that the current
waveform comes delayed after the voltage waveform (and the power angle is positive).
Leading power factor: when the current leads the voltage, this means that the current
waveform comes before the voltage waveform (and the power angle is negative).
Unity power factor: refers to the case when the current and voltage are in the same
phase.
The physical significance of power factor is in the load impedance. Inductive loads (e.g. coils,
motors, etc) have lagging power factors, capacitative loads (e.g. capacitors) have leading power
factors and resistive loads (e.g. heaters) have close to unity power factors.
Relation to Energy
By definition, power is the rate at which work is being done (or the rate at which energy is being
expended). As AC power varies with time, the amount of energy delivered by a given power flow
in time T is found by integrating the AC power function over the specified time:
We can see that power is made up of a constant component VrmsIrmscos and an alternating
component VrmsIrmscos(2t  ). The integration can therefore be broken up as follows:
).
The alternating component drops out and the integration is solved as follows:
From this we can see that work is done by the active power component only and the alternating
component does zero net work, i.e. the positive and negative components cancel each other out.
Complex Power
Books often mention AC power in terms of complex quantities, mainly because it has attractive
properties for analysis (i.e. use of vector algebra). But often, complex power is simply defined
without being derived. So how do complex numbers follow from the previous definitions of
power?
For more information on how complex numbers are used in electrical engineering, see the related
article on complex electrical quantities. Much of the derivation below is reproduced from this
article.
Derivation
Back in 1897, Charles Proteus Steinmetz first suggested representing AC waveforms as complex
quantities in his book "Theory and Calculation of Alternating Current Phenomena". What follows
is a sketch of Steinmetzs derivation, but specifically using AC power as the quantity under
consideration.
Previously, we found that AC power is a sinusoidal waveform with the general form (for lagging
power factors):
Where V and I are the rms values for voltage and current (A rms)
For a fixed angular frequency , this waveform can be fully characterized by two parameters: the
rms voltage and current product VI and the lagging phase angle  .
Using these two parameters, we can represent the AC waveform p(t) as a twodimensional
vector S which can be expressed in polar coordinates with magnitude VI and polar angle  :
This vector S can be converted into a pair of rectangular coordinates (x, y) such that:
It can be shown trigonometrically that the addition and subtraction of AC power vectors follow
the general rules of vector arithmetic, i.e. the rectangular components of two or more sinusoids
can be added and subtracted (but not multiplied or divided!).
However working with each rectangular component individually can be unwieldy. Suppose we
were to combine the rectangular components using a meaningless operator j to distinguish
between the horizontal (x) and vertical (y) components. Our vector S now becomes:
Note that the addition sign does not denote a simple addition because x and y are orthogonal
quantities in a twodimensional space. At the moment, j is a meaningless operator to distinguish
the vertical component of V. Now consider a rotation of the vector by 90:
Is referred to as complex power or sometimes apparent power (refer to the section below). It
is most commonly written in this form:
(for lagging power factor)
(for leading power factor)
Where
and
Where
is the power angle (i.e phase difference between voltage and current)
Complex Exponentials
Using Eulers formula, we can represent our complex power vector as a complex exponential
using the original polar parameters:
The use of complex exponentials gives us an alternative way to think about complex power. We
have seen that the vector S rotates around the origin when we vary the phase angle . The
complex exponential
ThreePhase Power
So far, we have only been talking about DC and singlephase AC power. The power transferred in
a balanced threephase system is equal to the sum of the powers in each phase, i.e.
where
and
For a delta connected load:
and
where
and
Therefore, threephase active power is the same for both star and delta connected loads (in
terms of line quantities):
Coil
2 Magnetic Flux
3 Flux Linkage
4 Inductance
Consider a long coil such that its length is very large compared to its crosssectional diameter.
Experiments show that the magnetic field outside the coil is negligible compared with the field
inside the coil.
The field lines inside the coil always run perpendicular to the crosssection of the coil (since
from Gauss' law, magnetic fields have zero divergence):
Using Ampere's law, we can calculate the the magnetic field inside the coil. Suppose there is a
closed rectangular loop (C) that goes parallel to the field inside the coil for length L, comes out at
right angles and returns outside the coil:
Ampere's law states that any closed line integral of the magnetic field is equal to the total
current that the line's path encloses, i.e.
In the case of the coil, it is assumed that there is no magnetic field outside the coil, so the line
integral can be evaluated simply as the magnitude of the B field times the length of the line
inside the coil (note that inside the coil, the magnitude of the magnetic field is constant along
any path parallel to the axis):
The total current enclosed by the path is equal to the current I flowing through the wire
multiplied by the number of turns N that the path encloses:
Therefore:
Magnetic Flux
Figure 3. Magnetic flux lines through the crosssectional surface of the coil
Since we assumed that the magnetic field is negligible outside the coil, the magnetic flux is
completely due to the field inside the coil passing through the crosssectional surface of the coil.
Given that the field inside the coil is always perpendicular to the crosssection of the coil, the
surface integration is simply the magnitude of the field multiplied by the crosssectional area A:
Flux Linkage
Due to the additive effects of Ampere's law, the total flux through the coil can be increased by
adding more turns. The flux linkage is the total amount of flux that links all the current (and by
extension, turns of the coil) that generate it.
Since magnetic flux density is uniform inside a simple coil, the flux linkage is equivalent to the
magnetic flux derived above:
Inductance
The inductance of the coil is:
Category: Fundamentals
Power Factor
Contents
[hide]
1 Introduction
3 References
Introduction
Power factor is defined as the cosine of the power angle
voltage and current, or simplified as the ration of the real power (P) and the apparent power (S).
People will often refer to power factor as leading or lagging. This is because the power angle can
only range between 90 and +90, and the cosine of an angle in the fourth quadrant (between
0 and 90) is always positive. Therefore the power factor is also always positive and the only
way to distinguish whether the power angle is negative or positive from the power factor is to
denote it leading or lagging.
Lagging power factor: when the current lags the voltage, this means that the current
waveform comes delayed after the voltage waveform (and the power angle is positive).
In the context of the power generation it means that the generator injects reactive power
(overexcited regime), with respect to the Qmaximum defined by the capability curve
(i.e. S = P + jQ).
Leading power factor: when the current leads the voltage, this means that the current
waveform comes before the voltage waveform (and the power angle is negative). The
generator absorbs reactive power (underexcited regime), with respect to the Qminimum
defined by the capability curve (i.e. S = P  jQ).
Unity power factor: refers to the case when the current and voltage are in the same
phase.
The physical significance of power factor is in the load impedance. Inductive loads (e.g. coils,
motors, etc) have lagging power factors, capacitative loads (e.g. capacitors) have leading power
factors and resistive loads (e.g. heaters) have close to unity power factors.
A power factor of one or "unity power factor" is the goal of any electric utility company since if
the power factor is less than one, they have to supply more current to the user for a given
amount of power use. In doing so, they incur more line losses. They also must have larger
capacity equipment in place than would be otherwise necessary. As a result, an industrial facility
will be charged a penalty if its power factor is much different from 1.
Industrial facilities tend to have a "lagging power factor", where the current lags the voltage (like
an inductor). This is primarily the result of having a lot of electric induction motors  the windings
of motors act as inductors as seen by the power supply. Capacitors have the opposite effect and
can compensate for the inductive motor windings. Some industrial sites will have large banks of
capacitors strictly for the purpose of correcting the power factor back toward one to save on
utility company charges.
Synchronous Machine PF Contribution
Information about the operation of synchronous machines is often determined by analysis of the
armature circuit phasor diagram. Taking the armature circuit equation:
Where;
E is the opencirctuit induced voltage, also called excitation, and delta is the load angle.
The phasor diagram is constructed by taking the terminal voltage (V) as the phase reference.
Once the terminal voltage is drawn, additional phasors for current, resistive voltage drop,
reactance voltage drop and induced voltage can be added. The shape of the phasor diagram is
dependent on the phase of the current relative to the terminal voltage. Examples of leading,
lagging and unity power factor are shown below.
Capability Curve
Alternator capability curve  Green area is normal operating range of a typical synchronous
machine, yellow is abnormal but not damaging and operating in red regional will cause damage
or misoperation.
The ability of any generator to absorb the kVAR is termed as reverse kVAR limit. This ability is
defined as reactive capability curve. Figure above shows typical generator reactive capability
curve. Xaxis is the kVAR produced or absorbed (positive to the right). Yaxis indicates the kW
(positive going up). kVAR and kW are shown as per unit quantities based on the rating of the
alternator (not necessarily the generator set, which may have a lower rating.
The normal operating range of a generator set is between 0 and 100 percent of the kW rating of
the alternator (positive) and between 0.8 and 1.0 power factor (green area on curve). The black
lines on the curves show the operating range of a specific alternator when operating outside of
normal range. Notice that as power factor drops, the machine must be derated to prevent
overheating. On the left quadrant, you can see that nearnormal output (yellow area) can be
achieved with some leading power factor load, in this case, down to about 0.97 power factor,
leading. At that point, the ability to absorb additional kVAR quickly drops to near zero (red area),
indicating that the AVR is turning off and any level of reverse kVAR greater than the level
shown will cause the machine to lose control of voltage.
A good rule of thumb for generators is that it can absorb about 20% of its rated kVAR output in
reverse kVAR without losing control of voltage. However, since this characteristic is not universal,
it is advisable for a system designer to specify the reverse kVAR limit used in his design, or the
magnitude of the reverse kVAR load that is expected.
More in the section of the Electrical Power.
References
Power Flow
Contents
[hide]
1 Introduction
2 Historical Context
5 Nodal Representation
9 References
10 Related Topics
Introduction
The objective of the power flow (or load flow) calculation is to determine the steadystate
operating conditions of an electrical network. The power flow problem is formulated such that at
each bus in the network, the following four variables are solved so as to fully define the power
flows in the network:
where
The equations for the two bus system above form the basis of the power flow calculations. In this
article, these equations are extended to larger systems of arbitrary size and topology.
Historical Context
requirements to construct the Jacobian matrix and therefore led to large gains in computational
speed (although at the expense of a little accuracy).
Per Unit Representation
To simplify the calculation of admittances / impedances across different voltage levels, it is
convenient to use a perunit representation of the network. By default, most power flow
programs use a systemwide MVA base of 100MVA.
Single Phase Representation
In the basic power flow formulation, threephase systems are represented in singlephase form,
based on the assumption that the system is perfectly balanced (e.g. loads and generation are
balanced, transmission lines are fully transposed, etc). This assumption holds relatively well for
high voltage transmission systems, but begins to break down at smaller scales (e.g. low voltage
distribution level), where a full threephase power flow formulation is necessary.
Using a singlephase representation is convenient as it allows impedances to be formulated as
single complex quantities (R + jX) rather than a 3x3 matrix of mutually coupled impedances in a
full threephase representation. Voltages in the singlephase formulation are usually referenced
to earth.
Nodal Representation
The electrical network needs to be represented in such a way so that the quantities of interest
(e.g. voltage, power flows, etc) can be solved using either nodal analysis ormesh
analysis approaches. The nodal method is the standard approach for power flow calculations for
several reasons: 1) busbars in the system can be easily translated into nodes, 2) the admittance
matrix (without mutual couplings) can be built from inspection, and 3) the nodal method can
exploit the sparsity of the admittance matrix.
For example, consider the simple system below consisting of three buses (numbered 1, 2 and 3),
two generators (G1 and G2), a load (L2) and a shunt capacitor (C2) connected via transmission
lines:
In the nodal representation, the buses are represented as nodes, the generators and load are
represented as current injections while the shunt capacitor and lines are represented as
admittances:
Note that the line at the bottom represents the reference node, usually taken to be an earth
reference. All node voltages are expressed with respect to this reference node.
From Kirchhoff's current law, we can see that the injected currents must equal the sum of the
branch currents leaving the node. For example, at node 1:
Similarly, at node 2:
bus as opposed to being injected. Note also the effect of the shunt capacitor, which appears as a
selfadmittance (
).
The general formulation for the current injection at node k of an nnode system is:
Or in compact form:
where
is the vector of bus current injections (positive values are injections, negative values
are consumptions)
is the vector of bus voltage phasors
is the bus admittance matrix (more on this below)
The bus admittance (or Ybus) matrix is one of the fundamental building blocks of power system
simulations, describing both the topology and admittances / impedances of an electrical network.
The diagonal elements of the Ybus matrix are referred to as selfadmittances and the offdiagonal elements are mutual admittances.
The Ybus matrix can be constructed from inspection when there are no mutual couplings
between branches. The procedure for building the Ybus matrix from inspection follows on readily
from Equation 1:
1. Selfadmittances (diagonal elements): at bus k are the sum of all branch admittances
connected to the bus (including shunt admittances to earth):
2. Mutual admittances (offdiagonal elements): between buses k and i are the negative sum of
branch admittances connected between buses k and i:
also very sparse since most practical networks are not densely interconnected and thus have few
nonzero branch admittance values.
Note that the Ybus matrix is nonsingular only if there are shunt admittances connected (e.g. the
shunt capacitor
without shunt admittances, each row and column of the Ybus matrix sums to zero (i.e. it is a
zerosum matrix) and therefore does not have full rankand is not invertible.
Calculated Bus Power Injections
The power flow problem is most commonly formulated using power injections rather than current
injections. Complex power injections at bus k can be calculated from current injections as
follows:
... Equ. (2)
Given the voltages
injections (i.e. net active and reactive power flows for the k bus) can be calculated in
th
and
) are required to be
known to fully define the power flows in the system. To solve the power flow problem, two of the
four variables need to be specified (i.e. known) a priori for each bus and the power flow
calculation solves for the other two. Typically, power injections at the buses are known (e.g.
measured or estimated loads or dispatched generation at the bus) and are therefore normally
specified. As a result, the bus voltages and angles are generally the unknown variables to be
solved.
Therefore in the classical formulation, the power flow problem is constructed as a set of nonlinear algebraic power equations for the unknown variables in the system (bus voltage
magnitudes and angles). The aim of the power flow calculation is to arrive at values for bus
voltages and angles such that the the mismatch error between the specified and calculated
power injections at each bus are within a prespecified error tolerance.
Types of Buses
As discussed earlier, two variables of the four bus variables need to be specified at each bus. The
two specified variables do not have to be the same for every bus, which leads to the definition of
the following common bus types:
(1) Swing (or slack) bus [SW]: since network losses are not known a priori, a swing bus is
required where the voltage is specified, but the active power injected into the bus is unknown.
The swing bus is usually designated as the voltage reference for the system. In practice, the
swing bus would be analogous to a large generator responsible for loadfrequency control or the
point of common coupling to a larger external grid. Specified variables:
(2) Voltage controlled bus [PV]: in the PV bus, the active power injected into the bus is
specified along with the voltage magnitude. PV buses are typically used to represent generators
where the active power injected is the generator dispatch power and an automatic voltage
regulator controls the bus voltage magnitude to a specified value. PV buses can also be used for
reactive power support devices which control the bus voltage to a specified value e.g. SVCs,
synchronous condensers, STATCOMs, etc (in such cases, the P active power injected is zero).
Specified variables:
(3) Constant power bus [PQ]: in the PQ bus, the active and reactive power injected into (or
consumed at) the bus is specified. PQ buses are typically used to represent constant power loads
(e.g. residential, industrial, etc), where it is assumed that the active and reactive power
injections are not affected by small variations in bus voltages (at steady state). Specified
variables:
where
The power mismatches can also be expressed in rectangular form where the calculated active
and reactive power injections are computed using Equations 3 and 4 respectively, i.e.
pu.
5. Calculate the power mismatch vector by using the initial voltages in Step 4 and the specified
power injections in Step 3.
6. Apply an iteration method (e.g. NewtonRaphson, GaussSeidel, etc) to get next iteration of
bus voltages
7. Recalculate the power mismatch vector and check if the power mismatches are within a prespecified error tolerance, e.g. 0.001pu. If so, then the solution has been reached successfully. If
not, then continue iterating (Step 67) until the solution is reached or stop after a maximum
number of iterations.
Iteration Methods
The formulation of the power flow problem is generic, but there are a number of options for the
iteration method used to solve the nonlinear equations. The most common methods are as
follows:
GaussSeidel method
NewtonRaphson method
NewtonKrylov methods
References
[1] Ward, J. B., and Hale, H. W., "Digital Computer Solution of Power Flow Problems",
AIEE Tansactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, vol PAS75, pp. 398404, June 1956
[2] Van Ness, J. E., and Griffin, J. H., "Elimination methods for flow studies" Trans. IEEE
Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, Vol. PAS80, p. 299, June 1961.
[3] Tinney, W. H., and Hart, C. E., "Power Flow Solution by Newton's Method", IEEE
Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, Vol. PAS86, No. 11, November 1967
[4] Stott, B., and Alsac, O., "Fast Decoupled Load Flow", IEEE Transactions on Power
Apparatus and Systems, Vol. PAS93, No. 3, May 1974
Related Topics
AC Power Transmission
IllConditioning
IP Rating
(Redirected from Ingress Protection)
Contents
[hide]
1 Introduction
2 Summary of IP Ratings
3 Examples
Introduction
IP Rating refers to the International Protection or Ingress Protection of electrical enclosures,
against the intrusion of solid objects, water, dust and accidental contact to live parts, as defined
by IEC 60529. The rating comprises the letters "IP" followed by two numbers (and an optional
letter), where the numbers and letters refer to conformity to levels of protection.
The Wikipedia article gives a fairly detailed account of IP ratings. Therefore this page is only
intended to be a summary of the ratings and more importantly, highlight some key points from
IEC 60529 that are commonly overlooked.
Summary of IP Ratings
Leve
Not protected
N/A
N/A
Examples
An IP54 enclosure is dust protected (1st number = 5) and protected against splashing wayer
(2nd number = 4).
An IP66/67 enclosure is dual protected, both for immersion up to 1m and powerful water jets.
Note that it is not always true that an enclosure with a single rating such as IP68 is suitable for
use in lower IP environments, such as IP66 (for more details, see the next section below).
Important Points from IEC 60529
Section 6 of IEC 60529 makes an important point about backward compliance of IP ratings for
water protection, as per the extract below:
"Up to and including second characteristic numeral 6, the designation implies compliance with
the requirements for all lower characteristic numerals. However, the tests establishing
compliance with any one of the lower degrees of protection need not necessarily be carried out
provided that these tests obviously would be met if applied.
An enclosure designated with second characteristic numeral 7 or 8 only is considered unsuitable
for exposure to water jets (designated by second characteristic numeral 5 or 6) and need not
comply with requirements for numeral 5 or 6 unless it is dual coded."
Category: Fundamentals
Load Redundancy
Load redundancy is the duplication of load equipment so that an alternative can be used in case
one fails or needs to be maintained. Redundancy is common in industrial plants where loads such
as pumps, fans, compressors, etc need to operate continuously. In order for there to be minimal
plant downtime, these loads are replicated to ensure some redundancy.
Most commonly, the use of duty and standby equipment ("A" and "B" loads) is used. In a
scenario where the A/B loads are 100% redundant, the equipment can be referred to as "2 x
100%", meaning that there are 2 equipment items capable of delivering 100% output each.
Other examples of redundant (and semiredundant) configurations:
2 x 50%  2 equipment items capable of delivering 50% output each. If one fails, then
output is reduced to 50%.
3 x 50%  3 equipment items capable of delivering 50% output each. In this case, there
is always one equipment item out of service / on standby
3 x 33%  3 equipment items capable of delivering 33% output each. If one fails, then
output is reduced to 66%.
Category: Fundamentals
Load factor
The load factor represents the operating / duty point of a load and is defined as the ratio of the
absorbed power to the rated power, i.e.
Where
3.3 Illconditioning
4 References
5 Related Topics
In Figure 1, the original and linear approximation of the function is plotted. It can be seen that
the approximation is good near x0, however, as we move away from the approximation point, the
original function and linear approximation begin to diverge. The approximation result can be
improved by adding higher order derivative terms. Try formulating the quadratic approximation
equation and compare it with the original function.
In the above example, we have learned how to approximate the nonlinear equation and
calculate the value of a function at a given point. Similarly, linear approximations of a Taylor
series can be used for calculating the solution of the nonlinear equation and determine the value
of x at a given f(x). In Equation 1, if we neglect the second and higher differential order term
then the equation can be written as:
Starting from k = 0, we can estimate the solution x for k+1 until the error
term
It is noticeable that the solution has converged after iteration k = 5 to the value x = 5.00 and
the difference between the solution of two iteration onward is lower than the tolerance. The
solution can be verified by calculating the function value at x = 5.00.
Generally, nonlinear equations have more than one solution but the NewtonRaphson method
provides only one solution that is close to the starting point. In order to get the other solution,
the initial value must be changed to different value.
In the same example, if we change the initial value to x0 = 1.00, the solution will converge in
the same number of iteration but in opposite direction and provide second solution i.e. x = 5.0.
The NewtonRaphson method converges quickly when the starting point is close to the solution.
However, in some circumstances, the method is known to diverge or provide no information that
the solution exists. In the example above, if f(x) = 0, then the NewtonRaphson method will not
converge.
Traditionally, the NewtonRaphson equation is formulated to find the root of a function, i.e.
solving for x when
, the
NewtonRaphson iteration in Equation (4) can be extended to the following matrix form:
Things to note:
(1) The voltage and angle at the swing bus is specified (i.e. known a priori) and is therefore not
part of the solution vector
(2) Bus voltage magnitudes at PV buses are specified and therefore not part of
. Only the
where
is an m x 1 vector with:
Note that buses in the network must be ordered such that the PQ buses are first, followed by the
PV buses.
Basic Algorithm
The basic NewtonRaphson iteration is as follows:
where
calculated bus active power injections (with calculated injections computed using bus voltage
magnitudes and angles at the kth iteration)
is the vector of mismatches between the specified and
calculated bus reactive power injections (with calculated injections computed using bus voltage
magnitudes and angles at the kth iteration)
Jacobian Matrix
By convention, the Jacobian matrix is set up as a partitioned matrix of the form:
as an example):
In rectangular form, the terms in the submatrices are real numbers calculated by the following
expressions:
(i) Submatrix
(ii) Submatrix
(iii) Submatrix
(iv) Submatrix
Illconditioning
The power flow problem is said to be illconditioned if the Jacobian matrix is illconditioned. This
is because in the NewtonRaphson algorithm, each iteration has the following linear form:
where
Heavily loaded power system (i.e. voltage stability problem where system has
reached nose point of PV curve)
Poor selection of the slack bus (e.g. in a weakly supported part of the network)
Sparsity techniques: in most practical networks, the bus admittance matrix is sparse,
and the Jacobian matrix has the same level of sparsity. The use of sparse matrix
techniques reduces the memory storage requirements of an
from
entries to
admittance matrix
Suppose a network has on average 2 branches for every bus, then the storage requirements for
such a network is
is
entries. If the network had 200 buses, then the storage requirements
for the full matrix and
Efficient methods for solving linear equations involving sparse matrix also exist, which can also
help to improve computational times.
Optimal ordering: the rows of the Jacobian matrix can be ordered so as to minimise the
number of nonzero entries in the upper triangular matrix during LU decomposition. The
ordering only needs to be done once and is generally set up so that the rows with the
least number of branches are worked on first during the triangular factorisation process.
Less frequent update of the Jacobian matrix: in the default formulation, the power
flow Jacobian matrix is calculated at every iteration. However, as the algorithm gets close
to the solution, the Jacobian matrix does not change significantly and computation time
can be saved by only updating the Jacobian matrix less frequently, e.g. every second or
third iteration.
Damping factors: the step length of each iteration can be controlled by a damping
factor
and
Use of previous solutions: by default, a "flat start" estimate is used for the initial bus
voltages (i.e. 1 + j0 pu). This may be far from the actual solution and may cause the
NewtonRaphson algorithm to diverge. In network augmentations and whatif scenarios,
a successful solution often already exists for a base network and convergence difficulties
arise for the expanded system. In such cases, the previously solved bus voltages could
be used as initial estimates in lieu of a flat start.
Use of DC load flow solution: the DC load flow is a direct linear method (i.e. noniterative) for estimating active power flows in a network by making several assumptions
(e.g. all voltage magnitudes are 1pu). Since the DC load flow always solves as long as
the Ybus matrix is invertible, then the solution can be used as initial estimates for the
voltage angles in the NewtonRaphson algorithm.
Speed: the numerical techniques (sparsity, optimal ordering, LU factorisation, etc) have
made the NewtonRaphson algorithm computationally efficient and competitive against
other algorithms even for large systems.
Reliability: the algorithm is very reliable and able to solve even heavily loaded systems
operating at close to voltage collapse.
Flexibility: the basic algorithm can be readily extended to cater for tapchanging
transformers, FACTS and other reactive support devices, DC systems, phase shifting
transformers, etc.
References
[1] Tinney, W. H., and Hart, C. E., "Power Flow Solution by Newton's Method", IEEE
Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, Vol. PAS86, No. 11, 1967
Related Topics
Power Flow
AC Power Transmission
IllConditioning
Resonance
(Redirected from Parallel Resonance)
Contents
[hide]
1 Classical Derivations
o
Classical Derivations
Series Resonance
The current is at a maximum when the impedance is at a minimum. So given constant R, L and
C, the minimum impedance occurs when:
or
This angular frequency is called the resonant frequency of the circuit. At this frequency, the
current in the series circuit is at a maximum and this is referred to as a point of series
resonance. The significance of this in practice is when harmonic voltages at the resonant
frequency cause high levels of current distortion.
Parallel Resonance
The voltage is at a maximum when the impedance is also at a maximum. So given constant R, L
and C, the maximum impedance occurs when:
or
Notice that the resonant frequency is the same as that in the series resonance case. At this
resonant frequency, the voltage in the parallel circuit is at a maximum and this is referred to as a
point of parallel resonance. The significance of this in practice is when harmonic currents at the
resonant frequency cause high levels of voltage distortion.
Resonance in Practical Circuits
Series Resonance
Here a distorted voltage at the input of the transformer can cause high harmonic current
distortion (Ih) at the resonant frequency of the RLC circuit.
Parallel Resonance
In this more common scenario, a harmonic current source (Ih) can cause high harmonic voltage
distortion on the busbar at the resonant frequency of the RLC circuit. The harmonic current
source could be any nonlinear load, e.g. power electronics interfaces such as converters, switchmode power supplies, etc.
Categories: Fundamentals  Harmonics
Perunit System
Contents
[hide]
1 Introduction
2 Why bother?
5 Application Examples
o
5.2 Transformers
Introduction
The perunit system is a method of expressing quantities in an electrical system (e.g. voltage,
current, impedance, etc) as a proportion of predefined base quantities. By definition, the perunit value of a quantity is the ratio of the original quantity to its base value (which results in a
dimensionless "perunit" or "pu" value):
Where
The relative magnitudes of all similar network quantities (e.g. voltages throughout the
system) can be directly compared
Perunit impedance values of equipment are normally found over a small range of values
irrespective of the absolute size. On the other hand, ohmic values may have significant
variation and are often proportional to nominal rating. Therefore, typical values can be
used as a reasonable first approximation where detailed / accurate information is not
known.
Perunit impedances of transformers are the same whether referred to either side of the
transformer (primary or secondary) and are independent of winding connections (for
polyphase transformers), voltage level and phase shifts
Impedances are often quoted in terms of perunit values by manufacturers (on a base of
rated kVA or kW and voltage)
Manual calculations are often simplified using perunit values (for all of the reasons
above)
Base power (
Base voltage (
The other base quantities can then be derived by calculation from these two base quantities:
Base current (
(Note that for threephase systems and where the base voltage is expressed as a linetoline
voltage, then
Base impedance (
, where
Perunit resistance and reactance values can be calculated by dividing by the base impedance
(which also works in series and parallel combinations of impedances), i.e.
Application Examples
System Analysis
The analysis of an electrical network can be simplified by using the perunit system. Firstly, a
systemwide base MVA is chosen and base voltages are selected for different parts of the system
such that they correspond to the turns ratios of the transformers in the system. Choosing such
voltages ensures that the perunit impedance of the transformer is the same on both the primary
and secondary sides and therefore the entire system can be combined using a single set of perunit impedances. Next, all impedances in the network must be converted to the base values.
Often, the perunit impedance of system components are expressed on another base (e.g.
transformer impedances are typically expressed on the rated kVA base and rated voltage).
Therefore, we would need to perform a change of base operation:
Where
and
and
Transformers
The transformer (leakage) impedance is normally expressed as a perunit or percent quantity on
the transformer kVA base and rated voltage. The impedance is calculated by computing the
impedance voltage from a standard shortcircuit test measurement  with the windings
connected for the rated voltage (e.g. delta, wye, etc), a variable voltage is applied to one
winding with the other winding short circuited. The impedance voltage is the value of the applied
voltage required to circulate the rated current in the winding (that is not short circuited). The
perunit impedance of the transformer is found by converting the impedance voltage to a perunit quantity.
Where
An advantage of the perunit impedance is that it is the same whether it is referred to the
primary or secondary side of the transformer and is independent of winding connection (e.g.
delta, wye, etc) and phase shifts.
Induction Machines
It is often more convenient to express induction motor equivalent circuit parameters in perunit
since they are invariant of winding connection. First, select the power and voltage base values as
the nominal kVA rating and the rated voltage of the induction motor. The motor full load current
is therefore the current base. The other perunit quantities can be calculated as follows:
Category: Fundamentals
Phase Conversion
Contents
[hide]
1 Introduction
2 1phase VS 3phase
3 Phase Conversion
o
Introduction
3phase has four wires: three actives (called phases) and one neutral. The neutral wire is
earthed at the switchboard. The common appliancies are:
Big electric motors (usually more than 2 kW) need 3phase power. This includes large
workshop equipment.
Large domestic installations sometimes have 3phase because it distributes the total load
in a way that ensures that the current in each phase is lower.
Example: Imagine the total electrical load is 24 kW (that's a lot for a domestic installation). For
a normal, 1phase power supply at 240 V, the maximum current would be 100 A. Derived from
the Ohm's law: the current in amperes multiplied by voltage in volts gives power in watts (Power
= Voltage x Current).
If a 3phase supply is available, then the 24 kW are divided by 3, meaning that 8 kW is being
used per phase. Now the current per phase is also down to a third of what it would be with a
single phase supply (about 30 A per phase, rather than 100 A). Putting that in perspective, then
100 W lighting fixtures represent 1 kW of power, which equates to a bit under 40 A.
Typically, connection fees for 3phase are higher, and there are fixed annual charges as well for
3phase so dont contemplate it for a new home unless you really need it.
Rural connections and SWER
Depending on your locality you may be connected to a SWER line. These are used in many
country areas. Single wire, earth return (SWER) delivers single phase power. Its an economical
way of distributing power, because only one transmission line (active) is needed. There is no
neutral  instead the earth is employed as the return conductor.
If threephase motors have to be used, a 1phase to 3phase power converter has to be installed
by the electricity consumer.
Phase Conversion
Power Electronics
A phase converter is a device that produces 3phase electrical power from a 1phase source,
thus allowing the operation of 3phase equipment at a site that only has 1phase electrical
service. Phase converters are the economical option, however power quality is often
compromised with poor voltage balancing and for most equipment loads, an oversized converter
must be specified to enable motor startup. These inefficiencies lead to increased energy
consumption and eventually may cause damage to the 3phase equipment, especially digital or
electronic machinery.
Manual Modification
In the case of simple thermal loads which are supplied by the 3phase system, then the
conversion to 1phase can be made by changing the wiring system inside installation. This
applies to the older 3phase heaters, ovens or water boilers. In newer versions of those devices
usually we can find some of the power electronics, which needs to be powered by the line voltage
i.e. 400 Volts. Before proceeding further few things should be kept in mind :
If only two phases will be used then the total resistance is calculated as:
Series conection will provide higher resistance values, since total resistance is the sum of all
involved resistances.
Categories: Fundamentals  Power Electronics
Referring Impedances
In a system with multiple voltage levels, it is sometimes necessary convert impedances from one
voltage to another, i.e. so that they can be used in a single equivalent circuit. Note that the
whole process of referring impedances can be avoided by using the perunit system.
Referring Impedances in General
Generally, one can refer an impedance Z1 at some voltage V1 to another voltage V2 by the
following calculation:
Where
Where
Where
Category: Fundamentals
through an impedance
Figure 1. Simple power flow model (note that all quantities are in perunit)
draws more current as voltage decreases. As a result, the load bus voltage is nonlinearly related
to the load itself.
Derivation of the Load Bus Voltage
Note that in this derivation, all quantities are in perunit. Recall that the load complex power can
be calculated from the voltage and current phasors as follows:
and impedance
Simplifying and rearranging the equation above, we can get the following homogenous
equation:
and
into
Symmetrical Components
Symmetrical components is a mathematical method for representing an unbalanced set of
phasors into three decoupled (independent) sets of phasors  two balanced sets and a third set
with identical phasors. The method was originally developed in 1918 by Charles LeGeyt
Fortescue and simplifies the analysis of unbalanced polyphase systems (e.g. commonly used for
threephase voltage, current and impedance phasors).
Contents
[hide]
1 Basic Transformation
2 Visual Depiction
3 Shorthand Notation
4.2 Impedance
5 Balanced Impedances
6 References
7 Related Topics
Basic Transformation
An arbitrary set of n phasors has 2n degrees of freedom, i.e. for each phasor, there is a
magnitude and independent phase angle. Fortescue proposed a transformation that would also
have 2n degrees of freedom, but have the advantage of symmetry.
We will restrict ourselves to sets of 3 phasors, which is the most useful for modern electrical
engineering. Given a set of three arbitrary phasors, say voltage phasors, we can express these
as follows:
Where
and
and
and
and
We have essentially broken down each original phasor into a linear combination of three phasors.
But wait, aren't we now making this more complicated? If we left it as is, then that would
certainly be true. After all, we initially had 6 degrees of freedom (i.e. 2 for each of the three
phasors) and now we have 18.
Firstly, let's say that the positive sequence phasors are balanced and perfecty
symmetrical. This means that we can describe the set of three phasors using only a
single reference phasor (an arbitrary choice, but we'll choose phasor a). Therefore:
where
Secondly, we impose a similar constraint on the negative sequence phasors. They must
be balanced and perfectly symmetrical, but they have the oppositve phase sequence to
the positive sequence phasors, i.e. the peaks of the phasors occur in the opposite order
(acb instead of abc). Mathematically,
Lastly for the zero sequence phasors, we impose the constraint that they shall all be
identical, i.e:
Each of these three constraints removes 4 degrees of freedom and in the end, we can describe
everything with just 3 phasors and 6 degrees of freedom (the same as the initial set of phasors).
However, we have the advantage that the new phasors are balanced and symmetrical (or are
identical in the case of the zero sequence phasors).
In matrix notation, we can write the set of equations as follows:
Where
and
Visual Depiction
The phasor plot of the original phasors and the symmetrical component decomposition is shown
below:
The timedomain waveforms of the positive, negative and zero sequence phasors is shown
below:
The timedomain plots above nicely illustrate the difference between positive and negative
sequences. Look at the positive and negative sequence plots. In the positive sequence plot, the
waveform peaks appear in the following order: Va (red), Vb (blue), Vc (green). In the negative
sequence plot, the peaks are in a different order: Va (red), Vc (green), Vb (blue).
Steven Blair at the University of Strathclyde has a good interactive tool for visualising
symmetrical components.
Shorthand Notation
To reduce the amount of writing, it may be preferable to refer to the original unbalanced phasors
and their symmetrical components via the following shorthand notation.
The original unbalanced phasors are denoted
Impedance
Impedance is not resolved into symmetrical components in such a straightforward manner since
voltage, current and impedance are related by Ohm's law. Therefore, we want an expression for
the symmetrical components of impedance such that Ohm's law is satisfied:
To do this, we work backward from the original unbalanced phasors, and then apply the
transforms:
This is now in the form as the first equation above and therefore we can conclude that:
From the equation above, we can see that there is crosscoupling between the symmetrical
components of the network quantities. For example, the zero sequence voltage
is equal to
the weighted sum of the positive, negative and zero sequence currents:
Balanced Impedances
A special case occurs in systems with balanced impedances, i.e. where the impedance
matrices
form:
Because all of the offdiagonals are zero, the corresponding positive, negative and zero sequence
voltages and currents are independent from each other, i.e. they are completely decoupled and
have no crossterms, and therefore can be treated as three decoupled equations:
In summary, we can say that in a balanced system, the symmetrical components of netwrok
quantities form a decoupled system of equations. The decoupled system of equations are then
typically used to form sequence networks.
This result forms the basis of most analyses that use symmetrical components. For example, in
unbalanced fault analysis, we first assume that the system is balanced before the fault. By doing
this, we can construct the sequence networks as completely decoupled systems. The unbalance
is introduced at the fault location (e.g. a phasetoearth fault) and the previously decoupled
sequence networks are connected together to yield the unbalanced system.
References
[1] Charles L. Fortescue, "Method of Symmetrical CoOrdinates Applied to the Solution of
Polyphase Networks". Presented at the 34th annual convention of the AIEE (American
Institute of Electrical Engineers) in Atlantic City, N.J. on 28 July 1918.
Related Topics
Sequence Networks
Category: Fundamentals
Where
And a series of three damped sinusoidal waveforms corresponding to the following distinct
stages:
This period typically lasts 10 to 20ms from the start of the fault. The subtransient reactance is
due to the flux casued by the stator currents crossing the air gap and reaching the rotor surface
or amortisseur / damper windings.
This period typically lasts 100 to 400ms after the subtransient period. The transient reactance
occurs when all the damping currents in the rotor surface or amortisseur / damper windings have
decayed, but while the damping currents in the field winding are still in action.
Putting these all together, we get the familiar neartogenerator short circuit waveform:
Where
During the transient period, the peak transient current is typically 1.5 to 2.5 times higher than
the peak steady state current.
Droop Control
Droop control is a control strategy commonly applied to generators for primary frequency
control (and occasionally voltaqe control) to allow parallel generator operation (e.g. load
sharing).
Contents
[hide]
1 Background
4 Related Articles
Background
Recall that the active and reactive power transmitted across a lossless line are:
From the above, we can see that active power has a large influence on the power angle and
reactive power has a large influence on the voltage difference. Restated, by controlling active
and reactive power, we can also control the power angle and voltage. We also know from
the swing equation that frequency is related to the power angle, so by controlling active power,
we can therefore control frequency.
This forms the basis of frequency and voltage droop control where active and reactive power are
adjusted according to linear characteristics, based on the following control equations:
Where
The frequency droop characteristic above can be interpreted as follows: when frequency falls
from f0 to f, the power output of the generating unit is allowed to increase from P0to P. A falling
frequency indicates an increase in loading and a requirement for more active power. Multiple
parallel units with the same droop characteristic can respond to the fall in frequency by
increasing their active power outputs simultaneously. The increase in active power output will
counteract the reduction in frequency and the units will settle at active power outputs and
frequency at a steadystate point on the droop characteristic. The droop characteristic therefore
allows multiple units to share load without the units fighting each other to control the load (called
"hunting").
The same logic above can be applied to the voltage droop characteristic.
Droop Control Setpoints
Droop settings are normally quoted in % droop. The setting indicates the percentage amount the
measured quantity must change to cause a 100% change in the controlled quantity. For
example, a 5% frequency droop setting means that for a 5% change in frequency, the unit's
power output changes by 100%. This means that if the frequency falls by 1%, the unit with a
5% droop setting will increase its power output by 20%.
The short video below shows some examples of frequency (speed) droop:
Limitations of Droop Control
Frequency droop control is useful for allowing multiple generating units to automatically change
their power outputs based on dynamically changing loads. However, consider what happens when
there is a significant contingency such as the loss of a large generating unit. If the system
remains stable, all the other units would pick up the slack, but the droop characteristic allows the
frequency to settle at a steadystate value below its nominal value (for example, 49.7Hz or
59.7hz). Other controllers are therefore necessary to bring the frequency back to its nominal
value (i.e. 50Hz or 60hz), which are called secondary and tertiary frequency controllers.
Related Articles
This page describes the most common synchronous machine models used in stability studies.
Contents
[hide]
1 Nomenclature
Nomenclature
The standard machine parameters are defined as follows:
Note that perunit values are usually expressed on the machine's MVA base.
6th Order (SauerPai) Model
6th order synchronous machine model based on the book:
Sauer, P.W., Pai, M. A., "Power System Dynamics and Stability", Stipes Publishing, 2006
Stator magnetic equations:
where
Equations of motion:
Initialisation:
Equations of motion:
Initialisation:
Equations of motion:
Initialisation:
Stator equations:
Equations of motion:
Initialisation:
DC Motors
Contents
[hide]
2 Reference
Quality Components: Probably the best method of insuring low audible noise in motors is to
specify quality components. Motors using cheap or poorly fitted bearings are more likely to be
noisy. Poorly designed or loose fitting brush sets can contribute to audibly noisy commutation.
Manufacturers of inexpensive, high volume motors cannot reasonably be expected to concern
themselves with quiet operation beyond some minimum standard, and the use of such motors in
applications where quiet operation is important should be considered carefully. The designer
must consider whether low cost takes precedence over quiet operation in the priorities of the
customer.
Bearing Choice: The use of ball bearings without preload is a potential source of audible noise.
Where the specific application permits, ball bearings should be preloaded. This means that the
balls will not be able to move axially in the race and cause the minute intermittent rattling that
can sometime be associated with unpreloaded ball bearings. Smaller ball bearings can be
sensitive to heavy shaft loads. They are easily damaged during press fitting added components
and by short radial or axial overloads. Care should be taken not to exceed the shaft loading
ranges specified in the datasheets. A damaged ball bearing can be a significant source of audible
noise and can effect motor life.
Sintered sleeve bearings are a very good choice when limiting audible noise if the application
does not require the motor to endure significant continuous or intermittent changes in the shaft
loading characteristics. The shaft of the motor actually rides on a thermodynamic film of
lubrication and the reduced friction can limit audible noise. If the bearing is overloaded radially,
however, this film breaks down and the shaft will grind the bearing down causing audible noise
and reducing the operational lifetime of the motor.
Vibration: Rotor vibration can be a significant source of audible noise. Vibration and noise
increases with speed. Even a slight imbalance in the rotor can cause major vibrations at speeds
of 10,000 rpm.
Brush Options: Coppergraphite type brushes tend to be both audibly and electrically noisier
than precious metal systems. Graphite based brushes are capable of withstanding considerably
higher current densities, however, and they are often required in an application for that reason.
Where a choice is available for a specific application and audible noise is important, precious
metal brushes are the better choice.
Electromagnetic Interference (EI)
DC motors are a source of electrical as well as audible noise. EMI (electromagnetic interference)
can be radiated by motor terminals and lead wires and may cause problems with other
components in the vicinity of the motor. It is also possible for spikes to be coupled onto data
lines or output lines from encoders. The result can be false data or encoder information. There
are a number of methods that can be used to minimize EMI in motor applications. Like many
other considerations in DC motor applications, each has its advantages and disadvantages and
must be evaluated within the context of the application.
Motor Commutation: The most common source of EMI problems is the commutation of motors.
At each commutation point, when the brush breaks contact with a commutator segment, the
energy stored in the motor winding as a magnetic field causes an arc or voltage spike between
the brush and the commutator segment. This occurs not only during normal commutation but
also in situations where the brushes "bounce" on the rotating commutator. Coreless DC motors
are typically less electrically noisy than iron core DC motors because of the lower armature
inductance which in turn reduces the level of the arc energy. This arcing can be further mitigated
with the addition of a capacitor ring, which serves to dissipate the energy through a capacitor
and resistor series back into the motor coil.
Quality Components: The importance of using quality components in any motor design is of a
crucial importance. As was the case with audible noise, the use of cheap, poorly constructed
motors adds to the electrical noise problem. "Open case" motors do not effectively block EMI
radiated from the coil windings. Poorly fitted brush holders and inadequate brush tension
contribute to radiated EMI as well.
Coreless motors: Coreless DC motors have much lower armature inductance than ironcore
motors of comparable size. Since armature inductance is the primary cause of EMI problems,
minimizing it through selection of coreless motors is recommended where EMI is a critical factor.
Lead Wires and Shielding: Motor lead wires should be placed as close together as possible so
that EMI radiated from the two leads can cancel each other. This canceling effect can be
improved by using socalled "twisted pairs" where the positive and negative lead wires are
twisted together. Motor leads should be physically separated from data lines or encoder outputs
to reduce the possibility of coupling motor noise onto them. This means that when using shielded
pigtails, the feedback lines should be shielded separately from the motor leads. If noise is still
causing problems with the encoder signals than it may be time to consider using a differential
encoder to eliminate the effect of interference on the encoder. PWM switching noise is another
source of EMI problems. Most commonly, PWM switching results in radiated noise from motor
lead wires. Shielding and lead wire placement can also help mitigate the effect of PWM generated
EMI.
Passive components: EMI problems can often be significantly reduced by the simple act of
installing a capacitor across the motor terminals. In some types of applications, this method may
not be suitable since a resonant circuit is created which can cause "ringing" problems near
resonant frequencies. In these instances, an RC snubber network across the motor terminals
may be more effective. Component values are not critical for motors driven with DC, but care
must be taken in selecting components for PWM driven systems.
Motor Service Life
Operating Point: In most applications, the torque and speed demands placed upon a DC motor
determine its overall operational lifetime. As the torque requirements on the motor increase, the
current through the armature increases proportionally, thus increasing the current density at the
brushcommutator interface. High current densities promote electroerosion of brush and
commutator materials, a limiting factor in motor service life. In addition, high rotational speeds
shorten motor service life by accelerating mechanical wear.
Although each application has its own specific requirements to be addressed, it is usually
advisable to operate a DC motor with precious metal brushes and commutator continuously at no
more than 1/3 of its rated stall torque. Motors with graphite on copper commutation systems
should be run continuously at no more than 1/2 of the motor's rated stall torque. These
recommendations attempt to maximize motor service life. Some applications may not require the
maximum lifetime that the motor has to offer.
Rotor Inductance: One of the factors limiting brush and commutator life is the inductance of
the motor armature. During commutation, when current flows through a particular coil winding
there is storage of energy in the form of a magnetic field. When the motor commutates and the
current flow is switched to another winding, the magnetic field collapses and the resulting
discharge of energy causes an arc between the commutator and brush. This arcing accelerates
electroerosion and decreases motor life. One could, theoretically, reduce the armature
inductance of the motor windings by decreasing the number of turns in each armature segment.
This lowers the torque constant of the motor, however, which increases the motor current for a
given torque and, therefore, increases the current density at the brushcommutator interface.
This is not recommended. To reduce the affect of inductance and arcing on motor lifetime a
capacitor ring is being mounted to the commutator. The ring provides the equivalent effect of
each winding connected in parallel with a small capacitor and resistor. The collapse of the
magnetic field during commutation then serves to charge the capacitor rather than creating an
arc between brush and commutator. The stored energy is released and dissipated back into the
next coil phase in the commutation sequence. This technique, while slightly increasing the
electrical time constant of the motor, dramatically increases motor service life.
Drive Profiles: Operating conditions other than torque and speed also affect service life. The
application may require frequent starting and stopping or reversals of direction. Both situations
result in periods of high current density and a resulting shortening of service life. A similar effect
is seen in applications where pulse width modulated (PWM) drives are used. If the PWM
frequency is too low, the motor is constantly accelerating and decelerating with an accompanying
increase in current density. As a general rule, PWM frequencies of 20 kHz or higher are
recommended for ironless core motors.
Environmental Considerations: Environmental conditions can have a profound effect on motor
service life. One good example is the rapid drying and wear of graphitebased brushes in a
vacuum or very dry environment. Very warm and dry conditions also hasten the breakdown of
bearing and commutator lubricants. The ambient temperature has a cumulative effect on the
motor's operational temperature and can lower performance by limiting the operational
temperature range of the motor. External cooling by contact, air or forced air can produce
significant gains in motor performance. At the opposite extreme, very cold conditions increase
the viscosity of lubricants and cause the motor to run at a higher current.
Shaft Loading: Shock loads and vibration contribute to the tendency of the brushes to "bounce"
on the commutator, thus causing arcing and accelerated electroerosion. Shock loads and
vibration also accelerate bearing wear. Excessive axial or radial shaft loads decrease the life of
bearings, sometimes significantly. In continuous duty applications with low radial shaft loads,
sintered bearings are the inexpensive choice. For increased radial loads, ceramic bearings are
available. Ball bearings are typically specified when the application calls for higher radial and
axial shaft loads.
Reference
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1 Load Characteristics
o
Load Characteristics
Constant Torque Loads
In this load characteristic, the torque is constant across the entire speed range. The power is
therefore directly proportional to the speed and therefore, reducing the speed will also reduce
the power required in a linear fashion.
e.g. screw compressors and conveyors
Also called quadratic torque loads, the torque of the load is proportional to the square of the
speed. The load power is therefore proportional to the cube of the speed.
e.g. centrifugal pumps, fans and blowers
This load characteristic is a combination of constant torque in one speed range and constant
power in another. e.g. paper making machines
Category: Motors
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References
For details on specific motors, EuroDEEM, the European Database of Efficient Electric Motors, is
an excellent resource.
Category: Motors
Motor Performance
Induction motors typically run at highest efficiency and power factor at fullload. However when
motors are run at lower load factors, there is generally a corresponding decline in performance.
This drop in performance tends to vary nonlinearly (with respect to the load factor), with larger
drops in performance at low load factors (0% to 40%). For example, the figure below shows the
performance test data of a 155kW, 2000V, 50Hz induction motor at load factors from 0% to
100%:
Category: Motors
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Contents
[hide]
5 Software
6 References
7 Related Topics
Nominal voltage,
(V)
Nominal frequency,
Rated torque,
Breakdown torque,
(Hz)
(rpm)
(A)
(kW)
(Nm)
(pu)
(pu)
(normalised)
(normalised)
(pu)
We know that a set of equivalent circuit parameters can yield specific torquespeed and currentspeed curves. So given a set of performance parameters that contain features on the torquespeed and currentspeed curves (e.g. breakdown torque, lockedrotor current, etc), is it possible
to determine the corresponding equivalent circuit parameters that yield these features? This is
the crux of the parameter estimation problem and can be posed as follows  "How can the motor
performance parameters be converted into equivalent circuit parameters?".
While all of the performance parameters in the above set can be used in an estimation
procedure, there are actually only six indpendent magnitudes that can be formed from
them:
and
the basis of the problem formulation, where the independent magnitudes calculated from the
equivalent circuit are matched with the performance parameters supplied by the manufacturer.
The basic double cage model is used to illustrate how these six independent magnitudes can be
calculated from the equivalent circuit model. Stator and rotor currents at slip "s" can be readily
calculated from the equivalent circuit.
Quantities for perunit active power
, reactive power
Nominal speed
where
is calculated as follows:
at slip "s"
In the double cage model, the solution to this equation is not trivial and it is more convenient to
use an estimate, e.g. based on an interval search between s=0 and s=0.5.
Problem Formulation Ignoring Core Losses
Single Cage Model (Ignoring Core Losses)
In the single cage model, the locked rotor torque
because the single cage model does not have enough degrees of freedom to capture both the
starting and breakdown torque characteristics without introducing significant errors [1]. As a
result, it is more commonplace to only consider the breakdown torque
model and simply ignore the torque and current characteristics at locked rotor. For woundrotor
motors, this yields sufficiently accurate results (i.e. in terms of the resulting torquespeed
curve). However, a singlecage model is unable to accurately model the torquespeed
characteristics of squirrel cage motors, especially those with deep bars.
Without taking into account core losses, the full load motor efficiency
Therefore, there are only three independent parameters that can be used in the problem
formulation:
and
These independent parameters can be used to formulate the parameter estimation in terms of a
nonlinear least squares problem, with a set of nonlinear equations of the form
where
are included
as independent parameters. As in the single cage model, the full load motor efficiency
cannot be used without taking into account core losses. Therefore, there are five independent
parameters and the following nonlinear least squares problem:
where
are the
can also be
used as an independent parameter. The problem formulations are restated below for the single
cage and double cage models with core losses taken into account.
Single Cage Model (With Core Losses)
The nonlinear least squares problem for the single cage model with core losses is as follows:
where
where
equivalent circuit parameters of the double cage model (with core losses)
Parameter Estimation Algorithms
are the
The most common algorithms used to solve the nonlinear least squares problems for motor
parameter estimation are as follows:
NewtonRaphson Algorithm
LevenbergMarquardt Algorithm
Software
Many commercial software packages for power systems analysis such as ETAP and DIgSILENT
PowerFactory contain integrated routines for estimating motor parameters from manufacturer
data. The commercial packages typically use some variant of the NewtonRaphson algorithm.
Moto is a free standalone tool for estimating induction motor parameters based on commonly
available manufacturer data (i.e. breakdown torque, locked rotor torque, full load power factor,
etc). The program supports a number of estimation algorithms including NewtonRaphson,
LevenbergMarquardt and genetic algorithms.
References
[1] Pedra, J., Estimation of typical squirrelcage induction motor parameters for dynamic
performance simulation, IEEE Proceedings on Generation, Transmission and Distribution,
Vol. 153, No. 2, 2006
[2] Filho, E., Lima, A., and Jacobina, C., Parameter Estimation for Induction Machines via
NonLinear Least Squares Method, Conference proceedings of IECON, 1991
[3] Rogers, G., Shirmohammadi, D., Induction Machine Modelling for Electromagnetic
Transient Program, IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, Vol. EC2, No. 4, 1987
[4] Waters, S. S., Willoughby, R. D., "Modeling Induction Motors for System Studies",
IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, Vol 1A19, No. 5, 1983
[5] Lindenmeyer, D., Dommel, H. W., Moshref, A., and Kundur, P., "An induction motor
parameter estimation method", Electrical Power and Energy Systems, Vol. 23, 2001
Related Topics
Where
2 TorqueSpeed Curves
The equivalent circuit for the single cage model is shown in the figure to the right. Recasting the
impedances as admittances:
and
TorqueSpeed Curves
3 Core Losses
5 Parameter Estimation
6 References
7 Related Topics
= stator resistance
= magnetising reactance
= rotor resistance
= rotor reactance
It has been shown (for example, in [1]) that the single cage model is not able to capture both
the starting characteristics and the breakdown torque characteristics of a cage induction motor.
Therefore for motor startup simulations, the double cage model is recommended.
Double Cage Model
= stator resistance
= magnetising reactance
Core Losses
You will notice that in the models above, the shunt magnetising branch is represented as a
magnetising reactance only (Xm). In a practical motor, there will also be eddy currents in the core
laminations that manifest themselves as heat losses. These so called core (or iron) losses can be
modelled as a shunt resistance as per the standard transformer model.
Parameter Mismatch with Measured Data
Manufacturers sometimes provide the electrical parameters for the motor equivalent circuit
(usually the single cage model) on their data sheets, based on measured test data (e.g. using
the standard tests in IEEE Std 112). However, if one were to compute the motor torquespeed
curve using these parameters, significant differences will often be found between the torquespeed curve implied by the equivalent circuit and the torquespeed curve from the
manufacturers performance data (e.g. breakdown torque, locked rotor torque, etc) [2].
The reason for this is that the equivalent circuit model is a simplification of reality. For modelling
purposes, we would like an equivalent circuit with constant parameters that is reasonably
accurate (when compared to the performance data) over the full range of slip values. However,
this simplified model doesn't take into consideration a number of factors present in practical
motors, for example:
The equivalent circuit parameters are not constant, and actually vary with frequency
(slip). The manufacturer will sometimes provide measured electrical parameter data at
various slip values and they will no doubt be different. For example, rotor resistance is
frequency (slip) dependent, caused by eddy currents in deep and shaped rotor bars.
Likewise, leakage inductances vary due to eddy currents and saturation of the leakage
flux path [3]
The parameters also vary with temperature and saturation of the teeth and core [4]
Stator resistance is normally measured with a dc resistance test (e.g. IEEE Std 112), but
the ac resistance may be different in practice and is also temperature dependent
Saturation of the leakage path of stator and rotor magnetic fields during DOL starting
reduces the leakage reactances at locked rotor conditions. However the lockedrotor test
is done at reduced voltages to simulate full load currents. Therefore the test doesnt
actually simulate the high currents on starting and thus tends to overestimate the rotor
and stator leakage reactances.
For deep bar or double cage machines, classical noload and locked rotor tests result in
rotor resistances that are often too high
As mentioned above, we want an equivalent circuit with constant parameters that is reasonably
accurate over the full range of slip values from 0 to 1pu. Sometimes such an equivalent circuit
doesnt actually exist, and in such cases we have to decide which parts to sacrifice (e.g. if only
the starting characteristics are important in the study, then it may be acceptable for the fullload
characteristics to be less accurate).
Parameter Estimation
The equivalent circuit parameters of an induction motor can be estimated by various classes of
parameter estimation methods, depending on what type of data sets are available and the
applications of the model. The estimation methods generally fall into one of five classes [5]:
Class
Description
Data Required
Applications
1. Parameter
Accurate
Details on motor
manufacture of
calculation from
electromagnetic field
construction, e.g.
induction motors to
motor
based calculation of
geometrical and
meet certain
construction data
motor parameters
material data
performance
Design and
requirements
2. Parameter
estimation based
on steadystate
motor models
3. Frequencydomain
parameter
estimation
Iterative estimation
algorithms based on
steadystate network
data and motor
manufacturer data
Motor performance
data from
manufacturer, e.g.
Desktop (offline)
nameplate details,
torqueslip curves,
currentslip curves
Parameter estimation
based on standstill
frequency response
(SSFR) test
available (more
measurements and
accurate than
resulting transfer
estimation based on
function
steadystate models)
4. Timedomain
Simplified models
parameter
measurement setup
estimation
to tune model
data
parameters
Simplified model
5. Realtime
sstimation based on
parameter
realtime measurements
estimation
of actual motor
Online tuning of
Motor sensors and
measurement devices
controllers (e.g.
operation
References
[1] Pedra, J., Estimation of typical squirrelcage induction motor parameters for dynamic
performance simulation, IEEE Proceedings on Generation, Transmission and Distribution,
Vol. 153, No. 2, 2006
[2] Filho, E., Lima, A., and Jacobina, C., Parameter Estimation for Induction Machines via
NonLinear Least Squares Method, Conference proceedings of IECON, 1991
[3] Rogers, G., Shirmohammadi, D., Induction Machine Modelling for Electromagnetic
Transient Program, IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, Vol. EC2, No. 4, 1987
[4] Waters, S. S., Willoughby, R. D., "Modeling Induction Motors for System Studies",
IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, Vol 1A19, No. 5, 1983
[5] Lindenmeyer, D., Dommel, H. W., Moshref, A., and Kundur, P., "An induction motor
parameter estimation method", Electrical Power and Energy Systems, Vol. 23, 2001
Related Topics
3 References
4 Related Topics
tank, oil and frame allows for sufficient zerosequence current to be induced and circulate around
the tank and frame. In this way, the tank and frame acts like an internal delta winding.
References
[1] Blackburn, J., "Symmetrical Components for Power Systems Engineering", CRC Press,
1993
[2] Tleis, N., "Power Systems Modelling and Fault Analysis  Theory and Practice",
Newnes, 2008
Related Topics
Transformer Impedance
Current transformer
Contents
[hide]
3.4 Ratio k
3.6 Accuracy
IEC 600441 Consolidated Edition 1.2 (incl. am1+am2) (200302) TC/SC 38 Instrument
transformers  Part 1: Current
transformers
IEC 600448 Edition 1.0 (200207) TC/SC 38 Instrument transformers  Part 8: Electronic
current transformers
IEC 618691 Edition 1.0 (200710) TC/SC 38 Instrument transformers  Part 1: General
requirements
British Standard BS3938 Specifications for Current Transformers (Withdrawn and replaced
by IEC 600441)
At the same time, a N times smaller voltage, opposed to the primary current will be induced in
the primary wire creating a small extra resistance in the primary circuit. The induced secondary
voltage will drive the secondary current Is that will flow for the mayor part trough the connected
load Rb and for a small part (the error current) Ie trough the internal resistance and induction.
The internal resistance and induction represent the part of the current that is used to magnetise
the core (Inductive part) and to heatup the core material as ironlosses. Actually the
magnetising current is taken from the primary side but that will only make the calculation model
more difficult and does not form any additional value. The secondary current I s will also produce
a secondary flux, opposite to the primary flux. The resulting flux in the CT core is a very small
magnetising flux so that the core does not saturate at normal operation currents. The secondary
current Is will be N times smaller than the primary current Ip.
The error current Ie exists for the major part of a purely inductive part; the magnetising current
Im that can be seen on the magnetising curve of the CT and a small resistive part Ig that
represent the iron losses. The magnetising current Im is proportional to the field strength H
Figure 4. The current vectors Ip and k.Is and the error current vector Ic
Figure 5. The current error of a measuring class CT; here class 0.5 and class 1 are represented
The accuracy of a CT is given by it's "class". The division into accuracy classes depends on the
type of CT; we mainly distinguish measuring class CT's and Protection class CT's who are defined
quite differently. We will discuss accuracy for both types further. Of course they both have a
primary current I_p, a secondary current I_s and a ratio k. From these 3 parameters we can
define some important property's related to accuracy.
The secondary current vector Is that is here represented k times larger to be able to
compare them and to have an idea of the error current. In case the error would be 0,
both vectors I_p and k.I_s would be identical.
The total error vector (composite error) can be seen as the composition of:
Note that for protection CT's, the angle error is disregarded and only the total composite error is
given in %. When examining the equivalent diagram, one would easily conclude that the error
current can only be the magnetising current of the CT. Indeed, normally the magnetising current
is very low but at the saturation point of the core, 50% increase in magnetising current produces
only 10% extra secondary voltage so at saturation the error current rises quickly. Therefore, the
property's accuracy and saturation of the core are closely linked. Hense the error vector is
allways a reducion in secondary output current; negative error. Positive error is only possible by
ratioturn correction.
Load, Rated load and Burden
A Voltage transformer is unloaded when the secondary terminals are open; it behaves like a
normal voltage source. A current transformer is just the opposite and is unloaded with the
secondary terminals shortcircuited. Stonger even, when the secondary terminals of a CT are
open, there is no secondary flux to oppose the primary flux and the core goes to positive
saturation on the positive currentsine and to negative saturation on the negative current sine.
The induced seconday voltage is proportional to  N.d / dt and from Vsat to +Vsat is a huge
voltage. One might also conclude that the current transformen is raising the voltage in trying to
drive the secondary current trough the open terminals. The insulation of the CT is not calculated
for this situation and it will distroy the CT secondary winding and may cause fire at the terminals
& high voltage injury. The nominal load of a CT is the rated resistive burden R B; expressed in VA.
The correct resistance can be calculated with below formula
Example: A 50VA CT with rated secondary current of 5A is designed for a connected load of
50VA/5 = 2 Ohm. Measuring transformers are tested at rated load and at 1/4 of the rated load
so this CT should be loaded within these limits to be sure the accuracy is within specification.
The use and specification of Current Transformers
Current transformers are used to measure high currents; higher than 5A. So the most important
parameter in defining a CT is indeed the Ratio that gives us the Magnetude of primary current
and the secondary current. But for the following specifications of the current transformer, the
purpose of the CT is needed since measuring CT's and Protection CT's require different
specifications. Indeed, there will be two mayor groups of Current Transformers:
Regarding specification, different standards have different ways in specifying CT's but it all comes
down to specifying core property's (saturation point or kneepoint) and secondary wire property's
(RCT) although it may look a totally different.
Protection CT's
are meant to protect an elektrical installation in case of overcurrent or short circuit and
their operating current range is above nominal current In or more specific from In to ALF
times In. It is important for the good functionning of the protection relays that the CT's
are NOT saturated at ALF times rated current. Where ALF is the ratio of the expected
maximum fault current over the rated current. It is thus important that the core material
has a high saturation induction.
their accuracy is not very high but most important is that the accuracy in fault conditions
is high enough. This can only be the case when the core is not saturated in case of a fault
current. Therefore their accuracy is best described with an Accuracy Limit and an
Accuracy Limit Factor (ALF).E.g. a 5P20 CT has an Accuracy limit of 5% at 20 times rated
current (Accuracy Limit Factor). The accuracy of this CT at rated current is 1%.
The standard IEC protection class CT's are of class "P" that only takes the AC
behaviour into account in IEC 600441
Class PX CT's are defined by the position of the kneepoint (saturation point or
kneepoint voltage and magnetising current) and the secondary wire resistance
RCT.
Class PR CT's are defined like the PX CT's but they have a low remanence; less
than 10%. Note that remanence in CT's can be 6080% that may cause quick
saturation in case of a faultcurrent DC offset in the remanent direction. A class
PX CT can't have that problem.
CT's for transient response class "TP" are defined by their connected load R B, time
constant TS and their overcurrent figure KSSC. These linearised CT's have airgaps
in the core to obtain extreme high saturation voltage and current.
Ex. A 5P10 CT at 10 times rated current has a maximum error of 5% and only 1% at nominal
current. A 10P15 CT at 15 times rated current has a maximum error of 10% and 3% at nominal
current.
Measurement CT's
Measurement CT's are often being used for billing of electrical power consumption and
their accuracy is determinent for a lot of money.
For the protection of the measuring instruments in case of a fault current, it is favorable
that for currents far above rated current In, the core is saturated and the output lowers so
that the faultcurrent trough the meter is only a part of the expected current trough the
meter. This is expressed by the Instrument Security Factor SF. Of course, the
dilemma is that the CT must be accurate at In (and 1,2 x In) but at f.i. 5 times rated
current ( FS 5) the CT may be saturated for at least 10%.
The accuracy of a measurement CT is given by it's accuracy class that corresponds to the
error% at rated current and at 1.2 times rated current In. The standard accuracy classes
according IEC are class 0.2, 0.5, 1, 3 en 5. For classes 3 and 5, no angle error is
specified. The classes 0.2S and 0.5S have their accuracy shifted toward the lower
currents. This means that they have 5 measuring points instead of 4 (or 2 for class 3 &
5).
The accuracy of the CT must be within these limits at the given currents and with rated
load and at 1/4 of the rated load. A measurement CT that is not loaded is therefore not
necessary accurate! Ratio turn correction may have been applied to get the CT ratings
witthin spec and then not loading gives a higher error.
1 Introduction
2 Testing
3 References
Introduction
The primary concern with all transformers (and also the key indicator of life expectancy) is the
condition of the insulation system.
For dry type transformers, the insulation system consists of the cast resin winding and core
insulation and the termination system insulation (e.g. bushings). The structural strength and
insulating properties of materials used for these insulation systems degrade over time through
normal ageing. They can also degrade prematurely as a result of overheating and mechanical
and electrical stresses (e.g. faults, overvoltages, inrush currents, etc).
The initial breakdown of insulation around the windings can result in interturn faults, especially
on the high voltage windings where the electric field strength is high enough to ionise air gaps
and cause corona activity. Interturn faults are short circuits between coil turns on a single
winding. Further degradation of the insulation could see interturn faults develop into more
serious faults such as interwinding and earth faults.
Testing
The most frequent mode of failure for dry type transformers is insulation breakdown resulting in
interturn faults which leads to more severe faults such as phase to phase winding or earth
faults. The insulation condition of component parts of the transformer (i.e. windings, core,
bushings, etc) can be determined by a suite of tests.
Dissolved gas analysis is the most commonly used method for determining winding insulation
condition in oiltype transformers, but is not possible for drytype transformers.
The following tests are discussed further:
Thermographic surveys
measurements are typically taken over time (i.e. 1 minute intervals over 10 minutes) to
generate a curve, called the Dielectric Absorption curve.
The Polarisation Index is the steepness of the curve at a given temperature and is defined as per
the following equation [1]:
Where
R10 = megohms insulation resistance at 10 minutes
R1 = megohms insulation resistance at 1 minute
The Polarisation Index indicates the relative dryness and level of moisture ingress into the
insulation.
Dielectric Loss Angle Measurement Tests
Dielectric loss angle tests, also called dissipation factor, power factor or tan delta tests,
determine the insulation dielectric power loss by measurement of the power angle between an
applied AC voltage and the resultant current. In the ideal insulator, the power angle would be
90C as it is purely capacitive and nonconducting. However in real insulators, there is some
leakage current and resistive losses through the dielectric.
Relative increases in dielectric power losses are indicative of insulation deterioration and may
further accelerate degradation due to increased heating. Note that dielectric power loss does not
translate to dielectric strength, though there are often common causes for increases in power
loss and decreases in dielectric strength.
The cosine of the power angle () is called the power factor. The complement of is denoted
as shown in the diagram above. The power factor can be practically approximated by taking the
tangent of (hence the name tan delta). This approximation is called the dissipation factor and
is roughly equal to the power factor between values of 0 and 0.08, which covers the majority of
tests.
The dissipation factor is essentially the ratio between the resistive and capacitive components of
the insulation and can be measured directly (via a capacitance bridge circuit). The lower the
quality of the insulation condition, the more resistive it will appear and the more power loss will
be dissipated through it (in the form of heat).
The increase in the dissipation factor values as the test voltage is increased is called the "tipup".
The technical literature on this subject has noted that this test is useful for detecting moisture
ingress in the bushings and windings. About 90% of bushing failures may be attributed to
moisture ingress evidenced by an increasing power factor from dielectric loss angle testing on a
scheduled basis.
Partial Discharge Tests
Partial discharges are localised incipient electrical discharges that only partially bridge the
insulation between conductors. Partial discharges can occur in any location where the local
electrical field strength is sufficient to breakdown that portion of the dielectric material (whether
it be deteriorated insulation or air). In drytype transformers they can occur within airfilled voids
where the solid insulation has degraded.
Partial discharge testing can detect the presence and location of partial discharge activity in a
transformer. Partial discharges in transformers are typically measured by applying a prespecified
voltage to the transformer windings and measuring induced charges via a coupling device (e.g.
coupling capacitors).
AS 60076.11 and AS 60270 set out the requirements, procedure, equipment and acceptance
levels for partial discharge testing [3] [4]. It should be noted that the partial discharge tests
specified in AS 60076.11 are intended as routine tests for new transformers. This involves
applying a prestress voltage of 1.8 times rated voltage to the windings. This may be excessive
for transformers already in service for over 20 years.
Analysis of the partial discharge measurements gathered (i.e. pulse waveforms, magnitude,
duration and intervals between pulses) can be used as a guide regarding the condition of the
insulation. The results can be trended to chart the rate of insulation degradation between
consecutive tests.
Frequency Response Analysis
Frequency response analysis is a diagnostic testing technique that measures the impedance of
the transformer windings over a wide range of frequencies. The measurements are compared
with a reference set and the differences are highlighted. The differences may indicate mechanical
damage to the windings (e.g. winding displacement or loose winding) and electrical faults (e.g.
interturn faults).
Frequency response analysis can be achieved by either injecting a low voltage impulse into the
winding (i.e. impulse response method) or by making a frequency sweep using a sinusoidal
signal (i.e. swept frequency method).
For frequency response analysis to be useful, a baseline reference set of measurements need to
be determined and periodic tests need to be conducted to compare the differences.
Refer to research by S. Tenbohlen et al at the University of Stuttgart [5].
Acoustic Emission Tests
Partial discharges in transformers can also be detected and localised via acoustic emission
testing. Acoustic emission testing is based on the acoustic detection of the partial discharge
pulses and conversion to an electrical signal. Sensors are coupled to the surface of the
transformer and during operation of the transformer, the output of the sensors are fed into an
electronic module. The signals are filtered to remove noise and processed to determine the
presence and location of any partial discharges in the transformer.
Thermographic Surveys
Infrared thermography is commonly used in preventative maintenance to detect hotspots,
especially at joints and terminations. IR Thermography cameras measure surface temperatures
and the resulting thermal image can be used to identify overheating at the transformer
terminations.
For thermographic surveys to be conducted, thermographic windows need to be installed looking
at the terminations and windings.
References
1. Facilities Instruction, Standards and Techniques Volume 31, Testing Solid Insulation of
Electrical Equipment, U.S Department of the Interior, Reclamation Branch, December
1991
2. Facilities Instruction, Standards and Techniques Volume 331, Transformer Diagnostics,
U.S Department of the Interior, Reclamation Branch, June 2003
3. AS 60076.11, Power transformers Part 11: Drytype transformers, 2006
4. AS 60270, Highvoltage test techniques Partial discharge measurements, 2001
5. Research at University of Stuttgart (including Tenbohlen's papers)
Categories: Transformers  Electrical Testing
Transformer Impedance
Contents
[hide]
3 References
where
Where
It is worth noting that the transformer impedance voltage (expressed in percent or perunit) is
independent of the winding connection. This is because each winding is tested separately and
normally quoted as a perunit (or percent) impedance voltage based on the transformer's rated
linetoline voltage (see IEEE Std C57.12.90). If the winding connections are changed, then the
linetoline voltage would also have to change. But since it is a perunit (or percent) value, the
impedance voltage would remain the same.
Zero Sequence Impedance
Two Winding Transformer
Impedance Measurement
Zero sequence impedance test circuit for threephase 2winding transformer (with accessible
neutral)
In the zero sequence test, a singlephase voltage source is applied between the three phase
terminals (connected together) and an externally available neutral terminal (see the test circuit
in the figure right). Like in the positive sequence test, the voltage is steadily increased until the
rated current is measured.
where
Tleis [2] also suggests that for earthed starstar (YNyn) transformers with a threelimbed core
construction, zero sequence flux can circulate around a path through the core, tank, insulating oil
and air. Therefore this magnetic path acts like a "virtual" delta winding, and the zero sequence
impedance can be lower than the standard measured value. Tleis suggests treating these
transformers like threewinding transformers and performing at least three test measurements.
Calculation of R0 and X0
Occasionally the zero sequence copper losses (Pc,0) are also measured as part of the zero
sequence test. When this is the case, calculations similar to that of the positive sequence
impedance can be applied:
Where
Where
References
[1] IEEE Std C57.12.90, "IEEE Standard Test Code for LiquidImmersed Distribution,
Power and Regulating Transformers", 2010
[2] Tleis, N., "Power Systems Modelling and Fault Analysis  Theory and Practice",
Newnes, 2008
Category: Transformers
Recovery inrush  occurs when voltage is restored to the transformer after a brief voltage
dip or interruption
Transformer energisation is considered to cause the highest inrush currents and will be the focus
of this article. When energised, an initial magnetising inrush current flows into the transformer.
Typically, the inrush current lasts in the order of 0.1s and has the following magnitude:
Transformer inrush currents are predominantly due to saturation of the transformer core and can
be modelled as an RL switching transient with a saturable inductance L.
Contents
[hide]
1 Technical Background
o
1.5 Summary
2 References
Technical Background
Where
Solving for
Simplifying further:
, we take
(1)
While this is a gross simplification of reality, the equation above can give us some intuition about
the nature of the transformer flux during a transient switching on (energisation) event.
Effects of Switching Angle
From equation (1) above, it can be shown that the switching angle results in a dc offset of the
flux waveform. The figure below shows the effects of the switching angle on the flux waveform at
three angles (relative to the ac supply voltage): 1) a positive zero crossing ( = 0), 2) a voltage
peak (
Here it can be seen that switching at a positive zero crossing shifts the flux waveform up to a
peak flux of 2pu (and vice versa for a negative zero crossing, i.e. peak flux down to 2pu). There
is no dc offset when switching at a voltage peak. Any other switching angle will result in a dc
offset in between the zero crossing waveforms.
Effects of Residual Flux
It can be readily seen from transient flux waveform in equation (1) that the residual flux causes
a dc offset in the flux waveform, i.e. a positive residual flux offsets the waveform up and vice
versa for a negative residual flux.
Therefore, depending on the switching angle, a residual flux can actually be beneficial to keeping
inrush currents low. For example, if the switching angle was a negative zero crossing (e.g. = ,
this would offset the flux waveform down. But a positive residual flux would have the opposite
effect by offsetting the flux waveform up.
On the other hand, the residual flux can reinforce the dc offset caused by the switching angle
and can result in peak flux values (absolute) well over 2pu.
Transient Flux in Practical Transformers
In our idealised model above, the transient flux waveform on switching has constant dc offsets
depending on the switching angle and residual flux. However in a practical transformer, the effect
of leakage impedances (i.e. winding resistances and leakage reactances) will lead to an
exponentially decaying dc offset component (like in theswitching of RL circuits), with the rate of
decay depending on the time constant
The figure below presents a more realistic transient flux waveform on switching, displaying a
decaying dc component:
We saw above that during transient conditions, the magnetising flux can rise up over 2pu
(depending on the switching angle and residual flux). The other key factor that leads to high
inrush currents is the nonlinear relationship between flux and current.
The transformer core exhibits saturation characteristics like the hysteresis loop in the figure
shown on the right. Here it can be seen that at 1 pu flux, the core is already saturating and the
slope of the curve begins to approache a horizontal line. Therefore, if the flux is increased further
above 1 pu flux, the current drawn can be several orders of magnitude higher.
Summary
Putting all the pieces together, the general intuition explaining transformer energisation inrush
can be put as follows:
1) On the sudden application of a voltage to the transformer (i.e. circuit breaker is closed), a
transient flux waveform is generated that, depending on the switching angle and residual flux,
can reach a peak of over two times nominal flux.
2) The relationship between flux and current is highly nonlinear. At higher than nominal flux, the
core will begin to saturate and the related magnetising currents can get very high. This is
equivalent to saying that as the core saturates, the magnetising reactance decreases
significantly.
References
Transformer Impedance
(Redirected from Transformer Short Circuit Test)
Contents
[hide]
3 References
where
Where
normally quoted as a perunit (or percent) impedance voltage based on the transformer's rated
linetoline voltage (see IEEE Std C57.12.90). If the winding connections are changed, then the
linetoline voltage would also have to change. But since it is a perunit (or percent) value, the
impedance voltage would remain the same.
Zero Sequence Impedance
Two Winding Transformer
Impedance Measurement
Zero sequence impedance test circuit for threephase 2winding transformer (with accessible
neutral)
In the zero sequence test, a singlephase voltage source is applied between the three phase
terminals (connected together) and an externally available neutral terminal (see the test circuit
in the figure right). Like in the positive sequence test, the voltage is steadily increased until the
rated current is measured.
where
impedance can be lower than the standard measured value. Tleis suggests treating these
transformers like threewinding transformers and performing at least three test measurements.
Calculation of R0 and X0
Occasionally the zero sequence copper losses (Pc,0) are also measured as part of the zero
sequence test. When this is the case, calculations similar to that of the positive sequence
impedance can be applied:
Where
Where
References
[1] IEEE Std C57.12.90, "IEEE Standard Test Code for LiquidImmersed Distribution,
Power and Regulating Transformers", 2010
[2] Tleis, N., "Power Systems Modelling and Fault Analysis  Theory and Practice",
Newnes, 2008
Category: Transformers
According to the ANSI/IEEE 946
Contents
[hide]
1 Introduction
2 Voltage Considerations
4 Calculation Approach
6 References
Introduction
Scope of the IEEE 9461992: This recommended practice provides guidance for the design of the
DC auxiliary power systems for nuclear and nonnuclear power generating stations. The
components of the DC auxiliary power system addressed by this recommended practice include
leadacid storage batteries, static battery chargers and distribution equipment. Guidance for
selecting the quantity and types of equipment, the equipment ratings, interconnections,
instrumentation, control and protection is also provided.
combustion turbines, hydro, wind turbines, etc. The AC power supply (to the chargers), the loads
served by the DC systems, except as they influence the DC system design, and engine starting
(cranking) battery systems are beyond the scope of this recommended practice.
For more informations please refer to the standard itself IEEE 9461992.
Voltage Considerations
The nominal voltages of 250, 125, 48, and 24 are generally utilized in station DC auxiliary power
systems. The type, rating, cost, availability, and location of the connected equipment should be
used to determine which nominal system voltage is appropriate for a specific application. 250
VDC systems are typically used to power motors for emergency pumps, large valve operators,
and large inverters. 125 VDC systems are typically used for control power for nest relay logic
circuits andthe closing and tripping of switchgear circuit breakers. 48 VDC or 24 VDC systems are
typically used for specialized instrumentation.
Figure 2. Recommended voltage range of 125 V and 250 V DC (nominal) rated components (for
designs in which the battery is equalized while connected to the load)
Available ShortCircuit Current
For the purpose of determining the maximum available shortcircuit current (e.g., the required
interrupting capacity for feeder breakers/fuses and withstand capability of the distribution buses
and disconnecting devices), the total shortcircuit current is the sum of that delivered by the
battery, charger, and motors (as applicable). When a more accurate value of maximum available
shortcircuit current is required, the analysis should account for interconnecting cable resistance.
Calculation Approach
As defined in "Industrial power systems data book" [2], there are two calculation ways to acquire
the fault current:
1. Approximation Method: All the network is converted into the equivalent impedance
(Req, Leq are used for the time constant) and the system voltage is being used for the fault
current calculation:
2. Superposition Method: The fault current is calculated for each source individually,
while other, not observed sources, are being shorted out (with their internal resistances).
The voltage for each partial current is the rated voltage of the source. The total current is
the sum of the partial currents. This approach shall be described in following articles.
Where EB is the battery rated voltage and I8hrs is the 8hour battery capacity.
The maximum (or peak) shortcircuit current is:
RBBr is the sum of the battery internal resistance RB and the line resistance RBr up to the fault
location.
The initial maximum rate of rise of the current at t=0 s is as follows:
And the fault current from the battery for the time t:
armature current. Therefore, it is conservative to estimate the maximum current that a motor
will contribute to a fault as 10 times the motors rated full load current. When a more accurate
value is required, the shortcircuit contribution should be calculated, using specific r d data for the
specific motor, or actual test data should be obtained from the motor manufacturer. For
additional accuracy, the calculation should account for the resistance of the cables between the
motor and the fault. A complete expression for the shortcircuit current is:
Where: ia perunit current, e0 is the internal emf prior shortcircuit (p.u.), rd steadystate
effective resistance of machine (p.u.), r'd transient effective resistance of machine (p.u.). The
frequency is 60 Hz. Typically, for motors e0=0,97 p.u., and for generators e0=1,03 p.u.
The machine electrical parameter are to be calculated in case when no additional data is known
for observed machine. Normally, it is more practical to use the real machine data given by the
manufacturer. The machine inductance is derived from the following equation:
Where P is the pole number, nn nominal speed, UM nominal voltage and IM nominal current.
Cx depends on the machine type: Cx=0,4 is for motors without pole face windings, Cx=0,1 is for
motors with pole face windings, Cx=0,6 is for generators without pole face windings, and Cx=0,2
is for generators with pole face windings.
The base resistance of the machine is derived from:
Or in p.u.:
The initial sustained shortcircuit current (or quasi steadystate current) is given by:
The factor K2 is taken from the diagram of sustained fault current factor versus rectifier terminal
voltage, zCis the commutating impedance per unit and IR is the rated rectifier current. The
commutating impedance includes AC side impedance with transformer (R C and XC).If the
commutating impedance is in perunit value then it should be converted.
The current Ida is used to determine equivalent rectifier resistance and inductance on the DC
side, which are then given by:
Where Eda is the assumed voltage at the rectifier terminals during the fault and equals e0 (p.u.) x
System Voltage (Volts).
If the fault current is calculated using the superposition method, then the following relations are
used:
When:
Then:
When:
Then:
Where the factor K1 is taken from the diagram and is in function of K3 and K4, which are
calculated as follows, for the fullwave bridge connected rectifier:
Note: The value Eda = edaED should be within 10% of the calculated value Edc, the rectifier
terminal voltage under sustained shortcircuit current. The iterative process is repeated until the
desired tolerance is achieved.
Index "RBr" refers to the combined resistance of the rectifier and the branch up to the
fault location
References
1. IEEE 9461992: IEEE Recommended Practice for the Design of DC Auxiliary Power Systems for
Generating Stations For more informations please refer to the standard itselfIEEE 9461992.
2. Industrial power systems data book, General Electric, 1956 At the Iowa Digital Library General
Electric Industrial Power Systems Data Book.
Related topics:
Short Circuit Calculation
according to the IEC 61660
Categories: Calculations  Protection
According to the IEC 61660
Contents
[hide]
1 Introduction
4 References
Introduction
Figure 1. Equivalent circuit diagram for calculating the partial shortcircuit currents
The scope of IEC 61660 is to describe a method for calculating shortcircuit currents in DC
auxiliary systems in power plants and substations. Such systems can be equipped with the
following equipment, acting as shortcircuit current sources:
smoothing capacitors;
NOTE Rectifiers in threephase AC bridge connection for 60 Hz are under consideration. The
data of other equipment may be given by the manufacturer.
This standard is only concerned with rectifiers in threephase AC bridge connection. It is not
concerned with other types of rectifiers.
The purpose of the standard is to provide a generally applicable method of calculation which
produces results of sufficient accuracy on the conservative side. Special methods, adjusted to
particular circumstances, may be used if they give at least the same precision. Shortcircuit
currents, resistances and inductances may also be ascertained from system tests or
measurements on model systems. In existing DC systems the necessary values can be
ascertained from measurements taken at the assumed shortcircuit location. The load current is
not taken into consideration when calculating the shortcircuit current. It is necessary to
distinguish between two different values of shortcircuit current:
the maximum shortcircuit current which determines the rating of the electrical
equipment;
the minimum shortcircuit current which can be taken as the basis for fuse and protection
ratings and settings.
For more information please refer to the standard itself IEC 616601.
Calculating the Total ShortCircuit Current
Each DC source during the fault shall contribute to the total shortcircuit current. The
superposition principle is being applied. When one source is observed then the other ones are
being disconnected and ignored. The potential DC sources are battery, rectifier, capacitor and
machine.
The partial shortcircuit currents are calculated for each of those sources as follows:
for 0
tp:
Where tp is the time to peak of the partial current and 1 is the rise time constant for the partial
current source.
for tp
Tk:
Where Tk is the fault duration time and 2 the decay time constant for the partial current source.
And the total shortcircuit current is the sum as follows:
for 0
Tk. And nDC is the number of the DC sources contributing the fault current, j is the
observed DC source.
Partial Fault Currents
Figure 2. Time to peak and rise time constant (Figure 10. IEC 61660:1997)
The peak shortcircuit current is calculated as:
The risetime constant (1B) and timetopeak of shortcircuit currents of batteries is taken from
the diagram (Figure 10. in IEC 61660:1997). The time constant of the battery T B is assumed to
be 30 ms. The decaytime constant (2B) is assumed to 100 ms. RBBr is the sum of the battery
internal resistance and the line (path) resistance up to the fault location (RBBr=0,9RB+RBr). LBBr is
the sum of the battery internal inductance and the line (path) inductance up to the fault location.
Figure 3. Factor k1C to determine risetime constant (Figure 14. IEC 61660:1997)
Figure 4. Factor k2C to determine decaytime constant (Figure 15. IEC 61660:1997)
The peak shortcircuit current is calculated using:
Where EC is the voltage of the capacitor terminal before the fault, and RCBr is the sum of capacitor
and branch resistance, up to the fault location. The factor C depends on the eigenfrequency
0 and the decay coefficient , as follows:
LCBr is the inductance of the capacitor and common branch up to the fault location.
a) If > 0:
b) If < 0:
c) If = 0:
And coefficients k1C and k2C are taken from the diagrams/tables (defined in Figure 14. IEC
61660). The quasi steadystate current of the capacitor is considered to be 0.
Where Un is the nominal system voltage on AC side of rectifier, ZN is the network impedance AC
side, UnTLV and UnTHV are transformer rated voltages of low and high voltage side, respectively. The
factor D is calculated using:
is calculated using:
for
it is
for
it is
(ms)
(ms)
Where LF is the field inductance and LOF is the unsaturated field inductance at noload. This
equation is valid only if the motor speed remains constant during the duration of the shortcircuit
fault. Otherwise IkM = 0.
The factors k1M, k2M, k3M and k4M are taken from the diagrams (Figure 18, 20, 21 in IEC 61660).
The factor M is taken from the diagram (Figure 17 in IEC 61660).
Figure 8. Factor k3M for determining the risetime constant t1M for decreasing speed (Figure
20. IEC 61660:1997)
The timetopeak in case when Mec10F:
Figure 9. Factor k4M for determining the decaytime constant t2M for decreasing speed (Figure
21. IEC 61660:1997)
2M = F when n=nn=const.
2M = (k4M)(Mec)(LOF/LF) when n0
In case when Mec<10F then the timetopeak is taken from the diagram/table (Figure 19. IEC
61660).
The risetime constant and the decaytime constant 1M and 2M are calculated using:
Where tp is the time to peak of the partial current and 1 is the rise time constant for the
observed voltage source.
Correction Factors
Where Ij is the initial partial fault current and j is the correction factor, both for the source "j".
Arc Fault
Contents
[hide]
6 NPFA70E2004 Application
9 References
This work was used in the NFPA70E Standard for Electrical Safety Requirements for Employee
Workplaces, 2000 Edition, for use in developing safe work practices with regard to arc flash
hazards, but was limited to low voltage applications. It also represented the basis for further
research that resulted in the publication of the IEEE Std. 15842002, "IEEE Guide for Performing
ArcFlash Hazard Calculations".
Arc Flash Definitions
An arc fault is an electrical discharge between two or more conductors, where the insulating
atmosphere (air or gas) has been broken down by the electric field between the conductors.
Whenever there is an arc fault, the gases and vapours that make up the atmosphere between
the conductors become ionised.
The magnitude of an arc fault is highly variable. The instantaneous arc fault current may be high,
approaching the bolted short circuit current, or reasonably low, comparable to the load current.
An arc will continue until it becomes unstable and extinguishes itself or until it is interrupted by a
protection device (i.e. fuse or circuit breaker).
Figure 1. Arc fault explosion on a 480 V switchboard with 23 kA upstream fault capacity
Arc faults are characterised by extreme temperatures that can cause severe burns depending on
the distance of the operator to the arc. Neal et al [1] in Table IV determined that a 600 V, 40 kA
arc fault with a duration of 0.5 s has enough energy to cause seconddegree burns at a distance
of 77 inches (1.96 m).
Additionally, arc faults tend to melt terminals that can potentially shower the immediate vicinity
with molten metal. The extreme temperatures produced by an arc fault can also lead to fires,
causing major damage to equipment.
Common definitions:
Incident Energy Exposure:the amount of thermal incident energy to which the worker's face
and chest could be exposed at working distance during an electrical arc event. Incident energy is
measured in joules per centimeter squared (J/cm2) or calories per centimeter squared (cal/cm2).
Flash Protection Boundary: the flash protection boundary is an approach limit at a distance
from exposed live parts or enclosed live parts if operation, manipulation, or testing of equipment
creates a potential flash hazard, within which a person could receive a second degree burn if an
electrical arc flash were to occur.
Incident Energy at Flash Protection Boundary: the arc flash protection boundary (FPB)
distance for the specific incident energy, usually provided from the manufactures for the
corresponding personal protection equipment (PPE).
Hazard Risk Category: this is the minimum level of the personal protective equipment (PPE) in
cal/cm2, as evaluated in the IEEE Standard 1584, with the intent to protect the worker from the
thermal effects of the arc flash at 45 cm or 18 inches from the source of the arc.
Grounding Type: according to the IEEE 1584 procedure two grounding classes are applied:
a) ungrounded, which included ungrounded, highresistance grounding and lowresistance
grounding, and
b) solidly grounded.
Gap between Conductors: equipment bus gap in mm. Gaps of 3 to 40 mm were used for low
voltage testing to simulate gaps between conductors in low voltage equipment and cables. Gaps
13, 104 and 152 mm. were used in 5 and 15 kV equipment testings. For cases where gap is
outside the range of the standard empirically derived model, the theoretically derived Lee
method can be applied.
Working Distance: typical working distance is the sum of the distance between the worker
standing in front of the equipment, and from the front of the equipment to the potential arc
source inside the equipment. Arcfash protection is always based on the incident energy level on
the person's face and body at the working distance, not the incident energy on the hands or
arms. The degree of injury in a burn depends on the percentage of a person's skin that is
burned. The head and body are a large percentage of total skin surface area and injury to these
areas is much more life threatening than burns on the extremities (see Fig.3).
Annex ZC6 of AS 3439.1 [3] provides guidelines for the minimisation, detection and containment
of internal arc faults in switchgear. These are summarised below:
Arrangement of busbars and functional units in separate vented compartments, for more
rapid extinguishing of the arc and to contain an arc fault in a single compartment
Use of devices sensitive to energy radiated from an arc to initiate protection and interrupt
arcing current
Use of earth current detection devices for interruption of arc faults to earth
It should be noted that uncontained arc faults can spread to other parts of the switchboard and
develop into larger faults (e.g. functional unit arc fault spreading to busbars).
Arc Flash PPE
Switchmans hood or faceshield with 0.08 inch thick polycarbonate viewing window
Annex C of IEEE Std 1584 [2] illustrates a case study (No. 42) of a 2.3 kV switching operation
that ultimately ended in an arc fault. The operator was wearing a full arc flash suit, safety
glasses and fire resistant shirt and pants. The PPE prevented any burn injuries from the arc flash.
Other case studies where the operators were not wearing appropriate PPE resulted in severe
burns or death.
Arc flash PPE is normally rated to an Arc Thermal Performance exposure Value (ATPV), which
specifies the maximum incident arc fault energy that can protect the wearer (measured in
calories per cm2).
By way of example, the results of an arc flash hazard calculation based on IEEE Std 1584 follows
to determine the appropriate ATPV rating of PPE. The prospective fault current used was 25 kA. A
fault clearing time of 0.5 s was chosen, which is suitably onerous for a worstcase incident.
The calculation concluded that to protect against injury from an arc fault of this magnitude, PPE
with an ATPV rating of over 50 cal/cm2). is required. The ATPV rating is typically quoted on
commonly available arc flash PPE.
Typical arc fault PPE is available from vendors such as Oberon.
Arc Flash Calculation according to the IEEE Std. 15842002
IEEE Std 15842002 contains calculation methods developed through testing by several sources
to determine boundary distances for unprotected personnel and the incident energy at the
working distance for qualified personnel working on energized equipment. The incident energy
level can be used to determine the proper PPE required for personnel. The equations developed
in the IEEE standard assess the arc flash hazard based on the available (bolted) fault current,
voltage, clearing time, equipment type, grounding, and working distance. The working voltage is
also used to determine other variables. The equations have other variables that account for
grounding, equipment type, and construction. This method can also determine the impact of
certain current limiting low voltage fuses as well as certain types of low voltage breakers. It is an
improvement over the previous work in that the calculations can be applied over a large range of
voltages. The many variables of this method make it the preferred choice for ArcFlash
evaluations, but at the same time requires either a complex spreadsheet or computer program to
be used efficiently.
Determining the arc current
For applications under 1 kV:
where:
Ia  the arc fault current (kA),
K  for the open configurations (0.153), for the closed/boxed configurations (0.097),
If  is the bolted fault current for threephase faults (symmetrical RMS)(kA),
Usys  the system voltage,
dG  the gap between conductors (mm).
The second arc current (I2a) is equal to 85% of the first current, or:
Now the incident energy can be calculated as follows, for the systems where the voltage does not
exceed 15 kV:
And for the location where the voltage exceeds 15 kV the Lee method is used:
Where:
En  the incident energy normalized for time and distance (cal/cm 2),
K1  for the open configurations (0.792), for the closed/boxed configurations (0.555),
K2  for the ungrounded or high resistance grounded systems (0), for grounded systems (0.113),
dG  the gap between conductors (mm),
E  the incident energy (cal/cm2),
Cf  the voltage factor (1.0 for Usys > 1 kV, 1.5 for Usys <= 1 kV),
t  the arc duration time (s),
D  the distance from the possible arc location to the person (mm),
x  the distance factor (check table below),
If  is the bolted fault current for threephase faults (symmetrical RMS)(kA),
Usys  the system voltage.
The arc duration time is the clearing time for the sourceside protecting device that clears the
fault first.
System voltage
(kV)
Equipment type
Distance factor, x
Open air
1040
2.0
Switchgear
32
1.473
25
1.641
Cable
13
2.0
Open air
1040
2.0
Switchgear
13  102
0.973
Cable
13
2.0
Open air
1040
2.0
Switchgear
153
0.973
Cable
13
2.0
0.208  1.0
Where:
DB  the distance of the boundary from arcing point (mm),
En  the incident energy (cal/cm2) normalized for time and distance,
Cf  the voltage factor (1.0 for Usys > 1 kV, 1.5 for Usys <= 1 kV),
t  the arc duration time (s),
EB  the incident energy in cal/cm2 at the boundary distance,
x  the distance factor (check table above),
Where:
EMA  incident energy for an arc in open air (cal/cm2),
EMB  incident energy for an arc in a box (size 50 cm or 20 inches maximum)(cal/cm 2),
DA,DB  distance from the arc,
If  is the bolted fault current for threephase faults (symmetrical RMS)(kA),
tA  the arc duration time (s).
NPFA70E2004 Application
In April 2004., the NFPA released an update to NFPA70E that adopted the IEEE Std. 15842002
methods for determining the incident energy. The standard was renamed to NFPA 70E Standard
for Employee Safety in the Workplace 2004 Edition. It is different from IEEE Std. 1584 with
regard to arc flash in that it is used to determine the appropriate PPE based on the incident
energy calculated. PPE is rated by the Arc Thermal Performance Value (ATPV) with units in
cal/cm2. The required PPE is determined by comparing the calculated incident energy to the
ratings for specific combinations of PPE. An example is given in NPFA 70E as follows in table
below:
Hazard/Risk
Category
N/A (1.2)
25
and FR coverall
40
An arc flash fault typically results in an enormous and nearly instantaneous increase in light
intensity in the vicinity of the fault. Light intensity levels often rise to several thousand times
normal ambient lighting levels. For this reason most, if not all, arc flash detecting relays rely on
optical sensor(s) to detect this rapid increase in light intensity. For security reasons, the optical
sensing logic is typically further supervised by instantaneous overcurrent elements (ANSI device
50) operating as a fault detector. Arc flash detection relays are capable of issuing a trip signal in
as little as 2.5 ms after initiation of the arcing fault. Arc flash relaying compliments existing
conventional relaying. The arc flash detection relay requires a rapid increase in light intensity to
operate and is designed with the single purpose of detecting very dangerous explosivelike
conditions resulting from an arc flash fault. It operates independently and does not need to be
coordinated with existing relaying schemes.
Responses to Arc Flash Faults
Once the arc flash fault has been detected, there are at least two design options. One option
involves directly tripping the upstream bus breaker(s). Since the arc flash detection time is so
short, overall clearing time is essentially reduced to the operating time of the upstream breaker.
A second option involves creating an intentional threephase bus fault by energizing a highspeed
grounding switch. This approach shunts the arcing energy through the highspeed grounding
switch and both faults are then cleared by conventional upstream bus protection. Because the
grounding switch typically closes faster than the upstream breaker opens, this approach will
result in lower incident energy levels than the first approach. However, it also introduces a
second threephase bolted fault on the system and it requires that a separate highspeed
grounding switch be installed and operational. Assuming there is space available for the addition
of the grounding switch, there is a significantly higher cost of implementation involved compared
to the first approach, and so may not be a practical alternative, especially for existing switchgear lineups.
Arc Flash Calculator
Also, we have provided a free arc flash calculator for android based smartphones Arc Flash
Calculator
References
1. Neal, T., Bingham, A., Doughty, R.L, Protective Clothing for Electric Arc Exposure, IEEE,
July / Aug 1997
2. IEEE Std 1584, Arc Flash Hazard Calculations, 2002
3. AS 3439.1, Lowvoltage switchgear and control gear assemblies Part 1: Typetested
and partially type tested assemblies, 2002
4. "Arc flash hazard analysis and mitigation", 2004, Christopher Inshaw, Robert A. Wilson
5. Arc advisor data
Category: Protection
Arc Fault
6 NPFA70E2004 Application
9 References
Distribution Systems", which defined incident energy based on fault duty, working distance and
clearing time for arcs in air or in an enclosure.
This work was used in the NFPA70E Standard for Electrical Safety Requirements for Employee
Workplaces, 2000 Edition, for use in developing safe work practices with regard to arc flash
hazards, but was limited to low voltage applications. It also represented the basis for further
research that resulted in the publication of the IEEE Std. 15842002, "IEEE Guide for Performing
ArcFlash Hazard Calculations".
Arc Flash Definitions
An arc fault is an electrical discharge between two or more conductors, where the insulating
atmosphere (air or gas) has been broken down by the electric field between the conductors.
Whenever there is an arc fault, the gases and vapours that make up the atmosphere between
the conductors become ionised.
The magnitude of an arc fault is highly variable. The instantaneous arc fault current may be high,
approaching the bolted short circuit current, or reasonably low, comparable to the load current.
An arc will continue until it becomes unstable and extinguishes itself or until it is interrupted by a
protection device (i.e. fuse or circuit breaker).
Figure 1. Arc fault explosion on a 480 V switchboard with 23 kA upstream fault capacity
Arc faults are characterised by extreme temperatures that can cause severe burns depending on
the distance of the operator to the arc. Neal et al [1] in Table IV determined that a 600 V, 40 kA
arc fault with a duration of 0.5 s has enough energy to cause seconddegree burns at a distance
of 77 inches (1.96 m).
Additionally, arc faults tend to melt terminals that can potentially shower the immediate vicinity
with molten metal. The extreme temperatures produced by an arc fault can also lead to fires,
causing major damage to equipment.
work. The potential causes of arc faults include contamination / pollution ingress, equipment
failure, rodents / vermin and accidental contact with tools.
Common definitions:
Incident Energy Exposure:the amount of thermal incident energy to which the worker's face
and chest could be exposed at working distance during an electrical arc event. Incident energy is
measured in joules per centimeter squared (J/cm2) or calories per centimeter squared (cal/cm2).
Flash Protection Boundary: the flash protection boundary is an approach limit at a distance
from exposed live parts or enclosed live parts if operation, manipulation, or testing of equipment
creates a potential flash hazard, within which a person could receive a second degree burn if an
electrical arc flash were to occur.
Incident Energy at Flash Protection Boundary: the arc flash protection boundary (FPB)
distance for the specific incident energy, usually provided from the manufactures for the
corresponding personal protection equipment (PPE).
Hazard Risk Category: this is the minimum level of the personal protective equipment (PPE) in
cal/cm2, as evaluated in the IEEE Standard 1584, with the intent to protect the worker from the
thermal effects of the arc flash at 45 cm or 18 inches from the source of the arc.
Grounding Type: according to the IEEE 1584 procedure two grounding classes are applied:
a) ungrounded, which included ungrounded, highresistance grounding and lowresistance
grounding, and
b) solidly grounded.
Gap between Conductors: equipment bus gap in mm. Gaps of 3 to 40 mm were used for low
voltage testing to simulate gaps between conductors in low voltage equipment and cables. Gaps
13, 104 and 152 mm. were used in 5 and 15 kV equipment testings. For cases where gap is
outside the range of the standard empirically derived model, the theoretically derived Lee
method can be applied.
Working Distance: typical working distance is the sum of the distance between the worker
standing in front of the equipment, and from the front of the equipment to the potential arc
source inside the equipment. Arcfash protection is always based on the incident energy level on
the person's face and body at the working distance, not the incident energy on the hands or
arms. The degree of injury in a burn depends on the percentage of a person's skin that is
burned. The head and body are a large percentage of total skin surface area and injury to these
areas is much more life threatening than burns on the extremities (see Fig.3).
Annex ZC6 of AS 3439.1 [3] provides guidelines for the minimisation, detection and containment
of internal arc faults in switchgear. These are summarised below:
Arrangement of busbars and functional units in separate vented compartments, for more
rapid extinguishing of the arc and to contain an arc fault in a single compartment
Use of devices sensitive to energy radiated from an arc to initiate protection and interrupt
arcing current
Use of earth current detection devices for interruption of arc faults to earth
It should be noted that uncontained arc faults can spread to other parts of the switchboard and
develop into larger faults (e.g. functional unit arc fault spreading to busbars).
Arc Flash PPE
Switchmans hood or faceshield with 0.08 inch thick polycarbonate viewing window
Annex C of IEEE Std 1584 [2] illustrates a case study (No. 42) of a 2.3 kV switching operation
that ultimately ended in an arc fault. The operator was wearing a full arc flash suit, safety
glasses and fire resistant shirt and pants. The PPE prevented any burn injuries from the arc flash.
Other case studies where the operators were not wearing appropriate PPE resulted in severe
burns or death.
Arc flash PPE is normally rated to an Arc Thermal Performance exposure Value (ATPV), which
specifies the maximum incident arc fault energy that can protect the wearer (measured in
calories per cm2).
By way of example, the results of an arc flash hazard calculation based on IEEE Std 1584 follows
to determine the appropriate ATPV rating of PPE. The prospective fault current used was 25 kA. A
fault clearing time of 0.5 s was chosen, which is suitably onerous for a worstcase incident.
The calculation concluded that to protect against injury from an arc fault of this magnitude, PPE
with an ATPV rating of over 50 cal/cm2). is required. The ATPV rating is typically quoted on
commonly available arc flash PPE.
Typical arc fault PPE is available from vendors such as Oberon.
Arc Flash Calculation according to the IEEE Std. 15842002
IEEE Std 15842002 contains calculation methods developed through testing by several sources
to determine boundary distances for unprotected personnel and the incident energy at the
working distance for qualified personnel working on energized equipment. The incident energy
level can be used to determine the proper PPE required for personnel. The equations developed
in the IEEE standard assess the arc flash hazard based on the available (bolted) fault current,
voltage, clearing time, equipment type, grounding, and working distance. The working voltage is
also used to determine other variables. The equations have other variables that account for
grounding, equipment type, and construction. This method can also determine the impact of
certain current limiting low voltage fuses as well as certain types of low voltage breakers. It is an
improvement over the previous work in that the calculations can be applied over a large range of
voltages. The many variables of this method make it the preferred choice for ArcFlash
evaluations, but at the same time requires either a complex spreadsheet or computer program to
be used efficiently.
Determining the arc current
For applications under 1 kV:
where:
Ia  the arc fault current (kA),
K  for the open configurations (0.153), for the closed/boxed configurations (0.097),
If  is the bolted fault current for threephase faults (symmetrical RMS)(kA),
Usys  the system voltage,
dG  the gap between conductors (mm).
The second arc current (I2a) is equal to 85% of the first current, or:
Now the incident energy can be calculated as follows, for the systems where the voltage does not
exceed 15 kV:
And for the location where the voltage exceeds 15 kV the Lee method is used:
Where:
En  the incident energy normalized for time and distance (cal/cm 2),
K1  for the open configurations (0.792), for the closed/boxed configurations (0.555),
K2  for the ungrounded or high resistance grounded systems (0), for grounded systems (0.113),
dG  the gap between conductors (mm),
E  the incident energy (cal/cm2),
Cf  the voltage factor (1.0 for Usys > 1 kV, 1.5 for Usys <= 1 kV),
t  the arc duration time (s),
D  the distance from the possible arc location to the person (mm),
x  the distance factor (check table below),
If  is the bolted fault current for threephase faults (symmetrical RMS)(kA),
Usys  the system voltage.
The arc duration time is the clearing time for the sourceside protecting device that clears the
fault first.
System voltage
(kV)
Equipment type
Distance factor, x
Open air
1040
2.0
Switchgear
32
1.473
25
1.641
Cable
13
2.0
Open air
1040
2.0
Switchgear
13  102
0.973
Cable
13
2.0
Open air
1040
2.0
Switchgear
153
0.973
Cable
13
2.0
0.208  1.0
Where:
DB  the distance of the boundary from arcing point (mm),
En  the incident energy (cal/cm2) normalized for time and distance,
Cf  the voltage factor (1.0 for Usys > 1 kV, 1.5 for Usys <= 1 kV),
t  the arc duration time (s),
EB  the incident energy in cal/cm2 at the boundary distance,
x  the distance factor (check table above),
Where:
EMA  incident energy for an arc in open air (cal/cm2),
EMB  incident energy for an arc in a box (size 50 cm or 20 inches maximum)(cal/cm 2),
DA,DB  distance from the arc,
If  is the bolted fault current for threephase faults (symmetrical RMS)(kA),
tA  the arc duration time (s).
NPFA70E2004 Application
In April 2004., the NFPA released an update to NFPA70E that adopted the IEEE Std. 15842002
methods for determining the incident energy. The standard was renamed to NFPA 70E Standard
for Employee Safety in the Workplace 2004 Edition. It is different from IEEE Std. 1584 with
regard to arc flash in that it is used to determine the appropriate PPE based on the incident
energy calculated. PPE is rated by the Arc Thermal Performance Value (ATPV) with units in
cal/cm2. The required PPE is determined by comparing the calculated incident energy to the
ratings for specific combinations of PPE. An example is given in NPFA 70E as follows in table
below:
Hazard/Risk
Category
N/A (1.2)
25
and FR coverall
40
An arc flash fault typically results in an enormous and nearly instantaneous increase in light
intensity in the vicinity of the fault. Light intensity levels often rise to several thousand times
normal ambient lighting levels. For this reason most, if not all, arc flash detecting relays rely on
optical sensor(s) to detect this rapid increase in light intensity. For security reasons, the optical
sensing logic is typically further supervised by instantaneous overcurrent elements (ANSI device
50) operating as a fault detector. Arc flash detection relays are capable of issuing a trip signal in
as little as 2.5 ms after initiation of the arcing fault. Arc flash relaying compliments existing
conventional relaying. The arc flash detection relay requires a rapid increase in light intensity to
operate and is designed with the single purpose of detecting very dangerous explosivelike
conditions resulting from an arc flash fault. It operates independently and does not need to be
coordinated with existing relaying schemes.
Responses to Arc Flash Faults
Once the arc flash fault has been detected, there are at least two design options. One option
involves directly tripping the upstream bus breaker(s). Since the arc flash detection time is so
short, overall clearing time is essentially reduced to the operating time of the upstream breaker.
A second option involves creating an intentional threephase bus fault by energizing a highspeed
grounding switch. This approach shunts the arcing energy through the highspeed grounding
switch and both faults are then cleared by conventional upstream bus protection. Because the
grounding switch typically closes faster than the upstream breaker opens, this approach will
result in lower incident energy levels than the first approach. However, it also introduces a
second threephase bolted fault on the system and it requires that a separate highspeed
grounding switch be installed and operational. Assuming there is space available for the addition
of the grounding switch, there is a significantly higher cost of implementation involved compared
to the first approach, and so may not be a practical alternative, especially for existing switchgear lineups.
Arc Flash Calculator
Also, we have provided a free arc flash calculator for android based smartphones Arc Flash
Calculator
References
1. Neal, T., Bingham, A., Doughty, R.L, Protective Clothing for Electric Arc Exposure, IEEE,
July / Aug 1997
2. IEEE Std 1584, Arc Flash Hazard Calculations, 2002
3. AS 3439.1, Lowvoltage switchgear and control gear assemblies Part 1: Typetested
and partially type tested assemblies, 2002
4. "Arc flash hazard analysis and mitigation", 2004, Christopher Inshaw, Robert A. Wilson
5. Arc advisor data
Category: Protection
Contents
[hide]
3 Other Ratings
o
AC component  the rms value that is a standard current selected from the R10 series of
numbers
DC time constant  the time constant that results in a percentage of the dc component of
the shortcircuit at contact separation. A standard value of 45ms covers the majority of
all cases. Special time constants can also be used depending on voltage (e.g. 120ms for
<52kV, 60ms for <420kV and 75ms for >550kV)
Ith is the joule integral and thermal equivalent shortcircuit current and is a measure of the
energy generated in the resistive element of the system by the shortcircuit current (see IEC
609090 Clause 4.8).
Categories: Switchgear  Protection
Circuit breakers
Contents
[hide]
1 Circuit breakers
6 Trivia
Circuit breakers
According to the operating mechanism of circuit breaker they can be divided as:
According to the voltage level of installation types of circuit breaker are referred as:
Circuit breaker ratings according to the IEC 62271100, IEC 622711 and IEC 609472 are
explained on this page "Circuit Breaker Ratings".
Short summary for breakers:
Plainbreak air breakers are used in low voltage and medium voltage up to 15 kV
For low and medium voltages fuses can be also used, but the main disadvantage is that
they must be replaced after fault clearing
In medium voltage systems minimum oil, SF6 and vacuum breakers are also being used
For high voltages minimum oil, SF6 and blastair breakers are used, but always with
multiple interrupters in series
The maximum voltage per interrupter is 100 kV for airblast and SF6 breakers, 170 kV for
minimum oil breakers
It may increase the arc voltage by cooling the arc plasma. As the temperature of arc
plasma is decreased, the mobility of the particle in arc plasma is reduced; hence more
voltage gradient is required to maintain the arc.
It may increase the arc voltage by lengthening the arc path. As the length of arc path is
increased, the resistance of the path is increased, and hence to maintain the same arc
current more voltage is required to be applied across the arc path. That means arc
voltage is increased.
Splitting up the arc into a number of series arcs also increases the arc voltage.
Plain break
Airbreak circuit breakers extinguish the arc by simply stretching it until the dielectric strength of
the gap is larger than the voltage across the gap. The longer arc has a larger cooling surface and
higher resistance, which decreases the current flow and the amount of heat created. To stretch
the arc, horn gap shaped contacts are used. Due to a natural convection, the arc moves
upwards. To further increase the length, the arc is stretched by forcing it into an arc chute made
of metal barriers or insulating material. The metal barriers chop the arc into many smaller arcs.
Used from 120 V up to 15 kV.
Fi
ra
breaker
breaker
Figure 4.a) 66 kV Oil Circuit Breaker Figure 4.b) Bulk oil circui
Modern arccontrolled oil breakers have an arc control device surrounding the breaker contacts
to improve extinction of arc. In cross blast interrupters, the arc is drawn in front of several lateral
vents. The gas formed by the arc causes high pressure inside the arc control device. The arc is
forced to bow into the lateral vents in the pot, which increases the length of the arc and shortens
the interruption time. The axial blast interrupters use similar principle. Oil breakers are design
for both threephase and singlephase circuit brakers.
At voltages higher than 115 kV, separate tanks for each phase are used. The practical limit for
the bulk oil breakers is 275 kV.
Minimum oil circuit brakers (MOCB)
In minimum oil breakers the oil is used only for extinguishing of the arc. The arc control devices
are the same as for the bulkoil breakers. However, unlike bulk oil circuit breakers, these designs
place the interrupting units in insulating chambers at live potential. To improve breaker
performance, oil is injected into the arc. The interrupter containers of the minimum oil breakers
are made of insulating material and are insulated from the ground. This is usually referred to as
live tank construction. For high voltages (above 132 kV), the interrupters are arranged in series.
It is essential to ensure that each interrupter carries its share of the duty. Care must be taken
that all breaks occur simultaneously, and that the restriking voltage is divided equally across the
breaks during the interrupting process. The features of designing MOCB is to reduce requirement
of oil, and hence these breaker are called minimum oil circuit breaker. These designs are
available in voltages ranging from 1 kV to 765 kV using the multibreak technique.
Figure 6.b)
circuit brea
Service life of the VCB is much longer than other types of circuit breakers. There is no chance of
fire hazard as oil circuit breaker. It is much environment friendly than SF6 circuit breaker.
Sulfurhexafluoride (SF6) circuit breakers
Gas properties
The SF6 gas is identified as a greenhouse gas, safety regulation are being introduced in many
countries in order to prevent its release into atmosphere.
Breaker properties
The principle of operation is similar to the air blast breakers, except that SF6 is not discharged in
the atmosphere. A closedcircuit, sealed construction is used.
There are mainly three types of SF6 CB depending upon the voltage level of application:
During the opening operation the gas contained inside a part of the breaker is compressed by a
moving cylinder that supports the contacts or by a piston. This forces the SF6 through the
interrupting nozzle. When the contacts separate, an arc is established. If the current is not very
high, it is extinguished at the first zero crossing by the pushing the SF6 through the arc by the
piston. If the short circuit current is high, the arc extinction may not occur at the first zero
crossing, but the gas pressure will increase sufficiently to blow the arc out. By connecting several
interrupting heads in series, SF6 breakers can be constructed for voltages of up to 765 kV.
1 Recommended Settings
o
2 References
Recommended Settings
Solidly Earthed Systems
From Alstom Network Protection and Automation Guide (2011) Section 9.16 [3]: "Typical [earth
fault relay] settings are 3040% of nominal fullload current or minimum earth fault current for
the circuit being protected." Therefore, a pickup setting of 30%  40% of In is suggested, where
In is:
Fielding [5] suggests higher sensitivity to earth faults, with pickup settings of 20% of In.
Ultimately, the decision depends on the tradeoff between high sensitivity to earth faults and the
probability of spurious and nuisance tripping.
Impedance Earthed Systems
In an impedance earthed system, earth faults are limited to a maximum value by some
impedance. An earth fault pickup setting of 10%  20% of the maximum earth fault current is
recommended, to be selected in conjunction with the following minimum pickup settings
suggested in [4] to avoid spurious tripping:
Unearthed Systems
In an unearthed system, core balance CTs are necessary to have the sensitivity to detect earth
fault currents (because earth fault currents are purely capacitive). The minmum threshold for
core balance CTs should be >1A for >0.1s as suggested by [4] to avoid spurious tripping.
References
[1] IEEE Std 242, IEEE Recommended Practice for Protection and Coordination
Industrial and Commercial Power Systems (Buff book), 2001
[2] IEEE Std 142, IEEE Recommended Practice for Grounding of Industrial and
Commercial Power systems (Green book), 2007
[3] Alstom Grid, Network Protection and Automation Guide, May 2011
[4] Preve, C., Protection of Electrical Networks, 2006, ISTE Ltd, London
[5] Fielding, G., Protection of MV Industrial Networks, 1997, IEE Colloquium, London
Category: Protection
Electrical Fuse
Contents
[hide]
2 General information
3 Construction
4 Characteristic parameters
o
5 Markings
6 Fuse standards
7 Fuse Types
o
8 Trivia
Construction
Dimensions
Fuses can be built with different sized enclosures to prevent interchange of different ratings or
types of fuse. For example, bottle style fuses distinguish between ratings with different cap
diameters. Automotive glass fuses were made in different lengths, to prevent highrated fuses
being installed in a circuit intended for a lower rating.
Special features
Glass cartridge and plug fuses allow direct inspection of the fusible element. Other fuses have
other indication methods including:
Indicating pin or striker pin extends out of the fuse cap when the element is blown.
Indicating disc a coloured disc (flush mounted in the end cap of the fuse) falls out
when the element is blown.
Element window a small window built into the fuse body to provide visual indication of
a blown element.
External trip indicator similar function to striker pin, but can be externally attached
(using clips) to a compatible fuse.
Some fuses allow a special purpose micro switch or relay unit to be fixed to the fuse body. When
the fuse element blows, the indicating pin extends to activate the micro switch or relay, which, in
turn, triggers an event.
Some fuses for mediumvoltage applications use two separate barrels and two fuse elements in
parallel.
Characteristic parameters
Rated current IN
A maximum current that the fuse can continuously conduct without interrupting the circuit.
The speed at which a fuse blows depends on how much current flows through it and the material
of which the fuse is made. The operating time is not a fixed interval, but decreases as the
current increases. Fuses have different characteristics of operating time compared to current,
characterized as fastblow, slowblow, or timedelay, according to time required to respond to an
overcurrent condition. A standard fuse may require twice its rated current to open in one second,
a fastblow fuse may require twice its rated current to blow in 0.1 seconds, and a slowblow fuse
may require twice its rated current for tens of seconds to blow.
Fuse selection depends on the load's characteristics. Semiconductor devices may use a fast or
ultrafast fuse as semiconductor devices heat rapidly when excess current flows. The fastest
blowing fuses are designed for the most sensitive electrical equipment, where even a short
exposure to an overload current could be very damaging. Normal fastblow fuses are the most
general purpose fuses. The time delay fuse (also known as antisurge, or slowblow) are
designed to allow a current which is above the rated value of the fuse to flow for a short period
of time without the fuse blowing. These types of fuse are used on equipment such as motors,
which can draw larger than normal currents for up to several seconds while coming up to speed.
TimeCurrent Characteristics Of Fuses
TimeCurrent characteristic
A 100 ampere fuse does not open instantly at 101 amperes, nor even at 200 amperes. The fuse
opening time is dependent on the type of fuse and magnitude of the overcurrent. In fact, this
delay may be desirable. An overload current condition may only be temporary in nature, and the
current may subside to normal current conditions in short order. For example, a typical harmless
current overload is encountered whenever most motors are started. The builtin fuse time delay
permits the motor to start without unnecessarily blowing fuses.
Two broad fuse characteristic types are (1) dualelement, timedelay fuses and (2) nontime
delay fuses. Each type has attributes suitable for specific applications. The dualelement, timedelay fuses are widely used in general purpose applications, motor circuits, transformers, and
other circuits. The nontime delay currentlimiting fuses are used where fast response with little
or no overload delay is desired. A typical application of these is for protecting circuit breakers for
possible large shortcircuit current levels.
The graph shows the difference between the melting curves of a typical 100 ampere dualelement time delay fuse and a nontime delay fuse. If we look at a comparison at 500 amperes,
the dualelement fuse melts in about 10 seconds and the nontime delay fuse melts in .2
seconds. This is a time ratio of 50 to one. At a current of 200 amperes (twice the nominal rating)
the time ratio is about 9 to one.
The I2t value
The amount of energy spent by the fuse element to clear the electrical fault. This term is
normally used in short circuit conditions and the values are used to perform coordination studies
in electrical networks. I2t parameters are provided by charts in manufacturer data sheets for
each fuse family. For coordination of fuse operation with upstream or downstream devices, both
melting I2t and clearing I2t are specified. The melting I2t, is proportional to the amount of energy
required to begin melting the fuse element. The clearing I2t is proportional to the total energy let
through by the fuse when clearing a fault. The energy is mainly dependent on current and time
for fuses as well as the available fault level and system voltage. Since the I 2t rating of the fuse is
proportional to the energy it lets through, it is a measure of the thermal damage and magnetic
forces that will be produced by a fault.
General formulation should be: I2t value of surge current < I2t value of fuse <
Maximum allowable fault current I2t
Breaking capacity
The breaking capacity is the maximum current that can safely be interrupted by the fuse.
Generally, this should be higher than the prospective short circuit current. Miniature fuses may
have an interrupting rating only 10 times their rated current. Some fuses are designated High
Rupture Capacity (HRC) and are usually filled with sand or a similar material. Fuses for small,
lowvoltage, usually residential, wiring systems are commonly rated, in North American practice,
to interrupt 10,000 amperes. Fuses for larger power systems must have higher interrupting
ratings, with some lowvoltage currentlimiting high interrupting fuses rated for 300,000
amperes. Fuses for highvoltage equipment, up to 115,000 volts, are rated by the total apparent
power (megavoltamperes, MVA) of the fault level on the circuit.
Rated voltage
Voltage rating of the fuse must be greater than or equal to what would become the open circuit
voltage. For example, a glass tube fuse rated at 32 volts would not reliably interrupt current from
a voltage source of 120 or 230 V. If a 32 V fuse attempts to interrupt the 120 or 230 V source,
an arc may result. Plasma inside that glass tube fuse may continue to conduct current until
current eventually so diminishes that plasma reverts to an insulating gas. Rated voltage should
be larger than the maximum voltage source it would have to disconnect. Rated voltage remains
same for any one fuse, even when similar fuses are connected in series. Connecting fuses in
series does not increase the rated voltage of the combination (nor of any one fuse).
Mediumvoltage fuses rated for a few thousand volts are never used on low voltage circuits,
because of their cost and because they cannot properly clear the circuit when operating at very
low voltages.
Voltage drop
A voltage drop across the fuse is usually provided by its manufacturer. Resistance may change
when a fuse becomes hot due to energy dissipation while conducting higher currents. This
resulting voltage drop should be taken into account, particularly when using a fuse in lowvoltage
applications. Voltage drop often is not significant in more traditional wire type fuses, but can be
significant in other technologies such as resettable fuse (PPTC) type fuses.
Temperature derating
Ambient temperature will change a fuse's operational parameters. A fuse rated for 1 A at 25 C
may conduct up to 10% or 20% more current at 40 C and may open at 80% of its rated value
at 100 C. Operating values will vary with each fuse family and are provided in manufacturer
data sheets.
Manufacturing/part number/series.
Breaking capacity.
Fuse standards
IEC 60269 fuses
The International Electrotechnical Commission publishes standard 60269 for lowvoltage power
fuses. The standard is in four volumes, which describe general requirements, fuses for industrial
and commercial applications, fuses for residential applications, and fuses to protect
semiconductor devices. The IEC standard unifies several national standards, thereby improving
the interchangeability of fuses in international trade. All fuses of different technologies tested to
meet IEC standards will have similar timecurrent characteristics, which simplifies design and
maintenance.
UL 248 fuses (North America)
In the United States and Canada, lowvoltage fuses to 1 kV AC rating are made in accordance
with Underwriters Laboratories standard UL 248 or the harmonized Canadian Standards
Association standard C22.2 No. 248. This standard applies to fuses rated 1 kV or less, AC or DC,
and with breaking capacity up to 200 kA. These fuses are intended for installations following
Canadian Electrical Code, Part I (CEC), or the National Electrical Code, NFPA 70 (NEC).
IEC and UL nomenclature varies slightly. IEC standards refer to a "fuse" as the assembly of a
fuse link and fuse holder. In North American standards, the fuse is the replaceable portion of the
assembly, and a fuse link would be a bare metal element for installation in a fuse.
Fuse Types
Low voltage fuses
In this category all fuses up to 1.5 kV can be included. But the most typical voltage levels for low
voltage fuses are 500 V, 690 V and 750 V.
LV HRC fuses are used for installation systems in nonresidential, commercial and industrial
buildings, as well as in the switchboards of power supply companies. They therefore protect
essential building parts and installations. LV HRC fuse links are available in the following
operational classes:
gS operational class combines cable and line protection with semiconductor protection.
fuses
High voltage fuses
All fuses used on power systems from 1.5 kV up to 138 kV are categorized as high voltage fuses.
High voltage fuses are used to protect instrument transformers used for electricity metering, or
for small power transformers where the expense of a circuit breaker is not warranted. For
example, in distribution systems, a power fuse may be used to protect a transformer serving 13
houses. A circuit breaker at 115 kV may cost up to five times as much as a set of power fuses,
so the resulting saving can be tens of thousands of dollars. Polemounted distribution
transformers are nearly always protected by a fusible cutout, which can have the fuse element
replaced using liveline maintenance tools.
Large power fuses use fusible elements made of silver, copper or tin to provide stable and
predictable performance. High voltage expulsion fuses surround the fusible link with gasevolving
substances, such as boric acid. When the fuse blows, heat from the arc causes the boric acid to
evolve large volumes of gases. The associated high pressure (often greater than 100
atmospheres) and cooling gases rapidly quench the resulting arc. The hot gases are then
explosively expelled out of the end(s) of the fuse. Such fuses can only be used outdoors.
Various high voltage fuses
High voltage high power fuses are standalone protective switching devices used to 138 kV. They
are used in power supply networks and for distribution uses. The most frequent application is in
transformer circuits, with further uses in motor circuits and capacitor banks. These type of fuses
may have an impact pin to operate a switch mechanism, so that all three phases are interrupted
if any one fuse blows.
Highpower fuse means that these fuses can interrupt several kiloamperes. Some manufacturers
have tested their fuses for up to 63 kA cutoff current.
Resettable fuses
Socalled selfresetting fuses use a thermoplastic conductive element known as a Polymeric
Positive Temperature Coefficient (or PPTC) thermistor that impedes the circuit during an
overcurrent condition (by increasing device resistance). The PPTC thermistor is selfresetting in
that when current is removed, the device will cool and revert back to low resistance. These
devices are often used in aerospace/nuclear applications where replacement is difficult, or on a
computer motherboard so that a shorted mouse or keyboard does not cause motherboard
damage.
2 General information
3 Construction
4 Characteristic parameters
o
5 Markings
6 Fuse standards
7 Fuse Types
8 Trivia
Construction
Dimensions
Fuses can be built with different sized enclosures to prevent interchange of different ratings or
types of fuse. For example, bottle style fuses distinguish between ratings with different cap
diameters. Automotive glass fuses were made in different lengths, to prevent highrated fuses
being installed in a circuit intended for a lower rating.
Special features
Glass cartridge and plug fuses allow direct inspection of the fusible element. Other fuses have
other indication methods including:
Indicating pin or striker pin extends out of the fuse cap when the element is blown.
Indicating disc a coloured disc (flush mounted in the end cap of the fuse) falls out
when the element is blown.
Element window a small window built into the fuse body to provide visual indication of
a blown element.
External trip indicator similar function to striker pin, but can be externally attached
(using clips) to a compatible fuse.
Some fuses allow a special purpose micro switch or relay unit to be fixed to the fuse body. When
the fuse element blows, the indicating pin extends to activate the micro switch or relay, which, in
turn, triggers an event.
Some fuses for mediumvoltage applications use two separate barrels and two fuse elements in
parallel.
Characteristic parameters
Rated current IN
A maximum current that the fuse can continuously conduct without interrupting the circuit.
The speed at which a fuse blows depends on how much current flows through it and the material
of which the fuse is made. The operating time is not a fixed interval, but decreases as the
current increases. Fuses have different characteristics of operating time compared to current,
characterized as fastblow, slowblow, or timedelay, according to time required to respond to an
overcurrent condition. A standard fuse may require twice its rated current to open in one second,
a fastblow fuse may require twice its rated current to blow in 0.1 seconds, and a slowblow fuse
may require twice its rated current for tens of seconds to blow.
Fuse selection depends on the load's characteristics. Semiconductor devices may use a fast or
ultrafast fuse as semiconductor devices heat rapidly when excess current flows. The fastest
blowing fuses are designed for the most sensitive electrical equipment, where even a short
exposure to an overload current could be very damaging. Normal fastblow fuses are the most
general purpose fuses. The time delay fuse (also known as antisurge, or slowblow) are
designed to allow a current which is above the rated value of the fuse to flow for a short period
of time without the fuse blowing. These types of fuse are used on equipment such as motors,
which can draw larger than normal currents for up to several seconds while coming up to speed.
TimeCurrent Characteristics Of Fuses
TimeCurrent characteristic
A 100 ampere fuse does not open instantly at 101 amperes, nor even at 200 amperes. The fuse
opening time is dependent on the type of fuse and magnitude of the overcurrent. In fact, this
delay may be desirable. An overload current condition may only be temporary in nature, and the
current may subside to normal current conditions in short order. For example, a typical harmless
current overload is encountered whenever most motors are started. The builtin fuse time delay
permits the motor to start without unnecessarily blowing fuses.
Two broad fuse characteristic types are (1) dualelement, timedelay fuses and (2) nontime
delay fuses. Each type has attributes suitable for specific applications. The dualelement, timedelay fuses are widely used in general purpose applications, motor circuits, transformers, and
other circuits. The nontime delay currentlimiting fuses are used where fast response with little
or no overload delay is desired. A typical application of these is for protecting circuit breakers for
possible large shortcircuit current levels.
The graph shows the difference between the melting curves of a typical 100 ampere dualelement time delay fuse and a nontime delay fuse. If we look at a comparison at 500 amperes,
the dualelement fuse melts in about 10 seconds and the nontime delay fuse melts in .2
seconds. This is a time ratio of 50 to one. At a current of 200 amperes (twice the nominal rating)
the time ratio is about 9 to one.
The I2t value
The amount of energy spent by the fuse element to clear the electrical fault. This term is
normally used in short circuit conditions and the values are used to perform coordination studies
in electrical networks. I2t parameters are provided by charts in manufacturer data sheets for
each fuse family. For coordination of fuse operation with upstream or downstream devices, both
melting I2t and clearing I2t are specified. The melting I2t, is proportional to the amount of energy
required to begin melting the fuse element. The clearing I2t is proportional to the total energy let
through by the fuse when clearing a fault. The energy is mainly dependent on current and time
for fuses as well as the available fault level and system voltage. Since the I 2t rating of the fuse is
proportional to the energy it lets through, it is a measure of the thermal damage and magnetic
forces that will be produced by a fault.
General formulation should be: I2t value of surge current < I2t value of fuse <
Maximum allowable fault current I2t
Breaking capacity
The breaking capacity is the maximum current that can safely be interrupted by the fuse.
Generally, this should be higher than the prospective short circuit current. Miniature fuses may
have an interrupting rating only 10 times their rated current. Some fuses are designated High
Rupture Capacity (HRC) and are usually filled with sand or a similar material. Fuses for small,
lowvoltage, usually residential, wiring systems are commonly rated, in North American practice,
to interrupt 10,000 amperes. Fuses for larger power systems must have higher interrupting
ratings, with some lowvoltage currentlimiting high interrupting fuses rated for 300,000
amperes. Fuses for highvoltage equipment, up to 115,000 volts, are rated by the total apparent
power (megavoltamperes, MVA) of the fault level on the circuit.
Rated voltage
Voltage rating of the fuse must be greater than or equal to what would become the open circuit
voltage. For example, a glass tube fuse rated at 32 volts would not reliably interrupt current from
a voltage source of 120 or 230 V. If a 32 V fuse attempts to interrupt the 120 or 230 V source,
an arc may result. Plasma inside that glass tube fuse may continue to conduct current until
current eventually so diminishes that plasma reverts to an insulating gas. Rated voltage should
be larger than the maximum voltage source it would have to disconnect. Rated voltage remains
same for any one fuse, even when similar fuses are connected in series. Connecting fuses in
series does not increase the rated voltage of the combination (nor of any one fuse).
Mediumvoltage fuses rated for a few thousand volts are never used on low voltage circuits,
because of their cost and because they cannot properly clear the circuit when operating at very
low voltages.
Voltage drop
A voltage drop across the fuse is usually provided by its manufacturer. Resistance may change
when a fuse becomes hot due to energy dissipation while conducting higher currents. This
resulting voltage drop should be taken into account, particularly when using a fuse in lowvoltage
applications. Voltage drop often is not significant in more traditional wire type fuses, but can be
significant in other technologies such as resettable fuse (PPTC) type fuses.
Temperature derating
Ambient temperature will change a fuse's operational parameters. A fuse rated for 1 A at 25 C
may conduct up to 10% or 20% more current at 40 C and may open at 80% of its rated value
at 100 C. Operating values will vary with each fuse family and are provided in manufacturer
data sheets.
Manufacturing/part number/series.
Breaking capacity.
Fuse standards
IEC 60269 fuses
The International Electrotechnical Commission publishes standard 60269 for lowvoltage power
fuses. The standard is in four volumes, which describe general requirements, fuses for industrial
and commercial applications, fuses for residential applications, and fuses to protect
semiconductor devices. The IEC standard unifies several national standards, thereby improving
the interchangeability of fuses in international trade. All fuses of different technologies tested to
meet IEC standards will have similar timecurrent characteristics, which simplifies design and
maintenance.
UL 248 fuses (North America)
In the United States and Canada, lowvoltage fuses to 1 kV AC rating are made in accordance
with Underwriters Laboratories standard UL 248 or the harmonized Canadian Standards
Association standard C22.2 No. 248. This standard applies to fuses rated 1 kV or less, AC or DC,
and with breaking capacity up to 200 kA. These fuses are intended for installations following
Canadian Electrical Code, Part I (CEC), or the National Electrical Code, NFPA 70 (NEC).
IEC and UL nomenclature varies slightly. IEC standards refer to a "fuse" as the assembly of a
fuse link and fuse holder. In North American standards, the fuse is the replaceable portion of the
assembly, and a fuse link would be a bare metal element for installation in a fuse.
Fuse Types
Low voltage fuses
In this category all fuses up to 1.5 kV can be included. But the most typical voltage levels for low
voltage fuses are 500 V, 690 V and 750 V.
LV HRC fuses are used for installation systems in nonresidential, commercial and industrial
buildings, as well as in the switchboards of power supply companies. They therefore protect
essential building parts and installations. LV HRC fuse links are available in the following
operational classes:
gS operational class combines cable and line protection with semiconductor protection.
fuses
High voltage fuses
All fuses used on power systems from 1.5 kV up to 138 kV are categorized as high voltage fuses.
High voltage fuses are used to protect instrument transformers used for electricity metering, or
for small power transformers where the expense of a circuit breaker is not warranted. For
example, in distribution systems, a power fuse may be used to protect a transformer serving 13
houses. A circuit breaker at 115 kV may cost up to five times as much as a set of power fuses,
so the resulting saving can be tens of thousands of dollars. Polemounted distribution
transformers are nearly always protected by a fusible cutout, which can have the fuse element
replaced using liveline maintenance tools.
Large power fuses use fusible elements made of silver, copper or tin to provide stable and
predictable performance. High voltage expulsion fuses surround the fusible link with gasevolving
substances, such as boric acid. When the fuse blows, heat from the arc causes the boric acid to
evolve large volumes of gases. The associated high pressure (often greater than 100
atmospheres) and cooling gases rapidly quench the resulting arc. The hot gases are then
explosively expelled out of the end(s) of the fuse. Such fuses can only be used outdoors.
Various high voltage fuses
High voltage high power fuses are standalone protective switching devices used to 138 kV. They
are used in power supply networks and for distribution uses. The most frequent application is in
transformer circuits, with further uses in motor circuits and capacitor banks. These type of fuses
may have an impact pin to operate a switch mechanism, so that all three phases are interrupted
if any one fuse blows.
Highpower fuse means that these fuses can interrupt several kiloamperes. Some manufacturers
have tested their fuses for up to 63 kA cutoff current.
Resettable fuses
Socalled selfresetting fuses use a thermoplastic conductive element known as a Polymeric
Positive Temperature Coefficient (or PPTC) thermistor that impedes the circuit during an
overcurrent condition (by increasing device resistance). The PPTC thermistor is selfresetting in
that when current is removed, the device will cool and revert back to low resistance. These
devices are often used in aerospace/nuclear applications where replacement is difficult, or on a
computer motherboard so that a shorted mouse or keyboard does not cause motherboard
damage.
1 Introduction
2 Application
3 Parameter Settings
3.2 di/dt
4 References
Introduction
IS limiters are fault current limiting devices that use chemical charges and currentlimiting fuses
to interrupt the fault current within the first quarter to half cycle (i.e. before the first peak).
In a typical IS limiter design, the device is composed of two current paths connected together in
parallel one path is an element rated for the full load current (which can have high continuous
current ratings, e.g. 3000A), and the other path provides the current limiting function via a
currentlimiting fuse (which typically has a continuous current rating of <300A at 15kV).
In the event of a fault, the device operates by physically destroying the continuous current path
using one or more chemical charges triggered by an electronic sensing and control unit. The fault
current is thus forced through the currentlimiting fuse.
be limited on a busbar with higher continuous load currents. This is where IS limiters or other
types of fault current limiting devices need to be used.
IS limiters are often installed at busties / couplers to limit the fault contribution from one or
more bus sections. This can allow the interconnection of systems that would normally have
prospective short circuit currents exceeding fault ratings. IS limiters can also be installed at bus
incomers to limit the upstream fault contribution.
Parameter Settings
IS limiters typically operate using a combination of two parameters:
Trigger level
di/dt
Trigger Level
The trigger level is the current magnitude at which the fault current limiter will initiate the
transfer to the current limiting path (i.e. by activating the chemical charge). The trigger level is
typically defined as the "the maximum shortcircuit contribution permitted by a major power
source, so that the total overall fault current superimposed from all shortcircuit contributions will
not exceed the momentary and interrupting ratings of the switchgear" [2].
The trigger level is set using trial and error, typically based on an initial trial value of the
difference between the switchgear instantaneous rating and the peak instantaneous fault current.
When selecting the trigger level, other considerations such as transformer inrush currents,
overcurrent protection coordination and breaker operating margins should also be examined.
di/dt
The di/dt parameter is a value describing the minimum fault current rate of change (in kA/s) at
which the transfer will be initiated. This is used to avoid nuisance tripping for asymmetrical faults
that may have high peak values (above the trigger level), but rms values within the ratings of
the switchgear. The transfer to the current limiting path will only be initiated if the fault current
exceeds both the trigger level and di/dt limit.
The di/dt limit can be approximated as follows [2]:
Where
Overcurrent Protection
Contents
[hide]
1 Recommended Settings
o
2 References
Recommended Settings
Transformer Protection
Normally the transformers are protected by overcurrent protection devices at the primary (HV)
and secondary (LV) winding.
The primary winding overcurrent protection is typically set with three steps:
The first step (I>) is adjusted to between 1.0 and 1.3 times the nominal current of the
transformer with an inverse curve. A pickup of >1.25 times the nominal current is
suggested by [6].
The second step (I>>) operates as backup protection for short circuits at the secondary
side of the transformer and is adjusted to 80% 90% of the minimum possible short
circuit at the low voltage terminal. This step is usually a definite time curve and is time
selective with the protection at the secondary side.
The third step (I>>>) operates in instantaneous time and is adjusted to 110%  120% of
the maximum possible short circuit at the secondary side of the transformer. If the relay
has only two steps, the second step will be adjusted according to I>>>.
The secondary winding overcurrent protection is typically set with two steps:
The first step (I>) is adjusted to between 1.0 and 1.3 times the nominal current of the
transformer if possible with an IDMT extremely inverse curve. A pickup of >1.25 times
the nominal current is suggested by [6].
The second step (I>>) is used for short circuit protection and it is usually a definite time
curve. The current setting of I>> is at maximum 8090% of the minimum possible short
circuit current and it has to be time selective with the downstream protection devices.
Protection devices should also consider transformer inrush currents. Overcurrent relays should
not trip during energisation and inrush. An assumption of 20 times the nominal full load current
for 10ms can be used to approximate inrush currents when no other data is available.
Motor Protection
Thermal overload [49]: The current setting has been adjusted where possible between 1.0
and 1.1 times the motor nominal current. The nominal current of the motor has been taken from
the load lists supplied by Petrobel staff. The time setting has been selected in order that the
protection curve lay over the starting current at the maximum starting time of the motor but
lower than the maximum permissible operation limit under warm condition.
Short circuit and locked rotor protection [51, 51LR]: The setting for locked rotor protection
has been selected between 1.0 and 1.1 times the motor starting current. The short circuit
protection has been adjusted at maximum 8090% of the minimum short circuit current at motor
terminals but at least 1.5 times the starting current of the motor. The short circuit protection of
almost all motors is done by fuses. Nevertheless in this study the setting for the short circuit
protection has been calculated for all relays with this protection function available. For all motors
where the contactor is not able to disconnect short circuit currents the undelayable short circuit
protection has to be put out of service. The size of the recommended fuse has been selected in
order that the nominal current of the fuse is higher than 130% of the nominal current of the
motor and that the fuse curve is higher than 120% of the starting current of the motor.
Branch / Feeder Protection
Branches and feeders can be set with overcurrent protection devices of two steps. The first step
will be usually adjusted to 120% of the nominal current of the branch. The second step has to be
current and time selective with the downstream protection devices.
Generator Protection
The setting for the overload protection is suggested to be between 100% and 120% of the
nominal current of the generators. The short circuit protection may be selected to 80% of the
current contribution of each generator to the minimum short circuit current.
References
[1] IEEE Std 242, IEEE Recommended Practice for Protection and Coordination
Industrial and Commercial Power Systems (Buff book), 2001
[2] IEEE Std 142, IEEE Recommended Practice for Grounding of Industrial and
Commercial Power systems (Green book), 2007
[3] Alstom Grid, Network Protection and Automation Guide, May 2011
[4] Preve, C., Protection of Electrical Networks, 2006, ISTE Ltd, London
[5] Fielding, G., Protection of MV Industrial Networks, 1997, IEE Colloquium, London
[6] Gers, J. M., and Holmes, E. J., Protection of Electricity Distribution Networks, 2nd
Edition, Institution of Electrical Engineers, London, 2004
Category: Protection
Protection Devices
12 Overspeed Device
14 Underspeed Device
21 Distance Relay
27 Undervoltage Relay
59 Overvoltage Relay
76 DC Overcurrent Relay
79 AC Reclosing Relay
81 Frequency Relay
82 DC Reclosing Relay
86 Lockout Relay
For the entire list of ANSI device numbers, refer to this Wikipedia page.
Relays
Contents
[hide]
1 Introduction
o
1.6 Trivia
Introduction
The relays is the element that senses an abnormal condition in the circuit and commands the
operation of the breaker. They can be classified in a number of ways:
According to the quantity sensed: current, voltage, active power, reactive power,
impedance relays
According to the tripping: instantaneous trip, delayed trip, inverse timecurrent response
1. Electromechanical relays
2. Digital relays
Currently, electromechanical relay in all its forms is being replaced by static, digital and
numerical relays, each change bringing with it reductions and size and improvements in
functionality.
In most types (except digital relays) the relays contacts are closed by a moving part which
senses a force proportional to the current (or other sensed quantity) in the circuit. A restraining
force produced by a spring or other means sets the threshold above which the relay operates.
In a protection relay, the term "static" refers to the absence of moving parts to create the relay
characteristic. Compared to static relays, digital relays introduced A/D conversion of all measured
analogue quantities and use a microprocessor to implement protection algorithm. The distinction
between digital and numerical relays rests on points of fine technical detail, and is rearly found in
areas other than protection. They can be viewed as natural developments of digital relays as a
result of advances in technology.
Instantaneous overcurrent
relay
Instantaneous overcurrent
protection
definite time
moderately inverse
inverse
very inverse
extremely inverse
Simple MCB
Crosssection of the
thermalmagnetic
circuit breaker
Thermalmagnetic circuit
Typical magnetic
circuit breaker
Number description:
1. Actuator lever  used to manually trip and reset the circuit breaker. Also indicates the status of
the circuit breaker (On/Off/tripped).
2. Actuator mechanism  forces the contacts together or apart.
3. Contacts  Allow current to flow when touching and break the flow of current when moved
apart.
4. Terminals
5. Bimetallic strip
6. Calibration screw  allows to adjust the trip current of the device after assembly.
7. Solenoid
8. Arc divider / extinguisher
Differential (unit) protection
Differential protection is a very reliable method of protecting generators, transformers, buses,
and transmission lines from the effects of internal faults. In normal operating conditions, the
current through the CTs is the same so the relay sees no differential current. This is also the case
for external faults. Differential protection can be used for protecting generators from faults to
ground. Differential protection of busbars in substations uses one CT for each incoming line. All
incoming currents are added up and compared to the sum of all outgoing currents.
Microproce
General schematics of the differential relay
Differential (unit) protection for transformers
In applying the principles of differential protection to transformers, a variety of considerations
have to be taken into account. These include:
a) correction for possible phase shift across the transformer windings (phase correction)
b) the effects of the variety of earthing and winding arrangements (filtering of zero sequence
currents)
c) correction for possible unbalance of signals from current transformers on either side of the
windings (ratio correction)
d) the effect of magnetising inrush during initial energisation
e) the possible occurrence of overfluxing
The primary and secondary currents have different magnitudes and phases, so the magnitude
and the phase shift must be balanced by appropriate ratio of the CTs. If the transformer is Y,
the currents also have 30 phase shift. The phase shift is corrected by connecting the CTs on the
side in Y, and on the Y side in .
relay
As the power systems become more complex and the fault current varies with changes in
generation and system configuration, directional overcurrent relays become difficult to apply and
to set for all contingencies, whereas the distance relay setting is constant for a wide variety of
changes external to the protected line.
Following topics give the main overview over the different distance relay types:
Impedance relays
Impedance relays are used whenever overcurrent relays do not provide adequate protection.
They function even if the short circuit current is relatively low. The speed of operation is
independent of current magnitude.
The relay consists of a balanced beam. At each end of the balanced beam is a coil that exerts a
force on the beam at that end. One coil is connected to a current transformer, the other coil to a
potential transformer. Under normal conditions, the contact of the relay is kept open. During a
fault, the voltage drops, and the current rises. The torque due to the current coil overpowers the
torque due to the voltage coil, and the relay closes its contact.
The impedance relay has a circular characteristic centered at the origin of the RX diagram. It is
nondirectional and is used primarily as a fault detector.
Admittance relays
The admittance relay is the most commonly used distance relay. It is the tripping relay in pilot
schemes and as the backup relay in step distance schemes. Its characteristic passes through the
origin of the RX diagram and is therefore directional. In the electromechanical design it is
circular, and in the solid state design, it can be shaped to correspond to the transmission line
impedance.
Reactance relays
The reactance relay is a straightline characteristic that responds only to the reactance (X L) of
the protected line. It is nondirectional and is used to supplement the admittance relay as a
tripping relay to make the overall protection independent of resistance. It is particularly useful on
short lines where the fault arc resistance is the same order of magnitude as the line length.
Trivia
MCB short overview:
Category: Protection
Zones of protection
To limit the extent of the power system that is disconnected when a fault occurs, protection is
arranged in zones. Ideally, the zones of protection should overlap, so that no part of the power
system is left unprotected.
For practical physical and economic reasons, this ideal is not always achieved, accommodation
for current transformers being in some cases available only on one side of the circuit breakers.
This leaves a section between the current transformers and the circuit breaker A that is not
completely protected against faults. In Figure 2 b) a fault at F would cause the busbar protection
to operate and open the circuit breaker but the fault may continue to be fed through the feeder.
The feeder protection, if of the unit type, would not operate, since the fault is outside its zone.
This problem is dealt with by intertripping or some form of zone extension, to ensure that the
remote end of the feeder is tripped also. The point of connection of the protection with the power
system usually defines the zone and corresponds to the location of the current transformers. Unit
type protection will result in the boundary being a clearly defined closed loop. Figure 3 illustrates
a typical arrangement of overlapping zones.
Alternatively, the zone may be unrestricted; the start will be defined but the extent (or reach)
will depend on measurement of the system quantities and will therefore be subject to variation,
owing to changes in system conditions and measurement errors.
Figure 2 CT locations
Figure 1 Division of power
system into protection zones
Selectivity
When a fault occurs, the protection scheme is required to trip only those circuit breakers whose
operation is required to isolate the fault. This property of selective tripping is also called
'discrimination' and is achieved by two general methods:
1. Time Grading
Protection systems in successive zones are arranged to operate in times that are graded through
the sequence of equipments so that upon the occurrence of a fault, although a number of
protection equipments respond, only those relevant to the faulty zone complete the tripping
function. The others make incomplete operations and then reset. The speed of response will
often depend on the severity of the fault, and will generally be slower than for a unit system.
2. Unit Systems
It is possible to design protection systems that respond only to fault conditions occurring within a
clearly defined zone. This type of protection system is known as 'unit protection'. Certain types of
unit protection are known by specific names, e.g. restricted earth fault and differential
protection. Unit protection can be applied throughout a power system and, since it does not
involve time grading, is relatively fast in operation. The speed of response is substantially
independent of fault severity. Unit protection usually involves comparison of quantities at the
boundaries of the protected zone as defined by the locations of the current transformers. This
comparison may be achieved by direct hardwired connections or may be achieved via a
communications link. However certain protection systems derive their 'restricted' property from
the configuration of the power system and may be classed as unit protection, e.g. earth fault
protection applied to the high voltage delta winding of a power transformer. Whichever method is
used, it must be kept in mind that selectivity is not merely a matter of relay design. It also
depends on the correct coordination of current transformers and relays with a suitable choice of
relay settings, taking into account the possible range of such variables as fault currents,
maximum load current, system impedances and other related factors, where appropriate.
Category: Protection
Contact Resistance Test
The contact resistance test (commonly known as the Ductor test) measures the resistance of
electrical connections such as joints, terminations, connectors, etc. These can be connections
between any two conductors, for instance busbar sections or cable connections. The test
measures the resistance at the micro or milliohm level and is used primarily to verify that
electrical connections are made properly, and can detect the following problems:
Loose connections
This is particularly important for contacts that carry large amounts of current (e.g. switchgear
busbars) as higher contact resistance leads to higher losses and lower current carrying capacity.
Test Equipment
Contact resistance tests are normally performed using a micro/milliohmmeter or low resistance
ohmmeter. "Ductor" was the name originally given to the low resistance ohmmeter manufactured
by the Megger company, which became an industry standard.
Test Criteria
The criteria for evaluating the contact resistance of electrical connections largely depends on the
type of connection (e.g. bolted, soldered, clamped, welded, etc), the metallic contact surface
area, the contact pressure, etc. These will differ by equipment and manufacturer and there is no
ASTM B53902 (R2008), "Standard Test Method for Measuring Resistance of Electrical
Connections (Static Contacts)"
1 Introduction
2 Types of Tests
4 Standards
Introduction
Types of Tests
Electrical tests for assessing insulation systems:
Other tests:
Transformer impedance (shortcircuit) tests  shortcircuit tests for positive and zero
sequence impedance of transformers
Standards
ANSI/NETA ATS, "Standard for Acceptance Testing Specifications for Electrical Power
Equipment and Systems", 2009
1 Introduction
2 Interpretation of Results
3 Types of Faults
4 References
Introduction
Dissolved Gas Analysis (DGA) is a test used to assess paperoil insulation systems, and the
most commonly used technique for oilinsulated power transformers. Over time (and due to
electrical stresses and thermal decomposition), the cellulose paper and insulating (mineral) oil in
paperoil insulation systems break down and forms gases which are dissolved in the oil. In DGA
testing, a sample of oil is collected and analysed for the types, volumes, concentrations and
formation rates of dissolved gases. This can provide important information on the condition of
the insulation system, as well as the nature of the electrical disturbances that the system has
been subjected to.
Gas decomposition typically involves chemical reactions that break up the carbon and hydrogen
bonds of the hydrocarbon chains in both the cellulose and oil. The following gases are most
commonly formed and are considered the most significant in the context of DGA testing:
From insulating oil: hydrogen (H2), methane (CH4), acetylene (C2H2), ethylene (C2H4) and
ethane (C2H6)
From cellulose: hydrogen (H2), methane (CH4, carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide
(CO2)
Interpretation of Results
ANSI/IEEE Std C57.104 [1] provides guidance on concentration limits of the key gases:
Interpretati
on
Carbo
Hydroge
Methan
Acetylen
n (H2)
e (CH4)
e (C2H2)
Ethylen
Ethan
Carbon
monoxid
dioxid
(C2H4)
(C2H6) e (CO)
TDC
G (*)
(CO2)
100
120
101 
121 
700
400
701 
401 
1800
1000
50
29
51  100
10  35
65
350
2500
720
Satisfactory
66 
351 
2500 
721 
Fault may be
100
570
4000
1920
present
101 
101 
571 
4001 
200
150
1400
10000
1921
4630
Fault probably
present
Continued
>1800
>1000
>35
>200
>150
>1400
>1000
>463
operation
could result in
failure
References
[1] ANSI/IEEE C57.104, IEEE Guide for the Interpretation of Gases Generated in OilImmersed Transformers, 2008
[2] IEC 60599, Mineral oilimpregnated electrical equipment in service  Guide to the
interpretation of dissolved and free gases analysis, 1999
2 Measurement
o
3 Interpretation of Results
4 References
The cosine of the power angle () is called the power factor. The complement of is called the
loss angle and is denoted by in the diagram above. The power factor can also be approximated
by taking the tangent of (hence the name tan delta). This approximation is called the
dissipation factor (or loss tangent) and is roughly equal to the power factor between values of 0
and 0.08 pu, which covers the majority of tests (in insulating oils of good condition, the
dissipation factor / power factor is in the order 0.005). Therefore, dissipation factor and power
factor can be considered interchangeable.
The exact relationship between dissipation factor (DF) and power factor (PF) is as follows [2]:
The dissipation factor is essentially the ratio between the resistive and capacitive components of
the insulation and can be measured directly (e.g. with a capacitance bridge circuit  more on this
later). The lower the quality of the insulation condition, the more resistive it will appear and the
more power loss will be dissipated through it (in the form of heat), and thus the dissipation
factor will be higher.
The increase in the dissipation factor values as the test voltage is increased is called the "tipup"
(dissipation factor or power factor tipup).
Measurement
Schering Bridge
The Schering bridge is typically accurate for measuring dissipation factors down to 0.001 (i.e.
good for liquid insulating materials). For other solid insulating materials such as XLPE and
polypropylene that have dissipation factors <0.001, the Schering bridge may not be able to
provide the accuracy without careful screening and good earthing.
Transformer RatioArm Bridge
TBA
Interpretation of Results
Dissipation factor or power factor is either expressed as a decimal perunit value (e.g. 0.005) or
as a percentage (e.g. 0.5%).
TBA
The technical literature on this subject has noted that this test is useful for detecting moisture
ingress in bushings and windings. About 90% of bushing failures may be attributed to moisture
ingress evidenced by an increasing power factor from dielectric loss angle testing on a scheduled
basis.
References
[1] ANSI/NETA ATS, "Standard for Acceptance Testing Specifications for Electrical Power
Equipment and Systems", 2009
[2] ASTM D924, "Standard Test Method for Dissipation Factor (or Power Factor) and
Relative Permittivity (Dielectric Constant) of Electrical Insulating Liquids", 2008
[3] ASTM D150, "Standard Test Methods for AC Loss Characteristics and Permittivity
(Dielectric Constant) of Solid Electrical Insulation", 2011
1 Test Equipment
2 Test Procedure
4.1 Temperature
4.2 Humidity
5 Related Tests
6 References
Test Equipment
250
0.5
Up to 500V
500
1.0
Above 500V
1,000
1.0
In the ANSI/NEC world, the standard ANSI/NETA ATS2009 [2] provides test procedures and
acceptance levels for most types of electrical equipment. Table 100.1 provides representative
acceptance values for IR test measurements, which should be used in the absence of any other
guidance (from the manufacturer or other standards):
Nominal Equipment Voltage
(Vac)
(Vdc)
(M)
250
500
25
600
1,000
100
1,000
1,000
100
2,500
1,000
500
5,000
2,500
1,000
8,000
2,500
2,000
15,000
2,500
5,000
25,000
5,000
20,000
15,000
100,000
NFPA 70B [3] also provides some guidance on insulation resistance testing for different types of
equipment.
Factors Affecting Test Results
There are two main factors that will affect IR test results:
Temperature
Electrical resistance has an inverse exponential relationship with temperature, i.e. as
temperature increases, resistance will decrease and vice versa. Since the minimum acceptable IR
test values are based on a fixed reference temperature (usually 20 oC), the measured IR test
values must be corrected to the reference temperature in order to make sense of them.
As a rule of thumb, the resistance halves for every 10oC increase in temperature (and vice
versa). So if the measured IR test value was 2M at 20oC, then it would be 1M at 30oC or
4M at 10oC.
ANSI/NETA ATS2009 Table 100.14 provides correction factors for IR test measurements taken at
temperatures other than 20oC or 40oC, which were in turn based on the correction factors in the
freely available Megger book "A stitch in time..." [4].
Humidity
The presence (or lack) of moisture can also affect the IR test measurements, the higher the
moisture content in the air, the lower the IR test reading. If possible, IR tests should not be
carried out in very humid atmospheres (below the dew point). While there are no standard
correction factors or guidance for humid conditions, it is good practice to record the relative
humidity of each IR test so that they can be used for baseline comparisons in future tests. For
example, having past data on the IR test values for dry and humid days will give you a
foundation for evaluating future test values.
Related Tests
For equipment maintenance, the Dielectric Absorption Test is normally performed in conjunction
with the IR test using the same testing equipment. The results are either in the form of a
Dielectric Absorption Ratio (DAR) or a Polarisation Index (PI). Refer to the Dielectric Absorption
Test article for more details.
References
2. ANSI/NETA ATS, "Standard for Acceptance Testing Specifications for Electrical Power
Equipment and Systems", 2013
4. Megger, "A stitch in time  The Complete Guide to Electrical Insulation Testing", a free
book which is an excellent resource on IR testing
1 Applications
Applications
Load banks are used in a variety of applications, including:
The load of a resistive load bank is created by the conversion of electrical energy to heat via
highpower resistors such as grid resistors. This heat must be dissipated from the load bank,
either by air or by water, by forced means or convection.
In a testing system, a resistive load simulates reallife resistive loads, such as incandescent
lighting and heating loads as well as the resistive or unity power factor component of magnetic
(motors, transformers) loads.
The most common type uses wire resistance, usually with fan cooling, and this type is often
portable and moved from generator to generator for test purposes. Sometimes a load of this
type is built into a building, but this is unusual.
Rarely a salt water rheostat is used. It can be readily improvised, which makes it useful in
remote locations.
Reactive load banks
Inductive load banks
An inductive load includes inductive (lagging power factor) loads.
An inductive load consists of an ironcore reactive element which, when used in conjunction with
a resistive load bank, creates a lagging power factor load. Typically, the inductive load will be
rated at a numeric value 75% that of the corresponding resistive load such that when applied
together a resultant 0.8 power factor load is provided. That is to say, for each 100 kW of
resistive load, 75 kVAr of inductive load is provided. Other ratios are possible to obtain other
power factor ratings. An inductive load is used to simulate a reallife mixed commercial loads
consisting of lighting, heating, motors, transformers, etc. With a resistiveinductive load bank,
full power system testing is possible, because the provided impedance supplies currents out of
phase with voltage and allows for performance evaluation of generators, voltage regulators, load
tap changers, conductors, switchgear and other equipment.
Capacitive load banks
An capacitive load includes capacitive (leading power factor) loads.
A capacitive load bank or capacitor bank is similar to an inductive load bank in rating and
purpose, except leading power factor loads are created, so reactive power is supplied from these
loads to the system, hence improves the power factor. These loads simulate certain electronic or
nonlinear loads typical of telecommunications, computer or UPS industries.
Resistive/Reactive load banks
These are a combination of primarily resistive and inductive load elements suitable for
performing power factor testing. Resistive/reactive combination load banks are used to test the
engine generator set at its rated power factor and in the majority of cases this will be 0.8 power
factor.
The reactive component of the load will have a current that lags the voltage. The resulting
power is described in two terms, the KW, or real power and the KVA or apparent power.
Since the current lags the voltage in the reactive load the total power is not the direct sum of the
two but their vector sum. That vector is the phase angle difference between the voltage and the
current. The combination of resistive and reactive current in the load will allow for the full
nameplate KVA rating of the generator windings to be tested. Even though the generator set is
producing more KVA it is actually not producing more KW. The real power or horsepower
required from the engine is essentially the same.
Alternative load banks
Electronic load banks
An electronic load bank tends to be a fully programmable, air or watercooled design used to
simulate a solid state load and to provide constant power and current loading on circuits for
precision testing.
These units tend to be somewhat rare, but are great for testing labs to perform constant power,
voltage and current load tests.
WaterCooled load banks
Often times, situations require customers to test power supplies, namely generators and UPS
systems, in locations that are not conducive to normal forced air cooled load banks, either due
to environment or physical constraints. For example, a UPS system that is underground, located
in a parking garage or located on top of a rooftop.
In these situations, very long runs of cable sometimes more then 300'+ may be used, but due
increased resistance and subsequent voltage drop, may pose and add to the existing challenge.
In addition to the above scenario, water cooled load banks can be used to provide heated
water to simulate water based server and or chillers
So this leaves us with an open loop, water cycle load cell, whereby chilled water is supplied
to a device with heating elements. An easy way to envision this is to think of it as an expensive
hot water heater.
MediumVoltage load banks
The notion of using medium voltage load bank for portable testing purpose, came about from
thinking outside the box. The extra logistics costs for transporting, craning into position and
connecting the low voltage cable, became rather tedious.
A medium voltage load bank is just like any other load bank in that it contains resistors,
reactors or capacitors. However, the voltage ratings are greater than 600 VAC and below 69,000
VAC.
Medium voltage load banks are often used for commissioning power plants, maritime electrical
systems, standby generator systems and substations, essentially the same as low voltage load
banks, the only difference being the voltage.
The alternate method of testing without medium voltage load banks is to use low voltage load
banks with step down transformers used to serve the low voltage load banks.
Typically it is always advantageous to test with medium voltage load banks versus just using
low voltage load banks, as the added logistics and procurement costs for low voltage load
banks are far more expensive.
Mining
Elevators
Avtron
Loadtec
Cannon
Hawthorne
Crestchic UK
Northbridge
Froment
Simplex
Partial Discharge
A partial discharge, as defined by IEC 60270, is a "localised electrical discharges that only
partially bridges the insulation between conductors and which can or cannot occur adjacent to
conductors". In other words, it is a partial breakdown in the insulation between two active
conductors.
Partial discharges can occur in any location where the local electrical field strength is sufficient to
breakdown that portion of the dielectric material (whether it be a deteriorated piece of insulation
or an air cavity). The discharges generally appear as pulses with a typical duration of less than
1us. While very short in duration, the energy present in the discharge can interact with the
surrounding dielectric material resulting in further insulation degradation and eventually if left
unchecked, insulation failure.
Partial Discharge Testing
Partial discharge testing can detect the presence and location of partial discharge activity in
electrical equipment. Suppose a piece of electrical equipment has a small air cavity in its
insulation due to prolonged degradation and the cavity is subject to partial discharge. We want to
test for partial discharge and so we connect a set of coupling capacitors in parallel to measure
the charges caused by the partial discharge.
Ci' is the capacitance of the rest of the insulation around the air cavity
At some inception volage, the electromagnetic field is strong enough to bridge the air cavity in
the insulation and a partial discharge occurs. After the breakdown of the air gap, the rest of the
insulation around the cavity (Ci) now sees the full voltage Vn and therefore the charge across Ci'
increases.
This extra charge must be provided by all of the parallel capacitances around it (e.g. in this
model Ci and Ck) or the voltage source (though it is usually too slow to react). So in a typical
situation, the capacitances Ci and Ck discharge a short pulse into Ci' to provide the extra charge.
However doing so reduces the voltage across all the capacitances and the voltage source Vn
reacts by charging all of the capacitances in the system (including the air cavity) back to the
normal voltage Vn.
Partial discharge testing is done by directly measuring the short pulse discharged into Ci' by the
coupling capacitor Ck. In the equivalent circuit, the measuring system is represented by a single
box M, but in practice, this includes the coupling device, connecting cables, measuring device,
etc.
Now it's clear that any pulse measured by the measuring system is not the actual partial
discharge, but an apparent charge caused by the real partial discharge (i.e. because the
coupling capacitor Ck has to help provide the extra charge for Ci'). It's not possible to directly
measure the partial discharge, but the apparent charges can be used to infer the level of partial
discharge activity in the insulation system.
Test Circuit Calibration
Because only the apparent charges can be measured, it is important that the test circuit is
properly calibrated. During calibration, a pulse of known magnitude is delivered into the system
to simulate a partial discharge. The measuring system is then monitored to ensure that the test
pulses are captured. The calibration process is done so that pulses with magnitudes of interest
(i.e. that will damage the system) are reliably captured. A scaling factor can also be inferred
based on the calibration tests.
References
[1] IEC 60270 (2000) "High Voltage Test Techniques  Partial Discharge Measurements"
[2] IEEE 400 (2001) "IEEE Guide for Field Testing and Evaluation of the Insulation of
Shielded Power Cable Systems"
[3] IEEE 1434 (2000) "IEEE TrialUse Guide to the Measurement of Partial Discharges in
Rotating Machinery"
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