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# Cable Sizing Calculation

Contents
[hide]

1 Introduction

## 1.2 When to do the calculation?

2 General Methodology
2.1 Step 1: Data Gathering

## 2.1.3 Installation Conditions

2.2 Step 2: Cable Selection Based on Current Rating

## 2.2.3 Cable Selection and Coordination with Protective Devices

2.2.3.1 Feeders

2.2.3.2 Motors
2.3 Step 3: Voltage Drop

## 2.4.3 Short Circuit Energy

2.5 Step 5: Earth Fault Loop Impedance

3 Worked Example

## 3.5 Step 5: Earth Fault Loop Impedance

4 Waterfall Charts

5 Template

6 International Standards

6.1 IEC

6.2 NEC

6.3 BS

6.4 AS/NZS

Introduction

This article examines the sizing of electrical cables (i.e. cross-sectional area) and its
implementation in various international standards. Cable sizing methods do differ across
international standards (e.g. IEC, NEC, BS, etc) and some standards emphasise certain things
over others. However the general principles underlying any cable sizing calculation do not
change. In this article, a general methodology for sizing cables is first presented and then the
specific international standards are introduced.

## Why do the calculation?

The proper sizing of an electrical (load bearing) cable is important to ensure that the cable can:

## Operate continuously under full load without being damaged

Withstand the worst short circuits currents flowing through the cable

Provide the load with a suitable voltage (and avoid excessive voltage drops)

## When to do the calculation?

This calculation can be done individually for each power cable that needs to be sized, or
alternatively, it can be used to produce cable sizing waterfall charts for groups of cables with
similar characteristics (e.g. cables installed on ladder feeding induction motors).

General Methodology
All cable sizing methods more or less follow the same basic six step process:
1) Gathering data about the cable, its installation conditions, the load that it will carry,
etc
2) Determine the minimum cable size based on continuous current carrying capacity
3) Determine the minimum cable size based on voltage drop considerations
4) Determine the minimum cable size based on short circuit temperature rise
5) Determine the minimum cable size based on earth fault loop impedance
6) Select the cable based on the highest of the sizes calculated in step 2, 3, 4 and 5

## Step 1: Data Gathering

The first step is to collate the relevant information that is required to perform the sizing
calculation. Typically, you will need to obtain the following data:

Load Details
The characteristics of the load that the cable will supply, which includes:

## System / source voltage

Full load current (A) - or calculate this if the load is defined in terms of power (kW)

## Starting power factor (pu)

Distance / length of cable run from source to load - this length should be as close as
possible to the actual route of the cable and include enough contingency for vertical
drops / rises and termination of the cable tails

Cable Construction
The basic characteristics of the cable's physical construction, which includes:

## Conductor type - e.g. stranded or solid

Conductor surface coating - e.g. plain (no coating), tinned, silver or nickel

## Number of cores - single core or multicore (e.g. 2C, 3C or 4C)

Installation Conditions
How the cable will be installed, which includes:

## Installation / arrangement - e.g. for underground cables, is it directly buried or buried

in conduit? for above ground cables, is it installed on cable tray / ladder, against a
wall, in air, etc.

## Ambient or soil temperature of the installation site

Cable bunching, i.e. the number of cables that are bunched together

## Depth of laying (for underground cables)

For single core three-phase cables, are the cables installed in trefoil or laid flat?

## Step 2: Cable Selection Based on Current Rating

Current flowing through a cable generates heat through the resistive losses in the conductors,
dielectric losses through the insulation and resistive losses from current flowing through any
cable screens / shields and armouring.
The component parts that make up the cable (e.g. conductors, insulation, bedding, sheath,
armour, etc) must be capable of withstanding the temperature rise and heat emanating from the
cable. The current carrying capacity of a cable is the maximum current that can flow
continuously through a cable without damaging the cable's insulation and other components
(e.g. bedding, sheath, etc). It is sometimes also referred to as the continuous current rating or
ampacity of a cable.
Cables with larger conductor cross-sectional areas (i.e. more copper or aluminium) have lower
resistive losses and are able to dissipate the heat better than smaller cables. Therefore a
16 mm2 cable will have a higher current carrying capacity than a 4 mm2 cable.

## Base Current Ratings

Table 1. Example of base current rating table (Excerpt from IEC 60364-5-52)

International standards and manufacturers of cables will quote base current ratings of different
types of cables in tables such as the one shown on the right. Each of these tables pertain to a
specific type of cable construction (e.g. copper conductor, PVC insulated, 0.6/1kV voltage grade,
etc) and a base set of installation conditions (e.g. ambient temperature, installation method,
etc). It is important to note that the current ratings are only valid for the quoted types of cables
and base installation conditions.
In the absence of any guidance, the following reference based current ratings may be used.

## Installed Current Ratings

When the proposed installation conditions differ from the base conditions, derating (or
correction) factors can be applied to the base current ratings to obtain the actual installed
current ratings.
International standards and cable manufacturers will provide derating factors for a range of
installation conditions, for example ambient / soil temperature, grouping or bunching of cables,
soil thermal resistivity, etc. The installed current rating is calculated by multiplying the base
current rating with each of the derating factors, i.e.

where

## is the installed current rating (A)

is the base current rating (A)
are the product of all the derating factors

For example, suppose a cable had an ambient temperature derating factor of kamb =
0.94 and a grouping derating factor of kg = 0.85, then the overall derating factor kd =

0.94x0.85 = 0.799. For a cable with a base current rating of 42A, the installed current
rating would be Ic = 0.799x42 = 33.6A.
In the absence of any guidance, the following reference derating factors may be used.

## Cable Selection and Coordination with Protective Devices

Feeders
When sizing cables for non-motor loads, the upstream protective device (fuse or circuit breaker)
is typically selected to also protect the cable against damage from thermal overload. The
protective device must therefore be selected to exceed the full load current, but not exceed the
cable's installed current rating, i.e. this inequality must be met:

Where

## is the protective device rating (A)

is the installed cable current rating (A)
Motors
Motors are normally protected by a separate thermal overload (TOL) relay and
therefore the upstream protective device (e.g. fuse or circuit breaker) is not required
to protect the cable against overloads. As a result, cables need only to be sized to
cater for the full load current of the motor, i.e.

Where

## is the installed cable current rating (A)

Of course, if there is no separate thermal overload protection on the motor,
then the protective device needs to be taken into account as per the case for
feeders above.

## Step 3: Voltage Drop

A cable's conductor can be seen as an impedance and therefore whenever current flows through
a cable, there will be a voltage drop across it, which can be derived by Ohms Law (i.e. V = IZ).
The voltage drop will depend on two things:

Current flow through the cable the higher the current flow, the higher the voltage
drop

Impedance of the conductor the larger the impedance, the higher the voltage drop

Cable Impedances
The impedance of the cable is a function of the cable size (cross-sectional area) and the
length of the cable. Most cable manufacturers will quote a cables resistance and reactance

in /km. The following typical cable impedances for low voltage AC and DC single core and
multicore cables can be used in the absence of any other data.

## Calculating Voltage Drop

For AC systems, the method of calculating voltage drops based on load power factor is
commonly used. Full load currents are normally used, but if the load has high startup
currents (e.g. motors), then voltage drops based on starting current (and power factor if
applicable) should also be calculated.
For a three phase system:

Where

## is the nominal full load or starting current as applicable (A)

is the ac resistance of the cable (/km)
is the ac reactance of the cable (/km)
is the load power factor (pu)
is the length of the cable (m)
For a single phase system:

Where

## is the nominal full load or starting current as applicable (A)

is the ac resistance of the cable (/km)
is the ac reactance of the cable (/km)
is the load power factor (pu)
is the length of the cable (m)
For a DC system:

Where

## is the nominal full load or starting current as applicable (A)

is the dc resistance of the cable (/km)
is the length of the cable (m)

## Maximum Permissible Voltage Drop

It is customary for standards (or clients) to specify maximum permissible voltage drops, which is
the highest voltage drop that is allowed across a cable. Should your cable exceed this voltage
drop, then a larger cable size should be selected.
Maximum voltage drops across a cable are specified because load consumers (e.g. appliances)
will have an input voltage tolerance range. This means that if the voltage at the appliance is
lower than its rated minimum voltage, then the appliance may not operate correctly.
In general, most electrical equipment will operate normally at a voltage as low as 80% nominal
voltage. For example, if the nominal voltage is 230VAC, then most appliances will run at
>184VAC. Cables are typically sized for a more conservative maximum voltage drop, in the
range of 5 10% at full load.

## Calculating Maximum Cable Length due to Voltage Drop

It may be more convenient to calculate the maximum length of a cable for a particular conductor
size given a maximum permissible voltage drop (e.g. 5% of nominal voltage at full load) rather
than the voltage drop itself. For example, by doing this it is possible to construct tables showing
the maximum lengths corresponding to different cable sizes in order to speed up the selection of
similar type cables.
The maximum cable length that will achieve this can be calculated by re-arranging the voltage
drop equations and substituting the maximum permissible voltage drop (e.g. 5% of 415V
nominal voltage = 20.75V). For a three phase system:

Where

## is the maximum permissible three phase voltage drop (V)

is the nominal full load or starting current as applicable (A)
is the ac resistance of the cable (/km)
is the ac reactance of the cable (/km)
is the load power factor (pu)
For a single phase system:

Where

## is the maximum length of the cable

(m)
is the maximum permissible single phase voltage drop (V)
is the nominal full load or starting current as applicable (A)
is the ac resistance of the cable (/km)

## is the ac reactance of the cable (/km)

is the load power factor (pu)
For a DC system:

Where

## is the maximum length of the cable (m)

is the maximum permissible dc voltage drop (V)

## is the nominal full load or starting current as applicable (A)

is the dc resistance of the cable (/km)
is the length of the cable (m)

## Step 4: Short Circuit Temperature Rise

During a short circuit, a high amount of current can flow through a cable for a short
time. This surge in current flow causes a temperature rise within the cable. High
temperatures can trigger unwanted reactions in the cable insulation, sheath materials
and other components, which can prematurely degrade the condition of the cable. As
the cross-sectional area of the cable increases, it can dissipate higher fault currents for
a given temperature rise. Therefore, cables should be sized to withstand the largest
short circuit that it is expected to see.

## Minimum Cable Size Due to Short Circuit Temperature Rise

The minimum cable size due to short circuit temperature rise is typically calculated
with an equation of the form:

Where

## is the prospective short circuit current (A)

is the duration of the short circuit (s)
is a short circuit temperature rise constant
The temperature rise constant is calculated based on the material properties of the conductor
and the initial and final conductor temperatures (see the derivation here). Different international
standards have different treatments of the temperature rise constant, but by way of example,
IEC 60364-5-54 calculates it as follows:

Where

## is the initial conductor temperature (deg C)

is the final conductor temperature (deg C)

## Initial and Final Conductor Temperatures

The initial conductor temperature is typically chosen to be the maximum operating temperature
of the cable. The final conductor temperature is typically chosen to be the limiting temperature of
the insulation. In general, the cable's insulation will determine the maximum operating
temperature and limiting temperatures.
As a rough guide, the following temperatures are common for the different insulation materials:
Material

## Max Operating Temperature oC

Limiting TemperatureoC

PVC

75

160

EPR

90

250

XLPE

90

250

## Short Circuit Energy

The short circuit energy

## is normally chosen as the maximum short circuit that the cable

could potentially experience. However for circuits with current limiting devices (such as HRC
fuses), then the short circuit energy chosen should be the maximum prospective let-through
energy of the protective device, which can be found from manufacturer data.

## Step 5: Earth Fault Loop Impedance

Sometimes it is desirable (or necessary) to consider the earth fault loop impedance of a circuit in
the sizing of a cable. Suppose a bolted earth fault occurs between an active conductor and earth.
During such an earth fault, it is desirable that the upstream protective device acts to interrupt
the fault within a maximum disconnection time so as to protect against any inadvertent contact
to exposed live parts.
Ideally the circuit will have earth fault protection, in which case the protection will be fast acting
and well within the maximum disconnection time. The maximum disconnection time is chosen so
that a dangerous touch voltage does not persist for long enough to cause injury or death. For
most circuits, a maximum disconnection time of 5s is sufficient, though for portable equipment
and socket outlets, a faster disconnection time is desirable (i.e. <1s and will definitely require
earth fault protection).
However for circuits that do not have earth fault protection, the upstream protective device
(i.e. fuse or circuit breaker) must trip within the maximum disconnection time. In order for the
protective device to trip, the fault current due to a bolted short circuit must exceed the value
that will cause the protective device to act within the maximum disconnection time. For example,
suppose a circuit is protected by a fuse and the maximum disconnection time is 5s, then the fault

current must exceed the fuse melting current at 5s (which can be found by cross-referencing the
fuse time-current curves).
By simple application of Ohm's law:

Where

is the earth fault current required to trip the protective device within the

## minimum disconnection time (A)

is the phase to earth voltage at the protective device (V)
is the impedance of the earth fault loop ()
It can be seen from the equation above that the impedance of the earth fault loop
must be sufficiently low to ensure that the earth fault current can trip the upstream
protection.

## The Earth Fault Loop

The earth fault loop can consist of various return paths other than the earth conductor,
including the cable armour and the static earthing connection of the facility. However
for practical reasons, the earth fault loop in this calculation consists only of the active
conductor and the earth conductor.
The earth fault loop impedance can be found by:

Where

## is the impedance of the active conductor ()

is the impedance of the earth conductor ()
Assuming that the active and earth conductors have identical lengths, the
earth fault loop impedance can be calculated as follows:

Where
and

## are the ac resistances of the active and earth conductors respectively

(/km)
and

are the reactances of the active and earth conductors respectively (/km)

## Maximum Cable Length

The maximum earth fault loop impedance can be found by re-arranging the equation above:

Where

## is the maximum earth fault loop impedance ()

is the phase to earth voltage at the protective device (V)
is the earth fault current required to trip the protective device within the minimum
disconnection time (A)

Where

## is the maximum cable length (m)

is the phase to earth voltage at the protective device (V)
is the earth fault current required to trip the protective device within the minimum
disconnection time (A)
and

## are the ac resistances of the active and earth conductors respectively

(/km)
and

are the reactances of the active and earth conductors respectively (/km)

Note that the voltage V0 at the protective device is not necessarily the nominal phase to earth
voltage, but usually a lower value as it can be downstream of the main busbars. This voltage is
commonly represented by applying some factor
of

## Where Vn is the nominal phase to earth voltage (V)

Worked Example
In this example, we will size a cable for a 415V, 37kW three-phase motor from the MCC to the
field.

## Step 1: Data Gathering

The following data was collected for the cable to be sized:

## Operating temperature: 75C

Cable installation: above ground on cable ladder bunched together with 3 other cables
on a single layer and at 30C ambient temperature

## Cable run: 90m (including tails)

Motor load: 37kW, 415V three phase, full load current = 61A, power factor = 0.85

Protection: aM fuse of rating = 80A, max prospective fault I2t = 90 A2s , 5s melt time
= 550A

## Step 2: Cable Selection Based on Current Rating

Suppose the ambient temperature derating is 0.89 and the grouping derating for 3 bunched
cables on a single layer is 0.82. The overall derating factor is 0.89
0.82 = 0.7298. Given that
a 16 mm2 and 25 mm2 have base current ratings of 80A and 101A respectively (based
on Reference Method E), which cable should be selected based on current rating considerations?
The installed current ratings for 16 mm2 and 25 mm2 is 0.7298

## 80A = 58.38A and 0.7298

101A = 73.71A respectively. Given that the full load current of the motor is 61A, then the
installed current rating of the 16 mm2 cable is lower than the full load current and is not suitable
for continuous use with the motor. The 25 mm2 cable on the other hand has an installed current
rating that exceeds the motor full load current, and is therefore the cable that should be
selected.

## Step 3: Voltage Drop

Suppose a 25 mm2 cable is selected. If the maximum permissible voltage drop is 5%, is the cable
suitable for a run length of 90m?
A 25 mm2 cable has an ac resistance of 0.884 /km and an ac reactance of 0.0895 /km. The
voltage drop across the cable is:

## maximum permissible voltage dorp of 5%.

Therefore the cable is suitable for the motor based on voltage drop considerations.

## Step 4: Short Circuit Temperature Rise

The cable is operating normally at 75C and has a prospective fault capacity (I2t) of 90,000 A2s.
What is the minimum size of the cable based on short circuit temperature rise?
PVC has a limiting temperature of 160C. Using the IEC formula, the short circuit temperature rise
constant is 111.329. The minimum cable size due to short circuit temperature rise is therefore:

In this example, we also use the fuse for earth fault protection and it needs to trip within 5s,
which is at the upper end of the adiabatic period where the short circuit temperature rise
equation is still valid. Therefore, it's a good idea to also check that the cable can withstand the
short circuit temperature rise for for a 5s fault. The 80A motor fuse has a 5s melting current of
550A. The short circuit temperature rise is thus:

## Step 5: Earth Fault Loop Impedance

Suppose there is no special earth fault protection for the motor and a bolted single phase to
earth fault occurs at the motor terminals. Suppose that the earth conductor for our 25 mm2 cable
is 10 mm2. If the maximum disconnection time is 5s, is our 90m long cable suitable based on
earth fault loop impedance?
The 80A motor fuse has a 5s melting current of 550A. The ac resistances of the active and earth
conductors are 0.884 /km and 2.33 /km) respectively. The reactances of the active and earth
conductors are 0.0895 /km and 0.0967 /km) respectively.
The maximum length of the cable allowed is calculated as:

The cable run is 90m and the maximum length allowed is 108m, therefore our cable is suitable
based on earth fault loop impedance. In fact, our 25 mm2 cable has passed all the tests and is the
size that should be selected.

Waterfall Charts

## Table 2. Example of a cable waterfall chart

Sometimes it is convenient to group together similar types of cables (for example, 415V PVC
motor cables installed on cable ladder) so that instead of having to go through the laborious
exercise of sizing each cable separately, one can select a cable from a pre-calculated chart.

These charts are often called "waterfall charts" and typically show a list of load ratings and the
maximum of length of cable permissible for each cable size. Where a particular cable size fails to
meet the requirements for current carrying capacity or short circuit temperature rise, it is
blacked out on the chart (i.e. meaning that you can't choose it).
Preparing a waterfall chart is common practice when having to size many like cables and
substantially cuts down the time required for cable selection.

Template
A professional, fully customisable Excel spreadsheet template for cable sizing waterfall charts can
be purchased from Tradebit.
The template is based on the calculation procedure described in this page and includes waterfall
charts for:

## Single-phase feeder loads

International Standards
IEC
IEC 60364-5-52 (2009) "Electrical installations in buildings - Part 5-52: Selection and erection of
electrical equipment - Wiring systems" is the IEC standard governing cable sizing.

NEC
NFPA 70 (2011) "National Electricity Code" is the equivalent standard for IEC 60364 in North
America and includes a section covering cable sizing in Article 300.

BS
BS 7671 (2008) "Requirements for Electrical Installations - IEE Wiring Regulations" is the
equivalent standard for IEC 60364 in the United Kingdom.

AS/NZS
AS/NZS 3008.1 (2009) "Electrical installations - Selection of cables - Cables for alternating
voltages up to and including 0.6/1 kV" is the standard governing low voltage cable sizing in
Australia and New Zealand. AS/NZS 3008.1.1 is for Australian conditions and AS/NZS 3008.1.2 is
for New Zealand conditions.

Computer Software
Cablesizer is a free online application for sizing cables to NEC and IEC standards.
Most of the major power systems analysis software packages (e.g. ETAP, PTW, etc) have a cable
sizing module. There also exists other (offline) software packages that include cable sizing (for
example from Solutions Electrical UK).

Android application

Cablesizer for Android is a free (beta) version of the cable sizing tool "Cablesizer".

Earthing Calculation
Contents

1 Introduction

## 1.3 When is the calculation unnecessary?

2 Calculation Methodology

2.1 Prerequisites

## 2.3.3.2 Schwarz Equations

2.3.4 Step 4: Maximum Grid Current

## 2.3.7.1.4 Effective Buried Length LM

2.3.7.2 Step Voltage Calculation

## 2.3.7.2.2 Effective Buried Length LS

2.3.7.3 What Now?

3 Worked Example

## 4 Computer Based Tools

5 What next?

Introduction
The earthing system in a plant / facility is very important for a few reasons, all of which are
related to either the protection of people and equipment and/or the optimal operation of the
electrical system. These include:

## Equipotential bonding of conductive objects (e.g. metallic equipment, buildings, piping

etc) to the earthing system prevent the presence of dangerous voltages between
objects (and earth).

The earthing system provides a low resistance return path for earth faults within the
plant, which protects both personnel and equipment

For earth faults with return paths to offsite generation sources, a low resistance
earthing grid relative to remote earth prevents dangerous ground potential rises
(touch and step potentials)

The earthing system provides a low resistance path (relative to remote earth) for
voltage transients such as lightning and surges / overvoltages

Equipotential bonding helps prevent electrostatic buildup and discharge, which can
cause sparks with enough energy to ignite flammable atmospheres

The earthing system provides a reference potential for electronic circuits and helps
reduce electrical noise for electronic, instrumentation and communication systems

This calculation is based primarily on the guidelines provided by IEEE Std 80 (2000), "Guide for
safety in AC substation grounding". Lightning protection is excluded from the scope of this
calculation (refer to the specific lightning protection calculation for more details).

## Why do the calculation?

The earthing calculation aids in the proper design of the earthing system. Using the results of
this calculation, you can:

Determine the minimum size of the earthing conductors required for the main earth
grid

Ensure that the earthing design is appropriate to prevent dangerous step and touch
potentials (if this is necessary)

## When to do the calculation?

This calculation should be performed when the earthing system is being designed. It could also
be done after the preliminary design has been completed to confirm that the earthing system is
adequate, or highlight the need for improvement / redesign. Ideally, soil resistivity test results
from the site will be available for use in touch and step potential calculations (if necessary).

## When is the calculation unnecessary?

The sizing of earthing conductors should always be performed, but touch and step potential
calculations (per IEEE Std 80 for earth faults with a return path through remote earth) are not
always necessary.
For example, when all electricity is generated on-site and the HV/MV/LV earthing systems are
interconnected, then there is no need to do a touch and step potential calculation. In such a
case, all earth faults would return to the source via the earthing system (notwithstanding some
small leakage through earth).
However, where there are decoupled networks (e.g. long transmission lines to remote areas of
the plant), then touch and step potential calculations should be performed for the remote area
only.

Calculation Methodology
This calculation is based on IEEE Std 80 (2000), "Guide for safety in AC substation grounding".
There are two main parts to this calculation:

## Touch and step potential calculations

IEEE Std 80 is quite descriptive, detailed and easy to follow, so only an overview will be
presented here and IEEE Std 80 should be consulted for further details (although references will
be given herein).

Prerequisites
The following information is required / desirable before starting the calculation:

## Ambient (or soil) temperature at the site

Soil resistivity measurements at the site (for touch and step only)

Resistivity of any surface layers intended to be laid (for touch and step only)

## Earthing Grid Conductor Sizing

Determining the minimum size of the earthing grid conductors is necessary to ensure that the
earthing grid will be able to withstand the maximum earth fault current. Like a normal power
cable under fault, the earthing grid conductors experience an adiabatic short circuit temperature
rise. However unlike a fault on a normal cable, where the limiting temperature is that which
would cause permanent damage to the cable's insulation, the temperature limit for earthing grid
conductors is the melting point of the conductor. In other words, during the worst case earth
fault, we don't want the earthing grid conductors to start melting!
The minimum conductor size capable of withstanding the adiabatic temperature rise associated
with an earth fault is given by re-arranging IEEE Std 80 Equation 37:

Where

## is the minimum cross-sectional area of the earthing grid conductor (mm2)

is the energy of the maximum earth fault (A2s)
is the maximum allowable (fusing) temperature (C)
is the ambient temperature (C)
is the thermal coefficient of resistivity (C - 1)
is the resistivity of the earthing conductor (.cm)

is
is the thermal capacity of the conductor per unit volume(Jcm - 3C - 1)
The material constants Tm, r, r and TCAP for common conductor materials can be found in IEEE
Std 80 Table 1. For example. commercial hard-drawn copper has material constants:

Tm = 1084 C

r = 0.00381 C - 1

r = 1.78 .cm

## TCAP = 3.42 Jcm - 3C - 1.

As described in IEEE Std 80 Section 11.3.1.1, there are alternative methods to formulate this
equation, all of which can also be derived from first principles).

There are also additional factors that should be considered (e.g. taking into account future
growth in fault levels), as discussed in IEEE Std 80 Section 11.3.3.

## Touch and Step Potential Calculations

When electricity is generated remotely and there are no return paths for earth faults other than
the earth itself, then there is a risk that earth faults can cause dangerous voltage gradients in
the earth around the site of the fault (called ground potential rises). This means that someone
standing near the fault can receive a dangerous electrical shock due to:

Touch voltages - there is a dangerous potential difference between the earth and a
metallic object that a person is touching

Step voltages - there is a dangerous voltage gradient between the feet of a person
standing on earth

The earthing grid can be used to dissipate fault currents to remote earth and reduce the voltage
gradients in the earth. The touch and step potential calculations are performed in order to assess
whether the earthing grid can dissipate the fault currents so that dangerous touch and step
voltages cannot exist.

## Step 1: Soil Resistivity

The resistivity properties of the soil where the earthing grid will be laid is an important factor in
determining the earthing grid's resistance with respect to remote earth. Soils with lower
resistivity lead to lower overall grid resistances and potentially smaller earthing grid
configurations can be designed (i.e. that comply with safe step and touch potentials).
It is good practice to perform soil resistivity tests on the site. There are a few standard methods
for measuring soil resistivity (e.g. Wenner four-pin method). A good discussion on the
interpretation of soil resistivity test measurements is found in IEEE Std 80 Section 13.4.
Sometimes it isn't possible to conduct soil resistivity tests and an estimate must suffice. When
estimating soil resistivity, it goes without saying that one should err on the side of caution and
select a higher resistivity. IEEE Std 80 Table 8 gives some guidance on range of soil resistivities
based on the general characteristics of the soil (i.e. wet organic soil = 10 .m, moist soil =
100 .m, dry soil = 1,000 .m and bedrock = 10,000 .m).

## Step 2: Surface Layer Materials

Applying a thin layer (0.08m - 0.15m) of high resistivity material (such as gravel, blue metal,
crushed rock, etc) over the surface of the ground is commonly used to help protect against
dangerous touch and step voltages. This is because the surface layer material increases the
contact resistance between the soil (i.e. earth) and the feet of a person standing on it, thereby
lowering the current flowing through the person in the event of a fault.
IEEE Std 80 Table 7 gives typical values for surface layer material resistivity in dry and wet
conditions (e.g. 40mm crushed granite = 4,000 .m (dry) and 1,200 .m (wet)).
The effective resistance of a person's feet (with respect to earth) when standing on a surface
layer is not the same as the surface layer resistance because the layer is not thick enough to
have uniform resistivity in all directions. A surface layer derating factor needs to be applied in

order to compute the effective foot resistance (with respect to earth) in the presence of a finite
thickness of surface layer material. This derating factor can be approximated by an empirical
formula as per IEEE Std 80 Equation 27:

Where

## is the soil resistivity (.m)

is the resistivity of the surface layer material (.m)
is the thickness of the surface layer (m)
This derating factor will be used later in Step 5 when calculating the maximum
allowable touch and step voltages.

## Step 3: Earthing Grid Resistance

A good earthing grid has low resistance (with respect to remote earth) to minimise ground
potential rise (GPR) and consequently avoid dangerous touch and step voltages. Calculating the
earthing grid resistance usually goes hand in hand with earthing grid design - that is, you design
the earthing grid to minimise grid resistance. The earthing grid resistance mainly depends on the
area taken up by the earthing grid, the total length of buried earthing conductors and the
number of earthing rods / electrodes.
IEEE Std 80 offers two alternative options for calculating the earthing grid resistance (with
respect to remote earth) - 1) the simplified method (Section 14.2) and 2) the Schwarz equations
(Section 14.3), both of which are outlined briefly below. IEEE Std 80 also includes methods for
reducing soil resistivity (in Section 14.5) and a treatment for concrete-encased earthing
electrodes (in Section 14.6).
Simplified Method
IEEE Std 80 Equation 52 gives the simplified method as modified by Sverak to include the effect
of earthing grid depth:

Where

## is the earthing grid resistance with respect to remote earth ()

is the soil resistivitiy (.m)
is the total length of buried conductors (m)
is the total area occupied by the earthing grid (m2)
is the depth of the earthing grid (m)
Schwarz Equations

The Schwarz equations are a series of equations that are more accurate in modelling the effect of
earthing rods / electrodes. The equations are found in IEEE Std 80 Equations 53, 54,
55(footnote) and 56, as follows:

Where

## is the earthing grid resistance with respect to remote earth ()

is the earth resistance of the grid conductors ()
is the earth resistance of the earthing electrodes ()
is the mutual earth resistance between the grid conductors and earthing electrodes
()

And the grid, earthing electrode and mutual earth resistances are:

Where

is
radius

## for conductors buried at depth

metres, or simply

## is the total area covered by the grid conductors (m2)

is the length of each earthing electrode (m)
is number of earthing electrodes in area
is the cross-sectional radius of an earthing electrode (m)
and
The coefficient

## are constant coefficients depending on the geometry of the grid

can be approximated by the following:

The coefficient

## Where in both cases,

:
is the length-to-width ratio of the earthing grid.

## Step 4: Maximum Grid Current

The maximum grid current is the worst case earth fault current that would flow via the earthing
grid back to remote earth. To calculate the maximum grid current, you firstly need to calculate
the worst case symmetrical earth fault current at the facility that would have a return path
through remote earth (call this

## ). This can be found from the power systems studies or from

manual calculation. Generally speaking, the highest relevant earth fault level will be on the
primary side of the largest distribution transformer (i.e. either the terminals or the delta
windings).
Current Division Factor
Not all of the earth fault current will flow back through remote earth. A portion of the earth fault
current may have local return paths (e.g. local generation) or there could be alternative return
paths other than remote earth (e.g. overhead earth return cables, buried pipes and cables, etc).
Therefore a current division factor

## current flowing back through remote earth.

Computing the current division factor is a task that is specific to each project and the fault
location and it may incorporate some subjectivity (i.e. "engineeing judgement"). In any case,
IEEE Std 80 Section 15.9 has a good discussion on calculating the current division factor. In the
most conservative case, a current division factor of

## of earth fault current flows back through remote earth.

The symmetrical grid current

is calculated by:

Decrement Factor
The symmetrical grid current is not the maximum grid current because of asymmetry in short
circuits, namely a dc current offset. This is captured by the decrement factor, which can be
calculated from IEEE Std 80 Equation 79:

Where

## is the decrement factor

is the duration of the fault (s)
is the dc time offset constant (see below)

The dc time offset constant is derived from IEEE Std 80 Equation 74:

Where

## is the X/R ratio at the fault location

is the system frequency (Hz)

## Step 5: Touch and Step Potential Criteria

One of the goals of a safe earthing grid is to protect people against lethal electric shocks in the
event of an earth fault. The magnitude of ac electric current (at 50Hz or 60Hz) that a human
body can withstand is typically in the range of 60 to 100mA, when ventricular fibrillation and
heart stoppage can occur. The duration of an electric shock also contributes to the risk of
mortality, so the speed at which faults are cleared is also vital. Given this, we need to prescribe
maximum tolerable limits for touch and step voltages that do not lead to lethal shocks.
The maximum tolerable voltages for step and touch scenarios can be calculated empirically from
IEEE Std Section 8.3 for body weights of 50kg and 70kg:
Touch voltage limit - the maximum potential difference between the surface potential and the
potential of an earthed conducting structure during a fault (due to ground potential rise):

50kg person:

70kg person:

Step voltage limit - is the maximum difference in surface potential experience by a person
bridging a distance of 1m with the feet without contact to any earthed object:

50kg person:

70kg person:
Where

## is the step voltage limit (V)

is the surface layer derating factor (as calculated in Step 2)
is the soil resistivity (.m)
is the maximum fault clearing time (s)
The choice of body weight (50kg or 70kg) depends on the expected weight of the personnel at
the site. Typically, where women are expected to be on site, the conservative option is to choose
50kg.

## Step 6: Ground Potential Rise (GPR)

Normally, the potential difference between the local earth around the site and remote earth is
considered to be zero (i.e. they are at the same potential). However an earth fault (where the
fault current flows back through remote earth), the flow of current through the earth causes local
potential gradients in and around the site. The maximum potential difference between the site
and remote earth is known as the ground potential rise (GPR). It is important to note that this is
a maximum potential potential difference and that earth potentials around the site will vary
relative to the point of fault.
The maximum GPR is calculated by:

Where

## is the maximum ground potential rise (V)

is the maximum grid current found earlier in Step 4 (A)
is the earthing grid resistance found earlier in Step 3 ()

## Step 7: Earthing Grid Design Verification

Now we just need to verify that the earthing grid design is safe for touch and step potential. If
the maximum GPR calculated above does not exceed either of the touch and step voltage limits
(from Step 5), then the grid design is safe.
However if it does exceed the touch and step voltage limits, then some further analysis is
required to verify the design, namely the calculation of the maximum mesh and step voltages as
per IEEE Std 80 Section 16.5.
Mesh Voltage Calculation
The mesh voltage is the maximum touch voltage within a mesh of an earthing grid and is derived
from IEEE Std 80 Equation 80:

Where ::

## is the maximum grid current found earlier in Step 4 (A)

is the geometric spacing factor (see below)
is the irregularity factor (see below)
is the effective buried length of the grid (see below)
Geometric Spacing Factor Km

Where

## is the depth of buried grid conductors (m)

is the cross-sectional diameter of a grid conductor (m)
is a weighting factor for depth of burial =
is a weighting factor for earth electrodes /rods on the corner mesh
for grids with earth electrodes along the grid perimeter or corners

## is a geometric factor (see below)

Geometric Factor n

With

Where

## is the length of grid conductors on the perimeter (m)

is the total area of the grid (m2)
and

are the maximum length of the grids in the x and y directions (m)

is the maximum distance between any two points on the grid (m)
Irregularity Factor Ki

Where

## The effective buried length

is found as follows:

## For grids with few or no earthing electrodes (and none on corners or

along the perimeter):

Where

## is the total length of earthing electrodes / rods (m)

For grids with earthing electrodes on the corners and along the
perimeter:

Where

## is the total length of horizontal grid conductors

(m)
is the total length of earthing electrodes / rods (m)
is the length of each earthing electrode / rod (m)
and

are the maximum length of the grids in the x and y directions (m)
Step Voltage Calculation
The maximum allowable step voltage is calculated from
IEEE Std 80 Equation 92:

Where ::

## is the geometric spacing factor (see below)

is the irregularity factor (as derived above in the mesh voltage calculation)
is the effective buried length of the grid (see below)
Geometric Spacing Factor Ks

Where

## is the spacing between parallel grid conductors (m)

is the depth of buried grid conductors (m)
is a geometric factor (as derived above in the mesh voltage calculation)

Where

## is the total length of horizontal grid conductors (m)

is the total length of earthing electrodes / rods (m)

What Now?
Now that the mesh and step voltages are calculated, compare them to the maximum tolerable
touch and step voltages respectively. If:

, and

## then the earthing grid design is safe.

If not, however, then further work needs to be done. Some of the things that can be done to
make the earthing grid design safe:

Redesign the earthing grid to lower the grid resistance (e.g. more grid conductors,
more earthing electrodes, increasing cross-sectional area of conductors, etc). Once
this is done, re-compute the earthing grid resistance (see Step 3) and re-do the touch
and step potential calculations.

Limit the total earth fault current or create alternative earth fault return paths

## Greater use of high resistivity surface layer materials

Worked Example
In this example, the touch and step potential calculations for an earthing grid design will be
performed. The proposed site is a small industrial facility with a network connection via a
transmission line and a delta-wye connected transformer.

## Step 1: Soil Resistivity

The soil resistivity around the site was measured with a Wenner four-pin probe and found to be
approximately 300 .m.

## Step 2: Surface Layer Materials

A thin 100mm layer of blue metal (3,000 .m) is proposed to be installed on the site. The
surface layer derating factor is:

## Figure 1. Proposed rectangular earthing grid

A rectangular earthing grid (see the figure right) with the following parameters is proposed:

## Grid conductors will be 120 mm2 and buried at a depth of 600mm

22 earthing rods will be installed on the corners and perimeter of the grid

## Each earthing rod will be 3m long

Using the simplified equation, the resistance of the earthing grid with respect to remote earth is:

## Step 4: Maximum Grid Current

Suppose that the maximum single phase to earth fault at the HV winding of the transformer is
3.1kA and that the current division factor is 1 (all the fault current flows back to remote earth).
The X/R ratio at the fault is approximately 15, the maximum fault duration 150ms and the
system nominal frequency is 50Hz. The DC time offset is therefore:

kA

## Step 5: Touch and Step Potential Criteria

Based on the average weight of the workers on the site, a body weight of 70kg is assumed for
the maximum touch and step potential. A maximum fault clearing time of 150ms is also
assumed.
The maximum allowable touch potential is:

V
The maximum allowable step potential is:

## Step 6: Ground Potential Rise (GPR)

The maximum ground potential rise is:

V
The GPR far exceeds the maximum allowable touch and step potentials, and further analysis
of mesh and step voltages need to be performed.

## Step 7: Earthing Grid Design Verification

Mesh Voltage Calculation
The components of the geometric factor

and

is:

## The average spacing between parallel grid conductors

where

is:

and

are the width and length of the grid respectively (e.g. 50m and 90m)

and

## is the number of parallel rows and columns respectively (e.g. 6 and 7)

The geometric spacing factor

## The effective buried length

is:

is:

is:

m
Finally, the maximum mesh voltage is:

V
The maximum allowable touch potential is 1,720V, which exceeds the mesh voltage calculated
above and the earthing system passes the touch potential criteria (although it is quite marginal).

## Step Voltage Calculation

The geometric spacing factor

## The effective buried length

is:

is:

m
Finally, the maximum allowable step voltage is:

V
The maximum allowable step potential is 5,664V, which exceeds the step voltage calculated
above and the earthing system passes the step potential criteria. Having passed both touch and
step potential criteria, we can conclude that the earthing system is safe.

## Computer Based Tools

Figure 2. PTW GroundMat software output (courtesy of SKM Systems Analysis Inc)

As can be seen from above, touch and step potential calculations can be quite a tedious and
laborious task, and one that could conceivably be done much quicker by a computer. Even IEEE
Std 80 recommends the use of computer software to calculate grid resistances, and mesh and
step voltages, and also to create potential gradient visualisations of the site.
Computer software packages can be used to assist in earthing grid design by modeling and
simulation of different earthing grid configurations. The tools either come as standalone
packages or plug-in modules to power system analysis software (such as PTW's GroundMat or
ETAP's Ground Grid Design Assessment. Examples of standalone packages include SES
Autogrid and SafeGrid.

What next?
The minimum size for the earthing grid conductors can be used to specify the earthing grid
conductor sizes in the material take-offs and earthing drawings. The touch and step potential
calculations (where necessary) verify that the earthing grid design is safe for the worst earth
faults to remote earth. The earthing drawings can therefore be approved for the next stage of
reviews.

Load Schedule
Contents

1 Introduction

## 1.2 When to do the calculation?

2 Calculation Methodology

## 2.3 Step 3: Classify the loads

2.3.1 Voltage Level

3 Worked Example

## 3.5 Step 5: Calculate operating, peak and design loads

4 Operating Scenarios

5 Computer Software

6 What Next?

Introduction
Figure 1. Example of an electrical load schedule

The electrical load schedule is an estimate of the instantaneous electrical loads operating
in a facility, in terms of active, reactive and apparent power (measured in kW, kVAR and
kVA respectively). The load schedule is usually categorised by switchboard or occasionally
by sub-facility / area.

## Why do the calculation?

Preparing the load schedule is one of the earliest tasks that needs to be done as it is
essentially a pre-requisite for some of the key electrical design activities (such as
equipment sizing and power system studies).

## When to do the calculation?

The electrical load schedule can typically be started with a preliminary key single line
diagram (or at least an idea of the main voltage levels in the system) and any preliminary
details of process / building / facility loads. It is recommended that the load schedule is
started as soon as practically possible.

Calculation Methodology
There are no standards governing load schedules and therefore this calculation is based on
generally accepted industry practice. The following methodology assumes that the load schedule
is being created for the first time and is also biased towards industrial plants. The basic steps for
creating a load schedule are:

## Step 1: Collect a list of the expected electrical loads in the facility

Step 2: For each load, collect the electrical parameters, e.g. nominal / absorbed
ratings, power factor, efficiency, etc

Step 3: Classify each of the loads in terms of switchboard location, load duty and load
criticality

## Step 4: For each load, calculate the expected consumed load

Step 5: For each switchboard and the overall system, calculate operating, peak and
design load

## Step 1: Collect list of loads

The first step is to gather a list of all the electrical loads that will be supplied by the power
system affected by the load schedule. There are generally two types of loads that need to be
collected:

Process loads - are the loads that are directly relevant to the facility. In factories and
industrial plants, process loads are the motors, heaters, compressors, conveyors, etc
that form the main business of the plant. Process loads can normally be found on
either Mechanical Equipment Lists or Process and Instrumentation Diagrams (P&ID's).

Non-process loads - are the auxiliary loads that are necessary to run the facility, e.g.
lighting, HVAC, utility systems (power and water), DCS/PLC control systems, fire
safety systems, etc. These loads are usually taken from a number of sources, for
example HVAC engineers, instruments, telecoms and control systems engineers,
safety engineers, etc. Some loads such as lighting, UPS, power generation auxiliaries,
etc need to be estimated by the electrical engineer.

## Step 2: Collect electrical load parameters

A number of electrical load parameters are necessary to construct the load schedule:

Rated power is the full load or nameplate rating of the load and represents the
maximum continuous power output of the load. For motor loads, the rated power
corresponds to the standard motor size (e.g. 11kW, 37kW, 75kW, etc). For load items
that contain sub-loads (e.g. distribution boards, package equipment, etc), the rated
power is typically the maximum power output of the item (i.e. with all its sub-loads in
service).

Absorbed power is the expected power that will be drawn by the load. Most loads
will not operate at its rated capacity, but at a lower point. For example, absorbed
motor loads are based on the mechanical power input to the shaft of the driven
equipment at its duty point. The motor is typically sized so that the rated capacity of
the motor exceeds the expected absorbed load by some conservative design margin.
Where information regarding the absorbed loads is not available, then a load factor of
between 0.8 and 0.9 is normally applied.

Power factor of the load is necessary to determine the reactive components of the
load schedule. Normally the load power factor at full load is used, but the power
factor at the duty point can also be used for increased accuracy. Where power factors
are not readily available, then estimates can be used (typically 0.85 for motor loads
>7.5kW, 1.0 for heater loads and 0.8 for all other loads).

Efficiency accounts for the losses incurred when converting electrical energy to
mechanical energy (or whatever type of energy the load outputs). Some of the
electrical power drawn by the load is lost, usually in the form of heat to the ambient
environment. Where information regarding efficiencies is not available, then estimates
of between 0.8 and 1 can be used (typically 0.85 or 0.9 is used when efficiencies are
unknown).

## Step 3: Classify the loads

Once the loads have been identified, they need to be classified accordingly:

Voltage Level
What voltage level and which switchboard should the load be located? Large loads may need to
be on MV or HV switchboards depending on the size of the load and how many voltage levels are
available. Typically, loads <150kW tend to be on the LV system (400V - 690V), loads between
150kW and 10MW tend to be on an intermediate MV system (3.3kV - 6.6kV) where available and
loads >10MW are usually on the HV distribution system (11kV - 33kV). Some consideration
should also be made for grouping the loads on a switchboard in terms of sub-facilities, areas or
sub-systems (e.g. a switchboard for the compression train sub-system or the drying area).

Load duty
Loads are classified according to their duty as either continuous, intermittent and standby loads:
1) Continuous loads are those that normally operate continuously over a 24 hour period,
e.g. process loads, control systems, lighting and small power distribution boards, UPS
systems, etc
2) Intermittent loads that only operate a fraction of a 24 hour period, e.g. intermittent
pumps and process loads, automatic doors and gates, etc
3) Standby loads are those that are on standby or rarely operate under normal
conditions, e.g. standby loads, emergency systems, etc
Note that for redundant loads (e.g. 2 x 100% duty / standby motors), one is usually classified as
continuous and the other classified as standby. This if purely for the purposes of the load
schedule and does not reflect the actual operating conditions of the loads, i.e. both redundant
loads will be equally used even though one is classified as a standby load.

Load criticality
Loads are typically classified as either normal, essential and critical:
1) Normal loads are those that run under normal operating conditions, e.g. main process
loads, normal lighting and small power, ordinary office and workshop loads, etc
2) Essential loads are those necessary under emergency conditions, when the main
power supply is disconnected and the system is being supported by an emergency
generator, e.g. emergency lighting, key process loads that operate during emergency
conditions, fire and safety systems, etc
3) Critical are those critical for the operation of safety systems and for facilitating or
assisting evacuation from the plant, and would normally be supplied from a UPS or
battery system, e.g. safety-critical shutdown systems, escape lighting, etc

## Step 4: Calculate consumed load

The consumed load is the quantity of electrical power that the load is expected to consume. For
each load, calculate the consumed active and reactive loading, derived as follows:

Where

## is the consumed reactive load (kVAr)

is the absorbed load (kW)

## is the load efficiency (pu)

is the load power factor (pu)
Notice that the loads have been categorised into three columns depending on their load duty
(continuous, intermittent or standby). This is done in order to make it visually easier to see the
load duty and more importantly, to make it easier to sum the loads according to their duty (e.g.
sum of all continuous loads), which is necessary to calculate the operating, peak and design
loads.

## Step 5: Calculate operating, peak and design loads

Many organisations / clients have their own distinct method for calculating operating, peak and
design loads, but a generic method is presented as follows:

Operating load
The operating load is the expected load during normal operation. The operating load is calculated
as follows:

Where

## is the operating load (kW or kVAr)

is the sum of all continuous loads (kW or kVAr)
is the sum of all intermittent loads (kW or kVAr)

Peak load
The peak load is the expected maximum load during normal operation. Peak loading is typically
infrequent and of short duration, occurring when standby loads are operated (e.g. for
changeover of redundant machines, testing of safety equipment, etc). The peak load is
calculated as the larger of either:

or

Where

## is the peak load (kW or kVAr)

is the sum of all continuous loads (kW or kVAr)
is the sum of all intermittent loads (kW or kVAr)
is the sum of all standby loads (kW or kVAr)
is the largest standby load (kW or kVAr)

Design load

The design load is the load to be used for the design for equipment sizing, electrical studies, etc.
The design load is generically calculated as the larger of either:

or

Where

## is the design load (kW or kVAr)

is the operating load (kW or kVAr)
is the sum of all standby loads (kW or kVAr)
is the largest standby load (kW or kVAr

The design load includes a margin for any errors in load estimation, load growth or the addition
of unforeseen loads that may appear after the design phase. The load schedule is thus more
conservative and robust to errors. On the other hand however, equipment is often over-sized as
a result. Sometimes the design load is not calculated and the peak load is used for design
purposes.

Worked Example
Step 1: Collect list of loads
Consider a small facility with the following loads identified:

## Step 2: Collect electrical load parameters

The following electrical load parameters were collected for the loads identified in Step 1:

Load Description

Abs. Load

Rated Load

PF

Eff.

750kW

800kW

0.87

0.95

## Vapour recovery compressor B

750kW

800kW

0.87

0.95

Recirculation pump A

31kW

37kW

0.83

0.86

Recirculation pump B

31kW

37kW

0.83

0.86

Sump pump

9kW

11kW

0.81

0.83

Firewater pump A

65kW

75kW

0.88

0.88

Firewater pump B

65kW

75kW

0.88

0.88

HVAC unit

80kW

90kW

0.85

0.9

AC UPS System

9kW

12kW

0.85

0.9

7kW

10kW

0.8

0.9

4kW

5kW

0.8

0.9

## Step 3: Classify the loads

Suppose we have two voltage levels, 6.6kV and 415V. The loads can be classified as follows:
Load Description

Rated Load

Voltage

Duty

Criticality

800kW

6.6kV

Continuous

Normal

## Vapour recovery compressor B

800kW

6.6kV

Standby

Normal

Recirculation pump A

37kW

415V

Continuous

Normal

Recirculation pump B

37kW

415V

Standby

Normal

Sump pump

11kW

415V

Intermittent

Normal

Firewater pump A

75kW

415V

Standby

Essential

Firewater pump B

75kW

415V

Standby

Essential

HVAC unit

90kW

415V

Continuous

Normal

AC UPS System

12kW

415V

Continuous

Critical

10kW

415V

Continuous

Normal

5kW

415V

Continuous

Essential

## Step 4: Calculate consumed load

Calculating the consumed loads for each of the loads in this example gives:
Continuous
Load

Abs

Description

Load

Vapour recovery

PF

Eff.

Intermittent

Standby

(kW)

(kVAr)

(kW)

(kVAr)

(kW)

(kVAr)

750kW

0.87

0.95

789.5

447.4

750kW

0.87

0.95

789.5

447.4

31kW

0.83

0.86

36.0

24.2

31kW

0.83

0.86

36.0

24.2

9kW

0.81

0.83

10.8

7.9

65kW

0.88

0.88

73.9

39.9

65kW

0.88

0.88

73.9

39.9

HVAC unit

80kW

0.85

0.9

88.9

55.1

AC UPS System

9kW

0.85

0.9

10.0

6.2

7kW

0.8

0.9

7.8

5.8

4kW

0.8

0.9

4.4

3.3

936.6

542.0

10.8

7.9

973.3

551.4

compressor A
Vapour recovery
compressor B
Recirculation
pump A
Recirculation
pump B
Sump pump
Firewater pump
A
Firewater pump
B

Normal lighting
distribution
board
Essential lighting
distribution
board
SUM TOTAL

## Step 5: Calculate operating, peak and design loads

The operating, peak and design loads are calculated as follows:

P (kW)

Q (kW)

936.6

542.0

5.4

4.0

97.3

55.1

## Largest standby load

789.5

447.4

Operating load

942

546.0

Peak load

1,731.5

993.4

Design load

1,825.7

1,047.9

Normally you would separate the loads by switchboard and calculate operating, peak and
design loads for each switchboard and one for the overall system. However for the sake of
simplicity, the loads in this example are all lumped together and only one set of operating,
peak and design loads are calculated.

Operating Scenarios
It may be necessary to construct load schedules for different operating scenarios. For example,
in order to size an emergency diesel generator, it would be necessary to construct a load
schedule for emergency scenarios. The classification of the loads by criticality will help in
constructing alternative scenarios, especially those that use alternative power sources.

Computer Software
In the past, the load schedule has typically been done manually by hand or with the help of an
Excel spreadsheet. However, this type of calculation is extremely well-suited for database driven
software packages (such as Smartplant Electrical), especially for very large projects. For smaller
projects, it may be far easier to simply perform this calculation manually.

What Next?
The electrical load schedule is the basis for the sizing of most major electrical equipment, from
generators to switchgear to transformers. Using the load schedule, major equipment sizing can
be started, as well as the power system studies. A preliminary load schedule will also indicate if
there will be problems with available power supply / generation, and whether alternative power
sources or even process designs will need to be investigated.

Motor Starting
Contents
[hide]

1 Introduction

## 1.2 When to do the calculation?

2 Calculation Methodology

## 2.2.2 Synchronous Generators

2.2.3 Transformers

2.2.4 Cables

2.2.6 Motors

3 Worked Example

## 3.6 Step 6: Calculate System Voltages During Motor Start

4 Computer Software
5 What Next?

Introduction

## Figure 1. High voltage motor (courtesy of ABB)

This article considers the transient effects of motor starting on the system voltage. Usually only
the largest motor on a bus or system is modelled, but the calculation can in principle be used for
any motor. It's important to note that motor starting is a transient power flow problem and is
normally done iteratively by computer software. However a static method is shown here for firstpass estimates only.

## Why do the calculation?

When a motor is started, it typically draws a current 6-7 times its full load current for a short
duration (commonly called the locked rotor current). During this transient period, the source
impedance is generally assumed to be fixed and therefore, a large increase in current will result
in a larger voltage drop across the source impedance. This means that there can be large
momentary voltage drops system-wide, from the power source (e.g. transformer or generator)
through the intermediary buses, all the way to the motor terminals.
A system-wide voltage drop can have a number of adverse effects, for example:

## Equipment with minimum voltage tolerances (e.g. electronics) may malfunction or

behave aberrantly

## Undervoltage protection may be tripped

The motor itself may not start as torque is proportional to the square of the stator
voltage, so a reduced voltage equals lower torque. Induction motors are typically
designed to start with a terminal voltage >80%

## When to do the calculation?

This calculation is more or less done to verify that the largest motor does not cause system
wide problems upon starting. Therefore it should be done after preliminary system design is
complete. The following prerequisite information is required:

## Preliminary load schedule

Tolerable voltage drop limits during motor starting, which are typically prescribed by
the client

Calculation Methodology
This calculation is based on standard impedance formulae and Ohm's law. To the
author's knowledge, there are no international standards that govern voltage drop
calculations during motor start.
It should be noted that the proposed method is not 100% accurate because it is a
static calculation. In reality, the voltage levels are fluctuating during a transient
condition, and therefore so are the load currents drawn by the standing loads. This
makes it essentially a load flow problem and a more precise solution would solve the
load flow problem iteratively, for example using the Newton-Rhapson or Gauss-Siedel
algorithms. Notwithstanding, the proposed method is suitably accurate for a first pass
solution.
The calculation has the following six general steps:

Step 1: Construct the system model and assemble the relevant equipment
parameters

Step 2: Calculate the relevant impedances for each equipment item in the model

## Step 3: Refer all impedances to a reference voltage

Step 4: Construct the equivalent circuit for the voltage levels of interest

Step 5: Calculate the initial steady-state source emf before motor starting

## Step 1: Construct System Model and Collect Equipment

Parameters
The first step is to construct a simplified model of the system single line diagram,
and then collect the relevant equipment parameters. The model of the single line
diagram need only show the buses of interest in the motor starting calculation,
e.g. the upstream source bus, the motor bus and possibly any intermediate or
downstream buses that may be affected. All running loads are shown as lumped
loads except for the motor to be started as it is assumed that the system is in a
steady-state before motor start.
The relevant equipment parameters to be collected are as follows:

Network feeders: fault capacity of the network (VA), X/R ratio of the network

## Transformers: transformer impedance voltage (%), rated transformer capacity (VA),

rated current (A), total copper loss (W)

## Cables: length of cable (m), resistance and reactance of cable (

Standing loads: rated load capacity (VA), average load power factor (pu)

Motor: full load current (A), locked rotor current (A), rated power (W), full load power
factor (pu), starting power factor (pu)

## Step 2: Calculate Equipment Impedances

Using the collected parameters, each of the equipment item impedances can be calculated for
later use in the motor starting calculations.

Network Feeders
Given the approximate fault level of the network feeder at the connection point (or point of
common coupling), the impedance, resistance and reactance of the network feeder is calculated
as follows:

Where

## is resistance of the network feeder ()

is reactance of the network feeder ()
is the nominal voltage at the connection point (Vac)
is the fault level of the network feeder (VA)
is a voltage factor which accounts for the maximum system voltage (1.05 for voltages
<1kV, 1.1 for voltages >1kV)

## is X/R ratio of the network feeder (pu)

Synchronous Generators
The transient resistance and reactance of a synchronous generator can be estimated by the
following:

Where

## is the transient reactance of the generator ()

is the resistance of the generator ()
is a voltage correction factor (pu)
is the per-unit transient reactance of the generator (pu)
is the nominal generator voltage (Vac)
is the nominal system voltage (Vac)
is the rated generator capacity (VA)

## 6.67 for all generators with nominal voltage

100MVA, and

1kV

is a voltage factor which accounts for the maximum system voltage (1.05 for voltages
<1kV, 1.1 for voltages >1kV)
is the power factor of the generator (pu)

Transformers
The impedance, resistance and reactance of two-winding transformers can be calculated as
follows:

Where

## is the impedance of the transformer ()

is the resistance of the transformer ()
is the reactance of the transformer ()
is the impedance voltage of the transformer (pu)
is the rated capacity of the transformer (VA)
is the nominal voltage of the transformer at the high or low voltage side (Vac)
is the rated current of the transformer at the high or low voltage side (I)
is the total copper loss in the transformer windings (W)

Cables
Cable impedances are usually quoted by manufacturers in terms of Ohms per km. These need to
be converted to Ohms based on the length of the cables:

Where

## is the resistance of the cable {)

is the reactance of the cable {)
is the quoted resistance of the cable { / km)

## is the quoted reactance of the cable { / km)

is the length of the cable {m)

Standing Loads
Standing loads are lumped loads comprising all loads that are operating on a particular bus,
excluding the motor to be started. Standing loads for each bus need to be calculated.
The impedance, resistance and reactance of the standing load is calculated by:

Where

## is the impedance of the standing load {)

is the resistance of the standing load {)
is the reactance of the standing load {)
is the standing load nominal voltage (Vac)
is the standing load apparent power (VA)
is the average load power factor (pu)

Motors
The motor's transient impedance, resistance and reactance is calculated as follows:

Where

## is transient impedance of the motor ()

is transient resistance of the motor ()
is transient reactance of the motor ()
is ratio of the locked rotor to full load current
is the motor locked rotor current (A)
is the motor nominal voltage (Vac)
is the motor rated power (W)
is the motor full load power factor (pu)
is the motor starting power factor (pu)

## Step 3: Referring Impedances

Where there are multiple voltage levels, the equipment impedances calculated earlier need to be
converted to a reference voltage (typically the HV side) in order for them to be used in a single
equivalent circuit.
The winding ratio of a transformer can be calculated as follows:

Where

## is the transformer winding ratio

is the transformer nominal secondary voltage at the principal tap (Vac)
is the transformer nominal primary voltage (Vac)
is the specified tap setting (%)

Using the winding ratio, impedances (as well as resistances and reactances) can be referred to
the primary (HV) side of the transformer by the following relation:

Where

## is the impedance referred to the primary (HV) side ()

is the impedance at the secondary (LV) side ()
is the transformer winding ratio (pu)

Conversely, by re-arranging the equation above, impedances can be referred to the LV side:

## Figure 2. "Near" Thvenin equivalent circuit

The equivalent circuit essentially consists of a voltage source (from a network feeder or
generator) plus a set of complex impedances representing the power system equipment and load
impedances.

The next step is to simplify the circuit into a form that is nearly the Thvenin equivalent circuit,
with a circuit containing only a voltage source (
load impedance (

), source impedance (

) and equivalent

).

This can be done using the standard formulae for series and parallel impedances, keeping in
mind that the rules of complex arithmetic must be used throughout. This simplification to a
"Near" Thvenin equivalent circuit should be done both with the motor off (open circuit) and the
motor in a starting condition.

## Step 5: Calculate the Initial Source EMF

Assuming that the system is initially in a steady-state condition, we need to first calculate the
initial emf produced by the power source (i.e. feeder connection point or generator terminals).
This voltage will be used in the transient calculations (Step 6) as the initial source voltage.
Assumptions regarding the steady-state condition:

## All transformer taps are set at those specified in Step 2

The system is at a steady-state, i.e. there is no switching taking place throughout the
system

Since we assume that there is nominal voltage at the PCC, the initial source emf can be
calculated by voltage divider:

Where

## is the initial emf of the power source (Vac)

is the nominal voltage (Vac)
is the source impedance ()
is the equivalent load impedance with the motor switched off ()

## Step 6: Calculate System Voltages During Motor Start

It is assumed in this calculation that during motor starting, the initial source emf calculated in
Step 5 remains constant; that is, the power source does not react during the transient period.
This is a simplifying assumption in order to avoid having to model the transient behaviour of the
power source.

Next, we need to calculate the overall system current that is supplied by the power source during
the motor starting period. To do this, we use the "Near" Thevenin equivalent circuit derived
earlier, but now include the motor starting impedance. A new equivalent load impedance during
motor starting

will be calculated.

Where

## is the system current supplied by the source (A)

is the initial source emf (Vac)
is the equivalent load impedance during motor start ()
is the source impedance ()
The voltage at the source point of common coupling (PCC) is:

Where

## is the voltage at the point of common coupling (Vac)

is the initial source emf (Vac)
is the system current supplied by the source (A)
is the source impedance ()
The downstream voltages can now be calculated by voltage division and simple
application of Ohm's law. Specifically, we'd like to know the voltage at the motor
terminals and any buses of interest that could be affected. Ensure that the voltages are
acceptably within the prescribed limits, otherwise further action needs to be taken (refer
to theWhat's Next? section).

Worked Example
The worked example here is a very simple power system with two voltage levels and supplied by
a single generator. While unrealistic, it does manage to demonstrate the key concepts pertaining
to motor starting calculations.

Parameters

## Figure 3. Simplified system model for motor starting example

The power system has two voltage levels, 11kV and 415V, and is fed via a single 4MVA generator
(G1). The 11kV bus has a standing load of 950kVA (S1) and we want to model the effects of
starting a 250kW motor (M1). There is a standing load of 600kVA at 415V (S2), supplied by a
1.6MVA transformer (TX1). The equipment and cable parameters are as follows:
Equipment

Parameters

= 4,000 kVA

Generator G1

= 11,000 V

= 0.85 pu

Generator Cable C1

= 0.33 pu

Length = 50m

= 950 kVA

= 11,000 V
= 0.84 pu

Motor M1

= 250 kW

= 11,000 V

= 106.7 A
= 6.5 pu

= 0.85 pu

= 0.30 pu

Length = 150m

Motor Cable C2

Size = 35 mm2

## (R = 0.668 \km, X = 0.115 \km)

= 1,600 kVA

= 11,000 V

= 415 V

Transformer TX1

= 0.06 pu

= 12,700 W

= 0%

Transformer Cable C3

Length = 60m

= 600 kVA

= 415 V
= 0.80 pu

## Step 2: Calculate Equipment Impedances

Using the patameters above and the equations outlined earlier in the methodology, the following
impedances were calculated:
Equipment

Resistance ()

Reactance ()

Generator G1

0.65462

9.35457

Generator Cable C1

0.00261

0.00413

106.98947

69.10837

Motor M1

16.77752

61.02812

Motor Cable C2

0.1002

0.01725

## Transformer TX1 (Primary Side)

0.60027

4.49762

Transformer Cable C3

0.01176

0.00576

0.22963

0.17223

## Step 3: Referring Impedances

11kV will be used as the reference voltage. The only impedance that needs to be referred to this
reference voltage is the 415V Standing Load (S2). Knowing that the transformer is set at
principal tap, we can calculate the winding ratio and apply it to refer the 415V Standing Load
impedance to the 11kV side:

The resistance and reactance of the standing load referred to the 11kV side is now, R =
161.33333 and X = 121.00 .

## Figure 4. Equivalent circuit for motor starting example

The equivalent circuit for the system is shown in the figure to the right. The "Near"
Thevenin equivalent circuit is also shown, and we now calculate the equivalent load
impedance

in the steady-state condition (i.e. without the motor and motor cable

impedances included):

Similarly the equivalent load impedance during motor starting (with the motor
impedances included) can be calculated as as follows:

## Figure 5. "Near" Thevenin equivalent circuit for motor starting example

Assuming that there is nominal voltage at the 11kV bus in the steady-state condition, the initial
generator emf can be calculated by voltage divider:

Vac

## Step 6: Calculate System Voltages During Motor Start

Now we can calculate the transient effects of motor starting on the system voltages. Firstly, the
current supplied by the generator during motor start is calculated:

## Vac (or 87.98% of nominal voltage)

The voltage at the motor terminals can then be found by voltage divider:

## Vac (or 87.92% of nominal voltage)

The voltage at the low voltage bus is:

## Vac, then referred to the LV side =

359.39Vac (or 86.60% of nominal voltage)
Any other voltages of interest on the system can be determined using the same methods as
above.
Suppose that our maximum voltage drop at the motor terminals is 15%. From above, we have
found that the voltage drop is 12.08% at the motor terminals. This is a slightly marginal result
and it may be prudent to simulate the system in a software package to confirm the results.

Computer Software
Motor starting is a standard component of most power systems analysis software (e.g. ETAP,
PTW, ERAC, etc) and this calculation is really intended to be done using this software. The
numerical calculation performed by the software should also solve the power flow problem
through an iterative algorithm (e.g. such as Newton-Rhapson).

What Next?

If the results of the calculation confirm that starting the largest motor does not cause any
unacceptable voltage levels within the system, then that's the end of it (or perhaps it could be
simulated in a power systems analysis software package to be doubly sure!). Otherwise, the
issue needs to be addressed, for example by:

Reduce the motor starting current, e.g. via soft-starters, star-delta starters, etc

Reduce the source impedances, e.g. increase the size of the generator, transformer,
supply cables, etc

The calculation should be performed iteratively until the results are acceptable.

## Short Circuit Calculation

Contents
[hide]

1 Introduction
2 AC Short-Circuit Analysis
3 DC Short-Circuit Analysis
4 Trivia

Introduction
Some of the related terms defined by the IEC's Electropedia:

## Short-Circuit: accidental or intentional conductive path between two or more conductive

parts forcing the electric potential differences between these conductive parts to be equal to
or close to zero.

## Short-Circuit Current: an over-current resulting from a short circuit due to a fault or an

incorrect connection in an electric circuit.

Short-Circuit Operation: no-load operation with zero output voltage (Note Zero output
voltage can be obtained when the output terminals are short-circuited).

## Line-to-Earth Short-Circuit: short-circuit between a line conductor and the Earth, in a

solidly earthed neutral system or in an impedance earthed neutral system (Note The shortcircuit can be established, for example, through an earthing conductor and an earth
electrode).

## Line-to-Line Short-Circuit: short-circuit between two or more line conductors, combined

or not with a line-to-earth short-circuit at the same place

## Short-Circuit Current Capability: the permissible value of the short-circuit current in a

given network component for a specified duration.

AC Short-Circuit Analysis
according to the IEC 60909

DC Short-Circuit Analysis
according to the IEC 61660
according to the ANSI/IEEE 946

Trivia

Contents
1 Introduction
o

## 1.2 When to do the calculation?

2 Calculation Methodology
2.1 Step 1: Estimate Solar Irradiation at the Site

3 Worked Example

## 3.5 Step 6: Size the PV Array

4 Computer Software
5 What Next?

Introduction

## Figure 1. Solar PV array

This calculation outlines the sizing of a standalone solar photovoltaic (PV) power system.
Standalone PV systems are commonly used to supply power to small, remote installations (e.g.
telecoms) where it isn't practical or cost-efficient to run a transmission line or have alternative
generation such as diesel gensets.
Although this calculation is biased towards standalone solar PV systems, it can also be used for
hybrid systems that draw power from mixed sources (e.g. commercial PV, hybrid wind-PV
systems, etc). Loads must be adjusted according to the desired amount that the solar PV system
will supply.
This calculation is based on crystalline silicon PV technology. The results may not hold for other
types of solar PV technologies and the manufacturer's recommendations will need to be
consulted.

## Why do the calculation?

This calculation should be done whenever a solar PV power system is required so that the system
is able to adequately cater for the necessary loads. The results can be used to determine the
ratings of the system components (e.g. PV array, batteries, etc).

## When to do the calculation?

The following pre-requisite information is required before performing the calculation:

## Loads required to be supported by the solar PV system

Autonomy time or minimum tolerable downtime (i.e. if there is no sun, how long can
the system be out of service?)

GPS coordinates of the site (or measurements of the solar insolation at the site)

## Output voltage (AC or DC)

Calculation Methodology
The calculation is loosely based on AS/NZS 4509.2 (2002) "Standalone power systems - System
design guidelines". The methodology has the following six steps:

Step 1: Estimate the solar irradiation available at the site (based on GPS coordinates
or measurement)

## Step 2: Collect the loads that will be supported by the system

Step 3: Construct a load profile and calculate design load and design energy

Step 4: Calculate the required battery capacity based on the design loads

Step 5: Estimate the output of a single PV module at the proposed site location

## Figure 2. World solar irradiation map

The first step is to determine the solar resource availability at the site. Solar resources are
typically discussed in terms of solar radiation, which is more or less the catch-all term for
sunlight shining on a surface. Solar radiation consists of three main components:

## Direct or beam radiation is made up of beams of unscattered and unreflected light

reaching the surface in a straight line directly from the sun

Diffuse radiation is scattered light reaching the surface from the whole sky (but not
directly from the sun)

Albedo radiation is is light reflected onto the surface from the ground

Solar radiation can be quantitatively measured by irradiance and irradiation. Note that the terms
are distinct - "irradiance" refers to the density of the power that falls on a surface (W / m2) and
"irradiation" is the density of the energy that falls on a surface over some period of time such as
an hour or a day (e.g. Wh / m2 per hour/day).
In this section, we will estimate the solar radiation available at the site based on data collected in
the past. However, it needs to be stressed that solar radiation is statistically random in nature
and there is inherent uncertainty in using past data to predict future irradiation. Therefore, we
will need to build in design margins so that the system is robust to prediction error.

## Baseline Solar Irradiation Data

The easiest option is to estimate the solar irradiation (or solar insolation) by inputting the GPS
coordinates of the site into the NASA Surface Meteorology and Solar Resourcewebsite.
For any given set of GPS coordinates, the website provides first pass estimates of the monthly
minimum, average and maximum solar irradiation (in kWh / m2 / day) at ground level and at various
tilt angles. Collect this data, choose an appropriate tilt angle and identify the best and worst
months of the year in terms of solar irradiation. Alternatively, for US locations data from
the National Solar Radiation Database can be used.
The minimum, average and maximum daytime temperatures at the site can also be determined
from the public databases listed above. These temperatures will be used later when calculating
the effective PV cell temperature.
Actual solar irradiation measurements can also be made at the site. Provided that the
measurements are taken over a long enough period (or cross-referenced / combined with public
data), then the measurements would provide a more accurate estimate of the solar irradiation at

the site as they would capture site specific characteristics, e.g. any obstructions to solar radiation
such as large buildings, trees, mountains, etc.

## Solar Irradiation on an Inclined Plane

Most PV arrays are installed such that they face the equator at an incline to the horizontal (for
maximum solar collection). The amount of solar irradiation collected on inclined surfaces is
different to the amount collected on a horizontal surface. It is theoretically possible to accurately
estimate the solar irradiation on any inclined surface given the solar irradiation on an horizontal
plane and the tilt angle (there are numerous research papers on this topic, for example the work
done by Liu and Jordan in 1960).
However, for the practical purpose of designing a solar PV system, we'll only look at estimating
the solar irradiation at the optimal tilt angle, which is the incline that collects the most solar
irradiation. The optimal tilt angle largely depends on the latitude of the site. At greater latitudes,
the optimal tilt angle is higher as it favours summertime radiation collection over wintertime
collection. The Handbook of Photovoltaic Science and Engineering suggests a linear
approximation to calculating the optimal tilt angle:

Where

## is the optimal tilt angle (deg)

is the latitude of the site (deg)

The handbook also suggests a polynomial approximation for the solar irradiation at the optimal
tilt angle:

Where

is the solar irradiation on a surface at the optimal tilt angle (Wh / m2)
is the solar irradiation on the horizontal plane (Wh / m2)
is the optimal tilt angle (deg)

Alternatively, the estimated irradiation data on tilted planes can be sourced directly from the
various public databases listed above.

Solar Trackers
Solar trackers are mechanical devices that can track the position of the sun throughout the day
and orient the PV array accordingly. The use of trackers can significantly increase the solar
irradiation collected by a surface. Solar trackers typically increase irradiation by 1.2 to 1.4 times

(for 1-axis trackers) and 1.3 to 1.5 times (for 2-axis trackers) compared to a fixed surface at the
optimal tilt angle.

Non-Standard Applications
A solar irradiation loss factor should be used for applications where there are high tilt angles
(e.g. vertical PV arrays as part of a building facade) or very low tilt angles (e.g. North-South
horizontal trackers). This is because the the solar irradiation is significantly affected
(detrimentally) when the angle of incidence is high or the solar radiation is mainly diffuse (i.e. no
albedo effects from ground reflections). For more details on this loss factor, consult the
standard ASHRAE 93, "Methods of testing to determine the thermal performance of solar
collectors".

## Step 2: Collect the Solar Power System Loads

The next step is to determine the type and quantity of loads that the solar power system needs
to support. For remote industrial applications, such as metering stations, the loads are normally
for control systems and instrumentation equipment. For commercial applications, such as
telecommunications, the loads are the telecoms hardware and possibly some small area lighting
for maintenance. For rural electrification and residential applications, the loads are typically
domestic lighting and low-powered apppliances, e.g. computers, radios, small tv's, etc.

## Step 3: Construct a Load Profile

Refer to the Load Profile Calculation for details on how to construct a load profile and calculate
the design load (

## Step 4: Battery Capacity Sizing

In a solar PV power system, the battery is used to provide backup energy storage and also to
maintain output voltage stability. Refer to the Battery Sizing Calculation for details on how to size
the battery for the solar power system.

## Step 5: Estimate a Single PV Module's Output

It is assumed that a specific PV module type (e.g Suntech STP070S-12Bb) has been selected and
the following parameters collected:

(W-p)

Nominal voltage

(Vdc)
(Vdc)
(Vdc)

(A)

## Manufacturer's power output tolerance

(A)
(% per deg C)
(%)

Manufacturers usually quote these PV module parameters based on Standard Test Conditions
(STC): an irradiance of 1,000 W / m2, the standard reference spectral irradiance with Air Mass 1.5
(see the NREL site for more details) and a cell temperature of 25 deg C. Standard test conditions
rarely prevail on site and when the PV module are installed in the field, the output must be derated accordingly.

## Effective PV Cell Temperature

Firstly, the average effective PV cell temperature at the installation site needs to be calculated
(as it will be used in the subsequent calculations). It can be estimated for each month using
AS\NZS 4509.2 equation 3.4.3.7:

Where

## is the average daytime ambient temperature at the site (deg C)

Standard Regulator
For a solar power system using a standard switched charge regulator / controller, the derated
power output of the PV module can be calculated using AS\NZS 4509.2 equation 3.4.3.9(1):

Where

is the derated power output of the PV module using a standard switched charge

controller (W)
is the daily average operating voltage (Vdc)
is the module output current based on the daily average operating voltage, at the
effective average cell temperature and solar irradiance at the site - more on this below
(A)
is the manufacturer's power output tolerance (pu)
is the derating factor for dirt / soiling (Clean: 1.0, Low: 0.98, Med: 0.97, High:
0.92)
To estimate

, you will need the IV characteristic curve of the PV module at the effective cell

temperature calculated above. For a switched regulator, the average PV module operating

voltage is generally equal to the average battery voltage less voltage drops across the cables and
regulator.

MPPT Regulator
For a solar power system using a Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) charge regulator /
controller, the derated power output of the PV module can be calculated using AS\NZS 4509.2
equation 3.4.3.9(2):

Where

is the derated power output of the PV module using an MPPT charge controller (W)
is the nominal module power under standard test conditions (W)
is the manufacturer's power output tolerance (pu)
is the derating factor for dirt / soiling (Clean: 1.0, Low: 0.98, Med: 0.97, High:
0.92)
is the temperature derating factor - see below (pu)

The temperature derating factor is determined from AS\NZS 4509.2 equation 3.4.3.9(1):

Where

## is temperature derating factor (pu)

is the Power Temperature Coefficient (% per deg C)
is the average effective PV cell temperature (deg C)
is the temperature under standard test conditions (typically 25 deg C)

## Step 6: Size the PV Array

The sizing of the PV array described below is based on the method outlined in AS/NZS 4509.2.
There are alternative sizing methodologies, for example the method based on reliability in terms
of loss of load probability (LLP), but these methods will not be further elaborated in this article.
The fact that there is no commonly accepted sizing methodology reflects the difficulty of
performing what is an inherently uncertain task (i.e. a prediction exercise with many random
factors involved).

Standard Regulator
The number of PV modules required for the PV array can be found by using AS\NZS 4509.2
equation 3.4.3.11(1):

Where

## is the number of PV modules required

is the derated power output of the PV module (W)
is the total design daily energy (VAh)

## is the oversupply co-efficient (pu)

is the solar irradiation after all factors (e.g. tilt angle, tracking, etc) have been
captured (kWh / m2 / day)
is the coulombic efficiency of the battery (pu)
The oversupply coefficient

## is a design contingency factor to capture the uncertainty in

designing solar power systems where future solar irradiation is not deterministic. AS/NZS 4509.2
Table 1 recommends oversupply coefficients of between 1.3 and 2.0.
A battery coulombic efficiency of approximately 95% would be typically used.

MPPT Controller
The number of PV modules required for the PV array can be found by using AS\NZS 4509.2
equation 3.4.3.11(2):

Where

## is the number of PV modules required

is the derated power output of the PV module (W)
is the total design daily energy (VAh)
is the oversupply coefficient (pu)
is the solar irradiation after all factors (e.g. tilt angle, tracking, etc) have been
captured (kWh / m2 / day)
is the efficiency of the PV sub-system (pu)

## is a design contingency factor to capture the uncertainty in

designing solar power systems where future solar irradiation is not deterministic. AS/NZS 4509.2
Table 1 recommends oversupply coefficients of between 1.3 and 2.0.
The efficiency of the PV sub-system

## is the combined efficiencies of the charge regulator /

controller, battery and transmission through the cable between the PV array and the battery. This
will depend on specific circumstances (for example, the PV array a large distance from the
battery), though an efficiency of around 90% would be typically used.

Worked Example
A small standalone solar power system will be designed for a telecommunications outpost located
in the desert.

## Step 1: Estimate Solar Irradiation at the Site

From site measurements, the solar irradiation at the site during the worst month at the optimal
title angle is 4.05 kWh/m2/day.

## Figure 3. Load profile for this example

For this example, we shall use the same loads and load profile detailed in the Energy Load Profile
Calculationexample. The load profile is shown in the figure right and the following quantities were
calculated:

## Step 4: Battery Capacity Sizing

For this example, we shall use the same battery sizes calculated in the Battery Sizing
Calculation] worked example. The selected number of cells in series is 62 cells and the minimum
battery capacity is 44.4 Ah.

## Step 5: Estimate a Single PV Module's Output

A PV module with the following characteristics is chosen:

W-p

Nominal voltage

## Manufacturer's power output tolerance

Vdc
% per deg C
%

Suppose the average daytime ambient temperature is 40C. The effective PV cell temperature is:

deg C
An MPPT controller will be used. The temperature derating factor is therefore:

Given a medium dirt derating factor of 0.97, the derated power output of the PV module is:

## Step 6: Size the PV Array

Given an oversupply coefficient of 1.1 and a PV sub-system efficiency of 85%, the number of PV
modules required for the PV array for a MPPT regulator is:

10.9588 modules
For this PV array, 12 modules are selected.

Computer Software
It is recommended that the solar PV system sized in this calculation is simulated with computer
software. For example, HOMER is a popular software package for simulating and optimising a
distributed generation (DG) system originally developed by the National Renewable Energy
Laboratory (NREL).
Screenshots from HOMER software

PV Output

What Next?

Battery Output

With the sizing calculation completed, the solar PV equipment (PV array, batteries, charge
controllers, etc) can be specified and a cost estimate or budget enquiry / requisition package
issued. The approximate dimensions of the equipment (especially the PV array and batteries) can
also be estimated and a design layout can be produced.

Contents
[hide]

1 Introduction

## 1.2 When to do the calculation?

2 Calculation Methodology

## 2.7.2 Effect of Overhead Earth Wires and Counterpoise Earths

2.8 Step 8: Compute Fault LFI

## 2.10 Step 10: Apply Mitigation Works (if necessary)

3 International Standards

4 Computer Software

5 What Next?

6 Selected References

Introduction
Low frequency induction (LFI) in metal pipelines is a form of electromagnetic interference that
occurs when high voltage transmission lines are run in parallel with metallic pipelines.
The loaded phases on a transmission line and the pipeline act like single-turn windings on a large
air-core transformer. Current flowing through the transmission line induces a voltage at the
pipeline.
During normal operation, each loaded phase of the transmission line induces a voltage on the
pipeline. If the three-phases are balanced, then most of the induced voltage will cancel each
other out, but the spatial assymetry of the phases on the transmission line will prevent the
induced voltages from fully cancelling out. Thus a non-zero induced voltage results on the
pipeline. This condition is usually called "Load LFI".
During an earth fault condition, the phases of the transmission line are no longer balanced and
as a result, a more significant voltage is induced on the pipeline. This condition is usually called
"Fault LFI".

## Why do the calculation?

LFI calculations are typically done for personnel safety reasons, in order to ensure that induced
voltages are not hazardous to someone in contact with the pipeline.
In cases where such a situation is not possible, then an approach minimising the risk of electric
shock could be followed. This could involve restricting access to the pipeline or using a
probability-based methodology to estimate the risk of exposure, etc.

## When to do the calculation?

The calculation should be done whenever HV transmission lines are installed in the vicinity of
pipelines, and vice versa. Of particular concern is when the pipeline is run nearby and parallel to
the transmission line for long distances. On the other hand, if a pipeline crosses the transmission
line perpendicularly, then the magnitude of LFI would be low.

Calculation Methodology
The LFI calculation has nine general steps:

## Step 1: Data Gathering

Before beginning the calculation, the following data needs to be gathered:

Plan layouts of pipeline(s) and transmission line(s), to scale with enough resolution to
measure horizontal distances between pipeline and transmission line

## Step 2: Define the Zone of Influence

Based on the plan layouts of the pipeline and transmission line routes, the first step is to define
the zone(s) of influence in which you will perform the LFI study. This zone is typically a corridor
where the pipeline and transmission line are run close together in parallel.
As a general rule of thumb, the zone extends along this corridor until the horizontal separation
between the pipeline and transmission line exceeds 1km. It is deemed that there is minimal LFI
effect on the pipeline beyond a 1km pipeline-transmission line separation.

## Step 3: Define Pipeline Sections

Once the zone of influence has been defined, the transmission line or pipeline should be broken
up into small sections and the horizontal separations calculated for each section. The length of
the indivudal sections do not have to be constant and can vary along the the route, depending on
the rate of change of the horizontal separation.
For example, long section lengths can be applied when the pipeline and transmission line are
roughly parallel. However, where the two lines converge, diverge or cross, smaller sectional
lengths should be used (typically, a maximum ratio of 3:1 between the start of section and end
of section separations is used to determine sectional length).
A table showing the sectional lengths and horizontal distances can then be developed, for
example:

Section

Distance along

Section Length

pipeline (km)

(m)

to pipeline (m)
Start

End

0.0

300

140

190

0.3

200

190

200

## Step 4: Calculate Effective Distances

The table we developed in Step 2 shows the horizontal separations between phase A and the
pipeline at the start and end of each pipeline section. However, the transmission line will have
three phases (and possibly two sets of conductors per phase) and the horizontal distances also
do not take into account the geometry of the transmission tower.
Therefore, we'd like to further refine these distances. Ideally, we want a single effective distance
between the pipeline and each phase (and if applicable, the earth wire). By using an effective
distance, this makes it more convenient for us to calculate the induced voltages on a pipeline
section.
This effective distance should incorporate the following:

## The average horizontal distance along the pipeline section

The geometry of the transmission line towers (and the spatial geometry of the
individual conductors on the tower)

## Figure 1. Double conductor tower example

In order to construct the effective distances, we first need to define the spatial geometry of the
transmission line with respect to the pipeline. This could be the geometry of transmission line
towers or the spatial arrangement of underground conductors.
The figure to the right, showing a double conductor tower with two earth wires, gives an example
of the kind of data that is required:

## Hw = Height from pipeline to earth wire

Of course your data requirements may vary depending on the transmission line type, but you
need enough data to fully describe the spatial relationships between the phase conductors and
the pipeline geometrically.

Effective Distances
As the horizontal distance between the transmission line and the pipeline is not necessarly
constant along each section, we want to calculate an average horizontal distance for each line
section. Typically, the geometric mean distance is used:

Where

## is the effective horizontal distance between phase a and the pipeline

is the horizontal distance (between phase a and the pipeline) at the start of the
section (m)
is the horizontal distance (between phase a and the pipeline) at the end of the
section (m)

Similarly for double conductors arranged horizontally, we use the geomtric mean distance to
obtain an effective distance between double conductors and the pipeline:

Where

is the effective horizontal distance between double conductors (of phase a) and the

pipeline (m)
is the effective horizontal distance calculated above (m)
is the horizontal distance between the two conductors of phase a (m)
Note that the above show only horizontal distances. We can use simple Pythagoras to calculate
the overall effective distance between phase a and the pipeline, taking into account the vertical
arrangement of the conductors (relative to the pipeline). Below, we do this for a tower line:

Where

is the overall effective distance between the phase a and the pipeline
is the effective horizontal distance between double conductors (of phase a) and the
pipeline (m)
is the height from the pipeline to phase a (m)

The same process above is repeated to calculate the effective distances for the other phases and
the earth wire (if applicable).
The effective distances can be calculated also for other spatial conductor arrangements, using
the geometric mean as a basis. Ultimately for each line section, we'd like to end up with only a
single effective distance between the pipeline and a phase of the tower line.

## Step 5: Calculate Pipeline Impedances

To assess the safety of a joint right-of-way installation, we want to calculate pipeline-to-earth
touch voltages. However a buried pipeline cannot be treated like another overhead conductor in
air because a pipeline has a finite impedance to earth that is distributed along its entire length.
Therefore the open-circuit voltages induced in the pipeline that we calculated earlier are not
equivalent to the pipeline-to-earth touch voltage. There are continuous leakages to earth along
the pipeline and the open-circuit induced voltages can be up to 10 times higher than the
pipeline-to-earth touch voltages.
In order to calculate a more accurate pipeline-to-earth touch voltage, we need to consider the
electrical characteristics of the pipeline.
The pipeline impedances described in this section are simplified approximations of Sunde's
method [5] and are based on Appendix G of CIGRE Guide 95 "Guide on the Influence of High
Voltage AC Power Systems on Metallic Pipelines" [2]. Refer to Sunde's original work [5] for more
details on accurately modelling pipeline and other buried conductor impedances.
a) Pipeline longitudinal impedance
For a buried and coated metallic pipeline, the longitudinal
impedance per metre can be approximated as follows:

Where

## is the pipeline longitudinal (or series) impedance ( / m)

is the diamter of the pipeline (m)
is the resistivity of the pipeline metal (.m)
is the resistivity of the soil (.m)
is the permeability of free space (H/m)
is the relative permeability of the pipeline metal (H/m)
is the nominal frequency of the transmission line (Hz)

## b) Pipeline shunt admittance

For a buried and coated metallic pipeline, the shut admittance per metre can be approximated as
follows:

Where

## is the pipeline shunt admittance ( - 1 / m)

is the diameter of the pipeline (m)
is the resistivity of the pipeline coating (.m)
is the thickness of the pipeline coating (m)
is the relative permeability of the coating (H/m)
is the permittivity of free space (F/m)

The pipeline shunt impedance is simply the reciprocal of the admittance (remember that it is
complex quantity):

Where

## is the pipeline characteristic impedance ()

is the pipeline longitudinal impedance ( / m)
is the pipeline longitudinal conductance ( - 1 / m)

Where

## is the pipeline effective length (m)

is the pipeline longitudinal impedance ( / m)
is the pipeline longitudinal conductance ( - 1 / m)

## Step 6: Calculate Mutual Coupling Impedances

The mutual coupling impedance between a line conductor and the pipeline (with earth return)
can be given by the general formula below (based on Carson's equations [4]):

Where

and pipeline

and pipeline

( / km)
(m)

## is the nominal system frequency (Hz)

is the depth of equivalent earth return given by:

Where

Where

## is the resistivity of the soil (.m)

Using the formula above, you can calculate the mutual impedances

and

between the pipeline and phase a, b and c of the transmission line respectively. To calculate the
impedances in Ohms, multiply the mutual impedances by the sectional length of the pipeline.

## Step 7: Compute Load LFI

Load LFI results from either unbalanced load currents or spatial differences between the phase
conductors relative to the pipeline. Given the load current phasors for the transmission line, the
total open-circuit induced LFI voltage on the pipeline is simply the vector sum:

Where
,

## is the overall induced load LFI voltage (V)

and

are the load current for phase a, b and c respectively (A). Note that

,

and

## Allowable Load LFI Limits

Induced voltages on pipelines represent are electric shock hazards. Because load LFI can be
regarded as a continuous hazard (i.e. the hazard is always present), then the allowable pipelineto-earth touch voltage limits are lower than in the fault LFI case. Limits are typically in the range
of 32V to 64V (see the section on international standards below for more guidance on allowable
limits).
Note that the open-circuit LFI voltage calculated earlier is higher than the pipeline-to-earth
touch voltage as it doesn't take into account any voltage
leakages to earth along the pipeline. Therefore, if the load LFI voltage you have
calculated is lower than the allowable limits, then no further analysis is necessary.

## Effect of Overhead Earth Wires and Counterpoise Earths

Overhead earth wires and counterpoise earth conductors provide a shielding effect (since a
voltage is induced in them and they in turn induce an opposing voltage in the pipeline). The
interaction of the overhead earth wires or counterpoise earth conductors with the pipeline can be
modelled and a shielding factor computed (more on this later).

## Step 8: Compute Fault LFI

During a balanced three-phase fault, the fault current will still be balanced across all three
phases (i.e. vector sum of the faulted phase currents is close to zero). Therefore any induced
voltage in the pipeline will be due primarily to the spatial assymetry of the transmission line
relative to the pipeline, and this will generally be small.
However, an unbalanced fault such as a line-to-earth or line-to-line fault will produce a fault
current that is unbalanced and can induce much higher LFI voltages on the pipeline (until the
fault is cleared). The case of a line-to-earth fault will induce the highest LFI voltage and is the
type of fault that will be examined hereafter.
The general formula for fault LFI is as follows:

Where

## is the overall induced fault LFI voltage (V)

is the earth fault current, expressed as a complex phasor (A)
is the shielding factor from earth wires, counterpoise earth conductors, etc
is the mutual coupling impedances between the pipeline and the faulted line for a
section of the pipeline ()

Shielding Factor
The shielding factor is the shielding effect caused by earth wires, counterpoise earths and
perhaps other metallic structures, which serves to lower the LFI voltage induced on the pipeline.
There a number of mechanisms that bring about this shielding effect, for example:

If there are overhead earth wires, then not all of the earth fault current will return to
the source via the earth. Some of the fault current will return via the earth wires. The
current flowing through the earth wire will induce a voltage on the pipeline opposed
to the voltage induced by the faulted line.

There is the interaction between the faulted line and overhead earth wires, where the
faulted line induces a voltage on the overhead earth wires, which in turn induce an
opposing voltage on the pipeline.

There are similar inductive coupling interactions between the faulted line, the pipeline
and counterpoise earths or other metallic structures located in the vicinity

For an overhead earth wire, the shielding factor can be calculated as follows:

Where

is the mutual coupling impedances between the faulted line and the earth wire ()
is the self impedance of the earth wire ()
is the mutual coupling impedances between the pipeline and the earth wire ()
is the mutual coupling impedances between the pipeline and the faulted line ()

## Considerations for Calculating Mutual Coupling Impedances

Calculating the mutual coupling impedances between the pipeline and the faulted line,

depends on the phase of the faulted line and it's spatial orientation relative to the pipeline. You
could calculate the mutual coupling impedance between the closest phase and the pipeline,
which would represent the worst case scenario.
Alternatively, you could calculate the mutual coupling impedance for a group of conductors (e.g.
all three phases) by considering the geometric mean separation distance between the pipeline
and the group of conductors. This will result in an induced LFI voltage that is an average of the
conductor group.
Similarly for groups of earth wires (e.g. two overhead earth wires), a geometric mean can be
selected to represent the group rather than selecting a single wire, or modelling interactions
between the wires, faulted line and the pipeline (which becomes increasingly complicated).
impedances in Ohms, multiply the mutual impedances by the sectional length of the pipeline.

## Allowable Fault LFI Limits

Like the case with load LFI, allowable limits for fault LFI are typically stipulated to prevent
electric shock hazards from injuring or killing personnel. Because fault LFI is temporary (lasting
only until the fault is cleared), the allowable limits are normally higher than in the load LFI case.
The limits are generally based on some kind risk analysis and are typically in the order of 500V
to 1000V (see the section on international standards below for more guidance on allowable
limits).
Note that the open-circuit LFI voltage calculated earlier is higher than the pipeline-to-earth
touch voltage as it doesn't take into account any voltage leakages to earth along the pipeline.
Therefore, if the fault LFI voltage you have calculated is lower than the allowable limits, then no
further analysis is necessary.

## Step 9: Analysis of Pipeline-to-Earth Touch Voltages (if

necessary)
If the open-circuit load or fault LFI voltage is above the permissible touch voltage, then the
pipeline-to-earth touch voltages along each section of the pipeline need to be calculated. In order
to calculate the pipeline-to-earth touch voltages, we need an equivalent circuit for the pipeline.
A common approach is to model the pipeline as a lossy transmission line, with the following
equivalent circuit for each pipeline section:

Where

## is the induced LFI voltage on the pipeline section (Vac)

is the longitudinal series admittance of the pipeline section ( - 1)
is the shunt admittance of the pipeline section ( - 1)

For a pipeline with "n" linear sections, the overall equivalent circuit model is therefore:

Where

is the admittance of a pipeline shunt earthing conductor ( - 1). The inverse of the

pipeline characteristic impedance can be used if no shunt earthing conductors are installed at the
ends of the pipeline. In the model above, shunt earthing conductors can be connected to any of
the linear pipeline sections, modelled in series with the pipeline section shunt admittance.
The equivalent circuit can now be readily analysed using Kirchhoff's laws and converted into a
system of linear equations. The unknown pipeline-to-earth node voltages can then be solved
using matrix operations. Depending on the number of line sections, you will probably need to use
a computer program to solve this linear algebra problem.

## Step 10: Apply Mitigation Works (if necessary)

If the pipeline-to-earth touch voltages are still above the allowable limits, then the design of the
right-of-way needs to be modified or mitigation works installed. Design modifications and
mitigation works can include:

## Installation of shunt earthing conductors on the pipeline to underground earthing

systems, to allow LFI voltage to drain to earth along sections of the pipeline

Increasing the distance between the pipeline and the transmission line

## Installation of overhead earth wires or counterpoise earthing conductors

Modifying the design of the pipeline, e.g. coating specification, diameter, etc

## Installation of gradient control wires alongside the pipeline, typically of zinc

International Standards
Most countries have their own standards for electromagnetic interference on pipelines.
In Europe, EN 50443:2011 is the standard for low frequency induction, conductive coupling and
capacitive coupling. This has also been adopted by the British Standard BS EN 50443:2011.
In Australia, AS/NZS 4853:2000 stipulates the limits on pipeline-to-earth touch voltages. There
are two main categories: Category A for pipelines with access to the public or unskilled staff, and
Category B for pipelines with restricted access to skill personnel. For Category A, the load LFI
limit is 32 Vac and fault LFI limit is between 32 and 350 Vac depending on the fault clearing time.
For Category B, the load LFI limit is also 32 Vac, but the fault LFI limit is 1000 Vac (for faults
cleared in less than 1s).

Computer Software
The LFI calculation is greatly simplified by using a computer software package, especially for
more complicated joint rights-of-way. The following commercial software packages are among
the most popular:

Elsyca IRIS

## Sigma Power Low-Fi

What Next?
The LFI calculation is typically done to confirm the pipeline and / or transmission line design and
to determine if mitigation is required. If mitigation measures are required, then the next step
would be to design and specify these mitigation works.

Selected References

## [1] AS/NZS 4853:2000, "Electrical hazards on metallic pipelines"

[2] CIGRE Guide 95, WG 36.02, "Guide on the Influence of High Voltage AC Power
Systems on Metallic Pipelines", 1995

[3] Schlabbach, J., "Short-circuit Currents (IET Power and Energy Series 51)", 2005,
IEE

[4] Tleis, N. D., "Power System Modelling and Fault Analysis", 2008, Elsevier Ltd

[5] Sunde, E. D., "Earth Conduction Effects in Transmission Systems", 1968, Dover
Publications

[6] Carson, J., "Wave Propagation in Overhead Wires with Ground Return", 1926, Bell
System Technology Journal, Vol 5, pp. 539-554

Battery Sizing
Contents
[hide]

1 Introduction

## 1.2 When to do the calculation?

2 IEEE Definitions
3 Battery Characteristics and Types

## 3.6.2 Future Trends

4 Calculation Methodology

## 4.5 Step 5: Determine Battery Capacity

5 Worked Example

5.1 Step 1 and 2: Collect Battery Loads and Construct Load Profile

## 5.4 Step 5: Determine Battery Capacity

6 Computer Software

7 What Next?

Introduction

## Figure 1. Stationary batteries on a rack (courtesy of Power Battery)

This article looks at the sizing of batteries for stationary applications (i.e. they don't move).
Batteries are used in many applications such as AC and DC uninterruptible power supply (UPS)
systems, solar power systems, telecommunications, emergency lighting, etc. Whatever the
application, batteries are seen as a mature, proven technology for storing electrical energy. In
addition to storage, batteries are also used as a means for providing voltage support for weak
power systems (e.g. at the end of small, long transmission lines).

## Why do the calculation?

Sizing a stationary battery is important to ensure that the loads being supplied or the power
system being supported are adequately catered for by the battery for the period of time (i.e.
autonomy) for which it is designed. Improper battery sizing can lead to poor autonomy times,
permanent damage to battery cells from over-discharge, low load voltages, etc.

## When to do the calculation?

The calculation can typically be started when the following information is known:

## Nominal battery voltage

Autonomy time(s)

IEEE Definitions
IEEE Std. 485-1997 provides some definitions related to the battery sizing terminology:

battery duty cycle: The loads a battery is expected to supply for specified time periods.
cell size: The rated capacity of a lead-acid cell or the number of positive plates in a cell.
equalizing charge: A prolonged charge, at a rate higher than the normal float voltage, to
correct any inequalities of voltage and specific gravity that may have developed between
the cells during service.
full float operation: Operation of a dc system with the battery, battery charger, and load
all connected in parallel and with the battery charger supplying the normal dc load plus any
charging current required by the battery. (The battery will deliver current only when the
load exceeds the charger output.)
period: An interval of time in the battery duty cycle during which the load is assumed to be
constant for purposes of cell sizing calculations.
rated capacity (lead-acid): The capacity assigned to a cell by its manufacturer for a
given discharge rate, at a specified electrolyte temperature and specific gravity, to a given
end-of-discharge voltage.
valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) cell: A lead-acid cell that is sealed with the exception
of a valve that opens to the atmosphere when the internal gas pressure in the cell exceeds
atmospheric pressure by a preselected amount. VRLA cells provide a means for
recombination of internally generated oxygen and the suppression of hydrogen gas
evolution to limit water consumption.
vented battery: A battery in which the products of electrolysis and evaporation are
allowed to escape freely to the atmosphere. These batteries are commonly referred to as
flooded.

## Battery Characteristics and Types

Battery Components
Battery technology has not changed much in the last 100 years. The standard construction
method involves flooding lead plates in sulfuric acid. The chemical reaction between the
positively charged lead plate and the negatively charged acid allows the battery to store and
give electricity. The thickness of the lead plate is closely related to the lifespan of the battery
because of a factor called Positive Grid Corrosion. The positive lead plate gradually wears away
over time. Thicker plates are used in deep cycle batteries. This usually translates to a longer
battery life. Although plate thickness is not the only factor related to longer lifespan, it is the
most critical variable.

Battery Lifespan
Most of the loss incurred in charging and discharging batteries is due to internal resistance,
which is eventually wasted as heat. Efficiency ratios are relatively high considering that most
lead acid batteries are 85 to 95 percent efficient at storing the energy they receive. Deep cycle
batteries used in renewable energy applications are designed to provide many years of reliable
performance with proper care and maintenance. Proper maintenance and usage play a major role
in battery lifespan. Toiling over your battery bank daily with complex gadgets and a gallon of
distilled water, however, is not necessary. The most common causes of premature battery failure
include loss of electrolyte due to heat or overcharging, undercharging, excessive vibration,
freezing or extremely high temperatures, and using tap water among other factors

## Battery Charging Stages

There are three basic stages in charging a battery: bulk, absorption, and float. These terms
signify different voltage and current variables involved in each stage of charging.
Bulk Charge: In the first stage of the process, current is sent to the batteries at the
maximum safe rate, batteries will accept it until voltage is brought up to nearly 80-90
percent full charge level. There are limits on the amount of current the battery and/or
wiring can take.
Absorption Charge: In the second stage, voltage peaks and stabilizes and current
begins to taper off as internal resistance rises. The charge controller puts out maximum
voltage at this stage.
Float Charge: This can also be referred to as trickle charging or a maintenance charge.
In this stage, voltage is reduced to lower levels in order to reduce gassing and prolong
battery life. The main purpose of this stage is basically to maintain the batterys charge
in a controlled manner. In Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) the charger sends small, short
charging cycles or pulses when it senses small drops in voltage.

## Depth of Discharge (DOD)

The Depth of Discharge (DOD) is used to describe how deeply the battery is discharged. If the
battery is 100% fully charged, it means the DOD of this battery is 0%. If the battery has
delivered 30% of its energy, here are 70% energy reserved, the DOD of this battery is 30%. And
if a battery is 100% empty, the DOD of this battery is 100%. DOD always can be treated as how
much energy that the battery delivered.

## Determining battery state of charge

There are a few ways to determine the state of charge on a battery, each with their own level of
accuracy. As there is no direct method to measure a batterys state of charge, there are
numerous ways to go about it. One way to gauge a battery is by measuring its static voltage and
comparing it to a standardized chart. This is the least accurate method, but it only involves an
inexpensive digital meter. Another method of gauging the battery involves measuring the density
or specific gravity of the sulfuric acid electrolyte. This is the most accurate test, yet it is only
applicable to the flooded types. This method involves measuring the cells electrolyte density with
a battery hydrometer. Electrolyte density is lower when the battery is discharged and higher as
the cells are charged. The batterys chemical reactions affect the density of the electrolyte at a
constant rate that is predictable enough to get a good indication of the cells state of charge.
Using an amp-hour meter one can also obtain an accurate indication of the batterys state of
charge. Amp-hour meters keep track of all power moving in and out of the battery by time, and
the state of charge is determined by comparing flow rates.

## Amp-Hour rating & Capacity

All deep cycle batteries are classified and rated in amp-hours. Amp-hours is the term used to
describe a standardized rate of discharge measuring current relative to time. It is calculated by
multiplying amps and hours. The generally accepted rating time period for most manufacturers is
20 hours. This means that the battery will provide the rated amperage for about 20 hours until it
is down to 10.5 volts or completely dead. Some battery manufacturers will use 100 hours as the
standard to make them look better, yet it can be useful in long-term backup calculations.

Renewable Applications
There are three main types of batteries that are commonly used in renewable energy systems,
each with their own advantages and disadvantages. Flooded or wet batteries are the most cost
efficient and the most widely used batteries in photovoltaic applications. They require regular
maintenance and need to be used in a vented location, and are extremely well suited for
renewable energy applications. Sealed batteries come in two varieties, the gel cell and Absorbed
Glass Mat (AGM) type. The gel cell uses a silica additive in its electrolyte solution that causes it
to stiffen or gel, eliminating some of the issues with venting and spillage. The Absorbed Glass
Mat construction method suspends the electrolyte in close proximity with the plates active
material. These batteries are sealed, requiring virtually no maintenance. They are more suitable
for remote applications where regular maintenance is difficult, or enclosed locations where
venting is an issue.
a) Flooded Lead Acid (FLA)

Flooded lead acid batteries are the most commonly used batteries, and have the longest track
record in solar electric systems. They usually have the longest life and the lowest cost per amphour of any of the other choices. The downside is that they do require regular maintenance in the
form of watering, equalizing charges and keeping the terminals clean. These cells are often
referred to as wet cells, and they come in two varieties: the serviceable, and the maintenancefree type (which means they are designed to die as soon as the warranty runs out). The
serviceable wet cells come with removable caps, and are the smarter choice, as they allow you to
check their status with a hydrometer.
b) Gelled Electrolyte Sealed Lead Acid (GEL)
Gel sealed batteries use silica to stiffen or gel the electrolyte solution, greatly reducing the
gasses, and volatility of the cell. Since all matter expands and contracts with heat, batteries are
not truly sealed, but are "valve regulated". This means that a tiny valve maintains slight positive
pressure. AGM batteries are slowly phasing out gel technology, but there still are many
applications for the gel cells. The recharge voltage for charging Gel cells are usually lower than
the other styles of lead acid batteries, and should be charged at a slower rate. When they are
charged too fast, gas pockets will form on the plates and force the gelled electrolyte away from
the plate, decreasing the capacity until the gas finds its way to the top of the battery and
recombines with the electrolyte.
c) Sealed Absorbed Glass Mat (AGM)
Absorbed Glass Mat (AGM) is a class of valve-regulated lead acid battery (VLRA) in which the
electrolyte is held in glass mats as opposed to freely flooding the plates. This is achieved by
weaving very thin glass fibers into a mat to increase surface area enough to hold sufficient
electrolyte for the lifetime of the cell. The advantages to using the AGM batteries are many, yet
these batteries are typically twice the cost of their flooded-cell counterpart. On the plus side,
these cells can hold roughly 1.5 times the amp hour capacity of a similar size flooded battery due
to their higher power density. Another factor that improves their efficiency is the higher lead
purity used in AGM cells. Because of their sandwich construction, each plate no longer has to
support its own weight. Their low internal resistance allows them to be charged and discharged
much faster than other types. AGM cells function well in colder temperatures and are highly
resistant to vibration. There are many advantages to using the AGM cells over their flooded
counterpart that are beyond the scope of this article.

## Maintenance & Monitoring

Proper maintenance and monitoring will greatly extend the life of your batteries. Flooded
batteries need to be checked regularly to make sure electrolyte levels are full. The chemical
reaction releases gases, as water molecules are split into hydrogen and oxygen. This, in turn,
consumes water and creates the need to replace it regularly. Only distilled water should ever be
used in batteries, and you should never add any kind of acid solution. The connections from
battery to battery and to the charging and load circuits should always be kept clean and free of
corrosion. Corrosion is created upon charging, when a slight acid mist forms as the electrolyte
bubbles. Corrosion buildup will create a good deal of electrical resistance, eventually contributing
to a shortened battery life and malfunctions. A good way to keep up on the terminals is to
regularly clean them with a baking soda solution

Future Trends
Companies world-wide are quickly adjusting to the increased global market for solar systems by
developing batteries that are better suited for photovoltaic systems. At some distant point in the
future, it is likely that lead-acid batteries will become extinct, as newer technologies in lithium
ion and Nickel metal hydride continue to evolve. Because lead-acid batteries are under the hood
of virtually every car, advancements in lead-acid technology, however are still being made. New
developments in lead-acid technology usually originate in the auto industry. Efficiency ratings are
constantly going up, as new sensors and improved materials are helping batteries achieve longer
lifespan.

Calculation Methodology
The calculation is based on a mixture of normal industry practice and technical standards IEEE
Std 485 (1997, R2003) "Recommended Practice for Sizing Lead-Acid Batteries for Stationary
Applications" and IEEE Std 1115 (2000, R2005) "Recommended Practice for Sizing NickelCadmium Batteries for Stationary Applications". The calculation is based on the ampere-hour
method for sizing battery capacity (rather than sizing by positive plates).
The focus of this calculation is on standard lead-acid or nickel-cadmium (NiCd) batteries, so
please consult specific supplier information for other types of batteries (e.g. lithium-ion, nickelmetal hydride, etc). Note also that the design of the battery charger is beyond the scope of this
calculation.
There are five main steps in this calculation:
1) Collect the loads that the battery needs to support
2) Construct a load profile and calculate the design energy (VAh)
3) Select the battery type and determine the characteristics of the cell

## 4) Select the number of battery cells to be connected in series

5) Calculate the required Ampere-hour (Ah) capacity of the battery

## Step 1: Collect the battery loads

The first step is to determine the loads that the battery will be supporting. This is largely specific
to the application of the battery, for example an AC UPS System or a Solar Power System.

## Step 2: Construct the Load Profile

Refer to the Load Profile Calculation for details on how to construct a load profile and calculate
the design energy,

, in VAh.

The autonomy time is often specified by the Client (i.e. in their standards). Alternatively, IEEE
446, "IEEE Recommended Practice for Emergency and Standby Power Systems for Industrial and
Commercial Applications" has some guidance (particularly Table 3-2) for autonomy times. Note
that IEEE 485 and IEEE 1115 refer to the load profile as the "duty cycle".

## Step 3: Select Battery Type

The next step is to select the battery type (e.g. sealed lead-acid, nickel-cadmium, etc). The
selection process is not covered in detail here, but the following factors should be taken into
account (as suggested by IEEE):

## Physical characteristics, e.g. dimensions, weight, container material, intercell

connections, terminals

## Frequency and depth of discharge

Ambient temperature

Charging characteristics

Maintenance requirements

Ventilation requirements

## Seismic factors (shock and vibration)

Next, find the characteristics of the battery cells, typically from supplier data sheets. The
characteristics that should be collected include:

Cell temperature

## Cell end-of-discharge voltage (EODV).

Battery manufacturers will often quote battery Ah capacities based on a number of different
EODVs. For lead-acid batteries, the selection of an EODV is largely based on an EODV that
prevents damage of the cell through over-discharge (from over-expansion of the cell plates).
Typically, 1.75V to 1.8V per cell is used when discharging over longer than 1 hour. For short
discharge durations (i.e. <15 minutes), lower EODVs of around 1.67V per cell may be used
without damaging the cell.
Nickel-Cadmium (NiCd) don't suffer from damaged cells due to over-discharge. Typical EODVs for
Ni-Cd batteries are 1.0V to 1.14V per cell.

## Step 4: Number of Cells in Series

The most common number of cells for a specific voltage rating is shown below:
Rated Voltage

Lead-Acid

Ni-Cd

12V

9-10

24V

12

18-20

48V

24

36-40

125V

60

92-100

250V

120

184-200

However, the number of cells in a battery can also be calculated to more accurately match the
tolerances of the load. The number of battery cells required to be connected in series must fall
between the two following limits:

(1)

(2)
where

## is the minimum number of battery cells

is the nominal battery voltage (Vdc)
is the maximum load voltage tolerance (%)
is the minimum load voltage tolerance (%)
is the cell charging voltage (Vdc)
is the cell end of discharge voltage (Vdc)
The limits are based on the minimum and maximum voltage tolerances of the load. As a
maximum, the battery at float voltage (or boost voltage if applicable) needs to be within the
maximum voltage range of the load. Likewise as a minimum, the battery at its end of discharge
voltage must be within the minimum voltage range of the load. The cell charging voltage
depends on the type of charge cycle that is being used, e.g. float, boost, equalising, etc, and the
maximum value should be chosen.
Select the number of cells in between these two limits (more or less arbitrary, though
somewhere in the middle of the min/max values would be most appropriate).

## Step 5: Determine Battery Capacity

The minimum battery capacity required to accommodate the design load over the specified
autonomy time can be calculated as follows:

where

## is the minimum battery capacity (Ah)

is the design energy over the autonomy time (VAh)
is the nominal battery voltage (Vdc)
is a battery ageing factor (%)
is a temperature correction factor (%)
is a capacity rating factor (%)
is the maximum depth of discharge (%)

Table 1. Temperature correction factors for vented lead-acid cells (from IEEE 485)

Select a battery Ah capacity that exceeds the minimum capacity calculated above. The battery
discharge rate (C rating) should also be specified, approximately the duration of discharge (e.g.
for 8 hours of discharge, use the C8 rate). The selected battery specification is therefore the Ah
capacity and the discharge rate (e.g. 500Ah C10).
An explanation of the different factors:
Ageing factor captures the decrease in battery performance due to age.
The performance of a lead-acid battery is relatively stable but drops markedly at latter
stages of life. The "knee point" of its life vs performance curve is approximately when the
battery can deliver 80% of its rated capacity. After this point, the battery has reached the
end of its useful life and should be replaced. Therefore, to ensure that battery can meet
capacity throughout its useful life, an ageing factor of 1.25 should be applied (i.e. 1 /
0.8). There are some exceptions, check with the manufacturer.
For Ni-Cd batteries, the principles are similar to lead-acid cells. Please consult the battery
manufacturer for suitable ageing factors, but generally, applying a factor of 1.25 is
standard. For applications with high temperatures and/or frequent deep discharges, a
higher factor of 1.43 may be used. For more shallower discharges, a lower factor of 1.11
can be used.

## Temperature correction factor is an allowance to capture the ambient installation

temperature. The capacity for battery cells are typicall quoted for a standard
operating temperature of 25C and where this differs with the installation temperature,
a correction factor must be applied. IEEE 485 gives guidance for vented lead-acid
cells (see figure right), however for sealed lead-acid and Ni-Cd cells, please consult
manufacturer recommendations. Note that high temperatures lower battery life
irrespective of capacity and the correction factor is for capacity sizing only, i.e. you
CANNOT increase battery life by increasing capacity.

Capacity rating factor accounts for voltage depressions during battery discharge.
Lead-acid batteries experience a voltage dip during the early stages of discharge
followed by some recovery. Ni-Cds may have lower voltages on discharge due to
prolonged float charging (constant voltage). Both of these effects should be
accounted for by the capacity rating factor - please see the manufacturer's
recommendations. For Ni-Cd cells, IEEE 1115 Annex C suggests that for float
charging applications, Kt = rated capacity in Ah / discharge current in Amps (for
specified discharge time and EODV).

Worked Example

## Step 1 and 2: Collect Battery Loads and Construct Load Profile

The loads and load profile from the simple example in the Energy Load Profile Calculation will be
used (see the figure right). The design energy demand calculated for this system is Ed = 3,242.8
VAh.

## Step 3: Select Battery Type

Vented lead acid batteries have been selected for this example.

## Step 4: Number of Cells in Series

Suppose that the nominal battery voltage is Vdc = 120Vdc, the cell charging voltage is Vc =
2.25Vdc/cell, the end-of-discharge voltage is Veod = 1.8Vdc/cell, and the minimum and maximum
load voltage tolerances areVl,min = 10% and Vl,max = 20% respectively.
The maximum number of cells in series is:
The maximum number of cells in series is:

cells

cells

cells

## Step 5: Determine Battery Capacity

Given a depth of discharge kdod = 80%, battery ageing factor ka = 25%, temperature correction
factor for vented cells at 30 deg C of kt = 0.956 and a capacity rating factor of kc= 10%, the
minimum battery capacity is:

Ah

Computer Software
Some battery manufacturers (such as Alcad) also provide software programs to size batteries
using basic input data such as load profiles, autonomies, etc. The software will size the batteries
and will often also provide details regarding different battery rack (or enclosure) dimensions.

Android App
If you have an android phone then we suggest using our app "Battery Sizing Tool".

What Next?
Using the results of the battery sizing calculation, the approximate dimensions of the batteries
can be estimated based on typical vendor information. This will assist in determining the size,
number and dimensions of the battery racks or cabinets required, which can then be used as
input into the equipment / room layouts. Preliminary budget pricing can also be estimated based
on the calculation results.

Load Profile
Contents
[hide]

1 Introduction
o

## 1.2 When to do the calculation?

2 Calculation Methodology
2.1 Step 1: Prepare the Load List

## 2.3.2 Design Energy Demand

3 Computer Software
4 What Next?

Introduction

## Figure 1. Example of a load profile (using the autonomy method)

The energy load profile (hereafter referred to as simply "load profile") is an estimate of the total
energy demanded from a power system or sub-system over a specific period of time (e.g. hours,
days, etc). The load profile is essentially a two-dimensional chart showing the instantaneous load

(in Volt-Amperes) over time, and represents a convenient way to visualise how the system loads
changes with respect to time.
Note that it is distinct from the electrical load schedule - the load profile incorporates a time
dimension and therefore estimates the energy demand (in kWh) instead of just the
instantaneous load / power (in kW).

## Why do the calculation?

Estimating the energy demand is important for the sizing of energy storage devices, e.g.
batteries, as the required capacity of such energy storage devices depends on the total amount
of energy that will be drawn by the loads. This calculation is also useful for energy efficiency
applications, where it is important to make estimates of the total energy use in a system.

## When to do the calculation?

A load profile needs to be constructed whenever the sizing of energy storage devices (e.g.
batteries) is required. The calculation can be done once preliminary load information is available.

Calculation Methodology

## There are two distinct methods for constructing a load profile:

1) Autonomy method is the traditional method used for backup power applications, e.g.
UPS systems. In this method, the instantaneous loads are displayed over an autonomy
time, which is the period of time that the loads need to be supported by a backup power
system in the event of a power supply interruption.

2) 24 Hour Profile method displays the average or expected instantaneous loads over a
24 hour period. This method is more commonly associated with standalone power system
applications, e.g. solar systems, or energy efficiency applications.
Both methods share the same three general steps, but with some differences in the
details:

## Step 1: Prepare the Load List

The first step is to transform the collected loads into a load list. It is similar in form to
the electrical load schedule, but is a little simplified for the purpose of constructing a load profile.
For instance, instead of categorising loads by their load duty (continuous, intermittent or
standby), it is assumed that all loads are operating continuously.
However, a key difference of this load list is the time period associated with each load item:
In the autonomy method, the associated time period is called the "autonomy" and is the
number of hours that the load needs to be supported during a power supply interruption. Some
loads may only be required to ride through brief interruptions or have enough autonomy to shut
down safely, while some critical systems may need to operate for as long as possible (up to
several days).
In the 24 hour profile method, the associated time period is represented in terms of "ON" and
"OFF" times. These are the times in the day (in hours and minutes) that the load is expected to
be switched on and then later turned off. For loads that operate continuously, the ON and OFF
time would be 0:00 and 23:59 respectively. A load item may need to be entered in twice if it is
expected to start and stop more than once a day.

## Calculating the Consumed Load VA

For this calculation, we are interested in the consumed apparent power of the loads (in VA). For
each load, this can be calculated as follows:

Where

## is the consumed load power (W)

is the load power factor (pu)
is the load efficiency (pu)

Autonomy method

## Step 2: Construct the Load Profile

The load profile is constructed from the load list and is essentially a chart that shows the
distribution of the loads over time. The construction of the load profile will be explained by a
simple example:

## Figure 3. Load profile constructed for this example

Suppose the following loads were identified based on the Autonomy Method:
Description

Load (VA)

Autonomy (h

DCS Cabinet

200

ESD Cabinet

200

Telecommunications Cabinet

150

Computer Console

90

The load profile is constructed by stacking "energy rectangles" on top of each other. An energy
rectangles has the load VA as the height and the autonomy time as the width and its area is a
visual representation of the load's total energy. For example, the DCS Cabinet has an energy
rectangle of height 200 (VA) and width 4 (hours). The load profile is created by stacking the
widest rectangles first, e.g. in this example it is the Telecommunications Cabinet that is stacked
first.
For the 24 Hour method, energy rectangles are constructed with the periods of time that a load
is energised (i.e. the time difference between the ON and OFF times).

## Step 3: Calculate Design Load and Energy Demand

Design Load
The design load is the instantaneous load for which the power conversion, distribution and
protection devices should be rated, e.g. rectifiers, inverters, cables, fuses, circuit breakers, etc.
The design can be calculated as follows:

Where

## is the design load apparent power (VA)

is the peak load apparent power, derived from the load profile (VA)
is a contingency for future load growth (%)
is a design margin (%)

It is common to make considerations for future load growth (typically somewhere between 5 and
20%), to allow future loads to be supported. If no future loads are expected, then this
contingency can be ignored. A design margin is used to account for any potential inaccuracies in
estimating the loads, less-than-optimum operating conditions due to improper maintenance, etc.
Typically, a design margin of 10% to 15% is recommended, but this may also depend on Client
preferences.
Example: From our simple example above, the peak load apparent power is 640VA. Given a
future growth contingency of 10% and a design margin of 10%, the design load is:
VA

## Design Energy Demand

The design energy demand is used for sizing energy storage devices. From the load profile, the
total energy (in terms of VAh) can be computed by finding the area underneath the load profile
curve (i.e. integrating instantaneous power with respect to time over the autonomy or 24h
period). The design energy demand (or design VAh) can then be calculated by the following
equation:

Where

## is the design energy demand (VAh)

is the total load energy, which is the area under the load profile (VAh)
is a contingency for future load growth as defined above (%)
is a design contingency as defined above (%)

Example: From our simple example above, the total load energy from the load profile is
2,680VAh. Given a future growth contingency of 10% and a design margin of 10%, the design
energy demand is:

Vah

Computer Software
The load profile is normally done manually with the help of a spreadsheet. Since it's such a
simple calculation, it's hard to argue that special software is warranted.

What Next?
The load profile is usually an intermediate step in part of a larger calculation (for example, AC
UPS System or Solar Power System calculations). Alternatively, constructing a load profile may
be the first step to analysing energy use, for example in energy efficiency applications.

AC UPS Sizing
Contents

[hide]

1 Introduction
o

## 1.2 When to do the calculation?

2 Calculation Methodology

## 2.3.2 Number of Cells in Series

2.4 Step 4: UPS Sizing

## 2.4.4 Static Switch Sizing

3 Worked Example

3.1 Step 1 and 2: Collect the AC UPS Loads and Construct Load Profile

## 3.3.3 Inverter and Static Switch Sizing

4 Template
5 Computer Software
6 What next?

Introduction
This calculation deals with the sizing of an AC uninterruptible power supply (UPS) system (i.e.
rectifier, battery bank and inverter). In this calculation, it is assumed that the AC UPS is a double
conversion type with a basic system topology as shown in Figure 1.

## Figure 1. AC UPS basic system topology

An external maintenance bypass switch and galvanic isolation transformers are other common
additions to the basic topology, but these have been omitted from the system as they are
irrelevant for the sizing calculation.

## An AC UPS system is used to support critical / sensitive AC loads. It is typically a battery-backed

system which will continue to operate for a specified amount of time (called the autonomy) after
a main power supply interruption. AC UPS systems are also used as stable power supplies that
provide a reasonably constant voltage and frequency output, independent of voltage input. This
is particularly useful for sensitive electrical equipment on main power supplies that are prone to
voltage / frequency fluctuations or instability.
The AC UPS sizing calculation determines the ratings for the main AC UPS system components:
1) rectifier, 2) battery banks and 3) inverter.
In some cases, the manufacturer will independently size the system and it is only necessary to
construct the AC UPS load schedule and load profile. However the calculation results will also
help determine the indicative dimensions of the equipment (e.g. size of battery banks) for
preliminary layout purposes.

## When to do the calculation?

The AC UPS sizing calculation can be done when the following prerequisite information is known:

## Input / Output AC voltage

Autonomy time(s)

Battery type

Calculation Methodology
The calculation procedure has four main steps:
1) Determine and collect the prospective AC UPS loads
2) Construct a load profile and determine the UPS design load (VA) and design energy
(VAh)
3) Calculate the size of the stationary battery (number of cells in series and Ah capacity)
4) Determine the size of the inverter, rectifier/ charger and static switch

## Step 1: Collect the AC UPS Loads

The first step is to determine the type and quantity of loads that the AC UPS system will be
expected to support. For industrial facilities, this will typically be critical instrumentation and
control loads such as the DCS and ESD processor and marshalling hardware, critical workstations

and HMI's, telecommunications equipment and sensitive electronics. The necessary load data
should be available from the instrumentation and control engineers.
For commercial facilities, UPS loads will mainly be server, data / network and telecommunications
hardware.

## Step 2: Load Profile, Design Load and Design Energy

Refer to the Load Profile Calculation for details on how to construct a load profile, calculate the
design load (

## profiles is typically used for AC UPS systems.

The autonomy time is often specified by the Client (i.e. in their standards). Alternatively, IEEE
446, "IEEE Recommended Practice for Emergency and Standby Power Systems for Industrial and
Commercial Applications" has some guidance (particularly Table 3-2) for autonomy times.
Sometimes a single autonomy time is used for the entire AC UPS load, which obviously makes
the construction of the load profile easier to compute.

## Step 3: Battery Sizing

Refer to the Battery Sizing Calculation for details on how to size the battery for the AC UPS
system. The following sections provide additional information specific to battery sizing for AC UPS
applications.

## Nominal Battery (or DC Link) Voltage

The nominal battery / DC link voltage is often selected by the AC UPS manufacturer. However, if
required to be selected, the following factors need to be considered:

DC output voltage range of the rectifier the rectifier must be able to output the
specified DC link voltage

DC input voltage range of the inverter the DC link voltage must be within the input
voltage tolerances of the inverter. Note that the battery end of discharge voltage
should be within these tolerances.

Number of battery cells required in series this will affect the overall dimensions and
size of the battery rack. If physical space is a constraint, then less batteries in series
would be preferable.

Total DC link current (at full load) this will affect the sizing of the DC cables and
inter-cell battery links. Obviously the smaller the better.

In general, the DC link voltage is usually selected to be close to the nominal output voltage.

## Number of Cells in Series

The number of battery cells required to be connected in series must be between the two
following limits:

(1)

(2)
where Nmax is the maximum number of battery cells
Nmin is the minimum number of battery cells
Vdc is the nominal battery / DC link voltage (Vdc)
Vi,max is the inverter maximum input voltage tolerance (%)
Vi,min is the inverter minimum input voltage tolerance (%)
Vf is the nominal cell float (or boost) voltage (Vdc)
Veod is the cell end of discharge voltage (Vdc)
The limits are based on the input voltage tolerance of the inverter. As a maximum, the battery at
float voltage (or boost if applicable) needs to be within the maximum input voltage range of the
inverter. Likewise as a minimum, the battery at its end of discharge voltage must be within the
minimum input voltage range of the inverter.
Select the number of cells in between these two limits (more or less arbitrary, though
somewhere in the middle of the min/max values would be appropriate).

## Step 4: UPS Sizing

Overall UPS Sizing
Most of the time, all you need to provide is the overall UPS kVA rating and the UPS vendor will do
the rest. Given the design load (

## in VA or kVA) calculated in Step 2, select an overall UPS

rating that exceeds the design load. Vendors typically have standard UPS ratings, so it is possible
to simply select the first standard rating that exceeds the design load. For example, if the design
load 12kVA, then the next size unit (e.g. 15kVA UPS) would be selected.

## Rectifier / Charger Sizing

The rectifier / charger should be sized to supply the inverter at full load and also charge the
batteries (at the maximum charge current). The design DC load current can be calculated by:

## where IL,dc is the design DC load current (full load) (A)

S is the selected UPS rating (kVA)
Vdc is the nominal battery / DC link voltage (Vdc)
The maximum battery charging current can be computed as follows:

## where Ic is the maximum DC charge current (A)

C is the selected battery capacity (Ah)
kl is the battery recharge efficiency / loss factor (typically 1.1) (pu)
tc is the minimum battery recharge time (hours)
The total minimum DC rectifier / charger current is therefore:

Select the next standard rectifier / charger rating that exceeds the total minimum DC current
above.

Inverter Sizing
The inverter must be rated to continuously supply the UPS loads. Therefore, the inverter can be
sized using the design AC load current (based on the selected UPS kVA rating).
For a three-phase UPS:

## where IL is the design AC load current (full load) (A)

S is the selected UPS rating (kVA)
Vo is the nominal output voltage (line-to-line voltage for a three phase UPS) (Vac)
Select the next standard inverter rating that exceeds the design AC load current.

## Static Switch Sizing

Like the inverter, the static switch must be rated to continuously supply the UPS loads.
Therefore, the static switch can be sized using the design AC load current (as above for the
inverter sizing).

Worked Example
Step 1 and 2: Collect the AC UPS Loads and Construct Load Profile

## Figure 2. Load profile for

this example

For this example, we shall use the same loads and load profile detailed in the Energy Load Profile
Calculationexample. The load profile is shown in the figure right and the following quantities were
calculated:

## Step 3: Battery Sizing

For this example, we shall use the same battery sizes calculated in the Battery Sizing
Calculation worked example. The selected number of cells in series is 62 cells and the minimum
battery capacity is 44.4 Ah. A battery capacity of 50 Ah is selected.

## Step 4: UPS Sizing

Overall Sizing
Given the design load of 768 VA, then a 1 kVA UPS would be appropriate.

Rectifier Sizing
Given a nominal dc link voltage of 120Vdc, the design DC load current is:

A
Suppose the minimum battery recharge time is 2 hours and a recharge efficiency factor of 1.1 is
used. The maximum battery charging current is:

A
Therefore the total minimum DC rectifier / charger current is:

A
A DC rectifier rating of 40A is selected.

## Inverter and Static Switch Sizing

Suppose the nominal output voltage is 240Vac. The design AC load current is:

A
An inverter and static switch rating of 5A is selected.

Template
A professional, fully customisable Excel spreadsheet template of the AC UPS calculation can be
purchased from Tradebit.
The template is based on the calculation procedure described in this page and includes the
following features:

Battery sizing

## UPS component sizing (e.g. rectifier, inverter, etc)

UPS Conf

Computer Software
Template
A professional, fully customisable Excel spreadsheet template of the AC UPS calculation can be
purchased from Tradebit.
The template is based on the calculation procedure described in this page and includes the
following features:

Battery sizing

## UPS component sizing (e.g. rectifier, inverter, etc)

Screenshots from AC UPS Template

UPS Configuration

Load Profile

Battery Sizing

Preliminary sizing is normally done manually. Notwithstanding this, many AC UPS manufacturers
provide sizing tools as part of their service package (for example, see the APC online UPS
selector tool)

What next?
Using the results of the UPS sizing calculation, the approximate dimensions of the batteries and
UPS cabinet can be estimated based on typical vendor information. This will assist in developing
the equipment / room layouts. Preliminary budget pricing can also be estimated based on the
calculation results.

AC Reactance
Typical AC reactances for copper and aluminium insulated cables operating at 50Hz are based on
values given in AS/NZS 3008.1.

Multicore Cables
AC Reactance (\km)
Size (mm2)

PVC

XLPE
EPR

Circular

(1)

Shaped

(1)

Circular

(1)

Shaped

(1)

0.119

0.139

0.114

1.5

0.111

0.129

0.107

2.5

0.102

0.118

0.0988

0.102

0.11

0.093

0.0967

0.104

0.0887

10

0.0906

0.0967

0.084

16

0.0861

0.0794

0.0913

0.0805

0.0742

25

0.0853

0.0786

0.0895

0.0808

0.0744

35

0.0826

0.0761

0.0863

0.0786

0.0725

50

0.0797

0.0734

0.0829

0.0751

0.0692

70

0.077

0.071

0.0798

0.0741

0.0683

95

0.0766

0.0706

0.079

0.0725

0.0668

120

0.0743

0.0685

0.0765

0.0713

0.0657

150

0.0745

0.0687

0.0765

0.0718

0.0662

185

0.0744

0.0686

0.0762

0.072

0.0663

240

0.0735

0.0678

0.0751

0.0709

0.0653

300

0.0732

0.0675

0.0746

0.0704

0.0649

400

0.0728

0.0671

0.074

0.0702

0.0647

500

0.0723

0.0666

0.0734

0.07

0.0645

## Single Core Cables

AC Reactance (\km)
Size (mm2)

PVC
Flat

(1)

EPR
Trefoil

Flat

(1)

XLPE
Trefoil

Flat

(1)

Trefoil

0.184

0.168

0.194

0.179

0.181

0.166

1.5

0.172

0.157

0.183

0.167

0.17

0.155

2.5

0.159

0.143

0.168

0.153

0.156

0.141

0.152

0.137

0.157

0.142

0.146

0.131

0.143

0.128

0.148

0.133

0.138

0.123

10

0.134

0.118

0.138

0.123

0.129

0.114

16

0.126

0.111

0.13

0.114

0.122

0.106

25

0.121

0.106

0.125

0.109

0.118

0.102

35

0.117

0.101

0.12

0.104

0.113

0.0982

50

0.111

0.0962

0.114

0.0988

0.108

0.0924

70

0.107

0.0917

0.109

0.0941

0.104

0.0893

95

0.106

0.0904

0.108

0.0924

0.102

0.0868

120

0.102

0.087

0.104

0.0889

0.0996

0.0844

150

0.102

0.0868

0.104

0.0885

0.0996

0.0844

185

0.101

0.0862

0.103

0.0878

0.0988

0.0835

240

0.0999

0.0847

0.101

0.0861

0.097

0.0818

300

0.0991

0.0839

0.1

0.0852

0.0961

0.0809

400

0.0982

0.0829

0.0993

0.0841

0.0955

0.0802

500

0.0973

0.082

0.0983

0.083

0.0948

0.0796

630

0.0952

0.08

0.0961

0.0809

0.094

0.0787

Note (1): Single core cables are laid flat and touching
Back to Low Voltage Cable Data Reference

AC Resistance
Typical AC resistances for copper and aluminium insulated cables operating at 50Hz are based on
values given in AS/NZS 3008.1.
Contents
[hide]

1 Multicore Cables
o

## 1.2 Aluminium Conductors

2 Single Core Cables

Multicore Cables
Copper Conductors
Note that for tinned copper conductors, a scaling factor of 1.01 should be applied.
AC Resistance (\km) of Multicore Copper Cables
Size (mm2)

Circular Conductors

Shaped Conductors

45oC

60oC

75oC

90oC

110oC

45oC

60oC

75oC

90oC

23.3

24.5

25.8

27

28.7

1.5

14.9

15.7

16.5

17.3

18.4

2.5

8.14

8.57

9.01

9.45

10

5.06

5.33

5.61

5.88

6.24

3.38

3.56

3.75

3.93

4.17

10

2.01

2.12

2.23

2.33

2.48

16

1.26

1.33

1.4

1.47

1.56

1.26

1.33

1.4

1.47

25

0.799

0.842

0.884

0.927

0.984

0.799

0.842

0.884

0.927

35

0.576

0.607

0.638

0.669

0.71

0.576

0.607

0.638

0.669

50

0.426

0.449

0.471

0.494

0.524

0.426

0.448

0.471

0.494

70

0.295

0.311

0.327

0.343

0.364

0.295

0.311

0.327

0.342

95

0.214

0.225

0.236

0.248

0.262

0.213

0.224

0.236

0.247

120

0.17

0.179

0.188

0.197

0.209

0.17

0.179

0.187

0.196

150

0.139

0.146

0.153

0.16

0.17

0.138

0.145

0.153

0.16

185

0.112

0.118

0.123

0.129

0.136

0.111

0.117

0.123

0.128

240

0.087

0.0912

0.0955

0.0998

0.105

0.0859

0.0902

0.0945

0.0988

300

0.0712

0.0745

0.0778

0.0812

0.0852

0.0698

0.0732

0.0766

0.08

400

0.058

0.0605

0.063

0.0656

0.0685

0.0563

0.0589

0.0615

0.0641

500

0.0486

0.0506

0.0525

0.0544

0.0565

0.0465

0.0485

0.0508

0.0526

Aluminium Conductors
AC Resistance (\km) of Multicore Aluminium Cables
Size (mm2)

Circular Conductors

Shaped Conductors

45oC

60oC

75oC

90oC

45oC

60oC

75oC

90oC

16

2.1

2.22

2.33

2.45

2.1

2.22

2.33

2.45

25

1.32

1.39

1.47

1.54

1.32

1.39

1.47

1.54

35

0.956

1.01

1.06

1.11

0.956

1.01

1.06

1.11

50

0.706

0.745

0.784

0.822

0.706

0.745

0.783

0.822

70

0.488

0.515

0.542

0.569

0.488

0.515

0.542

0.568

95

0.353

0.373

0.392

0.411

0.353

0.372

0.392

0.411

120

0.28

0.295

0.31

0.325

0.279

0.295

0.31

0.325

150

0.228

0.241

0.253

0.265

0.228

0.24

0.253

0.265

185

0.182

0.192

0.202

0.212

0.182

0.192

0.202

0.211

240

0.14

0.148

0.155

0.162

0.139

0.147

0.154

0.162

300

0.113

0.119

0.125

0.131

0.112

0.118

0.124

0.13

400

0.0897

0.0943

0.0988

0.103

0.0886

0.0932

0.0978

0.102

500

0.073

0.0765

0.08

0.0835

0.0716

0.0752

0.0788

0.0824

## Single Core Cables

AC Resistance (\km) of Single Core Cables
Size (mm2)

## Copper Conductors (1)

Aluminium Conductors
45oC

60oC

75oC

90oC

45oC

60oC

75oC

90oC

110oC

23.3

24.5

25.8

27

28.7

1.5

14.9

15.7

16.5

17.3

18.4

2.5

8.14

8.57

9.01

9.45

10

5.06

5.33

5.61

5.88

6.24

3.38

3.56

3.75

3.93

4.17

10

2.01

2.12

2.23

2.33

2.48

16

2.1

2.22

2.33

2.45

1.26

1.33

1.4

1.47

1.56

25

1.32

1.39

1.47

1.54

0.799

0.842

0.884

0.927

0.984

35

0.956

1.01

1.06

1.11

0.576

0.607

0.638

0.668

0.71

50

0.706

0.745

0.783

0.822

0.426

0.448

0.471

0.494

0.524

70

0.488

0.515

0.542

0.568

0.295

0.311

0.327

0.342

0.363

95

0.353

0.372

0.392

0.411

0.213

0.225

0.236

0.247

0.262

120

0.279

0.295

0.31

0.325

0.17

0.179

0.188

0.197

0.208

150

0.228

0.24

0.253

0.265

0.138

0.145

0.153

0.16

0.169

185

0.182

0.192

0.202

0.212

0.111

0.117

0.123

0.129

0.136

240

0.14

0.147

0.155

0.162

0.0862

0.0905

0.0948

0.0991

0.105

300

0.113

0.119

0.125

0.13

0.0703

0.0736

0.077

0.0803

0.0846

400

0.089

0.0936

0.0981

0.103

0.0569

0.0595

0.062

0.0646

0.0677

500

0.0709

0.0744

0.0779

0.0813

0.0467

0.0487

0.0506

0.0525

0.0547

630

0.0571

0.0597

0.0623

0.0649

0.0389

0.0404

0.0418

0.0432

0.0448

Note (1): for tinned copper conductors, a scaling factor of 1.01 should be applied.

Area

Diameter

AWG / kcmil
mm2

kcmil

mm

inch

20

0.518

1.02

0.812

0.0320

19

0.653

1.29

0.912

0.0359

18

0.823

1.62

1.024

0.0403

17

1.04

2.05

1.15

0.0453

16

1.31

2.58

1.291

0.0508

15

1.65

3.26

1.45

0.0571

14

2.08

4.11

1.628

0.0641

13

2.62

5.18

1.828

0.072

12

3.31

6.53

2.053

0.0808

11

4.17

8.23

2.305

0.0907

10

5.26

10.4

2.588

0.1019

6.63

13.1

2.906

0.1144

8.37

16.5

3.264

0.1285

10.5

20.8

3.665

0.1443

13.3

26.3

4.115

0.162

16.8

33.1

4.621

0.1819

21.2

41.7

5.189

0.2043

26.7

52.6

5.827

0.2294

33.6

66.4

6.544

0.2576

42.4

83.7

7.348

0.2893

1/0

53.5

106

8.252

0.3249

2/0

67.4

133

9.266

0.3648

3/0

85

168

10.404

0.4096

4/0

107

212

11.684

0.46

250

127

250

12.700

0.5000

300

152

300

13.912

0.5477

350

177

350

15.027

0.5916

400

203

400

16.064

0.6325

500

253

500

17.960

0.7071

600

304

600

19.675

0.7746

700

355

700

21.251

0.8367

750

380

750

21.997

0.8660

800

405

800

22.718

0.8944

900

456

900

24.096

0.9487

1000

507

1000

25.400

1.0000

1250

633

1250

28.398

1.1180

1500

760

1500

31.108

1.2247

1750

887

1750

33.601

1.3229

2000

1013

2000

35.921

1.4142

Category: Cables

## Cable Code Designation

Code designations for cables
A cable code of 2 - 4 letters is used to descriebe the construction.
Additional abbrevation for instrumentation cables: Collective screen = (c) Individual pair or triple
screen = (i)
The interpretation (per letter) can be read from the table below:
1st. letter: Insulation

sheath

3rd. letter:
Armouring/Screen

## Fibre, tight cladded

Aluminium (optional
with corrosion
protection)

Strength member
yarn

Yarn + bitumen

## Fire resistant tape +

insulation (Halogenfree)

Corrogated aluminium
(o.w.c.p.)

## Steel tapes, 2 off

Hydrocarbon resistant
sehath

Polychloroprene
(Neoprene) PCP, or
chlorinated
polyethylene - CPE

Polychloroprene
(Neoprene) PCP, or
chlorinated
polyethylene - CPE

Galvanized steel
wire braid

Polychloroprene
(Neoprene) PCP, or
chlorinated
polyethylene - CPE

## Impregnated paper Drip

free

Aluminium + Plastics

## Oil filled cable

reinforcement
(Longitudinal /
Transverse)

Polyethylene - PE
Polypropylene - PP

Polyethylene - PE
Polypropylene - PP

## Oil filled cable

reinforcement
(Transverse only)

Polyethylene - PE
Polypropylene - PP

PE or PP + filling
compound

Bedding or taping
(Halogen-free)

## Flat steel wire

armour

Semi-conducting PE

Polyamid - PA

PE + PA

Chlorosulphonated
polyethylene - CSP

Chlorosulphonated
polyethylene - CSP

## Steel tape + steel

wires

Chlorosulphonated
polyethylene - CSP

Thermoplastic
compound (Halogenfree)

Thermoplastic
compound (Halogenfree)

## Steel tapes, 4 off

Thermoplastic
compound (Halogenfree)

Paper

Lead

or rubber coated

Lead

## Air + plastics (Coaxial

cable)

Aluminium laminate +
plastics sheath

Aluminium
(laminated to outer
jacket)

Expanded PE or PP +

Polyester

Polyester

filling compound
N

Impregnated paper

Polyurethane

Steel (laminated to
outer jacket)

Impregnated paper,
oilfilled cable

Lead + Plastics

## Copper wire braid

(Tinned or bare)

Polyvinylchloride PVC

Polyvinylchloride PVC

Phosphorbronze
wire braid

## Fibre in loose tube

Steel wires +
counter steel tape
(optional)

Ethylenepropylene
rubber - EPR

Ethylenepropylene
rubber - EPR

## Steel wires (round)

+ filling compound

Ethylenepropylene
rubber - EPR

Silicone rubber

Bedding or taping +
concentric conductor

Concentric
conductor (Screen)

Silicone rubber

Cross-linked
polyethylene XLPE

PE + aluminium wire +
steel tape

Cross-linked
polyethylene XLPE

Halogen-free thermoset
compound EMA or
EVA

Halogen-free thermoset
compound EMA or
EVA

Halogen-free thermoset
compound EMA or EVA

Aluminium screen

## Double wire armour

(two layers)

Other halogen-free
thermoset materials

Other materials

Other materials

Catenary wire

Other materials

No insulation

No bedding or
equivalent

No armour

No sheath7

Screen

Flour plastics

Y
Z

FEP

## Code designation according to the VDE

Polyurethane

Polyvinylchloride PVC

Flour plastics

## Cable Code Designation (according to the VDE)

Code designations for cables
A cable code of 2 - 4 letters is used to descriebe the construction. Additional abbrevation for
instrumentation cables: Collective screen = (c) Individual pair or triple screen = (i) The
interpretation (per letter) can be read from the table below:
1st. letter: Insulation

sheath

3rd. letter:
Armouring/Screen

## Fibre, tight cladded

Aluminium (optional
with corrosion
protection)

Strength member
yarn

Yarn + bitumen

## Fire resistant tape +

insulation (Halogenfree)

Corrogated aluminium
(o.w.c.p.)

## Steel tapes, 2 off

Hydrocarbon resistant
sehath

Polychloroprene
(Neoprene) PCP, or
chlorinated
polyethylene - CPE

Polychloroprene
(Neoprene) PCP, or
chlorinated
polyethylene - CPE

Galvanized steel
wire braid

Polychloroprene
(Neoprene) PCP, or
chlorinated
polyethylene - CPE

free

## Oil filled cable

reinforcement
(Longitudinal /
Transverse)

Polyethylene - PE
Polypropylene - PP

Aluminium + Plastics

Polyethylene - PE
Polypropylene - PP

## Oil filled cable

reinforcement

Polyethylene - PE
Polypropylene - PP

(Transverse only)
F

PE or PP + filling
compound

Bedding or taping
(Halogen-free)

## Flat steel wire

armour

Semi-conducting PE

Polyamid - PA

PE + PA

Chlorosulphonated
polyethylene - CSP

Chlorosulphonated
polyethylene - CSP

## Steel tape + steel

wires

Chlorosulphonated
polyethylene - CSP

Thermoplastic
compound (Halogenfree)

Thermoplastic
compound (Halogenfree)

## Steel tapes, 4 off

Thermoplastic
compound (Halogenfree)

Paper

Lead

or rubber coated

Lead

## Air + plastics (Coaxial

cable)

Aluminium laminate +
plastics sheath

Aluminium
(laminated to outer
jacket)

Expanded PE or PP +
filling compound

Polyester

Impregnated paper

Polyurethane

Impregnated paper,
oilfilled cable

Lead + Plastics

Polyvinylchloride PVC

Polyvinylchloride PVC

## Fibre in loose tube

Ethylenepropylene
rubber - EPR

Silicone rubber

Polyester

Steel (laminated to
outer jacket)

Polyurethane

## Copper wire braid

(Tinned or bare)

Phosphorbronze
wire braid

Steel wires +
counter steel tape
(optional)

Ethylenepropylene
rubber - EPR

## Steel wires (round)

+ filling compound

Ethylenepropylene
rubber - EPR

Bedding or taping +
concentric conductor

Concentric
conductor (Screen)

Silicone rubber

Cross-linked
polyethylene XLPE

PE + aluminium wire +
steel tape

Cross-linked
polyethylene XLPE

Halogen-free thermoset
compound EMA or
EVA

Halogen-free thermoset
compound EMA or
EVA

Halogen-free thermoset
compound EMA or EVA

Aluminium screen

## Double wire armour

(two layers)

Other halogen-free
thermoset materials

Other materials

Other materials

Catenary wire

Other materials

No insulation

No bedding or
equivalent

No armour

No sheath7

Polyvinylchloride PVC

Y
Z

FEP

Screen

Flour plastics

Flour plastics

## Cable Colour Code

Power cable insulation is normally colour coded so that phase, neutral and earth conductors can
be easily identified. These colour codes vary with region and / or country:

Three Phase

Single Phase

DC

Country
/ Region
Phase
A

European
Union

Phase
B

Phase C

Purple (1

Neutra
l

Positiv
e

Protectiv
e Earth

Code
Referenc
e

IEC
60445
(2010) (4)

Neutra
l

Active

Negativ
e

Light
Blue

Black
or
Brown

Light
Blue

- (2)

- (2)

Green /
Yellow
(with blue
markings
at ends) (3)

Black
(120V)
, Red
(208V)
or Blue
(240V)

White
or Grey

Green or
Green /
Yellow

NFPA 70
(NEC) (5)

Red

Black

Red

Black

Green /
Yellow

AS/NZS
3000
(2007)

Brown

Black

United
States

Black
or
Brown

Red,
Orange
(delta)
or
Violet
(wye)

Blue or
Yellow

White
or Grey

Australia
n / New
Zealand

Red (6)

White (6)

Dark
Blue(6)

Black (6

People's
Republic
of China

Yellow

Green

Red

Light
Blue

Light
Blue

Green /
Yellow

GB 50303
(2002)

Black
or
Brown

Light
Blue

- (2)

- (2)

Green or
Green /
Yellow

IEC
60445
(2010) (4)

Japan

Brown

Black

Purple

White
or
Natural
Grey

Russia

Brown

Black

Purple

Blue

Brown

Blue

Brown

Grey

Green /
Yellow

IEC
60445
(2010) (4)

South
Africa

Red

White
or
Yellow

Blue

Black

Red

Black

Green /
Yellow

IEC
60445
(2010) (4)

Notes
(1) In the UK, grey can be also be used
(2) No recommendations given
(3) In Denmark, Italy and Poland, light blue along the entire length with green / yellow
markings at the ends
(4) In 2007, IEC 60446 was merged with IEC 60445 (2010), "Basic and safety principles
for man-machine interface, marking and identification Identification of equipment
terminals, conductor terminations and conductors". IEC 60446 is no longer used.

(5) Since 1975, NFPA 70, "The National Electricity Code (NEC)" has not prescribed colours
for active conductors (except for orange for earthed delta). Local regulations take
precedence.
(6) These are preferred colours. Active conductors can be any colour except for green /
yellow, green, yellow, black or light blue

Cable colors
identification colors of cores in cables have been subject to
developments that results in the harmonization document HD 308
S2. These rules do not apply to conductors used in the materials
and sets assembled at the factory although compliance is strongly
recommended. For information, old national habits are reminded in
the table below. These cables are still widely present in existing
installations.

## Cable Conductor Materials

In order to transmit electrical current with as few losses as possible, a cable conductor needs to
be of low resistivity (or high conductivity). There are two main cable conductor materials used in
practice, copper and aluminium, because of their low resistivity characteristics, coupled with their
relatively low cost. Silver has better resistivity characteristics than either copper and aluminium,
but being a precious metal, is far too costly.

Copper

## mm2 / m. Copper is a denser

material than aluminium and has a higher melting point, hence has better performance under
short circuit conditions and is mechanically stronger. However the high density of copper makes
it less flexible than aluminium. Copper conductors also need to be very pure, and small traces of
impurities (e.g. phosphorous) can significantly affect conductivity.
Copper is typically used more commonly in industrial plants, generating stations and portable
equipment because of its mechanical properties. Furthermore, it is used in applications where
space restrictions abound, e.g. offshore platforms and aircraft

Aluminium
The resistivity of aluminium is around 2.8

## mm2 / m, which makes it roughly 60% less

conductive than copper. Therefore, aluminium conductors need to be oversized by a factor of 1.6
in order to have the equivalent resistance of copper conductors. However aluminium is also 50%
lighter in mass than copper so it has a weight advantage. Additionally, it is more malleable and
flexible than copper.
Aluminium is inherently corrosion resistant due to the thin oxide layer that is formed when
aluminium is exposed to the air. Aluminium also performs better than copper in sulfur laden
environments (in terms of corrosion resistance).
Aluminimum is typically used for overhead aerial lines because of its light weight and high
conductivity. It is also used in applications where space restrictions are not a large factor, e.g.
underground cables

Summary
The table below summarises the pros and cons of copper and aluminium as conductor materials:
Copper

Advantages

Aluminium

High conductivity

## Good short circuit performance

Lower weight

Corrosion resistant

Disadvantages

Category: Cables

## Cable Impedance Calculations

This article provides details on the calculation of cable impedances - dc resistance, ac resistance
and inductive reactance.
Contents
[hide]

1 Cable Resistance

1.1 DC Resistance

1.2 AC Resistance
2 Cable Reactance
3 References

Cable Resistance
The dc and ac resistance of cable conductors can be calculated based on IEC 60287-1 Clause
2.1.

DC Resistance
The dc resistance of cable conductors is calculated as follows:

Where

## is the dc resistance at the conductor operating temperature ( / m)

is the resistivity of the conductor material at 20oC (.m).

= 1.7241 x 10-8
= 2.8264 x 10-8

## is the cross-sectional area of the conductor (mm2)

is the temperature coefficient of the conductor material per K at 20oC.

= 3.93 x 10-3

= 4.03 x 10-3

## is the conductor operating temperature (oC)

AC Resistance
The ac resistance of cable conductors is the dc resistance corrected for skin and proximity
effects.

Where

## is the ac resistance at the conductor operating temperature ( / m)

is the dc resistance at the conductor operating temperature ( / m)
is the skin effect factor (see below)
is the proximity effect factor (see below)
The skin effect factor is calculated as follows:

Where
is the dc resistance at the conductor operating temperature ( / m)
is the supply frequency (Hz)
is a constant (see table below)
Note that the formula above is accurate provided that

2.8.

The proximity effect factor varies depending on the conductor geometry. For round conductors,
the following formulae apply.
For 2C and 2 x 1C cables:

## For 3C and 3 x 1C cables:

Where
is the dc resistance at the conductor operating temperature ( / m)
is the supply frequency (Hz)
is the diameter of the conductor (mm)
is the distance between conductor axes (mm)
is a constant (see table below)
Note that the formula above is accurate provided that

2.8.

For shaped conductors, the proximity effect factor is two-thirds the values calculated above, and
with:
equal to the diameter of an equivalent circular conductor of equal cross-sectional
area and degree of compaction (mm)
where

## is the thickness of the insulation between conductors (mm)

Type of Conductor

## Dried and Impregnated?

Copper

Round, stranded

Yes

Round, stranded

No

Round, segmental

Sector-shaped

Yes

Sector-shaped

No
Aluminium

Round, stranded

Either

Round, 4 segment

Either

Round, 5 segment

Either

Round, 6 segment

Either

Cable Reactance
The series inductive reactance of a cable can be approximated by the following equation:

Where

## is the conductor inductive reactance ( / km)

is the supply frequency (Hz)
is the axial spacing between conductors (mm)
is the diameter of the conductor, or for shaped conductors, the diameter of an
equivalent circular conductor of equal cross-sectional area and degree of compaction
(mm)
is a constant factor pertaining to conductor formation (see below for typical values)

## No. of wire strands in conductor

3
7
19
37
>60
1 (solid)
For 3C and 3 x 1C cables, the axial spacing parameter
conductors:

## depends on the geometry of the

References

IEC 60287-1-1, Electric cables Calculation of current rating Part 1: Current rating
equations (100% load factor) and calculation of losses Section 1: General, 2006

G.F. Moore, Electric Cables Handbook, Third Edition, 1997, an excellent reference
book for cables

## Cable Insulation Materials

The following materials are typically used for cable insulation:
Contents
[hide]

1 Thermoplastic
2 Thermosetting
3 Paper Based
4 Comparison of Materials

Thermoplastic
Thermoplastic compounds are materials that go soft when heated and harden when cooled:

PVC (Polyvinyl Chloride) is the most commonly used thermoplastic insulator for
cables. It is cheap, durable and widely available. However, the chlorine in PVC (a
halogen) causes the production of thick, toxic, black smoke when burnt and can be a
health hazard in areas where low smoke and toxicity are required (e.g. confined areas
such as tunnels). Normal operating temperatures are typically between 75C and 105C
(depending on PVC type). Temperature limit is 160C (<300mm2) and 140C
(>300mm2).

## PE (Polyethylene) is part of a class of polymers called polyolefins. Polyethylene has

lower dielectric losses than PVC and is sensitive to moisture under voltage stress (i.e.
for high voltages only).

## Figure 1. Typical low voltage PVC cable

Thermosetting

Thermosetting compounds are polymer resins that are irreversibly cured (e.g. by heat in the
vulcanization process) to form a plastic or rubber:

## XLPE (Cross-Linked Polyethylene) has different polyethylene chains linked together

(cross-linking) which helps prevent the polymer from melting or separating at
elevated temperatures. Therefore XLPE is useful for higher temperature applications.
XLPE has higher dielectric losses than PE, but has better ageing characteristics and
resistance to water treeing. Normal operating temperatures are typically between 90C
and 110C. Temperature limit is 250C.

## EPR (Ethylene Propylene Rubber) is a copolymer of ethylene and propylene, and

commonly called an elastomer. EPR is more flexible than PE and XLPE, but has
higher dielectric losses than both. Normal operating temperatures are typically
between 90C and 110C. Temperature limit is 250C.

## Figure 4. MV cable with XLPE insulation, 33 kV

Paper Based
Paper Based insulation is the oldest type of power cable insulation and is still used mainly for
high voltage cables. The paper insulation must be impregnated with a dielectric fluid (e.g. oil
resin or a synthetic fluid). A lead sheath is commonly applied over the insulation to prevent
water or moisture ingress into the paper insulation, which is sensitive to moisture.

## Figure 5. Oil filled paper insulated cable, 66 kV

Comparison of Materials
A comparison of common insulating materials is as follows:
Material

Advantages

Disadvantages

## Highest dielectric losses

Cheap
Melts at high temperatures

PVC

Durable

Widely available

PE

## High initial dielectric strength

Contains halogens

## Highly sensitive to water treeing

Material breaks down at high temperatures

XLPE

## Improved material properties

at high temperatures
XLPE polymers are water-tree resistant)
Does not melt but thermal

expansion occurs

## Reduced thermal expansion

EPR

Increased flexibility
Medium-High dielectric losses

(relative to XLPE)
Requires inorganic filler / additive

treeing

High weight

Paper / Oil

fluid

Category: Cables

## Cable Reference Installation Methods

Contents
[hide]

1 Introduction
2 Method A
3 Method B

High cost

Difficult to repair
Degrades with moisture

4 Method C
5 Method D
6 Method E
7 Method F
8 Method G
9 Related topics:

Introduction
The IEC 60364 standard defines a number of installation methods which represent the various
installation conditions. By the following icons, they are divided into groups and defined by the
letters A to G which determine how to read the table of the current-carrying capacities in
conductors.

Method A

## A2 - Multicore cable in conduit in a thermally insulated wall

This method also applies to single core or multicore cables installed directly in a thermally
insulated wall (use methods A1 and A2 respectively), conductors installed in mouldings,
architraves and window frames.

Method B

## B2 - Multicore cable in conduit on a wall

This method applies when a conduit is installed inside a wall, against a wall or spaced less than
0.3 x D (overall diameter of the cable) from the wall. Method B also applies for cables installed in
trunking / cable duct against a wall or suspended from a wall and cables installed in building
cavities.

Method C

## C - Single core or multi-core cable on a wooden wall

This method also applies to cables fixed directly to walls or ceilings, suspended from ceilings,
installed on unperforated cable trays (run horizontally or vertically) and installed directly in a
masonry wall (with thermal resistivity less than 2 K.m/W).

Method D

Method E

## E - Multicore cable in free-air

This method applies to cables installed on cable ladder, perforated cable tray or cleats provided
that the cable is spaced more than 0.3 x D (overall diameter of the cable) from the wall. Note
that cables installed on unperforated cable trays are classified under Method C.

Method F

## F - Single core cables touching in free-air

This method applies to cables installed on cable ladder, perforated cable tray or cleats provided
that the cable is spaced more than 0.3 x D (overall diameter of the cable) from the wall. Note
that cables installed on unperforated cable trays are classified under Method C.

Method G

## G - Single-core cables laid flat and spaced in free-air

This method applies to cables installed on cable ladder, perforated cable tray or cleats provided
that the cable is spaced more than 0.3 x D (overall diameter of the cable) from the wall and with
at least 1 x D spacings between cables. Note that cables installed on unperforated cable trays are
classified under Method C. This method also applies to cables installed in air supported by
insulators.

Related topics:

## Cable Sheath Materials

The following materials are typically used for cable inner (bedding) and outer sheaths:

Thermoplastic
Thermoplastic compounds are materials that go soft when heated and harden when cooled:

PVC (Polyvinyl Chloride) as a sheath material, PVC is used extensively because of its
low cost and good overall properties high physical strength, good moisture resistance,
adequate oil resistance, good flame resistance and excellent resistance to weathering and to
soil environments. PVC contains halogens which produces thick, black toxic smoke when
burnt. Most commonly used sheath material for LV cables.

## PE (Polyethylene) is usually categorized under three different densities 1) Low density

(0.91 0.925 g/cm3), 2) Medium density (0.926 0.94 g/cm3), and 3) High density (0.941
0.965 g/cm3). PE sheaths have good physical strength, excellent moisture resistance, good
ageing properties, but poor flame resistance. Like PVC, PE will melt at high temperatures.
Does not contain halogens.

CPE (Chlorinated Polyethylene) similar to PVC, but with better high temperature
properties. Contains halogens.

## TPE (Thermoplastic Elastomer) provides flame resistance, good low temperature

performance, good abrasion resistance and good physical strength. Does not contain
halogens.

Nylon provides good physical strength, reasonable abrasion resistance, very low friction
when in contact with conduit materials which aids in pulling cables. Excellent resistance to
oils and organic solvents, but very sensitive to strong acids and oxidizing agents.

Thermosetting
Thermosetting compounds are polymer resins that are irreversibly cured (e.g. by heat in the
vulcanization process) to form a plastic or rubber:

## XLPE (Cross-Linked Polyethylene) provides a tough, moisture, chemical and weather

resistant sheath material. Used mainly as an outer sheath material for rugged cables.

PCP (Polychloroprene) or trade name "Neoprene" provides good heat resistance, flame
resistance, resistance to oil, sunlight and weathering, low temperature resistance and
abrasion resistance. Due to its ruggedness, neoprene is used widely in the mining industry.
Does not deform with high temperatures and does not contain halogens.

## CSP (Chloro-sulphanated Polyethylene) similar properties to neoprene, though superior

in resistance to heat, oxidizing chemicals, ozone and moisture, and has better dielectric
properties. However CSP contains halogens.

EPR (Ethylene Propylene Rubber) not commonly used as a sheath material, but can be
useful if increased cable flexibility is required (especially in low temperature applications).

Cable Terminology
List of electrical and instrumentation cable terminology and definitions.
Contents
[hide]

## 1 AWA (Aluminium Wire Armour)

2 CPE (Chlorinated Polyethylene)
3 CSP / CSPE (Chlorosulphanated Polyethylene)
4 Dekoron
5 DWA (Double Wire Armour)
6 EPR (Ethylene Propylene Rubber)
7 FR (Fire Resistant / Flame Retardant)
8 GSWB (Galvanised Steel Wire Braid)
9 HDPE (High Density Polyethylene)
10 HF (Halogen Free)
11 HOFR (Heat, Oil and Flame Retardant)
12 LAS (Lead Armour Sheath)
13 LSF (Low Smoke and Fumes)

## 14 LSTA (Low Smoke, Toxicity and Acidity)

15 LSZH / LS0H (Low Smoke, Zero Halogen)
16 MGT (Mica Glass Tape)
17 MICC (MI, MIMS)
18 Neoprene
19 NYL (Nylon sheath)
20 PCP (Polychloroprene)
21 PE (Polyethylene)
22 PETP (Polyethylene Terephthalate)
23 PVC (Polyvinyl Chloride)
24 SCN (Screen)
25 SHF2
26 SWA (Steel Wire Armour)
27 TAC (Tinned Annealed Copper)
28 TCWB (Tinned Copper Wire Braid)
29 TPE (Thermoplastic Elastomer)
30 XLPE (Cross-Linked Polyethylene)

## AWA (Aluminium Wire Armour)

A type of cable armouring for mechanical protection, used for 3 phase cables.

## CSP / CSPE (Chlorosulphanated Polyethylene)

An oil, ozone and heat resistant elastomeric compound used as bedding and outer sheath
material. DuPont manufacture this material under the registered trade name "Hypalon".

Dekoron
Registered trade name for a range of instrumentation cables insulated and sheathed with a flame
retardant PVC. The standard range includes up to 50 pairs and up to 36 triples in either 0.5mm2
or 1.5mm2 conductors. Larger conductors may be specified, as can options of Lead Sheathing,
SWA, or HF insulation and sheath materials.

## DWA (Double Wire Armour)

Two layers of wire armour. Typically used in subsea cables and wrapped contra-helically for
bottom stability.

## EPR (Ethylene Propylene Rubber)

A water and ozone resistant, flexible, cross linked high grade insulation material and sometimes
as a sheating material.

## FR (Fire Resistant / Flame Retardant)

Fire Resistant - the property of cables to continue to function while under the influence of fire.
Cables that are Fire Resistant tend to provide circuit integrity even when burned and maintains
integrity after the fire has extinguished. In most cases, the cables will withstand a water spray
and still provide circuit integrity.
Flame Retardant - the property of cables to retard or slow the progress of fire and flame along
the cable. This is achieved through the use of materials that do not readily burn and will tend to
self-extinguish.

## GSWB (Galvanised Steel Wire Braid)

A type of cable armouring for mechanical protection.

## HDPE (High Density Polyethylene)

Generally used as a subsea cable sheating material where it provides high resistance to water
penetration, is very hard, has low coefficient of friction, and is abrasion resistant.

HF (Halogen Free)

Halogenated plastics (ie. those that contain chlorine, fluorine, bromine, iodine and astatine)
when ignited will tend to release toxic and corrosive gases, which has potential safety
implications, eg. obstruction of escape routes. Halogen free plastics, as the name suggests, do
not contain halogens.

## HOFR (Heat, Oil and Flame Retardant)

Refer to FR (flame retardant).

## LAS (Lead Armour Sheath)

Used for chemical protection against petrochemicals and other chemicals, that can weaken the
insulation materials used. The lead sheath sits under the mechanical protection (e.g. SWA), to
ensure the chemical barrier isn't compromised.

## LSF (Low Smoke and Fumes)

Low smoke and fume emissions when the cable is on fire. Note that it may still contain halogens.

## LSTA (Low Smoke, Toxicity and Acidity)

Uncommonly used term for bedding and sheathing materials with low smoke, toxicity and acidity
properties. Halogen free materials such as SHF2 are more or less equivalent to LSTA materials.

## LSZH / LS0H (Low Smoke, Zero Halogen)

Refer to HF (halogen free).

## MGT (Mica Glass Tape)

A fire resistant tape usually wrapped around the insulated conductor bundle beneath the innear
sheath.

## MICC (MI, MIMS)

Mineral-insulated copper-clad cable is a variety of electrical cable made from copper conductors
inside a copper sheath, insulated by inorganic magnesium oxide powder. The name is often
abbreviated to MICC or MI cable, and colloquially known as pyro (because the original
manufacturer and vendor for this product in the UK is a company called Pyrotenax). A similar
product sheathed with metals other than copper is called mineral insulated metal sheathed
(MIMS) cable.

Neoprene
Refer to PCP (polychroloprene)

## NYL (Nylon sheath)

A nylon sheath (or sometimes described as a sock) is typically used for termite protection in
underground cables and also as a sheating material.

PCP (Polychloroprene)
This is an oil resistant, tough sheating material, that is used mainly in mining cables as an outer
sheath. DuPont registered trade name for this product is "Neoprene".

PE (Polyethylene)
Thermoplastic used as a insulation and sheating material.

## PETP (Polyethylene Terephthalate)

A polymer resin used in semi-metallic screens eg. PETP/Al

## PVC (Polyvinyl Chloride)

Commonly used thermoplastic insulation and sheathing material.

SCN (Screen)
A tape or braid, usually metallic (copper, aluminium) or semi-metallic (PETP/Al), wrapped around
the cable cores to keep out or contain unwanted radiation / interference.

SHF2
Halogen free elastomeric compound commonly used for inner sheath / bedding and
outer sheating materials.

## SWA (Steel Wire Armour)

A type of cable armouring for mechanical protection.

## TAC (Tinned Annealed Copper)

Annealed copper conductors with surface tinning for rust prevention. Annealing refers to the
process of gradually heating and cooling the copper making it more malleable and less brittle.

## TCWB (Tinned Copper Wire Braid)

Typically used for flexible cable armouring of instrument cables.

## A plastic material compounded so it displays characteristics like an elastomer. TPE is normally

tough, cut resistant, flexible, smooth, with vibrant colouring.

## XLPE (Cross-Linked Polyethylene)

High grade insulation material of cross-linked polyethylene chains giving good high temperature
performance.
Category: Cables

Current Ratings
Contents
[hide]

1 Table 52G
2 Table 52H
3 Table 52I
4 Table 52J

Table 52G
Multi-core cables with individual screening with voltage levels from 3,6/6 (7,2) kV to 18/30 (36)
kV and PR/EPR insulation.
Copper (Cu)

Cross-Section

Aluminium (Al)

Air

Ground

mm2

Air

Ground

156

160

25

121

125

189

192

35

146

148

227

226

50

175

175

282

277

70

220

215

345

331

95

268

257

400

377

120

309

292

456

423

150

351

327

523

478

185

407

372

619

554

240

479

431

718

627

300

552

487

Table 52H
Multi-core cables with collective screening with voltage level 6/6 (7,2) kV and PR/EPR insulation.
Copper (Cu)

Cross-Section

Aluminium (Al)

Air

Ground

mm2

Air

Ground

100

110

16

79

86

130

145

25

105

110

165

170

35

125

135

205

215

50

160

165

255

260

70

195

205

310

315

95

240

245

360

360

120

280

280

410

405

150

320

315

460

450

185

360

350

550

525

240

430

410

Table 52I
Multi-core cables with collective screening with voltage level 6/6 (7,2) kV and PVC insulation.
Copper (Cu)

Cross-Section

Aluminium (Al)

Air

Ground

mm2

Air

Ground

81

94

16

62

72

105

120

25

82

94

130

145

35

100

115

165

185

50

130

145

205

225

70

160

175

250

270

95

195

210

290

310

120

225

240

330

345

150

255

270

370

385

185

285

300

440

445

240

345

350

Table 52J
Single-core cables with individual screening with voltage levels from 3,6/6 (7,2) kV to 18/30 (36)
kV and PR/EPR insulation.
Copper (Cu)
Air

Cross-Section

Aluminium (Al)

mm2

Ground

Trefoil

Flat

Trefoil

Flat

157

161

161

165

190

195

192

233

244

292

Air

Ground

Trefoil

Flat

Trefoil

Flat

25

122

125

125

128

197

35

147

151

149

153

225

231

50

185

189

175

179

304

276

283

70

226

236

214

220

356

369

330

338

95

266

285

252

262

409

423

375

383

120

318

330

291

299

465

478

420

430

150

360

370

325

334

533

549

474

484

185

417

430

370

379

630

646

549

559

240

490

504

428

439

724

735

619

623

300

567

579

485

492

836

838

698

703

400

662

669

554

562

959

958

786

785

500

771

776

631

637

1108

1108

887

886

630

897

905

720

727

1255

1244

980

970

800

1037

1040

810

812

1390

1366

1063

1042

1000

1165

1160

895

890

1480

1445

1117

1087

1200

1264

1252

957

945

## Current Ratings for Cables

Contents

[hide]

1 Table B.2
2 Table B.3
3 Table B.4
4 Table B.5
5 Table B.6
6 Table B.7
7 Table B.8
8 Table B.9

Table B.2
Current ratings for single-core cables with XLPE insulation Rated voltage 3,6/6 kV to 18/30 kV
Copper conductor
Cross-Section

In ground (direct)

In ground (duct)

In air

(mm2)

Trefoil

Flat

Trefoil

Flat

Trefoil

Flat touching

Flat spaced

16

109

113

103

104

125

128

150

25

140

144

132

133

163

167

196

35

166

172

157

159

198

203

238

50

196

203

186

188

238

243

286

70

239

246

227

229

296

303

356

95

285

293

271

274

361

369

434

120

323

332

308

311

417

426

500

150

361

366

343

347

473

481

559

185

406

410

387

391

543

550

637

240

469

470

447

453

641

647

745

300

526

524

504

510

735

739

846

400

590

572

564

571

845

837

938

Table B.3
Current ratings for single-core cables with XLPE insulation Rated voltage 3,6/6 kV to 18/30 kV
Aluminium conductor
Cross-Section

In ground (direct)

In ground (duct)

In air

(mm2)

Trefoil

Flat

Trefoil

Flat

Trefoil

Flat touching

Flat spaced

16

84

88

80

81

97

99

116

25

108

112

102

103

127

130

153

35

129

134

122

123

154

157

185

50

152

157

144

146

184

189

222

70

186

192

176

178

230

236

278

95

221

229

210

213

280

287

338

120

252

260

240

242

324

332

391

150

281

288

267

271

368

376

440

185

317

324

303

307

424

432

504

240

367

373

351

356

502

511

593

300

414

419

397

402

577

586

677

400

470

466

451

457

673

676

769

Table B.4
Current ratings for single-core cables with EPR insulation Rated voltage 3,6/6 kV to 18/30 kV
Copper conductor
Cross-Section

In ground (direct)

In ground (duct)

In air

(mm2)

Trefoil

Flat

Trefoil

Flat

Trefoil

Flat touching

Flat spaced

16

106

109

99

100

116

119

138

25

136

140

128

129

153

156

181

35

162

167

153

154

186

190

221

50

192

198

181

183

224

229

266

70

234

242

222

224

280

287

334

95

280

289

266

269

343

352

409

120

319

329

303

306

398

407

474

150

357

369

341

344

454

465

540

185

403

417

386

390

522

534

621

240

467

484

449

454

619

634

736

300

526

545

509

515

712

728

843

400

597

618

580

588

825

843

977

Table B.5
Current ratings for single-core cables with EPR insulation Rated voltage 3,6/6 kV to 18/30 kV
Aluminium conductor
Cross-Section

In ground (direct)

In ground (duct)

In air

(mm2)

Trefoil

Flat

Trefoil

Flat

Trefoil

Flat touching

Flat spaced

16

82

84

77

78

90

92

107

25

105

109

99

100

119

121

141

35

126

130

118

120

144

147

171

50

149

153

140

142

174

178

207

70

182

188

172

174

218

223

259

95

217

224

206

208

266

273

317

120

247

256

235

238

309

317

368

150

277

287

264

267

352

361

419

185

314

325

300

303

406

417

484

240

364

377

350

354

483

495

575

300

411

426

397

401

556

570

659

400

471

487

456

462

651

667

770

Table B.6
Current rating for three-core XLPE insulated cables Rated voltage 3,6/6 kV to 18/30 kV
Copper conductor, armoured and unarmoured
Cross-Section

Unarmoured

Armoured

(mm2)

Buried direct

Buried in ducts

In air

Buried direct

Buried in ducts

In air

16

101

87

109

101

88

110

25

129

112

142

129

112

143

35

153

133

170

154

134

172

50

181

158

204

181

158

205

70

221

193

253

220

194

253

95

262

231

304

263

232

307

120

298

264

351

298

264

352

150

334

297

398

332

296

397

185

377

336

455

374

335

453

240

434

390

531

431

387

529

300

489

441

606

482

435

599

400

553

501

696

541

492

683

Table B.7
Current rating for three-core XLPE insulated cables Rated voltage 3,6/6 kV to 18/30 kV
Aluminium conductor, armoured and unarmoured
Cross-Section

Unarmoured

Armoured

(mm2)

Buried direct

Buried in ducts

In air

Buried direct

Buried in ducts

In air

16

78

67

84

78

68

85

25

100

87

110

100

87

111

35

119

103

132

119

104

133

50

140

122

158

140

123

159

70

171

150

196

171

150

196

95

203

179

236

204

180

238

120

232

205

273

232

206

274

150

260

231

309

259

231

309

185

294

262

355

293

262

354

240

340

305

415

338

304

415

300

384

346

475

380

343

472

400

438

398

552

432

393

545

Table B.8
Current rating for three-core EPR insulated cables Rated voltage 3,6/6 kV to 18/30 kV
Copper conductor, armoured and unarmoured
Cross-Section
(mm2)

Unarmoured
Buried direct

Buried in ducts

Armoured
In air

Buried direct

Buried in ducts

In air

16

98

84

104

98

85

104

25

125

109

135

125

109

136

35

150

130

164

150

131

164

50

176

154

195

177

155

197

70

216

189

243

216

190

244

95

258

227

296

257

227

296

120

292

258

339

292

259

339

150

328

291

385

327

291

385

185

371

330

441

368

328

439

240

429

384

519

424

381

513

300

482

434

590

475

429

583

400

545

494

678

534

485

666

Table B.9
Current rating for three-core EPR insulated cables Rated voltage 3,6/6 kV to 18/30 kV
Aluminium conductor, armoured and unarmoured
Cross-Section

Unarmoured

Armoured

(mm2)

Buried direct

Buried in ducts

In air

Buried direct

Buried in ducts

In air

16

76

65

80

76

66

81

25

97

84

105

97

85

105

35

116

101

127

116

101

127

50

137

119

151

137

120

153

70

167

147

189

168

147

190

95

200

176

229

200

176

230

120

227

201

263

227

201

264

150

255

226

299

254

226

300

185

289

257

343

288

257

343

240

335

300

406

332

299

402

300

378

340

462

374

338

459

400

432

392

538

426

387

530

## Back to Medium Voltage Cable Data Reference

DC Resistance
Typical DC resistances for copper and aluminium conductors operating at 20oC are based on
values given in AS/NZS 1125.1.
Background information can be found in the calculation of DC resistances article.
Maximum DC Resistance (\km) at 20oC
Copper
Size
(mm2)

Aluminium

Stranded Conductors

Solid Conductors
Nicke
l

Silve
r

Tinne
d

Nicke
l

Stranded
Conductors

Solid
Conductors

Plain

Silver

Tinned

0.5

38.4

38.4

39.6

36

36.7

39.6

0.75

25.3

25.3

26

24.5

24.8

19.7

21.2

21.2

21.6

23.3

18.1

18.2

13.2

1.5

13.6

13.6

13.8

14.9

12.1

12.2

2.5

7.41

7.41

7.56

8.14

7.41

7.56

12.1

4.61

4.61

4.7

5.06

4.61

4.7

7.41

7.54

3.08

3.08

3.11

3.34

3.08

3.11

4.61

5.01

10

1.83

1.83

1.84

1.83

1.84

3.08

3.08

16

1.15

1.15

1.16

1.15

1.16

1.91

1.91

25

0.727

0.727

0.734

0.727

1.2

1.2

35

0.524

0.524

0.529

0.868

0.868

50

0.387

0.387

0.391

0.641

0.641

70

0.268

0.268

0.27

0.443

0.443

95

0.193

0.193

0.195

0.32

0.32

120

0.153

0.153

0.154

0.253

0.253

150

0.124

0.124

0.126

0.206

0.206

185

0.0991

0.0991

0.1

0.164

0.164

240

0.0754

0.0754

0.0762

0.125

0.125

300

0.0601

0.0601

0.0607

0.1

0.1

400

0.047

0.047

0.0475

0.0778

500 (1)

0.0366 /

0.0366 /

0.0369 /

0.0605 /

630 (1)

0.037332

0.037332

0.037638

0.0283 /
0.028866

0.0283 /
0.028866

0.0286 /
0.029172

0.06171
-

0.0469 /
0.047838

Note (1): resistance values are quoted for single core / multicore cables
Back to Low Voltage Cable Data Reference

Insulation thickness
Contents
[hide]

1 Note
2 IEC 60502 - 1
o

3 IEC 60502 - 2

## 3.3 Table 7 - EPR insulation

Note
The nominal insulation thicknesses are specified in Tables 5 to 7. The thickness of any separator
shall not be included in the thickness of the insulation.

IEC 60502 - 1
Typical insulation thickness (in mm) for cables 0,6/1 and 1,8/3 kV according to the IEC 60502-1.
Table numbers correspond to the standard.

## Table 5 - PVC insulation

Cross-section (mm2)

0,6/1 kV

1,8/3 kV

0,8

2,2

1,5

0,8

2,2

2,5

0,8

2,2

2,2

2,2

10

2,2

16

2,2

25

1,2

2,2

35

1,2

2,2

50

1,4

2,2

70

1,4

2,2

95

1,6

2,2

120

1,6

2,2

150

1,8

2,2

185

2,2

240

2,2

2,2

300

2,4

2,2

400

2,6

2,6

500

2,8

2,8

630

2,8

2,8

800

2,8

2,8

1000

Cross-section (mm2)

0,6/1 kV

1,8/3 kV

0,7

1,5

0,7

2,5

0,7

0,7

0,7

10

0,7

## Table 6 - XLPE insulation

16

0,7

25

0,9

35

0,9

50

70

1,1

95

1,1

120

1,2

150

1,4

185

1,6

240

1,7

300

1,8

400

500

2,2

2,2

630

2,4

2,4

800

2,6

2,6

1000

2,8

2,8

Cross-section (mm2)

0,6/1 kV

1,8/3 kV

2,2

1,5

2,2

2,5

2,2

2,2

2,2

10

2,2

16

2,2

25

1,2

2,2

35

1,2

2,2

50

1,4

2,2

70

1,4

2,2

95

1,6

2,4

## Table 7 - EPR insulation

120

1,6

2,4

150

1,8

2,4

185

2,4

240

2,2

2,4

300

2,4

2,4

400

2,6

2,6

500

2,8

2,8

630

2,8

2,8

800

2,8

2,8

1000

IEC 60502 - 2
Typical insulation thickness (in mm) for cables 3,6/6, 6/10, 8,7/15, 12/20, 18/30 kV according to
the IEC 60502-2. Table numbers correspond to the standard.

## Table 5 - PVC insulation

Cross-section (mm2)

3,6/6 kV

1,5

2,5

10

3,4

16

3,4

25

3,4

35

3,4

50

3,4

70

3,4

95

3,4

120

3,4

150

3,4

185

3,4

240

3,4

300

3,4

400

3,4

500

3,4

630

3,4

800

3,4

1000

3,4

1200

3,4

1400

3,4

1600

3,4

## Table 6 - XLPE insulation

Cross-section (mm2)

3,6/6 kV

6/10 kV

8,7/15 kV

12/20 kV

8/30 kV

1,5

2,5

10

2,5

16

2,5

3,4

25

2,5

3,4

4,5

35

2,5

3,4

4,5

5,5

50

2,5

3,4

4,5

5,5

70

2,5

3,4

4,5

5,5

95

2,5

3,4

4,5

5,5

120

2,5

3,4

4,5

5,5

150

2,5

3,4

4,5

5,5

185

2,5

3,4

4,5

5,5

240

2,6

3,4

4,5

5,5

300

2,8

3,4

4,5

5,5

400

3,4

4,5

5,5

500

3,2

3,4

4,5

5,5

630

3,2

3,4

4,5

5,5

800

3,2

3,4

4,5

5,5

1000

3,2

3,4

4,5

5,5

1200

3,2

3,4

4,5

5,5

1400

3,2

3,4

4,5

5,5

1600

3,2

3,4

4,5

5,5

## Table 7 - EPR insulation

Cross-section (mm2)

3,6/6 kV

6/10 kV

8,7/15 kV

12/20 kV

8/30 kV

1,5

2,5

10

16

3,4

25

3,4

4,5

35

3,4

4,5

5,5

50

3,4

4,5

5,5

70

3,4

4,5

5,5

95

3,4

4,5

5,5

120

3,4

4,5

5,5

150

3,4

4,5

5,5

185

3,4

4,5

5,5

240

3,4

4,5

5,5

300

3,4

4,5

5,5

400

3,4

4,5

5,5

500

3,2

3,4

4,5

5,5

630

3,2

3,4

4,5

5,5

800

3,2

3,4

4,5

5,5

1000

3,2

3,4

4,5

5,5

1200

3,2

3,4

4,5

5,5

1400

3,2

3,4

4,5

5,5

1600

3,2

3,4

4,5

5,5

Category: Cables

LV Cable Commissioning
Visual Inspection

## Check cable mechanical connections

Check that cable colour codes conform to project specifications and/or national
standards

## Verify cable tags / numbers

Electrical Testing

For each test, record the testing instrument make / model and serial number.

## Perform insulation-resistance test (megger) on each conductor with respect to earth

and adjacent conductors. For 0.6/1kV cables, an applied voltage of 1,000 Vdc for 1
minute is appropriate, with acceptance levels of 100 M for new cables and 1 M for
aged cables.

## Perform continuity (point-to-point) tests to ensure proper cable connection and

continuity. Where applicable, perform continuity tests on each phase to neutral and
each phase to phase and record the readings in Ohms.

Contents
[hide]

1 Introduction

## 2 Power Cable Systems

3 Final results of a Failure
4 Root Cause Failure Analysis
o

## 4.5 Other sources

5 Summary
6 References

Introduction
Almost all utilities and large industrial facilities have extensive systems of power cables. Many of
these cable systems are ageing and failures are becoming common. Finding the root cause of
cable failures can lead to better maintenance practices and produce more reliable operation in
the future. This in turn will lead to lower operating costs. As an example, the final result of a
cable failure may be that the insulation failed and the cable flashed over. The root cause may in
fact be a building contractor removing thermally conducting back-fill around the ducts thereby
causing local overheating. Determining the root cause of the failure can help prevent future
failures. Root cause analysis requires a systems approach.

## Power Cable Systems

One of the fundamental aspects of the cable system is the method of installation. Cable systems
can be installed in various ways including:

## In special situations as mine trailing cables, crane cable etc.

Always keep in mind the installation when looking for the cause of a failure. Cable accessories
are often the most prone to failure of any part of the cable system. Accessories include
terminations and joints, also called splices. Terminations are required to connect the conductor of
the cable to a bus or other cable conductor. Within the termination the cables metallic and
semiconducting shields must also be properly terminated. Splices may be simply considered two
terminations, connected back to back.
Another aspect of the cable system is the operating environment. Some points of the operating
environment, which must be considered, are:

## Cable current loading compared to cable ampacity

Ambient temperature

## Lightning impulses and other system induced over-voltages

Switching operations.

## Final results of a Failure

A cable failure almost always exhibits itself as either an open circuit or a short circuit. Open
circuits are more common in low voltage cables than at medium or high voltage. Open circuits
are usually the result of failed connectors, or broken and/or corroded conductors. The reason
that open circuit failures are rare in higher voltage systems is that arcing will occur in the
conduction path, leading to overheating, failure of the insulation and a short circuit. Short circuit
failures will most often cause the protection system to operate and interrupt the current flow to
the load. There are times when the flash over at the fault may result in more serious
consequences like fire or even explosion.

## Root Cause Failure Analysis

Root cause failure analysis is the process of examining a failed sample, along with the operating
and environmental information, to determine the fundamental cause of the failure. During the
failure analysis, various tests may be conducted on the failed sample, on pieces of nearby
unfaulted cable, or on accessories removed from adjacent un-failed phases. Each bit of evidence

is looked at as an effect, which had a cause. Then each cause is looked at in turn as the possible
effect of a previous cause. This cause/effect trail is followed to the fundamental or root cause.
The amount of evidence that can be gathered will depend on the condition of the sample, what
has happened to the sample since the failure, and the availability of information about the failure
and previous conditions that the cable or accessory has undergone. Often direct evidence at the
failure site is destroyed by the fault. An important factor in failure analysis is of course the
amount of time and money one can spend on the analysis.
Two important things that must be done in any failure analysis are a close visual examination of
the sample at and near the failure site, and talking to or reading accounts of the failure from the
personnel involved. Depending on the circumstances more investigations or tests may be
required, or more information may be requested from the cable user.
If the failure occurred in a polymeric cable, other work may include:

examination

## Measuring insulation resistance

Performing ac breakdown level tests on a long sample near the failure site

## Cracking of embrittled insulation

During the examination, look for signs of overheating. These may include discolored metal, or
cracked and distorted polymers. Figure 1 shows an embrittled and cracked polyethylene wafer
caused by overheating. Remember to look at samples sufficiently far from the fault site to be
sure they were not damaged by the arcing fault. Overheating may indicate a possible root cause
of failure of the system protection, incorrect determination of the system ampacity, thermal
runaway, or lack of thermal backfill. Signs of over heating may warrant further chemical or
metallurgical tests to determine the maximum temperature reached. Further investigation into
system operations may be necessary to determine the true root cause of this type of failure.
Examples of root causes of over heating may be poor initial ampacity calculations, improper
breaker settings, removal of proper backfill, or change in ambient conditions like the adding of a
steam pipe.

## Cable wafer with extensive voids

Voids or inclusions in the insulation, or protrusions from the semicon may be seen in the wafer
examination. Figure 2 shows a cable wafer with extensive voids. Voids are simply bubbles in the
insulation, while inclusions are foreign matter. Protrusions are sharp points extending into the
insulation from the semicon. These are all forms of cable manufacturing defects. All cause high
local electrical fields, which may lead to partial discharge at the site or rapid growth of water or
electrical trees near the defect. Any of these observations indicate a manufacturing defect as the
cause of failure. Unfortunately the defect, which may have caused the failure, is usually
destroyed by the fault, but the presence of nearby defects may give sufficient evidence of poor
manufacturing. Since modern cables can be produced with super-clean insulation and semicons,
and very few defects, one might conclude that the root cause of these types of failures occurring
in newly purchased cables is poor specifications or acceptance testing.

## Figure 2. Cable wafer with extensive voids

Water trees can grow in both polyethylene and EPR insulation. Figure 3 shows a large vented
water tree growing from the insulation shield. This water tree has a fault through it. Figure
4 shows a cable with a forest of water trees, which can be seen without dissecting the insulation.
Water trees require both moisture and an electric field in the insulation to grow. If the cable is an
older design made and installed before or about 1980, and has extensive water tree growth, one
may conclude that the root cause of failure is simply that the cable has reached its normal endoflife. If newer TR-XLPE has extensive water treeing, a manufacturing problem may be the cause.
If the cable is supposed to have strand blocking, water absorbing tape, or a hermetically sealed
LC shield, and develops extensive water treeing in a short time, investigate the possible root
cause as a manufacturing problem, mechanical damage or shield corrosion.

## Cable failing from the outside in

Another type of failure is evidenced by signs of burning or arcing on the surface of the semicon.
If the burning or arcing becomes extensive, the cable can fail from the outside in, as seen
in Figure 5. The cause was determined to be a damaged jacket, which led to corrosive ground
water entering the cable and causing severe corrosion of the metallic shield.
Compounding the problem of a damaged metallic shield can be high resistivity in the semicon
insulation shield. The volume resistivity of the semicon in older cables often increased with
elevated temperatures. This effect was demonstrated in the lab as shown in Figure 6 Figure 6a
shows a break made in the taped metallic shield. In Figure 6b, the conductor was energized and
carrying current. As the current was increased the cable temperature rose. At about 50 C, the
semicon resistivity had increased to the point where arcing took place across the break in the
metallic shield.

Other sources
To investigate a failure in an accessory, in addition to the usual visual examination and gathering
of environmental and operating information, other work specific to accessory failure analysis may
include:

## Looking for electrically floating metal electrodes.

Problems in connectors are a common cause of accessory failure. Figure 7 shows a drawing of a
load-break separable insulated connector (SIC). Within the elbow, bushing insert, and bushing
well that make up the SIC, there can be up to eight electrical contacts. Usually problem
connectors overheat, which is evidenced by a discolored or burned conductor or insulation. Root
cause of the failure is often improper installation including bad connector crimps, cross threading
of the elbow probe, or a broken stud in the bushing well. Some older load-break SICs had design
flaws in the contacts in the load break mechanism.
Figure 8 shows an XLPE cable end, which was removed from a failed pre-molded splice. The
results of arcing can be seen on the insulation surface. When the installer penciled the insulation,
burrs were left on the end of the insulation and the surface was very roughly sanded. When the
insulation was inserted into the splice body, semicon material was dragged over the surface. The
semicon material led to surface tracking and eventual flashover. The cause of the failure was

poor workmanship. One might conclude that the root cause is poor training, installation
processes or standards.
Figure 6. Lab test showing shield arcing due to elevated semicon temperature

## Figure 8. Poor Workmanship Leads to Failure in Pre-molded Splice Installation

Summary
Determining the root cause of a cable failure can lead to better maintenance practices, produce
more reliable operation, and lower operating costs. Root cause analysis requires a systems
approach, which includes understanding the cables, their accessories and operating environment.

References
Finding the Root Cause of Power Cable Failures By: Vern Buchholz, P.Eng., Director of
Electrical Technologies, Powertech Labs Inc.

## Protective Earth Conductor

The protective earth (PE) conductor is defined as a conductor that is provided for safety purposes
(e.g. against the risk of electric shock) and which also provides a conductive path to earth. The
PE conductor can be integrated inside a multi-core cable (e.g. 3C+E cable) or can be a separate
cable.
Contents
[hide]

## Minimum Protective Earth Conductor Size

The protective earth conductor should be sized so that during a fault, it will be able to withstand
the prospective fault current. IEC 60364-5-54 provides two options for the sizing of protective
earth conductors.

## Sizing from a Table

For protective earth conductors constructed of the same material as the phase conductors, the
minimum size for protective earth conductors are as follows:
Phase Conductor (mm2)

## Min. PE Conductor (mm2)

0.5

0.5

0.75

0.75

1.5

1.5

2.5

2.5

10

10

16

16

26

16

35

16

50

25

70

35

95

50

120

70

150

95

185

95

240

120

300

150

400

240

500

300

630

400

800

400

1000

500

For protective earth conductors that are not of the same material as the phase conductors, a

factor

## must be applied to the minimum size PE conductor in the table above.

The numerator k1 is the k value for the phase conductors and the denominator k2 is the k value
for the PE conductor. Calculation of the k values are described on this page.

Sizing by Calculation
As per Clause 543.1.2 of IEC 60463-5-54, the size of protective earth conductors can be
calculated by the adiabatic short circuit temperature rise equation (for disconnection times <5s):

Where

## is the minimum cross-sectional area of the PE conductor (mm2)

is the energy of the short circuit (A2s)

is a constant term (this article has guidance for selecting the constant term)
Category: Cables

## Standard IEC Ratings

Contents
[hide]

1 Introduction
2 Transformers
3 Motors and Generators

4 Cables

Introduction
Most IEC rated equipment have standard sizes that correspond to full sets or subsets of Renard
numbers, especially from the four preferred series of Renard numbers outlined in ISO-3: R5,
R10, R20 and R40.

Transformers
For transformer ratings under 10MVA, IEC 60076-1 suggest preferred values based on the R10
series: 10, 12.5, 16, 20, 25, 31.5, 40, 50, 63, 80, 100, and multiples of 10 n. For example, the
preferred transformer sizes from 500kVA to 4000kVA are: 500, 630, 800, 1000, 1250, 1600,
2000, 2500, 3150, 4000.

## Motors and Generators

IEC 60072-1 Table 7 suggests the following preferred ratings (based on a subset of the R40
series) for motors (in KW) and generators (in kVA):
0.
06

0.
09

0.
12

0.
18

0.
25

0.
37

0.
55

0.
75

1.
1

1.
5

1.
8*

2.
2

3
*

3.
7

4*

5.
5

6.3
*

7.
5

1
0
*

11

1
3
*

1
5

17
*

18
.5

20
*

22

25
*

30

32
*

37

40
*

45

5
0
*

5
5

63
*

7
5

8
0
*

9
0

10
0*

11
0

12
5*

1
3
2

1
5
0

1
6
0

1
8
5

2
0
0

22
0

25
0

28
0

30
0

31
5

33
5

35
5

37
5

40
0

42
5

4
5
0

4
7
5

50
0

5
3
0

5
6
0

6
0
0

63
0

6
7
0

71
0

7
5
0

8
0
0

8
5
0

9
0
0

9
5
0

10
00

(*) Note that these are "secondary series" ratings and are only to be used in cases of special
need.

Cables
Standard cable sizes (in mm2) are as follows:
0.
5

0.7
5

1.
5

2.
5

4 6

1
0

1
6

2
5

3
5

5
0

7
0

9
5

12
0

15
0

## Categories: Cables | Generators | Motors | Transformers

VSD Cable

18
5

24
0

30
0

40
0

50
0

63
0

80
0

100
0

The use of fast switching circuitry in variable speed (or frequency) drives result in output
waveforms with higher levels of harmonic components. These harmonics can cause:

High electromagnetic interference (EMI) - where the cable is the antenna and the
radiated EMI from the cable can induce voltages and currents on nearby cables and
electrical equipment. This can especially be a problem when EMI causes noise and
crosstalk in control and instrumentation cables.

High earth currents - due to harmonics causing unbalances in the three-phase output.
A portion of the unbalanced currents return to the source (i.e. inverter) via the earth
conductor.
Therefore, VSD cables often have the following special characteristics:

Heavy duty screen - usually copper, applied over the entire cable bundle to reduce
EMI

Three earth conductors - located symmetrically in the cable cross-section so that the
phase-to-earth distance is identical for each phase, and the cable is "electrically
balanced". Sometimes you'll see the designation "3C + 3E" - this isn't a mistake!

Larger earth conductors - to further reduce the impedance of the earth conductor
return parth and therefore reduce earth currents

Robust insulation grades - such as XLPE is commonly used over PVC, so that the cable
can better withstand transient voltage spikes

Category:Control
Contents
[hide]

## Control Systems definition

According to the McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology (5th edition), definition of
the control system is as follows:
Interconnections of components forming system configurations which will provide a desired
system response as time progresses.
As a colourful example is given the steering of an automobile. The driver observes the position of
the car relative to the desired location and makes corrections by turning the steering wheel. The
car responds by changing direction, and the driver attempts to decrease the error between the
desired and actual course of travel. In this case, the controlled output is the automobile's
direction of travel, and the control system includes the driver, the automobile, and the road
surface. The control engineer attempts to design a steering control mechanism which will provide
a desired response for the automobile's direction control. Different steering designs and
automobile designs result in rapid responses, as in the case of sports cars, or relatively slow and
comfortable responses, as in the case of large autos with power steering.

## Figure 1: Open-loop control system

The basis for analysis of a control system is the foundation provided by linear system theory,
which assumes a cause-effect relationship for the components of a system. A component or
process to be controlled can be represented by a block. Each block possesses an input (cause)
and output (effect). The input-output relation represents the cause-and-effect relationship of the
process, which in turn represents a processing of the input signal to provide an output signal
variable, often with power amplification. An open-loop control system utilizes a controller or
control actuator in order to obtain the desired response (Figure 1).

## In contrast to an open-loop control system, a closed-loop control system utilizes an additional

measure of the actual output in order to compare the actual output with the desired output
response (Figure 2). A standard definition of a feedback control system is a control system which
tends to maintain a prescribed relationship of one system variable to another by comparing
functions of these variables and using the difference as a means of control. In the case of the
driver steering an automobile, the driver uses his or her sight to visually measure and compare
the actual location of the car with the desired location. The driver then serves as the controller,
turning the steering wheel. The process represents the dynamics of the steering mechanism and
the automobile response.
A feedback control system often uses a function of a prescribed relationship between the output
and reference input to control the process. Often, the difference between the output of the
process under control and the reference input is amplified and used to control the process so that
the difference is continually reduced. The feedback concept has been the foundation for control
system analysis and design.

## Applications for feedback systems

Familiar control systems have the basic closed-loop configuration. For example, a refrigerator has
a temperature setting for desired temperature, a thermostat to measure the actual temperature
and the error, and a compressor motor for power amplification. Other examples in the home are
the oven, furnace, and water heater. In industry, there are controls for speed, process
temperature and pressure, position, thickness, composition, and quality, among many others.
Feedback control concepts have also been applied to mass transportation, electric power
systems, automatic warehousing and inventory control, automatic control of agricultural

systems, biomedical experimentation and biological control systems, and social, economic, and
political systems.

## Types of the Control Systems

Generally, all control systems are "computer" based systems, but to have more suptile feeling
about those systems we can divide them into followoing groups:

AC Drives

DC Drives

## Pages in category "Control"

The following 3 pages are in this category, out of 3 total.

## Automatic Meter Reading

Droop Control

PLC

Electrical Power
How do the various formulae for electrical power fit together? What is the difference between DC,
AC and complex power and how do they harmonise with our physical conceptions of energy and
power.
Contents
[hide]

1 Definition
2 DC Power
o

3 AC Power

3.1 Derivation

4 Complex Power

4.1 Derivation

## 4.3 Complex Exponentials

5 Apparent Power
6 Three-Phase Power

Definition
By formal definition, any form of power (e.g. electrical, mechanical, thermal, etc) is the rate at
which energy or work is performed. The standard unit of power is the watt (or joules per
second). Electrical power is the rate at which electrical energy is delivered to a load (via an
electrical circuit) and converted into another form of energy (e.g. heat, light, sound, chemical,
kinetic, etc). In terms of electrical quantities current and voltage, power can be calculated by the
following standard formula:

Where P is power in watts, V is potential difference in volts and I is current in amperes. But
how did this relationship come about?

DC Power
Historical Derivation
19th century English physicist James Prescott Joule observed that the amount of heat energy (H)
dissipated by a constant (DC) electrical current (I), through a material of resistance R, in time t,
had the following proportional relationship:

As power is the rate of change of energy over time, Joules observation above can be restated in
terms of electrical power:

since P = H/t.
Now applying Ohms law R = V/I we get:

Alternative Derivation
The SI unit for energy is the joule. For electrical energy, one joule is defined as the work required
to move an electric charge of one coloumb through a potential difference of one volt. In other
words:

Where E is electrical energy (in joules), Q is charge (in coulombs) and V is potential difference
(in volts). Given that electric current is defined as the amount of charge flowing per unit time (I
= Q/t), then

As power is the rate of change of energy over time, this reduces to:

## Which is the familiar equation for electrical power.

AC Power

In its unaltered form, the power equation P = VI is only applicable to direct current (DC)
waveforms. In alternating current (AC) waveforms, the instantaneous value of the waveform is
always changing with time, so AC power is slightly different conceptually to DC power.

Derivation
AC waveforms in power systems are typically sinusoidal with the following general form, e.g. for
a voltage waveform:

## Where V is the amplitude of the voltage waveform (volts)

is the angular frequency = 2f
is the phase displacement
v(t) is the instantaneous value of voltage at any time t (seconds)
If the current waveform i(t) had a similar form, then it can be clearly seen that the instantaneous
power p(t)= v(t)i(t) also varies with time.
Suppose the current and voltage waveforms are both sinusoids and have a phase difference such
that the current lags the voltage by a phase angle . Therefore we can write voltage and current
as:

and

, then

and

## We then get the final AC instantaneous power equation:

The term P is called the active (or real) power and the term Q is called the reactive power.
Note that the term cos is called the power factor and refers to the proportion of active or real
component of AC power being delivered. The active power is the component of power that can do
real work (e.g. be converted to useful forms of energy like mechanical, heat or light).

Physical Interpretation
From the basic power equation:

We can see that power flow is a sinusoidal waveform with twice the frequency of voltage and
current.

From the power equation, we can also break p(t) down into two components:

## A constant term (active power),

An alternating term,

Notice that the alternating term fluctuates around zero and the constant term in the above
example is positive. It turns out that the alternating term always fluctuates around zero and the
constant term (active power) depends on the power factor cos. But what does the power factor
represent?

Power Factor
Power factor is defined as the cosine of the power angle

## , the difference in phase between

voltage and current. People will often refer to power factor as leading or lagging. This is because
the power angle can only range between -90 and +90, and the cosine of an angle in the fourth
quadrant (between 0 and -90) is always positive. Therefore the power factor is also always
positive and the only way to distinguish whether the power angle is negative or positive from the
power factor is to denote it leading or lagging.

Lagging power factor: when the current lags the voltage, this means that the current
waveform comes delayed after the voltage waveform (and the power angle is
positive).

Leading power factor: when the current leads the voltage, this means that the current
waveform comes before the voltage waveform (and the power angle is negative).

Unity power factor: refers to the case when the current and voltage are in the same
phase.

The physical significance of power factor is in the load impedance. Inductive loads
(e.g. coils, motors, etc) have lagging power factors, capacitative loads (e.g.
capacitors) have leading power factors and resistive loads (e.g. heaters) have
close to unity power factors.

Relation to Energy
By definition, power is the rate at which work is being done (or the rate at which energy is being
expended). As AC power varies with time, the amount of energy delivered by a given power flow
in time T is found by integrating the AC power function over the specified time:

We can see that power is made up of a constant component VrmsIrmscos and an alternating
component VrmsIrmscos(2t - ). The integration can therefore be broken up as follows:

## Suppose we were to integrate over a single period of an AC power waveform (e.g.

).

The alternating component drops out and the integration is solved as follows:

From this we can see that work is done by the active power component only and the alternating
component does zero net work, i.e. the positive and negative components cancel each other out.

Complex Power
Books often mention AC power in terms of complex quantities, mainly because it has attractive
properties for analysis (i.e. use of vector algebra). But often, complex power is simply defined
without being derived. So how do complex numbers follow from the previous definitions of
power?
For more information on how complex numbers are used in electrical engineering, see the related
article on complex electrical quantities. Much of the derivation below is reproduced from this
article.

Derivation
Back in 1897, Charles Proteus Steinmetz first suggested representing AC waveforms as complex
quantities in his book "Theory and Calculation of Alternating Current Phenomena". What follows
is a sketch of Steinmetzs derivation, but specifically using AC power as the quantity under
consideration.
Previously, we found that AC power is a sinusoidal waveform with the general form (for lagging
power factors):

Where V and I are the rms values for voltage and current (A rms)
For a fixed angular frequency , this waveform can be fully characterized by two parameters: the
rms voltage and current product VI and the lagging phase angle - .
Using these two parameters, we can represent the AC waveform p(t) as a two-dimensional
vector S which can be expressed in polar coordinates with magnitude VI and polar angle - :

This vector S can be converted into a pair of rectangular coordinates (x, y) such that:

It can be shown trigonometrically that the addition and subtraction of AC power vectors follow
the general rules of vector arithmetic, i.e. the rectangular components of two or more sinusoids
can be added and subtracted (but not multiplied or divided!).
However working with each rectangular component individually can be unwieldy. Suppose we
were to combine the rectangular components using a meaningless operator j to distinguish
between the horizontal (x) and vertical (y) components. Our vector S now becomes:

Note that the addition sign does not denote a simple addition because x and y are orthogonal
quantities in a two-dimensional space. At the moment, j is a meaningless operator to distinguish
the vertical component of V. Now consider a rotation of the vector by 90:

## The rotated vector S=-y+jx

Suppose we were to define the operator j to represent a 90 rotation so that multiplying a vector
V by j rotates the vector by 90. Therefore:

## Therefore using our definition of j as a 90 rotation operator, j actually turns out to be

an imaginary number and the vector S=x+jy is a complex quantity. Therefore our vector S:

## Therefore using our definition of j as a 90 rotation operator, j actually turns out to be

an imaginary number and the vector S=x+jy is a complex quantity. Therefore our vector S:

Is referred to as complex power or sometimes apparent power (refer to the section below). It
is most commonly written in this form:

Where

and

## quantities defined earlier.

Complex Power from Phasors
Given voltage and current phasors V and I such that:
and

## Then the complex power S can be calculated as follows:

Where

is the power angle (i.e phase difference between voltage and current)

Complex Exponentials
Using Eulers formula, we can represent our complex power vector as a complex exponential
using the original polar parameters:

The use of complex exponentials gives us an alternative way to think about complex power. We
have seen that the vector S rotates around the origin when we vary the phase angle . The
complex exponential

Therefore

## In other words, complex power is a two-dimensional vector representation of AC power, which is

more amenable for manipulation than the time-domain function of AC power p(t).
Apparent Power
In the previous section, we saw that complex power S is also sometimes called apparent power.
However in practice, apparent power is often used to refer to the magnitude ofS, which
is

Three-Phase Power

So far, we have only been talking about DC and single-phase AC power. The power transferred in
a balanced three-phase system is equal to the sum of the powers in each phase, i.e.

where

## is the phase-neutral voltage (Vac)

is the phase current (A)
is the power factor (pu)
For a star (wye) connected load:

and
For a delta connected load:

and
where

and

## are the line-to-line voltage and line current respectively.

Therefore, three-phase active power is the same for both star and delta connected loads (in
terms of line quantities):

## Similarly, three-phase reactive power and apparent power are as follows:

Feeder
Short description
A circuit, such as conductors in conduit or a busway run, which carries a large block of power
from the service equipment (or genertor switchboard) to a subfeeder panel or a branch circuit
panel or to some point at which the block power is broken into smaller circuits. Subfeeders
originate at a distribution center other than the service equipment or generator switchboard and
supply one or more other distribution panelboards, branch circuit panelboards, or branch circuits.

Code rules on feeders also apply to subfeeders. Feeders and subfeeders must be capable in
carrying the amount of current required by the load, plus any current that may be required in the
future. Selection of the size of a feeder depends upon the size and nature of the known load as
computed from the branch circuits, the unknown but anticipated future loads and the voltage
drop.

## Feeder Sizing according to the NEC Sections

1.) The feeder conductor ampacity shall be at least equal to 125% of a continuous load (NEC
Section 220-10b).
2.) The total load on any overcurrent device located in a panelboard must not exceed 80% of the
rating of the overcurrent device (NEC Section 384-16c).
3.) Circuit conductors shall be protected against overcurrent in accordance to their ampacities,
but where the ampacity of the conductor does not correspond with the standard ampere rating of
a fuse or a circuit breaker, the next higher rating shall be permitted only if this rating does not
exceed 800 amperes (NEC Section 240-3).
4.) Circuit conductors shall be protected against overcurrent in accordance to their ampacities,
but where the ampacity of the conductor does not correspond with the standard ampere rating of
a fuse or a circuit breaker, the next higher rating shall be permitted only if this rating does not
exceed 800 amperes (NEC Section 240-3).
5.) These normal ampacities may have to be reduced or derated where there are more than
three conductors in a cable or raceway (Note 8 to Tables 310-16 through 310-19). This means a
change in ampacities of circuit conductors.
6.) The current permitted to be carried by the branch circuit conductors or feeder may have to
be reduced if the load is continuous. This does not mean a change in the ampacities of the
conductors but the rule refers to a limit of the load to be carried by the conductors. The change
of ampacity of conductors because more than 3 conductors are installed in a cable or raceway is
distinctly different from limiting the load (NEC Section 210-22c).
Parallel feeders are feeders with more than one conductor per phase. The ampacity of the
parallel conductors is equal to the ampacity of one multiplied by the number of conductors in
parallel. Parallel conductors shall be of the same size, length and type.
Example 1
Determine the minimun size of the conductor that could be used to supply a lighting load of 30
kVA fed by a 240 V, 3-Phase, 3 wire feeder operating at 80% power factor? Following NEC
Sections results are:
1.) Feeder Amps = (30,000)/(220 x 1.732) = 78.73 A
2.) Feeder Size = 1.25 x 78.73 = 98.41 (recommended 25 mm2 PVC insulated cables)

Ampacity 100 A

## Use 100 A Circuit breaker or Fuse, rated 240 V, 3 poles

4.) The Busbar in the panelboard shall have a minimum ampacity of 100 A
5.) The mains of the Panelboard shall be rated at 100 A, 3-poles, 240 V

6.) The equipment grounding (4th wire) is recommended 16 mm2 PVC insulated cable.
( Reminder: the system in this example is a 3-phase 3 wire. The 4th wire is not a current
carrying conductor but is intended for equipment grounding)
Category: Fundamentals

IP Rating
Contents
[hide]

1 Introduction

2 Summary of IP Ratings

3 Examples

## 4 Important Points from IEC 60529

Introduction
IP Rating refers to the International Protection or Ingress Protection of electrical enclosures,
against the intrusion of solid objects, water, dust and accidental contact to live parts, as defined
by IEC 60529. The rating comprises the letters "IP" followed by two numbers (and an optional
letter), where the numbers and letters refer to conformity to levels of protection.
The Wikipedia article gives a fairly detailed account of IP ratings. Therefore this page is only
intended to be a summary of the ratings and more importantly, highlight some key points from
IEC 60529 that are commonly overlooked.
Summary of IP Ratings
Leve

## No protection against contact and

ingress of objects

Not protected

1

objects

## dripping water shall have no harmful effect when

the enclosure is tilted at an angle up to 15 from

3

harmful effect.

4

harmful effect.

## Dust protected - Ingress of dust is

not entirely prevented, but it must
5

## not enter in sufficient quantity to

interfere with the satisfactory
operation of the equipment;

## Water jets - Water projected by a nozzle (6.3mm)

against enclosure from any direction shall have no
harmful effects.

## Dust tight - No ingress of dust;

complete protection against contact

## Powerful water jets - Water projected in powerful

jets (12.5mm nozzle) against the enclosure from
any direction shall have no harmful effects.

## Immersion up to 1 m - Ingress of water in

harmful quantity shall not be possible when the
7

N/A

## enclosure is immersed in water under defined

conditions of pressure and time (up to 1 m of
submersion).

## Immersion beyond 1 m - The equipment is

suitable for continuous immersion in water under
conditions which shall be specified by the
8

N/A

## manufacturer. Normally, this will mean that the

equipment is hermetically sealed. However, with
certain types of equipment, it can mean that
water can enter but only in such a manner that
produces no harmful effects.

Examples
An IP54 enclosure is dust protected (1st number = 5) and protected against splashing wayer
(2nd number = 4).

An IP66/67 enclosure is dual protected, both for immersion up to 1m and powerful water jets.
Note that it is not always true that an enclosure with a single rating such as IP68 is suitable for
use in lower IP environments, such as IP66 (for more details, see the next section below).
Important Points from IEC 60529
Section 6 of IEC 60529 makes an important point about backward compliance of IP ratings for
water protection, as per the extract below:
"Up to and including second characteristic numeral 6, the designation implies compliance with
the requirements for all lower characteristic numerals. However, the tests establishing
compliance with any one of the lower degrees of protection need not necessarily be carried out
provided that these tests obviously would be met if applied.
An enclosure designated with second characteristic numeral 7 or 8 only is considered unsuitable
for exposure to water jets (designated by second characteristic numeral 5 or 6) and need not
comply with requirements for numeral 5 or 6 unless it is dual coded."
Category: Fundamentals
Infinite Bus
The infinite bus concept is a simplifying assumption that is applied to buses or nodes with an
infinite upstream fault capacity (or an equivalent upstream source impedance of zero). What this
means is that the voltage at this bus or node is always constant and any downstream
disturbances do not affect the voltage. Obviously, there is no such thing as an infinite bus in
practice, but it is a useful approximation to make when modelling a connection to a large utility
or grid network (that is, large relative to the downstream system). Such large networks are
sometimes called "stiff" networks or systems.
Infinite Bus Concept

## Figure 1: Infinite bus f and U plot

The infinite bus is a useful concept that summarizes how most people already view the power
grid. It can be applied when the power grid is sufficiently large that the action of any one user or
generator will not affect the operation of the power grid.
In an infinite bus:

## 2. System voltage is constant, independent of reactive power consumed or supplied

An infinite bus assumed in many small electrical applications. As an example, we take for
granted that the voltage supply to a residential outlet will be 230 V and 50 Hz: the voltage and
frequency are not changed when you turn the TV on.
Frequency-power and voltage-reactive power plots for an infinite bus are shown on Figure 1.
Operating a generator connected to an infinite bus

## Figure 2: Infinite bus f and P plot

If a generator is operated off an infinite bus:

## 1. Terminal voltage and frequency (and hence speed) are constant

2. The no-load settings of the mechanical system governor can be adjusted to supply
more or less power

Other impacts on operation can be best understood by considering the phasor diagram.
Phasor Diagrams
To simplify analysis and aid understanding, neglect armature resistance

Since voltage is constant and assuming synchronous reactance is also constant, changing the
power (with the mechanical system) will set E sin and |E| will control the reactive power. These
effects can be seen be considering two cases.

## 2. Constant Power, Changing Excitation

Category: Fundamentals

AC Power Transmission
Contents

[hide]

1 Introduction

2 Power-Angle Relationship

## 3 Steady-State Voltage Stability Limits

4 Related Topics

Introduction
Consider the following model depicting the transfer of AC power between two buses across a
line:

Where

## is the voltage and phase angle at the sending end

is the voltage and phase angle at the receiving end

## is the current phasor

The complex AC power transmitted to the receiving end bus can be calculated as follows:

At this stage, the impedance is purposely undefined and in the following sections, two different
line impedance models will be introduced to illustrate the following fundamental features of AC
power transmission:

## PV curves and steady-state voltage stability

Power-Angle Relationship
In its simplest form, we neglect the line resistance and capacitance and represent the line as
purely inductive, i.e.

## . The power transfer across the line is therefore:

Where

is called the power angle, which is the phase difference between the

## voltages on bus 1 and bus 2.

We can see that active and reactive power transfer can be characterised as follows:

, we get:

## Figure 2. Active power transfer characteristic for a lossless line

The figure above is often used to articulate the Power-Angle Relationship. We can see that in
this simple model, power will only flow when there is a phase difference between the voltages at
the sending and receiving ends. Moreover, there is a theoretical limit to how much power can be
transmitted through a line (shown here when the phase difference is 90 o). This limit will be a
recurring theme in these line models, i.e. lines have natural capacity limits on how much power
they can transmit.
Steady-State Voltage Stability Limits
The lossless (L) line model can be made more realistic by adding a resistive component,
i.e.

## . The power transfer across the line is therefore:

From the above equation, the active and reactive power transfer can be shown to be:

From the active power equation, we can solve for the voltage at bus 2 using the quadratic
equation, i.e.:

Where

By keeping the voltage at bus 1, power angle and line impedance constant, we can plot the
effect of increasing the active power on the voltage at bus 2 on a PV curve:

## Anatomy of a Short Circuit

A short circuit is an electrical fault where a conductive path (usually of low impedance) is formed
between two or more conductive parts of an electrical system (e.g. phase-phase, phase-earth,
phase-neutral, etc). This article looks at the nature of short circuits and tries to break down and
explain the constituent parts of fault currents. Note that the terms "short circuit" and "fault" are
often used interchangeably.
In most networks, a short circuit is similar to the closing transient of an RL circuit, where the R
and L components are the impedances of the source(s). The transient characteristics of short
circuit currents vary depending on whether they are near or far from synchronous generators.
The sections below describe the two general types of short circuits:
Near-to-Generator Short Circuit
A fault close to a synchronous generator has the following maximum short circuit current isc(t):

Where

## is the generator direct-axis subtransient reactance ()

is the generator direct-axis transient reactance ()
is the generator synchronous reactance ()
is the generator subtransient time constant (s)
is the generator transient time constant (s)
is the aperiodic time constant (s)
From the above equation, it can be seen that the short circuit current can be broken up into an
aperiodic current (dc component of the short circuit):

And a series of three damped sinusoidal waveforms corresponding to the following distinct
stages:

## (1) Subtransient component:

This period typically lasts 10 to 20ms from the start of the fault. The subtransient reactance is
due to the flux casued by the stator currents crossing the air gap and reaching the rotor surface
or amortisseur / damper windings.

## (2) Transient component:

This period typically lasts 100 to 400ms after the subtransient period. The transient reactance
occurs when all the damping currents in the rotor surface or amortisseur / damper windings have
decayed, but while the damping currents in the field winding are still in action.

## (3) Steady-state component:

The steady-state occurs after the transient period when all the damping currents in the field
windings have decayed, and essentially remains until the fault is cleared.

Putting these all together, we get the familiar near-to-generator short circuit waveform:

## Far-from-Generator Short Circuit

In short circuits occurring far from synchronous generators, we can ignore the effects of the
generator subtransient behaviour. It can be shown through transient circuit analysis that the
maximum far-from-generator short circuit is as follows:

Where

## is the R/X ratio at the point of fault (pu)

We can see that there are two components:

## Putting these together, we get the total far-from-generator fault current:

During the transient period, the peak transient current is typically 1.5 to

Electrical Power
(Redirected from Complex Power)
How do the various formulae for electrical power fit together? What is the difference between DC,
AC and complex power and how do they harmonise with our physical conceptions of energy and
power.
Contents
[hide]

1 Definition

2 DC Power

3 AC Power
o

3.1 Derivation

4 Complex Power

4.1 Derivation

## 4.3 Complex Exponentials

5 Apparent Power

6 Three-Phase Power

Definition
By formal definition, any form of power (e.g. electrical, mechanical, thermal, etc) is the rate at
which energy or work is performed. The standard unit of power is the watt (or joules per
second). Electrical power is the rate at which electrical energy is delivered to a load (via an
electrical circuit) and converted into another form of energy (e.g. heat, light, sound, chemical,
kinetic, etc). In terms of electrical quantities current and voltage, power can be calculated by the
following standard formula:

Where P is power in watts, V is potential difference in volts and I is current in amperes. But how
did this relationship come about?
DC Power
Historical Derivation
19th century English physicist James Prescott Joule observed that the amount of heat energy (H)
dissipated by a constant (DC) electrical current (I), through a material of resistance R, in time t,
had the following proportional relationship:

As power is the rate of change of energy over time, Joules observation above can be restated in
terms of electrical power:

since P = H/t.
Now applying Ohms law R = V/I we get:

Alternative Derivation
The SI unit for energy is the joule. For electrical energy, one joule is defined as the work required
to move an electric charge of one coloumb through a potential difference of one volt. In other
words:

Where E is electrical energy (in joules), Q is charge (in coulombs) and V is potential difference
(in volts). Given that electric current is defined as the amount of charge flowing per unit time (I
= Q/t), then

As power is the rate of change of energy over time, this reduces to:

## Which is the familiar equation for electrical power.

AC Power
In its unaltered form, the power equation P = VI is only applicable to direct current (DC)
waveforms. In alternating current (AC) waveforms, the instantaneous value of the waveform is
always changing with time, so AC power is slightly different conceptually to DC power.
Derivation
AC waveforms in power systems are typically sinusoidal with the following general form, e.g. for
a voltage waveform:

## Where V is the amplitude of the voltage waveform (volts)

is the angular frequency = 2f
is the phase displacement
v(t) is the instantaneous value of voltage at any time t (seconds)
If the current waveform i(t) had a similar form, then it can be clearly seen that the instantaneous
power p(t)= v(t)i(t) also varies with time.
Suppose the current and voltage waveforms are both sinusoids and have a phase difference such
that the current lags the voltage by a phase angle . Therefore we can write voltage and current
as:

and

, then

and

## We then get the final AC instantaneous power equation:

The term P is called the active (or real) power and the term Q is called the reactive power.
Note that the term cos is called the power factor and refers to the proportion of active or real
component of AC power being delivered. The active power is the component of power that can do
real work (e.g. be converted to useful forms of energy like mechanical, heat or light).
Physical Interpretation
From the basic power equation:

We can see that power flow is a sinusoidal waveform with twice the frequency of voltage and
current.

From the power equation, we can also break p(t) down into two components:

## A constant term (active power),

An alternating term,

Notice that the alternating term fluctuates around zero and the constant term in the above
example is positive. It turns out that the alternating term always fluctuates around zero and the

constant term (active power) depends on the power factor cos. But what does the power factor
represent?
Power Factor
Power factor is defined as the cosine of the power angle

## , the difference in phase between

voltage and current. People will often refer to power factor as leading or lagging. This is because
the power angle can only range between -90 and +90, and the cosine of an angle in the fourth
quadrant (between 0 and -90) is always positive. Therefore the power factor is also always
positive and the only way to distinguish whether the power angle is negative or positive from the
power factor is to denote it leading or lagging.

Lagging power factor: when the current lags the voltage, this means that the current
waveform comes delayed after the voltage waveform (and the power angle is positive).

Leading power factor: when the current leads the voltage, this means that the current
waveform comes before the voltage waveform (and the power angle is negative).

Unity power factor: refers to the case when the current and voltage are in the same
phase.

The physical significance of power factor is in the load impedance. Inductive loads (e.g. coils,
motors, etc) have lagging power factors, capacitative loads (e.g. capacitors) have leading power
factors and resistive loads (e.g. heaters) have close to unity power factors.
Relation to Energy
By definition, power is the rate at which work is being done (or the rate at which energy is being
expended). As AC power varies with time, the amount of energy delivered by a given power flow
in time T is found by integrating the AC power function over the specified time:

We can see that power is made up of a constant component VrmsIrmscos and an alternating
component VrmsIrmscos(2t - ). The integration can therefore be broken up as follows:

## Suppose we were to integrate over a single period of an AC power waveform (e.g.

).

The alternating component drops out and the integration is solved as follows:

From this we can see that work is done by the active power component only and the alternating
component does zero net work, i.e. the positive and negative components cancel each other out.
Complex Power

Books often mention AC power in terms of complex quantities, mainly because it has attractive
properties for analysis (i.e. use of vector algebra). But often, complex power is simply defined
without being derived. So how do complex numbers follow from the previous definitions of
power?
For more information on how complex numbers are used in electrical engineering, see the related
article on complex electrical quantities. Much of the derivation below is reproduced from this
article.
Derivation
Back in 1897, Charles Proteus Steinmetz first suggested representing AC waveforms as complex
quantities in his book "Theory and Calculation of Alternating Current Phenomena". What follows
is a sketch of Steinmetzs derivation, but specifically using AC power as the quantity under
consideration.
Previously, we found that AC power is a sinusoidal waveform with the general form (for lagging
power factors):

Where V and I are the rms values for voltage and current (A rms)
For a fixed angular frequency , this waveform can be fully characterized by two parameters: the
rms voltage and current product VI and the lagging phase angle - .
Using these two parameters, we can represent the AC waveform p(t) as a two-dimensional
vector S which can be expressed in polar coordinates with magnitude VI and polar angle - :

This vector S can be converted into a pair of rectangular coordinates (x, y) such that:

It can be shown trigonometrically that the addition and subtraction of AC power vectors follow
the general rules of vector arithmetic, i.e. the rectangular components of two or more sinusoids
can be added and subtracted (but not multiplied or divided!).
However working with each rectangular component individually can be unwieldy. Suppose we
were to combine the rectangular components using a meaningless operator j to distinguish
between the horizontal (x) and vertical (y) components. Our vector S now becomes:

Note that the addition sign does not denote a simple addition because x and y are orthogonal
quantities in a two-dimensional space. At the moment, j is a meaningless operator to distinguish
the vertical component of V. Now consider a rotation of the vector by 90:

## The rotated vector

Suppose we were to define the operator j to represent a 90 rotation so that multiplying a vector
V by j rotates the vector by 90. Therefore:

## Therefore using our definition of j as a 90 rotation operator, j actually turns out to be

an imaginary number and the vector S=x+jy is a complex quantity. Therefore our vector S:

Is referred to as complex power or sometimes apparent power (refer to the section below). It
is most commonly written in this form:
(for lagging power factor)
(for leading power factor)
Where

and

## quantities defined earlier.

Complex Power from Phasors
Given voltage and current phasors V and I such that:
and

## Then the complex power S can be calculated as follows:

Where

is the power angle (i.e phase difference between voltage and current)

Complex Exponentials
Using Eulers formula, we can represent our complex power vector as a complex exponential
using the original polar parameters:

The use of complex exponentials gives us an alternative way to think about complex power. We
have seen that the vector S rotates around the origin when we vary the phase angle . The
complex exponential

Therefore

## In other words, complex power is a two-dimensional vector representation of AC power, which is

more amenable for manipulation than the time-domain function of AC power p(t).
Apparent Power
In the previous section, we saw that complex power S is also sometimes called apparent power.
However in practice, apparent power is often used to refer to the magnitude of S, which
is

Three-Phase Power
So far, we have only been talking about DC and single-phase AC power. The power transferred in
a balanced three-phase system is equal to the sum of the powers in each phase, i.e.

where

## is the phase-neutral voltage (Vac)

is the phase current (A)
is the power factor (pu)
For a star (wye) connected load:

and
For a delta connected load:

and
where

and

## are the line-to-line voltage and line current respectively.

Therefore, three-phase active power is the same for both star and delta connected loads (in
terms of line quantities):

## Figure 3. PV Curve at Bus 2 for a RL line

The PV curve shows that the voltage at bus 2 falls as the active power loading increases. The
voltage falls until it hits a critical point (around 2.7pu loading) where the quadratic equation is no
longer solvable. This is referred to as the "nose point" or "point of voltage collapse", and is the
theoretical steady-state stability limit of the line.
Related Topics

Power Flow

## Categories: Fundamentals | Modelling/Analysis | Overhead Lines

Electrical Power
(Redirected from Complex Power)
How do the various formulae for electrical power fit together? What is the difference between DC,
AC and complex power and how do they harmonise with our physical conceptions of energy and
power.
Contents
[hide]

1 Definition

2 DC Power

3 AC Power
o

3.1 Derivation

4 Complex Power
o

4.1 Derivation

## 4.3 Complex Exponentials

5 Apparent Power

6 Three-Phase Power

Definition
By formal definition, any form of power (e.g. electrical, mechanical, thermal, etc) is the rate at
which energy or work is performed. The standard unit of power is the watt (or joules per
second). Electrical power is the rate at which electrical energy is delivered to a load (via an
electrical circuit) and converted into another form of energy (e.g. heat, light, sound, chemical,
kinetic, etc). In terms of electrical quantities current and voltage, power can be calculated by the
following standard formula:

Where P is power in watts, V is potential difference in volts and I is current in amperes. But how
did this relationship come about?
DC Power
Historical Derivation
19th century English physicist James Prescott Joule observed that the amount of heat energy (H)
dissipated by a constant (DC) electrical current (I), through a material of resistance R, in time t,
had the following proportional relationship:

As power is the rate of change of energy over time, Joules observation above can be restated in
terms of electrical power:

since P = H/t.
Now applying Ohms law R = V/I we get:

Alternative Derivation
The SI unit for energy is the joule. For electrical energy, one joule is defined as the work required
to move an electric charge of one coloumb through a potential difference of one volt. In other
words:

Where E is electrical energy (in joules), Q is charge (in coulombs) and V is potential difference
(in volts). Given that electric current is defined as the amount of charge flowing per unit time (I
= Q/t), then

As power is the rate of change of energy over time, this reduces to:

## Which is the familiar equation for electrical power.

AC Power
In its unaltered form, the power equation P = VI is only applicable to direct current (DC)
waveforms. In alternating current (AC) waveforms, the instantaneous value of the waveform is
always changing with time, so AC power is slightly different conceptually to DC power.
Derivation
AC waveforms in power systems are typically sinusoidal with the following general form, e.g. for
a voltage waveform:

## Where V is the amplitude of the voltage waveform (volts)

is the angular frequency = 2f
is the phase displacement
v(t) is the instantaneous value of voltage at any time t (seconds)
If the current waveform i(t) had a similar form, then it can be clearly seen that the instantaneous
power p(t)= v(t)i(t) also varies with time.
Suppose the current and voltage waveforms are both sinusoids and have a phase difference such
that the current lags the voltage by a phase angle . Therefore we can write voltage and current
as:

and

, then

and

## We then get the final AC instantaneous power equation:

The term P is called the active (or real) power and the term Q is called the reactive power.
Note that the term cos is called the power factor and refers to the proportion of active or real
component of AC power being delivered. The active power is the component of power that can do
real work (e.g. be converted to useful forms of energy like mechanical, heat or light).
Physical Interpretation
From the basic power equation:

We can see that power flow is a sinusoidal waveform with twice the frequency of voltage and
current.

From the power equation, we can also break p(t) down into two components:

## A constant term (active power),

An alternating term,

Notice that the alternating term fluctuates around zero and the constant term in the above
example is positive. It turns out that the alternating term always fluctuates around zero and the

constant term (active power) depends on the power factor cos. But what does the power factor
represent?
Power Factor
Power factor is defined as the cosine of the power angle

## , the difference in phase between

voltage and current. People will often refer to power factor as leading or lagging. This is because
the power angle can only range between -90 and +90, and the cosine of an angle in the fourth
quadrant (between 0 and -90) is always positive. Therefore the power factor is also always
positive and the only way to distinguish whether the power angle is negative or positive from the
power factor is to denote it leading or lagging.

Lagging power factor: when the current lags the voltage, this means that the current
waveform comes delayed after the voltage waveform (and the power angle is positive).

Leading power factor: when the current leads the voltage, this means that the current
waveform comes before the voltage waveform (and the power angle is negative).

Unity power factor: refers to the case when the current and voltage are in the same
phase.

The physical significance of power factor is in the load impedance. Inductive loads (e.g. coils,
motors, etc) have lagging power factors, capacitative loads (e.g. capacitors) have leading power
factors and resistive loads (e.g. heaters) have close to unity power factors.
Relation to Energy
By definition, power is the rate at which work is being done (or the rate at which energy is being
expended). As AC power varies with time, the amount of energy delivered by a given power flow
in time T is found by integrating the AC power function over the specified time:

We can see that power is made up of a constant component VrmsIrmscos and an alternating
component VrmsIrmscos(2t - ). The integration can therefore be broken up as follows:

## Suppose we were to integrate over a single period of an AC power waveform (e.g.

).

The alternating component drops out and the integration is solved as follows:

From this we can see that work is done by the active power component only and the alternating
component does zero net work, i.e. the positive and negative components cancel each other out.
Complex Power

Books often mention AC power in terms of complex quantities, mainly because it has attractive
properties for analysis (i.e. use of vector algebra). But often, complex power is simply defined
without being derived. So how do complex numbers follow from the previous definitions of
power?
For more information on how complex numbers are used in electrical engineering, see the related
article on complex electrical quantities. Much of the derivation below is reproduced from this
article.
Derivation
Back in 1897, Charles Proteus Steinmetz first suggested representing AC waveforms as complex
quantities in his book "Theory and Calculation of Alternating Current Phenomena". What follows
is a sketch of Steinmetzs derivation, but specifically using AC power as the quantity under
consideration.
Previously, we found that AC power is a sinusoidal waveform with the general form (for lagging
power factors):

Where V and I are the rms values for voltage and current (A rms)
For a fixed angular frequency , this waveform can be fully characterized by two parameters: the
rms voltage and current product VI and the lagging phase angle - .
Using these two parameters, we can represent the AC waveform p(t) as a two-dimensional
vector S which can be expressed in polar coordinates with magnitude VI and polar angle - :

This vector S can be converted into a pair of rectangular coordinates (x, y) such that:

It can be shown trigonometrically that the addition and subtraction of AC power vectors follow
the general rules of vector arithmetic, i.e. the rectangular components of two or more sinusoids
can be added and subtracted (but not multiplied or divided!).
However working with each rectangular component individually can be unwieldy. Suppose we
were to combine the rectangular components using a meaningless operator j to distinguish
between the horizontal (x) and vertical (y) components. Our vector S now becomes:

Note that the addition sign does not denote a simple addition because x and y are orthogonal
quantities in a two-dimensional space. At the moment, j is a meaningless operator to distinguish
the vertical component of V. Now consider a rotation of the vector by 90:

## The rotated vector

Suppose we were to define the operator j to represent a 90 rotation so that multiplying a vector
V by j rotates the vector by 90. Therefore:

## Therefore using our definition of j as a 90 rotation operator, j actually turns out to be

an imaginary number and the vector S=x+jy is a complex quantity. Therefore our vector S:

Is referred to as complex power or sometimes apparent power (refer to the section below). It
is most commonly written in this form:
(for lagging power factor)
(for leading power factor)
Where

and

## quantities defined earlier.

Complex Power from Phasors
Given voltage and current phasors V and I such that:
and

## Then the complex power S can be calculated as follows:

Where

is the power angle (i.e phase difference between voltage and current)

Complex Exponentials
Using Eulers formula, we can represent our complex power vector as a complex exponential
using the original polar parameters:

The use of complex exponentials gives us an alternative way to think about complex power. We
have seen that the vector S rotates around the origin when we vary the phase angle . The
complex exponential

Therefore

## In other words, complex power is a two-dimensional vector representation of AC power, which is

more amenable for manipulation than the time-domain function of AC power p(t).
Apparent Power
In the previous section, we saw that complex power S is also sometimes called apparent power.
However in practice, apparent power is often used to refer to the magnitude of S, which
is

Three-Phase Power
So far, we have only been talking about DC and single-phase AC power. The power transferred in
a balanced three-phase system is equal to the sum of the powers in each phase, i.e.

where

## is the phase-neutral voltage (Vac)

is the phase current (A)
is the power factor (pu)
For a star (wye) connected load:

and
For a delta connected load:

and
where

and

## are the line-to-line voltage and line current respectively.

Therefore, three-phase active power is the same for both star and delta connected loads (in
terms of line quantities):

Coil

## Figure 1. Rendering of a coil / solenoid

In electrical engineering, a coil or solenoid refers to a current-carrying wire loop that is wound
in a tight spiral (sometimes around a ferromagnetic core).
Contents
[hide]

2 Magnetic Flux

3 Flux Linkage

4 Inductance

## Magnetic Field of a Coil

Consider a long coil such that its length is very large compared to its cross-sectional diameter.
Experiments show that the magnetic field outside the coil is negligible compared with the field
inside the coil.
The field lines inside the coil always run perpendicular to the cross-section of the coil (since
from Gauss' law, magnetic fields have zero divergence):

## Figure 2. Magnetic field lines in and around a coil

Using Ampere's law, we can calculate the the magnetic field inside the coil. Suppose there is a
closed rectangular loop (C) that goes parallel to the field inside the coil for length L, comes out at
right angles and returns outside the coil:

## Figure 3. Closed loop C around part of the coil

Ampere's law states that any closed line integral of the magnetic field is equal to the total
current that the line's path encloses, i.e.

In the case of the coil, it is assumed that there is no magnetic field outside the coil, so the line
integral can be evaluated simply as the magnitude of the B field times the length of the line
inside the coil (note that inside the coil, the magnitude of the magnetic field is constant along
any path parallel to the axis):

The total current enclosed by the path is equal to the current I flowing through the wire
multiplied by the number of turns N that the path encloses:

Therefore:

## The magnetic field inside the coil is thus:

Magnetic Flux

Figure 3. Magnetic flux lines through the cross-sectional surface of the coil
Since we assumed that the magnetic field is negligible outside the coil, the magnetic flux is
completely due to the field inside the coil passing through the cross-sectional surface of the coil.
Given that the field inside the coil is always perpendicular to the cross-section of the coil, the
surface integration is simply the magnitude of the field multiplied by the cross-sectional area A:

Flux Linkage
Due to the additive effects of Ampere's law, the total flux through the coil can be increased by
adding more turns. The flux linkage is the total amount of flux that links all the current (and by
extension, turns of the coil) that generate it.

Since magnetic flux density is uniform inside a simple coil, the flux linkage is equivalent to the
magnetic flux derived above:

Inductance
The inductance of the coil is:

Category: Fundamentals

Power Factor
Contents
[hide]

1 Introduction

o

## 2.1 Capability Curve

3 References

Introduction
Power factor is defined as the cosine of the power angle

## , the difference in phase between

voltage and current, or simplified as the ration of the real power (P) and the apparent power (S).
People will often refer to power factor as leading or lagging. This is because the power angle can
only range between -90 and +90, and the cosine of an angle in the fourth quadrant (between
0 and -90) is always positive. Therefore the power factor is also always positive and the only
way to distinguish whether the power angle is negative or positive from the power factor is to
denote it leading or lagging.

Lagging power factor: when the current lags the voltage, this means that the current
waveform comes delayed after the voltage waveform (and the power angle is positive).
In the context of the power generation it means that the generator injects reactive power
(over-excited regime), with respect to the Q-maximum defined by the capability curve
(i.e. S = P + jQ).

Leading power factor: when the current leads the voltage, this means that the current
waveform comes before the voltage waveform (and the power angle is negative). The
generator absorbs reactive power (under-excited regime), with respect to the Q-minimum
defined by the capability curve (i.e. S = P - jQ).

Unity power factor: refers to the case when the current and voltage are in the same
phase.

The physical significance of power factor is in the load impedance. Inductive loads (e.g. coils,
motors, etc) have lagging power factors, capacitative loads (e.g. capacitors) have leading power
factors and resistive loads (e.g. heaters) have close to unity power factors.
A power factor of one or "unity power factor" is the goal of any electric utility company since if
the power factor is less than one, they have to supply more current to the user for a given
amount of power use. In doing so, they incur more line losses. They also must have larger
capacity equipment in place than would be otherwise necessary. As a result, an industrial facility
will be charged a penalty if its power factor is much different from 1.
Industrial facilities tend to have a "lagging power factor", where the current lags the voltage (like
an inductor). This is primarily the result of having a lot of electric induction motors - the windings
of motors act as inductors as seen by the power supply. Capacitors have the opposite effect and
can compensate for the inductive motor windings. Some industrial sites will have large banks of
capacitors strictly for the purpose of correcting the power factor back toward one to save on
utility company charges.
Synchronous Machine PF Contribution
Information about the operation of synchronous machines is often determined by analysis of the
armature circuit phasor diagram. Taking the armature circuit equation:

Where;

E is the open-circtuit induced voltage, also called excitation, and delta is the load angle.

The phasor diagram is constructed by taking the terminal voltage (V) as the phase reference.
Once the terminal voltage is drawn, additional phasors for current, resistive voltage drop,
reactance voltage drop and induced voltage can be added. The shape of the phasor diagram is
dependent on the phase of the current relative to the terminal voltage. Examples of leading,
lagging and unity power factor are shown below.

Capability Curve
Alternator capability curve - Green area is normal operating range of a typical synchronous
machine, yellow is abnormal but not damaging and operating in red regional will cause damage
or misoperation.

The ability of any generator to absorb the kVAR is termed as reverse kVAR limit. This ability is
defined as reactive capability curve. Figure above shows typical generator reactive capability
curve. X-axis is the kVAR produced or absorbed (positive to the right). Y-axis indicates the kW
(positive going up). kVAR and kW are shown as per unit quantities based on the rating of the
alternator (not necessarily the generator set, which may have a lower rating.
The normal operating range of a generator set is between 0 and 100 percent of the kW rating of
the alternator (positive) and between 0.8 and 1.0 power factor (green area on curve). The black
lines on the curves show the operating range of a specific alternator when operating outside of
normal range. Notice that as power factor drops, the machine must be de-rated to prevent
overheating. On the left quadrant, you can see that near-normal output (yellow area) can be
achieved with some leading power factor load, in this case, down to about 0.97 power factor,
leading. At that point, the ability to absorb additional kVAR quickly drops to near zero (red area),
indicating that the AVR is turning off and any level of reverse kVAR greater than the level
shown will cause the machine to lose control of voltage.
A good rule of thumb for generators is that it can absorb about 20% of its rated kVAR output in
reverse kVAR without losing control of voltage. However, since this characteristic is not universal,
it is advisable for a system designer to specify the reverse kVAR limit used in his design, or the
magnitude of the reverse kVAR load that is expected.
More in the section of the Electrical Power.
References

## Power factor and its importance

Synchronous generator: Capability curves
Capacitor banks in power system
Category: Fundamentals

Power Flow
Contents
[hide]

1 Introduction

2 Historical Context

## 4 Single Phase Representation

5 Nodal Representation

o

## 8.4 Iteration Methods

9 References

10 Related Topics

Introduction
The objective of the power flow (or load flow) calculation is to determine the steady-state
operating conditions of an electrical network. The power flow problem is formulated such that at
each bus in the network, the following four variables are solved so as to fully define the power
flows in the network:

## Figure 1. AC power transmission between two buses

In the simplest case of AC power transmission between two buses connected by a line (as shown
in Figure 1), the complex AC power flow at the receiving end bus can be calculated as follows:

where

## is the voltage and phase angle at the sending end

is the voltage and phase angle at the receiving end

## is the current phasor

In power flow calculations, it is generally more convenient to represent impedances as
admittances, i.e.

## than complex division:

The equations for the two bus system above form the basis of the power flow calculations. In this
article, these equations are extended to larger systems of arbitrary size and topology.
Historical Context

## Westinghouse network analyser circa 1950

Power flow calculations evolved from the planning departments of electricity utilities in the early
20th century, where they were (and still are) used to simulate the effects of network
augmentations, different load scenarios, network configurations, etc. Early power flows were
solved by AC network analyzers (or calculating boards), which were analog computers containing
resistors, inductors and capacitors calibrated to be a miniature scale equivalent of the actual
electrical network. For large systems, these network analysers took up the space of entire
rooms. As they were physical in nature, the network analysers needed to be re-wired for each
different configuration, augmentation or scenario to be studied.
Starting with the seminal paper by Ward and Hale in 1956 [1], the use of digital computers
would enable power flow calculations to be performed faster and in a more flexible manner. The
iterative method proposed by Ward and Hale (which became known as the Gauss-Seidel method)
was straightforward to implement, but exhibited poor convergence characteristics.
In 1961, Van Ness and Griffin [2] introduced Newton's method for solving power flows (which
later became known as the Newton-Raphson method), which had more favourable characteristics
but was limited to smaller networks due to computer memory requirements. In their 1967 paper,
Tinney and Hart [3] exploited the sparsity properties of the Ybus matrix (and by extension,
theJacobian matrix) and in conjunction with numerical techniques such as triangular factorisation
and optimal ordering, were able to make the Newton-Raphson algorithm practical for solving
large networks using the computing resources available at the time.
In 1974, Stott and Alsac [4] recognised that in many practical networks there was decoupling
between 1) active power and voltage and 2) reactive power and phase angle. The proposed an
algorithm (the fast decoupled load flow) that significantly reduced the computational

requirements to construct the Jacobian matrix and therefore led to large gains in computational
speed (although at the expense of a little accuracy).
Per Unit Representation
To simplify the calculation of admittances / impedances across different voltage levels, it is
convenient to use a per-unit representation of the network. By default, most power flow
programs use a system-wide MVA base of 100MVA.
Single Phase Representation
In the basic power flow formulation, three-phase systems are represented in single-phase form,
based on the assumption that the system is perfectly balanced (e.g. loads and generation are
balanced, transmission lines are fully transposed, etc). This assumption holds relatively well for
high voltage transmission systems, but begins to break down at smaller scales (e.g. low voltage
distribution level), where a full three-phase power flow formulation is necessary.
Using a single-phase representation is convenient as it allows impedances to be formulated as
single complex quantities (R + jX) rather than a 3x3 matrix of mutually coupled impedances in a
full three-phase representation. Voltages in the single-phase formulation are usually referenced
to earth.
Nodal Representation
The electrical network needs to be represented in such a way so that the quantities of interest
(e.g. voltage, power flows, etc) can be solved using either nodal analysis ormesh
analysis approaches. The nodal method is the standard approach for power flow calculations for
several reasons: 1) busbars in the system can be easily translated into nodes, 2) the admittance
matrix (without mutual couplings) can be built from inspection, and 3) the nodal method can
exploit the sparsity of the admittance matrix.
For example, consider the simple system below consisting of three buses (numbered 1, 2 and 3),
two generators (G1 and G2), a load (L2) and a shunt capacitor (C2) connected via transmission
lines:

## Figure 2. Simple three bus system

In the nodal representation, the buses are represented as nodes, the generators and load are
represented as current injections while the shunt capacitor and lines are represented as
admittances:

## Figure 3. Single-phase nodal representation of three bus system

Note that the line at the bottom represents the reference node, usually taken to be an earth
reference. All node voltages are expressed with respect to this reference node.
From Kirchhoff's current law, we can see that the injected currents must equal the sum of the
branch currents leaving the node. For example, at node 1:

Similarly, at node 2:

## indicating that it is a load and current is leaving the

bus as opposed to being injected. Note also the effect of the shunt capacitor, which appears as a
self-admittance (

).

The general formulation for the current injection at node k of an n-node system is:

## ... Equ. (1)

Bus Admittance Matrix
We saw in Equation 1 above an expression for the current injection at an arbitrary bus in terms
of admittances and bus voltages. The current injections for every bus in the network can be
calculated using this equation and can be expressed in matrix form as follows:

Or in compact form:

where

is the vector of bus current injections (positive values are injections, negative values

are consumptions)
is the vector of bus voltage phasors
is the bus admittance matrix (more on this below)
The bus admittance (or Ybus) matrix is one of the fundamental building blocks of power system
simulations, describing both the topology and admittances / impedances of an electrical network.
The diagonal elements of the Ybus matrix are referred to as self-admittances and the offdiagonal elements are mutual admittances.
The Ybus matrix can be constructed from inspection when there are no mutual couplings
between branches. The procedure for building the Ybus matrix from inspection follows on readily
from Equation 1:
1. Self-admittances (diagonal elements): at bus k are the sum of all branch admittances
connected to the bus (including shunt admittances to earth):

2. Mutual admittances (off-diagonal elements): between buses k and i are the negative sum of
branch admittances connected between buses k and i:

## matrix with complex values. Normally, it is

also very sparse since most practical networks are not densely interconnected and thus have few
non-zero branch admittance values.
Note that the Ybus matrix is non-singular only if there are shunt admittances connected (e.g. the
shunt capacitor

## in our three-bus example above). This is easily proved by noticing that

without shunt admittances, each row and column of the Ybus matrix sums to zero (i.e. it is a
zero-sum matrix) and therefore does not have full rankand is not invertible.
Calculated Bus Power Injections
The power flow problem is most commonly formulated using power injections rather than current
injections. Complex power injections at bus k can be calculated from current injections as
follows:
... Equ. (2)
Given the voltages

## , the bus power

injections (i.e. net active and reactive power flows for the k bus) can be calculated in
th

Where

## Classical Formulation of the Power Flow Problem

It was noted earlier that at each bus, four variables (

and

) are required to be

known to fully define the power flows in the system. To solve the power flow problem, two of the
four variables need to be specified (i.e. known) a priori for each bus and the power flow
calculation solves for the other two. Typically, power injections at the buses are known (e.g.
measured or estimated loads or dispatched generation at the bus) and are therefore normally
specified. As a result, the bus voltages and angles are generally the unknown variables to be
solved.

Therefore in the classical formulation, the power flow problem is constructed as a set of nonlinear algebraic power equations for the unknown variables in the system (bus voltage
magnitudes and angles). The aim of the power flow calculation is to arrive at values for bus
voltages and angles such that the the mismatch error between the specified and calculated
power injections at each bus are within a pre-specified error tolerance.
Types of Buses
As discussed earlier, two variables of the four bus variables need to be specified at each bus. The
two specified variables do not have to be the same for every bus, which leads to the definition of
the following common bus types:
(1) Swing (or slack) bus [SW]: since network losses are not known a priori, a swing bus is
required where the voltage is specified, but the active power injected into the bus is unknown.
The swing bus is usually designated as the voltage reference for the system. In practice, the
swing bus would be analogous to a large generator responsible for load-frequency control or the
point of common coupling to a larger external grid. Specified variables:

(2) Voltage controlled bus [PV]: in the PV bus, the active power injected into the bus is
specified along with the voltage magnitude. PV buses are typically used to represent generators
where the active power injected is the generator dispatch power and an automatic voltage
regulator controls the bus voltage magnitude to a specified value. PV buses can also be used for
reactive power support devices which control the bus voltage to a specified value e.g. SVCs,
synchronous condensers, STATCOMs, etc (in such cases, the P active power injected is zero).
Specified variables:

(3) Constant power bus [PQ]: in the PQ bus, the active and reactive power injected into (or
consumed at) the bus is specified. PQ buses are typically used to represent constant power loads
(e.g. residential, industrial, etc), where it is assumed that the active and reactive power
injections are not affected by small variations in bus voltages (at steady state). Specified
variables:

## Power Mismatch Vector

The power mismatch vector is defined as a vector of the differences between the specified and
calculated power injections at each bus. The power mismatch at bus k in complex form is
calculated as follows:

where

## is the specified complex power injection at bus k

is the calculated complex power injection at bus k (i.e. from Equation 2)

The power mismatches can also be expressed in rectangular form where the calculated active
and reactive power injections are computed using Equations 3 and 4 respectively, i.e.

## General Solution Procedure

1. Formulate the network Ybus matrix
2. Select a swing bus for the network
3. For all other buses, define the bus type (e.g. PQ or PV) and specify the known variables
4. Select initial voltages and angles for all buses. Commonly, a flat start is used where all
voltages are initialised at

pu.

5. Calculate the power mismatch vector by using the initial voltages in Step 4 and the specified
power injections in Step 3.
6. Apply an iteration method (e.g. Newton-Raphson, Gauss-Seidel, etc) to get next iteration of
bus voltages
7. Re-calculate the power mismatch vector and check if the power mismatches are within a prespecified error tolerance, e.g. 0.001pu. If so, then the solution has been reached successfully. If
not, then continue iterating (Step 6-7) until the solution is reached or stop after a maximum
number of iterations.
Iteration Methods
The formulation of the power flow problem is generic, but there are a number of options for the
iteration method used to solve the non-linear equations. The most common methods are as
follows:

Gauss-Seidel method

Newton-Raphson method

## DC power flow method

Newton-Krylov methods

References

[1] Ward, J. B., and Hale, H. W., "Digital Computer Solution of Power Flow Problems",
AIEE Tansactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, vol PAS-75, pp. 398-404, June 1956

[2] Van Ness, J. E., and Griffin, J. H., "Elimination methods for flow studies" Trans. IEEE
Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, Vol. PAS-80, p. 299, June 1961.

[3] Tinney, W. H., and Hart, C. E., "Power Flow Solution by Newton's Method", IEEE
Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, Vol. PAS-86, No. 11, November 1967

[4] Stott, B., and Alsac, O., "Fast Decoupled Load Flow", IEEE Transactions on Power
Apparatus and Systems, Vol. PAS-93, No. 3, May 1974

Related Topics

## Simple Power Flow Example

AC Power Transmission

Ill-Conditioning

## Categories: Fundamentals | Modelling/Analysis

IP Rating
(Redirected from Ingress Protection)
Contents
[hide]

1 Introduction

2 Summary of IP Ratings

3 Examples

## 4 Important Points from IEC 60529

Introduction
IP Rating refers to the International Protection or Ingress Protection of electrical enclosures,
against the intrusion of solid objects, water, dust and accidental contact to live parts, as defined
by IEC 60529. The rating comprises the letters "IP" followed by two numbers (and an optional
letter), where the numbers and letters refer to conformity to levels of protection.
The Wikipedia article gives a fairly detailed account of IP ratings. Therefore this page is only
intended to be a summary of the ratings and more importantly, highlight some key points from
IEC 60529 that are commonly overlooked.
Summary of IP Ratings
Leve

## No protection against contact and

ingress of objects

Not protected

1

objects

## the enclosure is tilted at an angle up to 15 from

its normal position.

3

harmful effect.

4

harmful effect.

## Dust protected - Ingress of dust is

not entirely prevented, but it must
5

## not enter in sufficient quantity to

interfere with the satisfactory
operation of the equipment;

## Water jets - Water projected by a nozzle (6.3mm)

against enclosure from any direction shall have no
harmful effects.

## Dust tight - No ingress of dust;

complete protection against contact

## Powerful water jets - Water projected in powerful

jets (12.5mm nozzle) against the enclosure from
any direction shall have no harmful effects.

## Immersion up to 1 m - Ingress of water in

harmful quantity shall not be possible when the
7

N/A

## enclosure is immersed in water under defined

conditions of pressure and time (up to 1 m of
submersion).

## Immersion beyond 1 m - The equipment is

suitable for continuous immersion in water under
conditions which shall be specified by the
8

N/A

## manufacturer. Normally, this will mean that the

equipment is hermetically sealed. However, with
certain types of equipment, it can mean that
water can enter but only in such a manner that
produces no harmful effects.

Examples

An IP54 enclosure is dust protected (1st number = 5) and protected against splashing wayer
(2nd number = 4).
An IP66/67 enclosure is dual protected, both for immersion up to 1m and powerful water jets.
Note that it is not always true that an enclosure with a single rating such as IP68 is suitable for
use in lower IP environments, such as IP66 (for more details, see the next section below).
Important Points from IEC 60529
Section 6 of IEC 60529 makes an important point about backward compliance of IP ratings for
water protection, as per the extract below:
"Up to and including second characteristic numeral 6, the designation implies compliance with
the requirements for all lower characteristic numerals. However, the tests establishing
compliance with any one of the lower degrees of protection need not necessarily be carried out
provided that these tests obviously would be met if applied.
An enclosure designated with second characteristic numeral 7 or 8 only is considered unsuitable
for exposure to water jets (designated by second characteristic numeral 5 or 6) and need not
comply with requirements for numeral 5 or 6 unless it is dual coded."
Category: Fundamentals
Load Redundancy
Load redundancy is the duplication of load equipment so that an alternative can be used in case
one fails or needs to be maintained. Redundancy is common in industrial plants where loads such
as pumps, fans, compressors, etc need to operate continuously. In order for there to be minimal
plant downtime, these loads are replicated to ensure some redundancy.
Most commonly, the use of duty and standby equipment ("A" and "B" loads) is used. In a
scenario where the A/B loads are 100% redundant, the equipment can be referred to as "2 x
100%", meaning that there are 2 equipment items capable of delivering 100% output each.
Other examples of redundant (and semi-redundant) configurations:

2 x 50% - 2 equipment items capable of delivering 50% output each. If one fails, then
output is reduced to 50%.

3 x 50% - 3 equipment items capable of delivering 50% output each. In this case, there
is always one equipment item out of service / on standby

3 x 33% - 3 equipment items capable of delivering 33% output each. If one fails, then
output is reduced to 66%.

Category: Fundamentals
Load factor
The load factor represents the operating / duty point of a load and is defined as the ratio of the
absorbed power to the rated power, i.e.

Where

## is the load factor (pu)

is the absorbed power of the load (kW)
is the rated power of the load (kW)

## Newton-Raphson Power Flow

The Newton-Raphson algorithm is the most commonly used iterative method to solve the power
flow problem.
Contents
[hide]

o

## 3.2 Jacobian Matrix

3.3 Ill-conditioning

4 References

5 Related Topics

## Derivation of the Newton-Raphson Method using Taylor Series

A nonlinear function that is differentiable can be approximated by a polynomial using a Taylor
series. Let f(x) be a function of a single variable x. It is approximated about a point x0 using a
Taylor series as follows:

## ... Equ. (1)

The function f(x) is said to be linearly approximated when only the first two terms are retained
and if we include the second derivatives, then it said to be a quadratic approximation.

## Figure 1. Comparison of the original and linear approximated function

Example 1: Determine the linear approximation of the following function at a given point using
a Taylor series. Plot the original function and its linear approximation over the
interval

,

## The linear Taylor series approximation is:

In Figure 1, the original and linear approximation of the function is plotted. It can be seen that
the approximation is good near x0, however, as we move away from the approximation point, the
original function and linear approximation begin to diverge. The approximation result can be
improved by adding higher order derivative terms. Try formulating the quadratic approximation
equation and compare it with the original function.
In the above example, we have learned how to approximate the non-linear equation and
calculate the value of a function at a given point. Similarly, linear approximations of a Taylor
series can be used for calculating the solution of the non-linear equation and determine the value
of x at a given f(x). In Equation 1, if we neglect the second and higher differential order term
then the equation can be written as:

## ... Equ. (2)

We have seen from Example 1 that the linear approximation function provides the result near to
the actual result only if the value of x is near x0, similarly, the solution x cannot be estimated
correctly if the initial guess x0 is very far from the actual solution. Therefore, in order to estimate
the result close to the actual solution, after estimating the value x based on initial guess x0, the
function is again linearized around a point x and the solution is estimated again. This process is
repeated until the difference between current estimation and previously estimated value is lower
than a predefined tolerance. This method of iteration is called Newton-Raphson method and
Equation 3 is commonly known as Newton-Raphson equation.

## ... Equ. (3)

Here, k = 0, 1, 2 is a number of the current iteration.
Example 2: Determine the value x at which f(x) = 103 using Newton-Raphson method. Use the
same function defined in Example 1 with initial guess of x0 = -1.
The function and its first derivative are as follows:

## Thus, the Newton-Raphson equation becomes:

Starting from k = 0, we can estimate the solution x for k+1 until the error
term

## The values of the first 8 iterations are as follows:

It is noticeable that the solution has converged after iteration k = 5 to the value x = -5.00 and
the difference between the solution of two iteration onward is lower than the tolerance. The
solution can be verified by calculating the function value at x = -5.00.
Generally, non-linear equations have more than one solution but the Newton-Raphson method
provides only one solution that is close to the starting point. In order to get the other solution,
the initial value must be changed to different value.
In the same example, if we change the initial value to x0 = 1.00, the solution will converge in
the same number of iteration but in opposite direction and provide second solution i.e. x = 5.0.
The Newton-Raphson method converges quickly when the starting point is close to the solution.
However, in some circumstances, the method is known to diverge or provide no information that
the solution exists. In the example above, if f(x) = 0, then the Newton-Raphson method will not
converge.
Traditionally, the Newton-Raphson equation is formulated to find the root of a function, i.e.
solving for x when

## ... Equ. (4)

Multi-dimensional Newton-Raphson Method
In the derivation above, the Newton-Raphson method is used to find the root of a single
equation

## . In order to simultaneously solve the roots for a set of n equations

, the

Newton-Raphson iteration in Equation (4) can be extended to the following matrix form:

where

## is the n x n Jacobian matrix

Application to the Power Flow Problem
When applied to the power flow problem, the Newton-Raphson algorithm is used to solve for a
vector of bus voltage magnitudes and angles, i.e.

Things to note:
(1) The voltage and angle at the swing bus is specified (i.e. known a priori) and is therefore not
part of the solution vector

(2) Bus voltage magnitudes at PV buses are specified and therefore not part of

. Only the

(3)

## Therefore, the vector

where

is an m x 1 vector with:

## is the number of PQ buses

is the number of PV buses

Note that buses in the network must be ordered such that the PQ buses are first, followed by the
PV buses.
Basic Algorithm
The basic Newton-Raphson iteration is as follows:

where

## is the vector of bus voltage angles at the k-th iteration

is the vector of bus voltage magnitudes at the k-th iteration
is the vector of mismatches between the specified and

calculated bus active power injections (with calculated injections computed using bus voltage
magnitudes and angles at the k-th iteration)
is the vector of mismatches between the specified and
calculated bus reactive power injections (with calculated injections computed using bus voltage
magnitudes and angles at the k-th iteration)
Jacobian Matrix
By convention, the Jacobian matrix is set up as a partitioned matrix of the form:

## Where each term is a sub-matrix of the form (using

as an example):

In rectangular form, the terms in the sub-matrices are real numbers calculated by the following
expressions:

(i) Sub-matrix

(ii) Sub-matrix

(iii) Sub-matrix

(iv) Sub-matrix

Ill-conditioning
The power flow problem is said to be ill-conditioned if the Jacobian matrix is ill-conditioned. This
is because in the Newton-Raphson algorithm, each iteration has the following linear form:

where

## is the active and reactive power mismatch vector

Therefore, if the Jacobian matrix is ill-conditioned, the solution to the power flow iteration can
become wildly unstable or divergent.
The most common characteristics that lead to ill-conditioned power flow problems are as follows:

Heavily loaded power system (i.e. voltage stability problem where system has
reached nose point of PV curve)

## Large system with many radial lines

Poor selection of the slack bus (e.g. in a weakly supported part of the network)

## Numerical Techniques to Improve Computation Time

Each iteration of the Newton-Raphson algorithm requires basic matrix operations to be
performed, i.e. matrix arithmetic, multiplication and inversion. For large networks, the use of
efficient numerical techniques can significantly improve computation times:

Sparsity techniques: in most practical networks, the bus admittance matrix is sparse,
and the Jacobian matrix has the same level of sparsity. The use of sparse matrix
techniques reduces the memory storage requirements of an
from

entries to

admittance matrix

## , where b is the number of branches in the network.

Suppose a network has on average 2 branches for every bus, then the storage requirements for
such a network is
is

entries. If the network had 200 buses, then the storage requirements
for the full matrix and

## for the sparse matrix.

Efficient methods for solving linear equations involving sparse matrix also exist, which can also
help to improve computational times.

## LU Decomposition: sometimes called triangular factorisation or LU factorisation, LU

decomposition is an efficient technique for inverting the Jacobian matrix by factoring the
Jacobian matrix into lower (L) and upper (U) triangular matrices and then solving the
equations via forward/backward substitutions. This technique reduces the number of full

## matrix multiplication operations when compared to conventional matrix inversion

techniques.

Optimal ordering: the rows of the Jacobian matrix can be ordered so as to minimise the
number of non-zero entries in the upper triangular matrix during LU decomposition. The
ordering only needs to be done once and is generally set up so that the rows with the
least number of branches are worked on first during the triangular factorisation process.

Less frequent update of the Jacobian matrix: in the default formulation, the power
flow Jacobian matrix is calculated at every iteration. However, as the algorithm gets close
to the solution, the Jacobian matrix does not change significantly and computation time
can be saved by only updating the Jacobian matrix less frequently, e.g. every second or
third iteration.

## Techniques to Improve Convergence

The Newton-Raphson algorithm has the tendency to converge (or diverge) to an incorrect
solution within several iterations, depending on such factors as the level of ill-conditioning,
quality of the initial estimates, etc. Some techniques for improving convergence are listed below:

Damping factors: the step length of each iteration can be controlled by a damping
factor

and

## at the iteration, i.e.

Use of previous solutions: by default, a "flat start" estimate is used for the initial bus
voltages (i.e. 1 + j0 pu). This may be far from the actual solution and may cause the
Newton-Raphson algorithm to diverge. In network augmentations and what-if scenarios,
a successful solution often already exists for a base network and convergence difficulties
arise for the expanded system. In such cases, the previously solved bus voltages could
be used as initial estimates in lieu of a flat start.

Use of DC load flow solution: the DC load flow is a direct linear method (i.e. noniterative) for estimating active power flows in a network by making several assumptions
(e.g. all voltage magnitudes are 1pu). Since the DC load flow always solves as long as
the Ybus matrix is invertible, then the solution can be used as initial estimates for the
voltage angles in the Newton-Raphson algorithm.

## Characteristics of the Newton-Raphson Algorithm

The Newton-Raphson algorithm is without doubt the most widely used method for solving power
flows because of some key favourable characteristics:

## Convergence properties and accuracy: the Newton-Raphson algorithm exhibits

quadratic convergence, leading to highly accurate solutions for most practical systems
within 5 iterations.

Speed: the numerical techniques (sparsity, optimal ordering, LU factorisation, etc) have
made the Newton-Raphson algorithm computationally efficient and competitive against
other algorithms even for large systems.

Reliability: the algorithm is very reliable and able to solve even heavily loaded systems
operating at close to voltage collapse.

Flexibility: the basic algorithm can be readily extended to cater for tap-changing
transformers, FACTS and other reactive support devices, DC systems, phase shifting
transformers, etc.

References

[1] Tinney, W. H., and Hart, C. E., "Power Flow Solution by Newton's Method", IEEE
Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, Vol. PAS-86, No. 11, 1967

Related Topics

Power Flow

## Simple Power Flow Example

AC Power Transmission

Ill-Conditioning

## Categories: Fundamentals | Modelling/Analysis

Resonance
(Redirected from Parallel Resonance)
Contents
[hide]

1 Classical Derivations
o

o

## 2.2 Parallel Resonance

Classical Derivations
Series Resonance

## Figure 1. Classical series resonance circuit

The classical circuit to demonstrate series resonance is the RLC circuit shown in the figure right,
which shows a voltage source connected to R, L and C impedances in series. Given a fixed ac
voltage source U operating at angular frequency , the current in the circuit is given by the
following:

The current is at a maximum when the impedance is at a minimum. So given constant R, L and
C, the minimum impedance occurs when:

or

This angular frequency is called the resonant frequency of the circuit. At this frequency, the
current in the series circuit is at a maximum and this is referred to as a point of series
resonance. The significance of this in practice is when harmonic voltages at the resonant
frequency cause high levels of current distortion.
Parallel Resonance

## Figure 2. Classical parallel resonance circuit

The classical circuit to demonstrate series resonance is the RLC circuit shown in the figure right,
which shows a current source connected to R, L and C impedances in parallel. Given a fixed ac
current source I operating at angular frequency , the voltage across the impedances is given by
the following:

The voltage is at a maximum when the impedance is also at a maximum. So given constant R, L
and C, the maximum impedance occurs when:

or

Notice that the resonant frequency is the same as that in the series resonance case. At this
resonant frequency, the voltage in the parallel circuit is at a maximum and this is referred to as a
point of parallel resonance. The significance of this in practice is when harmonic currents at the
resonant frequency cause high levels of voltage distortion.
Resonance in Practical Circuits
Series Resonance

Here a distorted voltage at the input of the transformer can cause high harmonic current
distortion (Ih) at the resonant frequency of the RLC circuit.
Parallel Resonance

In this more common scenario, a harmonic current source (Ih) can cause high harmonic voltage
distortion on the busbar at the resonant frequency of the RLC circuit. The harmonic current
source could be any non-linear load, e.g. power electronics interfaces such as converters, switchmode power supplies, etc.
Categories: Fundamentals | Harmonics

Per-unit System
Contents
[hide]

1 Introduction

2 Why bother?

## 4 Calculation of Per-unit Impedances

5 Application Examples
o

5.2 Transformers

## 5.3 Induction Machines

Introduction
The per-unit system is a method of expressing quantities in an electrical system (e.g. voltage,
current, impedance, etc) as a proportion of pre-defined base quantities. By definition, the perunit value of a quantity is the ratio of the original quantity to its base value (which results in a
dimensionless "per-unit" or "pu" value):

Where

## is quantity in normal units

is the base value of the quantity in normal units
For example, suppose the base value of current is 100A, then a current of 50A has a per-unit
value of 50/100 = 0.5 pu.
Why bother?
The per-unit system was originally developed to simplify laborious hand calculations and while it
is now not always necessary (due to the widespread use of computers), the per-unit system does
still offer some distinct advantages over standard SI values:

The relative magnitudes of all similar network quantities (e.g. voltages throughout the
system) can be directly compared

## between quantities (e.g. line-line vs line-neutral)

Per-unit impedance values of equipment are normally found over a small range of values
irrespective of the absolute size. On the other hand, ohmic values may have significant
variation and are often proportional to nominal rating. Therefore, typical values can be
used as a reasonable first approximation where detailed / accurate information is not
known.

Per-unit impedances of transformers are the same whether referred to either side of the
transformer (primary or secondary) and are independent of winding connections (for
polyphase transformers), voltage level and phase shifts

Impedances are often quoted in terms of per-unit values by manufacturers (on a base of
rated kVA or kW and voltage)

## Multiplying per-unit quantities results in more per-unit quantities (and requires no

conversion of units)

Manual calculations are often simplified using per-unit values (for all of the reasons
above)

## Calculation of Base Values

Not all system quantities are independent from each other (e.g. apparent power is related to
voltage and current, S = VI), so base values are both selected and calculated. Normally, the
rated (apparent) power and nominal voltage are arbitrarily selected as base quantities:

Base power (

Base voltage (

## ) = nominal apparent power of the equipment (or system)

) = nominal voltage of the equipment (or system)

The other base quantities can then be derived by calculation from these two base quantities:

Base current (

(Note that for three-phase systems and where the base voltage is expressed as a line-to-line

voltage, then

Base impedance (

and

, where

## Calculation of Per-unit Impedances

Per-unit impedances are calculated by dividing the ohmic impedance by the base impedance:

Per-unit resistance and reactance values can be calculated by dividing by the base impedance
(which also works in series and parallel combinations of impedances), i.e.

Application Examples

System Analysis
The analysis of an electrical network can be simplified by using the per-unit system. Firstly, a
system-wide base MVA is chosen and base voltages are selected for different parts of the system
such that they correspond to the turns ratios of the transformers in the system. Choosing such
voltages ensures that the per-unit impedance of the transformer is the same on both the primary
and secondary sides and therefore the entire system can be combined using a single set of perunit impedances. Next, all impedances in the network must be converted to the base values.
Often, the per-unit impedance of system components are expressed on another base (e.g.
transformer impedances are typically expressed on the rated kVA base and rated voltage).
Therefore, we would need to perform a change of base operation:

Where

and

and

## are the old and new base voltages (V)

are the old and new base powers (VA)

Transformers
The transformer (leakage) impedance is normally expressed as a per-unit or percent quantity on
the transformer kVA base and rated voltage. The impedance is calculated by computing the
impedance voltage from a standard short-circuit test measurement - with the windings
connected for the rated voltage (e.g. delta, wye, etc), a variable voltage is applied to one
winding with the other winding short circuited. The impedance voltage is the value of the applied
voltage required to circulate the rated current in the winding (that is not short circuited). The
per-unit impedance of the transformer is found by converting the impedance voltage to a perunit quantity.

Where

## is the impedance voltage (V)

is the transformer rated (base) voltage (V)

An advantage of the per-unit impedance is that it is the same whether it is referred to the
primary or secondary side of the transformer and is independent of winding connection (e.g.
delta, wye, etc) and phase shifts.
Induction Machines
It is often more convenient to express induction motor equivalent circuit parameters in per-unit
since they are invariant of winding connection. First, select the power and voltage base values as
the nominal kVA rating and the rated voltage of the induction motor. The motor full load current
is therefore the current base. The other per-unit quantities can be calculated as follows:

## Rated torque (pu):

Category: Fundamentals

Phase Conversion
Contents
[hide]

1 Introduction

2 1-phase VS 3-phase

3 Phase Conversion
o

Introduction

## Figure 1. 1-phase vs 3-phase sytem

Single (1-phase) or multi (3-phase) phase voltage systems are the most common voltage
systems used in the power network. In terms of power consumption single phase system is used
for low voltage application, where the supplied devices are smaller loads; such in commercial or
domestical usage, small industry or utility workshops etc. Typically, single phase devices are the
most common devices found in our household (floor lamp, microwave oven, coffee machine, fan,
PC...). Multi phase system is used for all voltage levels (typically multi phase refers to the 3phase). In high voltage (from 30 kV) it is used for transmission of electric power, in medium
voltage (up to 30 kV) for transmission and as a supply to the powerful 3-phase AC motors and in
low voltage (up to 1 kV) as a supply to the 3-phase AC motors or heaters.
1-phase VS 3-phase
Electricity is either connected at 230 or 240 V (1-phase, which accounts for the majority of
domestic situations), or 400 and 415 V (3-phase). The latter is better suited to providing for
powerful appliances and fixed plant, and is more commonly used by industrial and larger
commercial users.
1-phase comes to the home with two wires: active and neutral. The neutral wire is connected to
earth (water pipe, earth stake, etc.) at the switchboard.

3-phase has four wires: three actives (called phases) and one neutral. The neutral wire is
earthed at the switchboard. The common appliancies are:

Big electric motors (usually more than 2 kW) need 3-phase power. This includes large
workshop equipment.

Large domestic installations sometimes have 3-phase because it distributes the total load
in a way that ensures that the current in each phase is lower.

Example: Imagine the total electrical load is 24 kW (that's a lot for a domestic installation). For
a normal, 1-phase power supply at 240 V, the maximum current would be 100 A. Derived from
the Ohm's law: the current in amperes multiplied by voltage in volts gives power in watts (Power
= Voltage x Current).
If a 3-phase supply is available, then the 24 kW are divided by 3, meaning that 8 kW is being
used per phase. Now the current per phase is also down to a third of what it would be with a
single phase supply (about 30 A per phase, rather than 100 A). Putting that in perspective, then
100 W lighting fixtures represent 1 kW of power, which equates to a bit under 40 A.
Typically, connection fees for 3-phase are higher, and there are fixed annual charges as well for
3-phase so dont contemplate it for a new home unless you really need it.
Rural connections and SWER
Depending on your locality you may be connected to a SWER line. These are used in many
country areas. Single wire, earth return (SWER) delivers single phase power. Its an economical
way of distributing power, because only one transmission line (active) is needed. There is no
neutral - instead the earth is employed as the return conductor.
If three-phase motors have to be used, a 1-phase to 3-phase power converter has to be installed
by the electricity consumer.
Phase Conversion
Power Electronics
A phase converter is a device that produces 3-phase electrical power from a 1-phase source,
thus allowing the operation of 3-phase equipment at a site that only has 1-phase electrical
service. Phase converters are the economical option, however power quality is often
compromised with poor voltage balancing and for most equipment loads, an oversized converter
must be specified to enable motor start-up. These inefficiencies lead to increased energy
consumption and eventually may cause damage to the 3-phase equipment, especially digital or
electronic machinery.
Manual Modification
In the case of simple thermal loads which are supplied by the 3-phase system, then the
conversion to 1-phase can be made by changing the wiring system inside installation. This
applies to the older 3-phase heaters, ovens or water boilers. In newer versions of those devices
usually we can find some of the power electronics, which needs to be powered by the line voltage
i.e. 400 Volts. Before proceeding further few things should be kept in mind :

## 1) Device power could be tripple lowered (i.e. 18 kW will become 6 kW),

2) 1-phase must sustain 3-phase load (i.e. 18 kW , which is 78 A load for 231 V),
3) Cable installations could be endangered (overloaded),
4) Protection device could be damaged (if not resized accordingly),
5) Device efficency could be lowered (i.e. tripple time to reach operating point),
6) If power electronics is stored inside those devices, better to avoid phase conversion, due to
the certain damages.
Also, it is possible to adjust total resistance of the load, by rewiring resistors into parallel or
series connection, to get lower or higher values.
Parallel conection will provide lower resistance values. The simpliest is to use one phase, then
the total resistance Rt is the phase resistance:

If only two phases will be used then the total resistance is calculated as:

## In case of all three phases:

Series conection will provide higher resistance values, since total resistance is the sum of all
involved resistances.
Categories: Fundamentals | Power Electronics

Referring Impedances
In a system with multiple voltage levels, it is sometimes necessary convert impedances from one
voltage to another, i.e. so that they can be used in a single equivalent circuit. Note that the
whole process of referring impedances can be avoided by using the per-unit system.
Referring Impedances in General
Generally, one can refer an impedance Z1 at some voltage V1 to another voltage V2 by the
following calculation:

Where

## is the impedance at voltage V2 ()

Referring Impedances across Transformers

Where

## is the transformer nominal secondary voltage at the principal tap (Vac)

is the transformer nominal primary voltage (Vac)
is the specified tap setting (%)
Using the winding ratio, impedances (as well as resistances and reactances) can be referred to
the primary (HV) side of the transformer by the following relation:

Where

## is the impedance referred to the primary (HV) side ()

is the impedance at the secondary (LV) side ()

## is the transformer winding ratio (pu)

Conversely, by re-arranging the equation above, impedances can be referred to the LV side:

Category: Fundamentals

## Simple Power Flow Example

Consider the simple model shown in Figure 1, where a large stiff network supplies a constant
power load

through an impedance

Figure 1. Simple power flow model (note that all quantities are in per-unit)

## Unfortunately, this cannot be computed in a straightforward manner because the load is of

constant power and thus the load current and impedance are voltage dependent, i.e. the load

draws more current as voltage decreases. As a result, the load bus voltage is non-linearly related
to the load itself.
Derivation of the Load Bus Voltage
Note that in this derivation, all quantities are in per-unit. Recall that the load complex power can
be calculated from the voltage and current phasors as follows:

and impedance

## Squaring both equations and summing them together, we get:

Simplifying and re-arranging the equation above, we can get the following homogenous
equation:

## ... Equ. (1)

Where
and
Worked Example
Suppose that the source bus has a nominal voltage of 33kV and a short circuit level of 800MVA
at X/R ratio of 10. What is the voltage at the load bus if it is supplying a constant 50MW load at
0.8pf (lagging)?
The source impedance is:

## For an X/R ratio of 10, the source impedance is therefore:

(angle in radians)
The 50MW load converted to per unit is (by convention, a load with lagging power factor has a
negative reactive power):
(angle in radians)
Plugging the parameters

and

into

## Intuition for General Power Flow Solutions

We saw in this simple example that the power flow problem for constant power loads is nonlinear (i.e. quadratic) and cannot be solved with linear techniques. This intuition can be extended
to more general power flow problems. While a closed form solution was found for this simple
case, the general power flow problem is typically solved using iterative numerical methods, for
example a Newton-Raphson algorithm.
Categories: Fundamentals | Modelling/Analysis

Symmetrical Components
Symmetrical components is a mathematical method for representing an unbalanced set of
phasors into three decoupled (independent) sets of phasors - two balanced sets and a third set

with identical phasors. The method was originally developed in 1918 by Charles LeGeyt
Fortescue and simplifies the analysis of unbalanced polyphase systems (e.g. commonly used for
three-phase voltage, current and impedance phasors).
Contents
[hide]

1 Basic Transformation

2 Visual Depiction

3 Shorthand Notation

o

## 4.1 Voltage and Current

4.2 Impedance

5 Balanced Impedances

6 References

7 Related Topics

Basic Transformation
An arbitrary set of n phasors has 2n degrees of freedom, i.e. for each phasor, there is a
magnitude and independent phase angle. Fortescue proposed a transformation that would also
have 2n degrees of freedom, but have the advantage of symmetry.
We will restrict ourselves to sets of 3 phasors, which is the most useful for modern electrical
engineering. Given a set of three arbitrary phasors, say voltage phasors, we can express these
as follows:

Where

and

and

and

and

## are the set of negative sequence voltage phasors

We have essentially broken down each original phasor into a linear combination of three phasors.
But wait, aren't we now making this more complicated? If we left it as is, then that would
certainly be true. After all, we initially had 6 degrees of freedom (i.e. 2 for each of the three
phasors) and now we have 18.

## But we let's impose some constraints on the new sets of phasors:

Firstly, let's say that the positive sequence phasors are balanced and perfecty
symmetrical. This means that we can describe the set of three phasors using only a
single reference phasor (an arbitrary choice, but we'll choose phasor a). Therefore:

where

## is the 120o rotation operator (

Secondly, we impose a similar constraint on the negative sequence phasors. They must
be balanced and perfectly symmetrical, but they have the oppositve phase sequence to
the positive sequence phasors, i.e. the peaks of the phasors occur in the opposite order
(acb instead of abc). Mathematically,

Lastly for the zero sequence phasors, we impose the constraint that they shall all be
identical, i.e:

Each of these three constraints removes 4 degrees of freedom and in the end, we can describe
everything with just 3 phasors and 6 degrees of freedom (the same as the initial set of phasors).
However, we have the advantage that the new phasors are balanced and symmetrical (or are
identical in the case of the zero sequence phasors).
In matrix notation, we can write the set of equations as follows:

Where

and

## is the zero-sequence voltage component

is the positive-sequence voltage component
is the negative-sequence voltage component
is the 120o rotation operator (

Visual Depiction

## Suppose we had a set of three unbalanced voltage waveforms as follows:

The phasor plot of the original phasors and the symmetrical component decomposition is shown
below:

The time-domain waveforms of the positive, negative and zero sequence phasors is shown
below:

The time-domain plots above nicely illustrate the difference between positive and negative
sequences. Look at the positive and negative sequence plots. In the positive sequence plot, the
waveform peaks appear in the following order: Va (red), Vb (blue), Vc (green). In the negative
sequence plot, the peaks are in a different order: Va (red), Vc (green), Vb (blue).
Steven Blair at the University of Strathclyde has a good interactive tool for visualising
symmetrical components.
Shorthand Notation
To reduce the amount of writing, it may be preferable to refer to the original unbalanced phasors
and their symmetrical components via the following shorthand notation.
The original unbalanced phasors are denoted

## Voltage, Current and Impedances

The transformation of an unbalanced three-phase network into its symmetrical components have
the following relationships regarding voltage, current and impedance.
Voltage and Current
Voltage and current phasors are resolved into symmetrical components by the basic transform
described above, i.e.

Impedance
Impedance is not resolved into symmetrical components in such a straightforward manner since
voltage, current and impedance are related by Ohm's law. Therefore, we want an expression for
the symmetrical components of impedance such that Ohm's law is satisfied:

To do this, we work backward from the original unbalanced phasors, and then apply the
transforms:

This is now in the form as the first equation above and therefore we can conclude that:

## Restating Ohnm's law in terms of symmetrical components, we get:

From the equation above, we can see that there is cross-coupling between the symmetrical
components of the network quantities. For example, the zero sequence voltage

is equal to

the weighted sum of the positive, negative and zero sequence currents:

Balanced Impedances
A special case occurs in systems with balanced impedances, i.e. where the impedance
matrices

## is a diagonal matrix of the

form:

Because all of the off-diagonals are zero, the corresponding positive, negative and zero sequence
voltages and currents are independent from each other, i.e. they are completely de-coupled and
have no cross-terms, and therefore can be treated as three de-coupled equations:

In summary, we can say that in a balanced system, the symmetrical components of netwrok
quantities form a de-coupled system of equations. The de-coupled system of equations are then
typically used to form sequence networks.
This result forms the basis of most analyses that use symmetrical components. For example, in
unbalanced fault analysis, we first assume that the system is balanced before the fault. By doing
this, we can construct the sequence networks as completely de-coupled systems. The unbalance

is introduced at the fault location (e.g. a phase-to-earth fault) and the previously de-coupled
sequence networks are connected together to yield the unbalanced system.
References
[1] Charles L. Fortescue, "Method of Symmetrical Co-Ordinates Applied to the Solution of

Polyphase Networks". Presented at the 34th annual convention of the AIEE (American
Institute of Electrical Engineers) in Atlantic City, N.J. on 28 July 1918.
Related Topics
Sequence Networks

Category: Fundamentals

## Anatomy of a Short Circuit

(Redirected from Short Circuit)
A short circuit is an electrical fault where a conductive path (usually of low impedance) is formed
between two or more conductive parts of an electrical system (e.g. phase-phase, phase-earth,
phase-neutral, etc). This article looks at the nature of short circuits and tries to break down and
explain the constituent parts of fault currents. Note that the terms "short circuit" and "fault" are
often used interchangeably.
In most networks, a short circuit is similar to the closing transient of an RL circuit, where the R
and L components are the impedances of the source(s). The transient characteristics of short
circuit currents vary depending on whether they are near or far from synchronous generators.
The sections below describe the two general types of short circuits:
Near-to-Generator Short Circuit
A fault close to a synchronous generator has the following maximum short circuit current isc(t):

Where

## is the generator direct-axis subtransient reactance ()

is the generator direct-axis transient reactance ()
is the generator synchronous reactance ()
is the generator subtransient time constant (s)
is the generator transient time constant (s)
is the aperiodic time constant (s)
From the above equation, it can be seen that the short circuit current can be broken up into an
aperiodic current (dc component of the short circuit):

And a series of three damped sinusoidal waveforms corresponding to the following distinct
stages:

## (1) Subtransient component:

This period typically lasts 10 to 20ms from the start of the fault. The subtransient reactance is
due to the flux casued by the stator currents crossing the air gap and reaching the rotor surface
or amortisseur / damper windings.

## (2) Transient component:

This period typically lasts 100 to 400ms after the subtransient period. The transient reactance
occurs when all the damping currents in the rotor surface or amortisseur / damper windings have
decayed, but while the damping currents in the field winding are still in action.

## (3) Steady-state component:

The steady-state occurs after the transient period when all the damping currents in the field
windings have decayed, and essentially remains until the fault is cleared.

Putting these all together, we get the familiar near-to-generator short circuit waveform:

## Far-from-Generator Short Circuit

In short circuits occurring far from synchronous generators, we can ignore the effects of the
generator subtransient behaviour. It can be shown through transient circuit analysis that the
maximum far-from-generator short circuit is as follows:

Where

## is the R/X ratio at the point of fault (pu)

We can see that there are two components:

## Putting these together, we get the total far-from-generator fault current:

During the transient period, the peak transient current is typically 1.5 to 2.5 times higher than
the peak steady state current.
Droop Control
Droop control is a control strategy commonly applied to generators for primary frequency
control (and occasionally voltaqe control) to allow parallel generator operation (e.g. load
sharing).
Contents
[hide]

1 Background

## 3 Limitations of Droop Control

4 Related Articles

Background
Recall that the active and reactive power transmitted across a lossless line are:

approximations

## is typically small, we can simplify this further by using the

and

From the above, we can see that active power has a large influence on the power angle and
reactive power has a large influence on the voltage difference. Restated, by controlling active
and reactive power, we can also control the power angle and voltage. We also know from
the swing equation that frequency is related to the power angle, so by controlling active power,
we can therefore control frequency.
This forms the basis of frequency and voltage droop control where active and reactive power are
adjusted according to linear characteristics, based on the following control equations:

Where

## is the base frequency

is the frequency droop control setting
is the active power of the unit
is the base active power of the unit
is the voltage at the measurement location
is the base voltage
is the reactive power of the unit
is the base reactive power of the unit
is the voltage droop control setting
These two equations are plotted in the characteristics below:

## Voltage droop characteristic

The frequency droop characteristic above can be interpreted as follows: when frequency falls
from f0 to f, the power output of the generating unit is allowed to increase from P0to P. A falling
frequency indicates an increase in loading and a requirement for more active power. Multiple
parallel units with the same droop characteristic can respond to the fall in frequency by
increasing their active power outputs simultaneously. The increase in active power output will
counteract the reduction in frequency and the units will settle at active power outputs and
frequency at a steady-state point on the droop characteristic. The droop characteristic therefore
allows multiple units to share load without the units fighting each other to control the load (called
"hunting").
The same logic above can be applied to the voltage droop characteristic.
Droop Control Setpoints
Droop settings are normally quoted in % droop. The setting indicates the percentage amount the
measured quantity must change to cause a 100% change in the controlled quantity. For
example, a 5% frequency droop setting means that for a 5% change in frequency, the unit's
power output changes by 100%. This means that if the frequency falls by 1%, the unit with a
5% droop setting will increase its power output by 20%.
The short video below shows some examples of frequency (speed) droop:
Limitations of Droop Control
Frequency droop control is useful for allowing multiple generating units to automatically change
their power outputs based on dynamically changing loads. However, consider what happens when
there is a significant contingency such as the loss of a large generating unit. If the system
remains stable, all the other units would pick up the slack, but the droop characteristic allows the
frequency to settle at a steady-state value below its nominal value (for example, 49.7Hz or
59.7hz). Other controllers are therefore necessary to bring the frequency back to its nominal
value (i.e. 50Hz or 60hz), which are called secondary and tertiary frequency controllers.
Related Articles

## Synchronous Machine Models

This page describes the most common synchronous machine models used in stability studies.
Contents
[hide]

1 Nomenclature

## 5 2nd Order (Classical) Model

Nomenclature
The standard machine parameters are defined as follows:

## is an additional damping constant (pu)

Note that per-unit values are usually expressed on the machine's MVA base.
6th Order (Sauer-Pai) Model
6th order synchronous machine model based on the book:

Sauer, P.W., Pai, M. A., "Power System Dynamics and Stability", Stipes Publishing, 2006
Stator magnetic equations:

where

## Stator electrical equations (neglecting electromagnetic transients):

Equations of motion:

Initialisation:

## 6th Order (Anderson-Fouad) Model

6th order synchronous machine model based on the book:
Anderson, P. M., Fouad, A. A., "Power System Control and Stability", Wiley-IEEE Press, New York,
2002
Stator magnetic equations:

## Stator electrical equations (neglecting electromagnetic transients):

Equations of motion:

Initialisation:

## 4th Order (Two-Axis) Model

Stator magnetic equations:

## Stator electrical equations (neglecting electromagnetic transients):

Equations of motion:

Initialisation:

## 2nd Order (Classical) Model

Stator equations:

Equations of motion:

Initialisation:

DC Motors
Contents
[hide]

o

2 Reference

## DC Motor Application Considerations

Audible Noise: Audible noise is a concern in some types of motor applications. In many medical
applications like infusion pumps or prosthetic devices, the patient can be very sensitive to the
noise disturbance. Good design practice requires that the noise be limited as much as possible.
In large machines, the combination of hundreds of DC motors and gears operating
simultaneously can be very loud and distracting to the employees who have to work in close
proximity to the machine

Quality Components: Probably the best method of insuring low audible noise in motors is to
specify quality components. Motors using cheap or poorly fitted bearings are more likely to be
noisy. Poorly designed or loose fitting brush sets can contribute to audibly noisy commutation.
Manufacturers of inexpensive, high volume motors cannot reasonably be expected to concern
themselves with quiet operation beyond some minimum standard, and the use of such motors in
applications where quiet operation is important should be considered carefully. The designer
must consider whether low cost takes precedence over quiet operation in the priorities of the
customer.
Bearing Choice: The use of ball bearings without preload is a potential source of audible noise.
Where the specific application permits, ball bearings should be preloaded. This means that the
balls will not be able to move axially in the race and cause the minute intermittent rattling that
can sometime be associated with unpreloaded ball bearings. Smaller ball bearings can be
sensitive to heavy shaft loads. They are easily damaged during press fitting added components
and by short radial or axial overloads. Care should be taken not to exceed the shaft loading
ranges specified in the datasheets. A damaged ball bearing can be a significant source of audible
noise and can effect motor life.
Sintered sleeve bearings are a very good choice when limiting audible noise if the application
does not require the motor to endure significant continuous or intermittent changes in the shaft
loading characteristics. The shaft of the motor actually rides on a thermodynamic film of
lubrication and the reduced friction can limit audible noise. If the bearing is overloaded radially,
however, this film breaks down and the shaft will grind the bearing down causing audible noise
and reducing the operational lifetime of the motor.
Vibration: Rotor vibration can be a significant source of audible noise. Vibration and noise
increases with speed. Even a slight imbalance in the rotor can cause major vibrations at speeds
of 10,000 rpm.
Brush Options: Copper-graphite type brushes tend to be both audibly and electrically noisier
than precious metal systems. Graphite based brushes are capable of withstanding considerably
higher current densities, however, and they are often required in an application for that reason.
Where a choice is available for a specific application and audible noise is important, precious
metal brushes are the better choice.
Electromagnetic Interference (EI)
DC motors are a source of electrical as well as audible noise. EMI (electro-magnetic interference)
can be radiated by motor terminals and lead wires and may cause problems with other
components in the vicinity of the motor. It is also possible for spikes to be coupled onto data
lines or output lines from encoders. The result can be false data or encoder information. There
are a number of methods that can be used to minimize EMI in motor applications. Like many
other considerations in DC motor applications, each has its advantages and disadvantages and
must be evaluated within the context of the application.
Motor Commutation: The most common source of EMI problems is the commutation of motors.
At each commutation point, when the brush breaks contact with a commutator segment, the
energy stored in the motor winding as a magnetic field causes an arc or voltage spike between
the brush and the commutator segment. This occurs not only during normal commutation but

also in situations where the brushes "bounce" on the rotating commutator. Coreless DC motors
are typically less electrically noisy than iron core DC motors because of the lower armature
inductance which in turn reduces the level of the arc energy. This arcing can be further mitigated
with the addition of a capacitor ring, which serves to dissipate the energy through a capacitor
and resistor series back into the motor coil.
Quality Components: The importance of using quality components in any motor design is of a
crucial importance. As was the case with audible noise, the use of cheap, poorly constructed
motors adds to the electrical noise problem. "Open case" motors do not effectively block EMI
radiated from the coil windings. Poorly fitted brush holders and inadequate brush tension
contribute to radiated EMI as well.
Coreless motors: Coreless DC motors have much lower armature inductance than iron-core
motors of comparable size. Since armature inductance is the primary cause of EMI problems,
minimizing it through selection of coreless motors is recommended where EMI is a critical factor.
Lead Wires and Shielding: Motor lead wires should be placed as close together as possible so
that EMI radiated from the two leads can cancel each other. This canceling effect can be
improved by using so-called "twisted pairs" where the positive and negative lead wires are
twisted together. Motor leads should be physically separated from data lines or encoder outputs
to reduce the possibility of coupling motor noise onto them. This means that when using shielded
pigtails, the feedback lines should be shielded separately from the motor leads. If noise is still
causing problems with the encoder signals than it may be time to consider using a differential
encoder to eliminate the effect of interference on the encoder. PWM switching noise is another
source of EMI problems. Most commonly, PWM switching results in radiated noise from motor
lead wires. Shielding and lead wire placement can also help mitigate the effect of PWM generated
EMI.
Passive components: EMI problems can often be significantly reduced by the simple act of
installing a capacitor across the motor terminals. In some types of applications, this method may
not be suitable since a resonant circuit is created which can cause "ringing" problems near
resonant frequencies. In these instances, an RC snubber network across the motor terminals
may be more effective. Component values are not critical for motors driven with DC, but care
must be taken in selecting components for PWM driven systems.
Motor Service Life
Operating Point: In most applications, the torque and speed demands placed upon a DC motor
determine its overall operational lifetime. As the torque requirements on the motor increase, the
current through the armature increases proportionally, thus increasing the current density at the
brush-commutator interface. High current densities promote electro-erosion of brush and
commutator materials, a limiting factor in motor service life. In addition, high rotational speeds
shorten motor service life by accelerating mechanical wear.
Although each application has its own specific requirements to be addressed, it is usually
advisable to operate a DC motor with precious metal brushes and commutator continuously at no
more than 1/3 of its rated stall torque. Motors with graphite on copper commutation systems
should be run continuously at no more than 1/2 of the motor's rated stall torque. These

recommendations attempt to maximize motor service life. Some applications may not require the
maximum lifetime that the motor has to offer.
Rotor Inductance: One of the factors limiting brush and commutator life is the inductance of
the motor armature. During commutation, when current flows through a particular coil winding
there is storage of energy in the form of a magnetic field. When the motor commutates and the
current flow is switched to another winding, the magnetic field collapses and the resulting
discharge of energy causes an arc between the commutator and brush. This arcing accelerates
electro-erosion and decreases motor life. One could, theoretically, reduce the armature
inductance of the motor windings by decreasing the number of turns in each armature segment.
This lowers the torque constant of the motor, however, which increases the motor current for a
given torque and, therefore, increases the current density at the brush-commutator interface.
This is not recommended. To reduce the affect of inductance and arcing on motor lifetime a
capacitor ring is being mounted to the commutator. The ring provides the equivalent effect of
each winding connected in parallel with a small capacitor and resistor. The collapse of the
magnetic field during commutation then serves to charge the capacitor rather than creating an
arc between brush and commutator. The stored energy is released and dissipated back into the
next coil phase in the commutation sequence. This technique, while slightly increasing the
electrical time constant of the motor, dramatically increases motor service life.
Drive Profiles: Operating conditions other than torque and speed also affect service life. The
application may require frequent starting and stopping or reversals of direction. Both situations
result in periods of high current density and a resulting shortening of service life. A similar effect
is seen in applications where pulse width modulated (PWM) drives are used. If the PWM
frequency is too low, the motor is constantly accelerating and decelerating with an accompanying
increase in current density. As a general rule, PWM frequencies of 20 kHz or higher are
recommended for ironless core motors.
Environmental Considerations: Environmental conditions can have a profound effect on motor
service life. One good example is the rapid drying and wear of graphite-based brushes in a
vacuum or very dry environment. Very warm and dry conditions also hasten the breakdown of
bearing and commutator lubricants. The ambient temperature has a cumulative effect on the
motor's operational temperature and can lower performance by limiting the operational
temperature range of the motor. External cooling by contact, air or forced air can produce
significant gains in motor performance. At the opposite extreme, very cold conditions increase
the viscosity of lubricants and cause the motor to run at a higher current.
Shaft Loading: Shock loads and vibration contribute to the tendency of the brushes to "bounce"
on the commutator, thus causing arcing and accelerated electro-erosion. Shock loads and
vibration also accelerate bearing wear. Excessive axial or radial shaft loads decrease the life of
bearings, sometimes significantly. In continuous duty applications with low radial shaft loads,
sintered bearings are the inexpensive choice. For increased radial loads, ceramic bearings are
available. Ball bearings are typically specified when the application calls for higher radial and
axial shaft loads.

Reference

Related topics:
Category: Motors

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## Motor Driven Load

Contents
[hide]

1 Load Characteristics
o

## 1.5 High Starting Torque - Constant Torque

Load Characteristics
Constant Torque Loads
In this load characteristic, the torque is constant across the entire speed range. The power is
therefore directly proportional to the speed and therefore, reducing the speed will also reduce
the power required in a linear fashion.
e.g. screw compressors and conveyors

## Variable Torque Loads

Also called quadratic torque loads, the torque of the load is proportional to the square of the
speed. The load power is therefore proportional to the cube of the speed.
e.g. centrifugal pumps, fans and blowers

## Constant Power Loads

In this load characteristic, the power output of the load is constant across the entire speed
range, and therefore torque requirements are high at low speeds.
e.g. Centre driven winders and machine tool spindles

## Constant Torque / Power

This load characteristic is a combination of constant torque in one speed range and constant
power in another. e.g. paper making machines

## High Starting Torque - Constant Torque

This load characteristic has high torque at starting and low speeds, followed by constant torque
at higher speeds.
e.g. extruders and positive displacement pumps

Category: Motors

## LV Motor Data (IEC)

The following typical low voltage motor characteristics can be used as a quick reference data set
when specific information is not available. The data is based on Toshiba TEFC, heavy duty, high
efficiency general purpose motors operating at 50Hz.

Full Load

No

## Current (A) Loa

k
W

0.
3
7

0.
3
7

0.
3
7

0.
5
5

0.
5
5

0.
5
5

R
P
M

Fra

Cur

me
Siz
e

ren
At

At

At

41

40

38

5V

0V

0V

28

D7

70

1M

14

D7

1.

1.

1.

05

93

D8

1.

1.

1.

28

D7

1.

1.

1.

05

14

D8

1.

1.

1.

10

93

D8

1.

1.

1.

0.
95

t at
415
V
(A)

Loc
ked
Rot

Torque (%

Efficiency

F/L)

(%)

Cur
ren
t
(%
F/L
)

Loc
ked
Rot
or

P
ul
l
U
p

580

300

9
0

3
0.9

458

395

6
0

3
0.8

411

370

5
2

1
0.7

392

260

4
9

3
0.8

600

330

0
2

3
1.6

Factor
(pu)

or

2
0.7

Power

474

345

2
0

Br
ea

Fu

Fu

ll

75 50 ll

-d

Lo

ow

ad

Lo

Rot

dB

or

(A

GD

(kg. at

75 50 m2)
% %

1m

ad

34

72

70

64

0.

0.

0.

0.00

.7

.3

.6

75

65

52

67

60

0.

0.

0.

0.00

.6

.6

65

56

44

38
5

70

36

65

62

55

0.

0.

0.

0.01

.7

.6

.4

59

49

39

31

70

70

66

0.

0.

0.

0.00

.1

.1

.4

87

82

73

34

74

73

69

0.

0.

0.

.4

.7

.3

79

71

58

33

72

69

63

0.

0.

0.

.1

.7

.5

58

48

37

54

46

48

54

0.01 48

TBA

50

0.

28

D8

1.

1.

1.

40

14

D8

1.

1.

1.

00

93

D9

0S

70

10

2.

2.

2.

0L

1.

28

D8

2.

2.

2.

30

1.

14

D9

2.

2.

2.

25

0S

1.

94

D9

0L

1.

70

D1

3.

3.

3.

00L

1.

28

D9

2.

50

0S

1.

14

D9

3.

3.

3.

20

0L

7
5

0.
7
5

0.
7
5

0.
7
5

2.

3
1.1

771

414

1.1

543

295

490

248

3.

2
2
8

360

200

1
6
4

739

366

2
9
2

1.4

620

301

2
4
5

2.1

540

298

2
7

2
8

3.

2.4

440

230

2
0
5

0.9

759

312

2
1

1.7

636

310

3
0
3

44

76

75

69

0.

0.

0.

0.00

.5

.3

.3

71

59

31

74

74

70

0.

0.

0.

0.01

.5

.4

.6

72

59

78

75

0.

0.

0.

0.02

.4

.5

69

48

72

68

0.

0.

0.

0.02

.7

.7

67

58

47

74

0.

0.

0.

0.00

.4

87

82

71

25

78

22

73

78

37

78

.1

31

81

81

79

0.

0.

0.

0.01

.4

.9

.7

77

57

30

78

78

75

0.

0.

0.

0.02

.9

.7

.3

66

57

44

23

74

73

0.

0.

0.

0.03

.6

.4

62

53

42

30

84

84

82

0.

0.

0.

0.01

.1

.8

.9

87

79

34

81

82

80

0.

0.

0.

0.02

.7

.3

.4

79

72

59

69

64

48

49

47

64

50

48

51

65

50

1.

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References
For details on specific motors, EuroDEEM, the European Database of Efficient Electric Motors, is
an excellent resource.
Category: Motors

Motor Performance
Induction motors typically run at highest efficiency and power factor at full-load. However when
motors are run at lower load factors, there is generally a corresponding decline in performance.
This drop in performance tends to vary non-linearly (with respect to the load factor), with larger
drops in performance at low load factors (0% to 40%). For example, the figure below shows the
performance test data of a 155kW, 2000V, 50Hz induction motor at load factors from 0% to
100%:

Category: Motors

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## Motor Parameter Estimation from Steady-State Models

Estimation of an induction motor's equivalent circuit parameters from steady-state models and
manufacturer performance data is the most common approach for offline power system studies,
e.g. dynamic motor starting, transient stability, etc [5].

Contents
[hide]

o

5 Software

6 References

7 Related Topics

## Parameter Estimation Problem

The characteristics of an induction motor are normally provided by manufacturers in the form of
a standard set of performance parameters, with the following parameters being the most
common:

Nominal voltage,

(V)

Nominal frequency,

Rated torque,

## Full load efficiency,

Breakdown torque,

## Locked rotor current,

(Hz)
(rpm)
(A)
(kW)

(Nm)
(pu)
(pu)
(normalised)
(normalised)
(pu)

We know that a set of equivalent circuit parameters can yield specific torque-speed and currentspeed curves. So given a set of performance parameters that contain features on the torquespeed and current-speed curves (e.g. breakdown torque, locked-rotor current, etc), is it possible
to determine the corresponding equivalent circuit parameters that yield these features? This is
the crux of the parameter estimation problem and can be posed as follows - "How can the motor
performance parameters be converted into equivalent circuit parameters?".
While all of the performance parameters in the above set can be used in an estimation
procedure, there are actually only six indpendent magnitudes that can be formed from
them:

and

## [1]. These independent magnitudes will thus form

the basis of the problem formulation, where the independent magnitudes calculated from the
equivalent circuit are matched with the performance parameters supplied by the manufacturer.
The basic double cage model is used to illustrate how these six independent magnitudes can be
calculated from the equivalent circuit model. Stator and rotor currents at slip "s" can be readily
calculated from the equivalent circuit.
Quantities for per-unit active power

, reactive power

Nominal speed

where

## and full load slip

is calculated as follows:

## is the nominal frequency (Hz)

is the asynchronous speed at full load (rpm)
Calculating the slip at maximum torque

## is found by solving the equation:

at slip "s"

In the double cage model, the solution to this equation is not trivial and it is more convenient to
use an estimate, e.g. based on an interval search between s=0 and s=0.5.
Problem Formulation Ignoring Core Losses
Single Cage Model (Ignoring Core Losses)
In the single cage model, the locked rotor torque

## are not used

because the single cage model does not have enough degrees of freedom to capture both the
starting and breakdown torque characteristics without introducing significant errors [1]. As a
result, it is more commonplace to only consider the breakdown torque

## in the single cage

model and simply ignore the torque and current characteristics at locked rotor. For wound-rotor
motors, this yields sufficiently accurate results (i.e. in terms of the resulting torque-speed
curve). However, a single-cage model is unable to accurately model the torque-speed
characteristics of squirrel cage motors, especially those with deep bars.
Without taking into account core losses, the full load motor efficiency

## also cannot be used.

Therefore, there are only three independent parameters that can be used in the problem
formulation:

and

These independent parameters can be used to formulate the parameter estimation in terms of a
non-linear least squares problem, with a set of non-linear equations of the form

where

## parameters of the single cage model

Double Cage Model (Ignoring Core Losses)
In the double cage model, the locked rotor torque

## and locked rotor current

are included

as independent parameters. As in the single cage model, the full load motor efficiency
cannot be used without taking into account core losses. Therefore, there are five independent
parameters and the following non-linear least squares problem:

where

are the

## equivalent circuit parameters of the double cage model

Problem Formulation Considering Core Losses
Without taking into account the core (and mechanical) losses, the motor full load efficiency
cannot be used as an independent parameter in the problem formulation. This is because
efficiency is calculated based on the ratio of output mechanical power to input electrical power. If
the heat losses through the core and rotor frictional losses are not taken into account, then the
equivalent circuit is not suitable to accurately estimate motor efficiency. It follows that
attempting to use the motor full load efficiency in the estimation of the equivalent circuit without
a core loss component would cause errors in the parameter estimates (e.g. the stator resistance
would be overestimated).
When core losses are included in the model, then the motor full load efficiency

can also be

used as an independent parameter. The problem formulations are restated below for the single
cage and double cage models with core losses taken into account.
Single Cage Model (With Core Losses)
The non-linear least squares problem for the single cage model with core losses is as follows:

where

## parameters of the single cage model (with core losses)

Double Cage Model (With Core Losses)
The non-linear least squares problem for the double cage model with core losses is as follows:

where
equivalent circuit parameters of the double cage model (with core losses)
Parameter Estimation Algorithms

are the

The most common algorithms used to solve the non-linear least squares problems for motor
parameter estimation are as follows:

Newton-Raphson Algorithm

Levenberg-Marquardt Algorithm

## Genetic Algorithm (or equivalent evolutionary method)

Software
Many commercial software packages for power systems analysis such as ETAP and DIgSILENT
PowerFactory contain integrated routines for estimating motor parameters from manufacturer
data. The commercial packages typically use some variant of the Newton-Raphson algorithm.
Moto is a free standalone tool for estimating induction motor parameters based on commonly
available manufacturer data (i.e. breakdown torque, locked rotor torque, full load power factor,
etc). The program supports a number of estimation algorithms including Newton-Raphson,
Levenberg-Marquardt and genetic algorithms.
References

[1] Pedra, J., Estimation of typical squirrel-cage induction motor parameters for dynamic
performance simulation, IEEE Proceedings on Generation, Transmission and Distribution,
Vol. 153, No. 2, 2006

[2] Filho, E., Lima, A., and Jacobina, C., Parameter Estimation for Induction Machines via
Non-Linear Least Squares Method, Conference proceedings of IECON, 1991

[3] Rogers, G., Shirmohammadi, D., Induction Machine Modelling for Electromagnetic
Transient Program, IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, Vol. EC-2, No. 4, 1987

[4] Waters, S. S., Willoughby, R. D., "Modeling Induction Motors for System Studies",
IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, Vol 1A-19, No. 5, 1983

[5] Lindenmeyer, D., Dommel, H. W., Moshref, A., and Kundur, P., "An induction motor
parameter estimation method", Electrical Power and Energy Systems, Vol. 23, 2001

Related Topics

## Induction Motor Torque

The torque developed in an induction machine can be calculated from the motor model /
equivalent circuit because the torque developed is proportional to the square of rotor current, i.e.

Where

## is the number of motor poles

is the number of stator phases
is the nominal frequency (Hz)
is the equivalent rotor resistance ()
is the motor slip (pu)
is the rotor current (A)
Contents
[hide]

o

## 1.2 Double Cage Model

2 Torque-Speed Curves

## Calculating Per-Unit Torque from the Equivalent Circuit

By using per unit values, the constant terms can be eliminated and the equation above reduces
to:

## Where in this equation, all quantities are in per-unit.

Using this relationship, we can simply analyse the equivalent circuit of an induction motor and
solve for the rotor current. For simplicity, all of the analyses below will be performed using per
unit values. Note also that complex impedances (or admittances) obey the rules of complex
arithmetic.
Single Cage Model

## Single cage model equivalent circuit

The equivalent circuit for the single cage model is shown in the figure to the right. Recasting the
impedances as admittances:

## Double cage model equivalent circuit

The equivalent circuit for the double cage model is shown in the figure to the right. Recasting the
impedances as admittances:

and

## The per-unit torque developed is:

Torque-Speed Curves

## Torque-speed curve implied by an equivalent circuit

Based on the torque equations developed in the previous section for the single cage and double
cage motor models, torque-speed curves can be constructed from the equivalent circuit by
calculating the torque at each point on the full range of motor speeds (i.e. from standtill to
synchronous speed).
Category: Motors
Induction Motor Model
Contents
[hide]

3 Core Losses

## 4 Parameter Mismatch with Measured Data

5 Parameter Estimation

6 References

7 Related Topics

## Figure 1. Single cage model equivalent circuit

The single cage model has the following parameters:

## = motor terminal voltage

= stator resistance

## = stator leakage reactance

= magnetising reactance

= rotor resistance

= rotor reactance

It has been shown (for example, in [1]) that the single cage model is not able to capture both
the starting characteristics and the breakdown torque characteristics of a cage induction motor.
Therefore for motor startup simulations, the double cage model is recommended.
Double Cage Model

## Figure 2. Double cage model equivalent circuit

The double cage model has the following parameters:

## = motor terminal voltage

= stator resistance

## = stator leakage reactance

= magnetising reactance

## = outer cage rotor reactance

Core Losses
You will notice that in the models above, the shunt magnetising branch is represented as a
magnetising reactance only (Xm). In a practical motor, there will also be eddy currents in the core
laminations that manifest themselves as heat losses. These so called core (or iron) losses can be
modelled as a shunt resistance as per the standard transformer model.
Parameter Mismatch with Measured Data
Manufacturers sometimes provide the electrical parameters for the motor equivalent circuit
(usually the single cage model) on their data sheets, based on measured test data (e.g. using
the standard tests in IEEE Std 112). However, if one were to compute the motor torque-speed
curve using these parameters, significant differences will often be found between the torquespeed curve implied by the equivalent circuit and the torque-speed curve from the
manufacturers performance data (e.g. breakdown torque, locked rotor torque, etc) [2].
The reason for this is that the equivalent circuit model is a simplification of reality. For modelling
purposes, we would like an equivalent circuit with constant parameters that is reasonably
accurate (when compared to the performance data) over the full range of slip values. However,
this simplified model doesn't take into consideration a number of factors present in practical
motors, for example:

The equivalent circuit parameters are not constant, and actually vary with frequency
(slip). The manufacturer will sometimes provide measured electrical parameter data at
various slip values and they will no doubt be different. For example, rotor resistance is
frequency (slip) dependent, caused by eddy currents in deep and shaped rotor bars.
Likewise, leakage inductances vary due to eddy currents and saturation of the leakage
flux path [3]

The parameters also vary with temperature and saturation of the teeth and core [4]

Stator resistance is normally measured with a dc resistance test (e.g. IEEE Std 112), but
the ac resistance may be different in practice and is also temperature dependent

Saturation of the leakage path of stator and rotor magnetic fields during DOL starting
reduces the leakage reactances at locked rotor conditions. However the locked-rotor test
is done at reduced voltages to simulate full load currents. Therefore the test doesnt
actually simulate the high currents on starting and thus tends to overestimate the rotor
and stator leakage reactances.

## The effect of space and time mmf harmonics

For deep bar or double cage machines, classical no-load and locked rotor tests result in
rotor resistances that are often too high

As mentioned above, we want an equivalent circuit with constant parameters that is reasonably
accurate over the full range of slip values from 0 to 1pu. Sometimes such an equivalent circuit
doesnt actually exist, and in such cases we have to decide which parts to sacrifice (e.g. if only
the starting characteristics are important in the study, then it may be acceptable for the full-load
characteristics to be less accurate).
Parameter Estimation
The equivalent circuit parameters of an induction motor can be estimated by various classes of
parameter estimation methods, depending on what type of data sets are available and the
applications of the model. The estimation methods generally fall into one of five classes [5]:
Class

Description

Data Required

Applications

1. Parameter

Accurate

Details on motor

manufacture of

calculation from

electromagnetic field

construction, e.g.

induction motors to

motor

based calculation of

geometrical and

meet certain

construction data

motor parameters

material data

performance

Design and

requirements

2. Parameter
estimation based
on steady-state
motor models

3. Frequencydomain
parameter
estimation

Iterative estimation
algorithms based on
steady-state network
data and motor
manufacturer data

Motor performance
data from
manufacturer, e.g.

Desktop (offline)

nameplate details,

## power system studies

torque-slip curves,
current-slip curves

Parameter estimation

## Offline power system

based on stand-still

## studies when SSFR

frequency response
(SSFR) test

## test results are

SSFR test results

available (more

measurements and

accurate than

resulting transfer

estimation based on

function

steady-state models)

4. Time-domain

## Motor test and

Simplified models

parameter

## measurements are used

measurement setup

## based on real test

estimation

to tune model

data

parameters

Simplified model
5. Real-time

sstimation based on

parameter

real-time measurements

estimation

of actual motor

Online tuning of
Motor sensors and

## induction motor drive

measurement devices

controllers (e.g.

operation

## variable speed drives)

References

[1] Pedra, J., Estimation of typical squirrel-cage induction motor parameters for dynamic
performance simulation, IEEE Proceedings on Generation, Transmission and Distribution,
Vol. 153, No. 2, 2006

[2] Filho, E., Lima, A., and Jacobina, C., Parameter Estimation for Induction Machines via
Non-Linear Least Squares Method, Conference proceedings of IECON, 1991

[3] Rogers, G., Shirmohammadi, D., Induction Machine Modelling for Electromagnetic
Transient Program, IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, Vol. EC-2, No. 4, 1987

[4] Waters, S. S., Willoughby, R. D., "Modeling Induction Motors for System Studies",
IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, Vol 1A-19, No. 5, 1983

[5] Lindenmeyer, D., Dommel, H. W., Moshref, A., and Kundur, P., "An induction motor
parameter estimation method", Electrical Power and Energy Systems, Vol. 23, 2001

Related Topics

## Categories: Motors | Modelling/Analysis

Category:Transformers
Introduction
A transformer is a device that transfers electrical energy from one circuit to another through
inductively coupled conductorsthe transformer's coils. A varying current in the first or primary
winding creates a varying magnetic flux in the transformer's core and thus a varying magnetic
field through the secondary winding. This varying magnetic field induces a varying electromotive
force (EMF), or "voltage", in the secondary winding. This effect is called inductive coupling.

Contents
[hide]

o

3 References

4 Related Topics

## Figure 1. Positive sequence two-winding transformer equivalent circuit

The standard positive sequence model for a two-winding transformer has the following per-unit
parameters:

## Zero Sequence Models

The zero sequence model of a transformer depends on the winding and neutral earthing
arrangements. The figure below presents simplified zero sequence models (ignoring the
magnetising branch and with all leakage impedances lumped together) for the most common
types of two-winding transformer connections. Note that all impedances are in per unit values.

## Figure 3. Zero sequence current flows in a delta-wye transformer

A key insight about transformer zero sequence connections stems from one of the fundamental
tenets of transformers: a current will only flow in one winding if there is a corresponding current
in the other winding (ignoring magnetising currents).
This is important to understand why zero sequence current can flow in a delta-wye transformer
with the star point earthed. Clearly on the wye winding, zero sequence current can flow to earth
through the star point, but zero sequence current must also be able to circulate in the delta
windings.
This also explains why no zero sequence current can flow in wye-wye transformers (with only
one star point earthed). A zero sequence current would need to induce a current in the
unearthed wye winding, but there is nowhere for the current to go. Thus it is shown as
disconnected in the zero sequence equivalent circuit.
Effects of Core Construction
The simplified zero sequence models in the previous section ignored the magnetising branch. For
shell type and 5-limb core type transformers, this is a reasonable assumption since the zero
sequence magnetising reactance is large and similar to that of the positive (and negative)
sequence magnetising reactance.
However, care must be taken for the zero-sequence modelling of 3-limb core type transformers.
The shape of the core is such that during unbalanced operation (i.e. presence of zero-sequence
currents), the flux is forced to take a path outside of the transformer core (low reluctance) and
through the air, tank, oil and transformer frame (high reluctance). As magnetising reactance is
inversely proportional to reluctance, the high reluctance path causes the magnetising reactance
in 3-limb core type transformers to be significantly lower than in 5-limb core type or shell type
transformers.
This is particularly relevant for wye connected windings, especially Yyn (or YNy) connections with
only one star point earthed. We mentioned previously that zero sequence currents cannot flow in
this configuration. But for 3-limb core type transformers, the alternative flux path through the

tank, oil and frame allows for sufficient zero-sequence current to be induced and circulate around
the tank and frame. In this way, the tank and frame acts like an internal delta winding.
References

[1] Blackburn, J., "Symmetrical Components for Power Systems Engineering", CRC Press,
1993

[2] Tleis, N., "Power Systems Modelling and Fault Analysis - Theory and Practice",
Newnes, 2008

Related Topics

Transformer Impedance

## Categories: Transformers | Modelling/Analysis

Current transformer

## Figure 2. The simplified equivalent diagram of aCurrent Transformer

Current Transformers or CT's are Instrument Transformers that convert a generally high
primary current Ip to a k-times lower secondary current Is that can be connected to standard
measuring or protection devices. The primary and secondary windings are galvanically separated
and can be on a different potential level. The transformation ratio k of a current transformer is
the number of secondary turns Ns to the number of primary turns Np and is equal to the primary
current Ipover the secondary current Is.

Contents
[hide]

o

o

3.4 Ratio k

3.6 Accuracy

o

## Standards for current transformers

According IEC
At the moment TC38 of the IEC is busy converting all the instrument transformers from the
60044-family to the new 61869 family with a general part and specific parts.

IEC 60044-1 Consolidated Edition 1.2 (incl. am1+am2) (2003-02) TC/SC 38 Instrument
transformers - Part 1: Current

transformers

## IEC 60044-3 Edition 2.0 (2002-12) TC/SC 38 Instrument transformers - Part 3:

Combined transformers

## IEC 60044-6 Edition 1.0 (1992-03) TC/SC 38 Instrument transformers - Part 6:

Requirements for protective current

## transformers for transient performance

IEC 60044-8 Edition 1.0 (2002-07) TC/SC 38 Instrument transformers - Part 8: Electronic
current transformers

IEC 61869-1 Edition 1.0 (2007-10) TC/SC 38 Instrument transformers - Part 1: General
requirements

## Australia AS 1675 Current transformers - Measurement and protection

British Standard BS3938 Specifications for Current Transformers (Withdrawn and replaced
by IEC 60044-1)

## Figure 3. The functioning principle of a current transformer

Just like a normal voltage transformer, a CT has a primary winding, a secondary winding and a
magnetic core. In the window-type and bushing-type CT's, the primary winding is reduced to one
wire passing trough the round or square shaped core, accounting for 1 turn. The primary current
Ip will produce a magnetic field with induction B round the conductor. The magnetic induction B is
amplified by the core material with very high magnetic permeability and will produce a primary
flux that will magnetise the core with cross section A and induces a secondary voltage V s in the
secondary winding with N turns.

At the same time, a N times smaller voltage, opposed to the primary current will be induced in
the primary wire creating a small extra resistance in the primary circuit. The induced secondary
voltage will drive the secondary current Is that will flow for the mayor part trough the connected
load Rb and for a small part (the error current) Ie trough the internal resistance and induction.
The internal resistance and induction represent the part of the current that is used to magnetise
the core (Inductive part) and to heat-up the core material as iron-losses. Actually the
magnetising current is taken from the primary side but that will only make the calculation model
more difficult and does not form any additional value. The secondary current I s will also produce
a secondary flux, opposite to the primary flux. The resulting flux in the CT core is a very small
magnetising flux so that the core does not saturate at normal operation currents. The secondary
current Is will be N times smaller than the primary current Ip.

The error current Ie exists for the major part of a purely inductive part; the magnetising current
Im that can be seen on the magnetising curve of the CT and a small resistive part Ig that
represent the iron losses. The magnetising current Im is proportional to the field strength H

## The copper losses are represented in the series resistor RCT

General property's of a Current Transformer
The Primary current Ip
According to IEC 60044-1, the primary current I_p is standadise of the decadic series 1 - 1,25 1,5 - 2 - 2,5 - 3 - 4 - 5 - 6 - 7,5. When selecting a CT; the primary current of the CT must be at
least the maximum current of the line in which the CT will operate. When the current is bigger
than the rated primary current of the CT, the windings will overheat, age faster and finally the
insulation will fail. According ANSI, the primary currents are fixed values; for single Ratio CT's Ip
= 10; 15; 25; 40; 50; 75; 100; 200; 300; 400; 600; 800; 1200; 1500; 2000; 3000; 4000;
5000; 6000; 8000; 12000A.
The Secondary current Is
According IEC the secondary current can be 0.5, 1 , 2 or 5A. According ANSI the secondary
current is allways 5A.
Dual or Multi-Ratio CT's
Dual ratio CT's exist in all standards but only according the ANSI standard, the ratio's are
standardised. Note the for multi ratio CT's, many primary currents are mentionned and only one
secondary current but in reality there is only one primary connection and 5 secondary terminals
that allow 10 different ratings.
Ratio k
As already mentionned, the most important property of the current transformer is the ratio
k that is both the ratio of secundary turns to primary turns and the ratio of primary current to
secondary current. Note the often the primary is only one turn and practically it's just the
conductor passing trough the core. Since a small amount of energy is necessary to magnetising
the core and to produce heat as iron loss in the core, the secondary output Ampere-turns is a bit
less than the primary Ampere-turns. The difference in current is the error current or magnetising
current. In case of very critical CT's, ratio-turn-correction is applied; remove some secondary
turns so that the ratio is a bit higher and the output is thus a bit higher at rated current. Of
course this can only be applied when the CT meets all accuracy requirements after ratio-turn
correction.
RCT The internal copper resistance
RCT is often called the secondary DC resistance at 75C. It's value depends on the length en cross
section of the secondary winding wire Pouillet's law. So RCT also depends on the core dimensions;
bigger core cross section implies a longer wire length per turn. The smaller R CT; the more the
current transformer approaches the ideal current source.
Accuracy

Figure 4. The current vectors Ip and k.Is and the error current vector Ic

Figure 5. The current error of a measuring class CT; here class 0.5 and class 1 are represented
The accuracy of a CT is given by it's "class". The division into accuracy classes depends on the
type of CT; we mainly distinguish measuring class CT's and Protection class CT's who are defined
quite differently. We will discuss accuracy for both types further. Of course they both have a
primary current I_p, a secondary current I_s and a ratio k. From these 3 parameters we can
define some important property's related to accuracy.

## The primary current vector Ip.

The secondary current vector Is that is here represented k times larger to be able to
compare them and to have an idea of the error current. In case the error would be 0,
both vectors I_p and k.I_s would be identical.

The total error vector (composite error) can be seen as the composition of:

## an angle error, expressed in radians or seconds.

Note that for protection CT's, the angle error is disregarded and only the total composite error is
given in %. When examining the equivalent diagram, one would easily conclude that the error

current can only be the magnetising current of the CT. Indeed, normally the magnetising current
is very low but at the saturation point of the core, 50% increase in magnetising current produces
only 10% extra secondary voltage so at saturation the error current rises quickly. Therefore, the
property's accuracy and saturation of the core are closely linked. Hense the error vector is
allways a reducion in secondary output current; negative error. Positive error is only possible by
ratio-turn correction.
Load, Rated load and Burden
A Voltage transformer is unloaded when the secondary terminals are open; it behaves like a
normal voltage source. A current transformer is just the opposite and is unloaded with the
secondary terminals short-circuited. Stonger even, when the secondary terminals of a CT are
open, there is no secondary flux to oppose the primary flux and the core goes to positive
saturation on the positive current-sine and to negative saturation on the negative current sine.
The induced seconday voltage is proportional to - N.d / dt and from -Vsat to +Vsat is a huge
voltage. One might also conclude that the current transformen is raising the voltage in trying to
drive the secondary current trough the open terminals. The insulation of the CT is not calculated
for this situation and it will distroy the CT secondary winding and may cause fire at the terminals
& high voltage injury. The nominal load of a CT is the rated resistive burden R B; expressed in VA.
The correct resistance can be calculated with below formula

Example: A 50VA CT with rated secondary current of 5A is designed for a connected load of
50VA/5 = 2 Ohm. Measuring transformers are tested at rated load and at 1/4 of the rated load
so this CT should be loaded within these limits to be sure the accuracy is within specification.
The use and specification of Current Transformers
Current transformers are used to measure high currents; higher than 5A. So the most important
parameter in defining a CT is indeed the Ratio that gives us the Magnetude of primary current
and the secondary current. But for the following specifications of the current transformer, the
purpose of the CT is needed since measuring CT's and Protection CT's require different
specifications. Indeed, there will be two mayor groups of Current Transformers:

## Measurement current transformers

Regarding specification, different standards have different ways in specifying CT's but it all comes
down to specifying core property's (saturation point or knee-point) and secondary wire property's
(RCT) although it may look a totally different.
Protection CT's

## Figure 6. The ratio of a protection CT as a function of the current

Protection CT's:

are meant to protect an elektrical installation in case of overcurrent or short circuit and
their operating current range is above nominal current In or more specific from In to ALF
times In. It is important for the good functionning of the protection relays that the CT's
are NOT saturated at ALF times rated current. Where ALF is the ratio of the expected
maximum fault current over the rated current. It is thus important that the core material
has a high saturation induction.

their accuracy is not very high but most important is that the accuracy in fault conditions
is high enough. This can only be the case when the core is not saturated in case of a fault
current. Therefore their accuracy is best described with an Accuracy Limit and an
Accuracy Limit Factor (ALF).E.g. a 5P20 CT has an Accuracy limit of 5% at 20 times rated
current (Accuracy Limit Factor). The accuracy of this CT at rated current is 1%.

## according the application, they can be defined in a few ways:

The standard IEC protection class CT's are of class "P" that only takes the AC
behaviour into account in IEC 60044-1

Class PX CT's are defined by the position of the knee-point (saturation point or
knee-point voltage and magnetising current) and the secondary wire resistance
RCT.

Class PR CT's are defined like the PX CT's but they have a low remanence; less
than 10%. Note that remanence in CT's can be 60-80% that may cause quick
saturation in case of a fault-current DC offset in the remanent direction. A class
PX CT can't have that problem.

CT's for transient response class "TP" are defined by their connected load R B, time
constant TS and their overcurrent figure KSSC. These linearised CT's have air-gaps
in the core to obtain extreme high saturation voltage and current.

## Figure 7. The error limits of a protection CT per IEC 60044-1

Ex. A 5P10 CT at 10 times rated current has a maximum error of 5% and only 1% at nominal
current. A 10P15 CT at 15 times rated current has a maximum error of 10% and 3% at nominal
current.
Measurement CT's

## Are aimed to measure accurately within their normal operating range of 0 to I n.

Therefore, the core material must have a high permeability (-metal) so that the
magnetising current is low.

Measurement CT's are often being used for billing of electrical power consumption and
their accuracy is determinent for a lot of money.

For the protection of the measuring instruments in case of a fault current, it is favorable
that for currents far above rated current In, the core is saturated and the output lowers so
that the fault-current trough the meter is only a part of the expected current trough the
meter. This is expressed by the Instrument Security Factor SF. Of course, the
dilemma is that the CT must be accurate at In (and 1,2 x In) but at f.i. 5 times rated
current ( FS 5) the CT may be saturated for at least 10%.

The accuracy of a measurement CT is given by it's accuracy class that corresponds to the
error% at rated current and at 1.2 times rated current In. The standard accuracy classes
according IEC are class 0.2, 0.5, 1, 3 en 5. For classes 3 and 5, no angle error is
specified. The classes 0.2S and 0.5S have their accuracy shifted toward the lower
currents. This means that they have 5 measuring points instead of 4 (or 2 for class 3 &
5).

## Figure 9. The error for measurment CT's according IEC 60044-1

The accuracy of the CT must be within these limits at the given currents and with rated
load and at 1/4 of the rated load. A measurement CT that is not loaded is therefore not
necessary accurate! Ratio turn correction may have been applied to get the CT ratings
witthin spec and then not loading gives a higher error.

Contents
[hide]

1 Introduction

2 Testing

## 2.6 Thermographic Surveys

3 References

Introduction
The primary concern with all transformers (and also the key indicator of life expectancy) is the
condition of the insulation system.
For dry type transformers, the insulation system consists of the cast resin winding and core
insulation and the termination system insulation (e.g. bushings). The structural strength and
insulating properties of materials used for these insulation systems degrade over time through
normal ageing. They can also degrade prematurely as a result of overheating and mechanical
and electrical stresses (e.g. faults, overvoltages, inrush currents, etc).
The initial breakdown of insulation around the windings can result in inter-turn faults, especially
on the high voltage windings where the electric field strength is high enough to ionise air gaps
and cause corona activity. Inter-turn faults are short circuits between coil turns on a single
winding. Further degradation of the insulation could see inter-turn faults develop into more
serious faults such as inter-winding and earth faults.

Testing
The most frequent mode of failure for dry type transformers is insulation breakdown resulting in
inter-turn faults which leads to more severe faults such as phase to phase winding or earth
faults. The insulation condition of component parts of the transformer (i.e. windings, core,
bushings, etc) can be determined by a suite of tests.
Dissolved gas analysis is the most commonly used method for determining winding insulation
condition in oil-type transformers, but is not possible for dry-type transformers.
The following tests are discussed further:

## Acoustic emission tests (in conjunction with partial discharge tests)

Thermographic surveys

## Insulation Resistance Tests

Insulation resistance, measured by application of an impressed DC voltage (i.e. Megger), gives a
general indication of the insulation condition between the phase windings and earth. The

measurements are typically taken over time (i.e. 1 minute intervals over 10 minutes) to
generate a curve, called the Dielectric Absorption curve.
The Polarisation Index is the steepness of the curve at a given temperature and is defined as per
the following equation [1]:

Where
R10 = megohms insulation resistance at 10 minutes
R1 = megohms insulation resistance at 1 minute
The Polarisation Index indicates the relative dryness and level of moisture ingress into the
insulation.
Dielectric Loss Angle Measurement Tests
Dielectric loss angle tests, also called dissipation factor, power factor or tan delta tests,
determine the insulation dielectric power loss by measurement of the power angle between an
applied AC voltage and the resultant current. In the ideal insulator, the power angle would be
90C as it is purely capacitive and non-conducting. However in real insulators, there is some
leakage current and resistive losses through the dielectric.
Relative increases in dielectric power losses are indicative of insulation deterioration and may
further accelerate degradation due to increased heating. Note that dielectric power loss does not
translate to dielectric strength, though there are often common causes for increases in power
loss and decreases in dielectric strength.

The cosine of the power angle () is called the power factor. The complement of is denoted
as shown in the diagram above. The power factor can be practically approximated by taking the
tangent of (hence the name tan delta). This approximation is called the dissipation factor and
is roughly equal to the power factor between values of 0 and 0.08, which covers the majority of
tests.
The dissipation factor is essentially the ratio between the resistive and capacitive components of
the insulation and can be measured directly (via a capacitance bridge circuit). The lower the

quality of the insulation condition, the more resistive it will appear and the more power loss will
be dissipated through it (in the form of heat).
The increase in the dissipation factor values as the test voltage is increased is called the "tip-up".
The technical literature on this subject has noted that this test is useful for detecting moisture
ingress in the bushings and windings. About 90% of bushing failures may be attributed to
moisture ingress evidenced by an increasing power factor from dielectric loss angle testing on a
scheduled basis.
Partial Discharge Tests
Partial discharges are localised incipient electrical discharges that only partially bridge the
insulation between conductors. Partial discharges can occur in any location where the local
electrical field strength is sufficient to breakdown that portion of the dielectric material (whether
it be deteriorated insulation or air). In dry-type transformers they can occur within air-filled voids
where the solid insulation has degraded.
Partial discharge testing can detect the presence and location of partial discharge activity in a
transformer. Partial discharges in transformers are typically measured by applying a pre-specified
voltage to the transformer windings and measuring induced charges via a coupling device (e.g.
coupling capacitors).
AS 60076.11 and AS 60270 set out the requirements, procedure, equipment and acceptance
levels for partial discharge testing [3] [4]. It should be noted that the partial discharge tests
specified in AS 60076.11 are intended as routine tests for new transformers. This involves
applying a pre-stress voltage of 1.8 times rated voltage to the windings. This may be excessive
for transformers already in service for over 20 years.
Analysis of the partial discharge measurements gathered (i.e. pulse waveforms, magnitude,
duration and intervals between pulses) can be used as a guide regarding the condition of the
insulation. The results can be trended to chart the rate of insulation degradation between
consecutive tests.
Frequency Response Analysis
Frequency response analysis is a diagnostic testing technique that measures the impedance of
the transformer windings over a wide range of frequencies. The measurements are compared
with a reference set and the differences are highlighted. The differences may indicate mechanical
damage to the windings (e.g. winding displacement or loose winding) and electrical faults (e.g.
interturn faults).
Frequency response analysis can be achieved by either injecting a low voltage impulse into the
winding (i.e. impulse response method) or by making a frequency sweep using a sinusoidal
signal (i.e. swept frequency method).
For frequency response analysis to be useful, a baseline reference set of measurements need to
be determined and periodic tests need to be conducted to compare the differences.
Refer to research by S. Tenbohlen et al at the University of Stuttgart [5].
Acoustic Emission Tests

Partial discharges in transformers can also be detected and localised via acoustic emission
testing. Acoustic emission testing is based on the acoustic detection of the partial discharge
pulses and conversion to an electrical signal. Sensors are coupled to the surface of the
transformer and during operation of the transformer, the output of the sensors are fed into an
electronic module. The signals are filtered to remove noise and processed to determine the
presence and location of any partial discharges in the transformer.
Thermographic Surveys
Infrared thermography is commonly used in preventative maintenance to detect hotspots,
especially at joints and terminations. IR Thermography cameras measure surface temperatures
and the resulting thermal image can be used to identify overheating at the transformer
terminations.
For thermographic surveys to be conducted, thermographic windows need to be installed looking
at the terminations and windings.
References
1. Facilities Instruction, Standards and Techniques Volume 3-1, Testing Solid Insulation of
Electrical Equipment, U.S Department of the Interior, Reclamation Branch, December
1991
2. Facilities Instruction, Standards and Techniques Volume 3-31, Transformer Diagnostics,
U.S Department of the Interior, Reclamation Branch, June 2003
3. AS 60076.11, Power transformers Part 11: Dry-type transformers, 2006
4. AS 60270, High-voltage test techniques Partial discharge measurements, 2001
5. Research at University of Stuttgart (including Tenbohlen's papers)
Categories: Transformers | Electrical Testing

Transformer Impedance
Contents
[hide]

o

o

3 References

## Positive Sequence Impedance

The transformer positive sequence impedance is also called the short circuit impedance (because
it is measured from a short circuit test) or the impedance voltage (because a voltage is
measured from the short circuit test - more details below).
Two Winding Transformer
Impedance Measurement

## Positive sequence impedance test circuit for three-phase 2-winding transformer

The positive sequence impedance is measured from a standard short circuit test (see figure
right). In this test, one set of windings is shorted (typically the LV windings) and a three-phase
voltage source is applied to the other set of windings. The voltage is steadily increased until the
rated phase current is measured.
The voltage at this point is called the impedance voltage. When the impedance voltage is
expressed as aper-unit value (on the transformer rated line-to-line voltage), the impedance
voltage is equivalent to the per-unit impedance, i.e.

where

## is the rated transformer line-to-line voltage / base voltage (V)

is the rated transformer current (A)
is the positive sequence impedance ()

## is the transformer base impedance ()

is the positive sequence impedance (pu)
The impedance voltage is also often expressed as a percentage (Z%).
Copper Losses
Full load copper (or iron) losses are measured in the same test as the impedance voltage by
taking the power reading (from the wattmeter in the test circuit). The copper losses represent
the I2R losses from the full load current in the phase windings, as well as stray losses due to
induced eddy currents from leakage fluxes in the windings, core clamps, tank and other magnetic
pathways.
Calculation of R1 and X1
The resistive and reactive components of the positive sequence transformer impedance can be
estimated from the two short circuit test measurements - 1) impedance voltage, and 2) full load
copper losses. The expressions below calculate the resistance and reactance in per-unit
quanitities.

Where

## is the positive sequence resistance (pu)

is the positive sequence reactance (pu)
is the positive sequence impedance (pu)

## are the full load copper losses (W)

is the transformer rated power (kVA)
Application in Transformer Models
The positive sequence impedance measured and calculated above is most often applied in the
standard positive sequence two-winding transformer model as representing the transformer
leakage impedance. This representation assumes that the parallel magnetising and core loss
branch in the T-circuit is a negligible part of the measured positive sequence impedance (note
that the magnetising reactance and core losses are estimated separately in no-load (open circuit)
tests).
You will notice that the standard positive sequence transformer model has leakage impedances
on both the primary and secondar sides of the transformer. However in our measurements, we
only calculate a single impedance. It is common practice to distribute the impedance across both
sides (for example, 50%-50% if no other information is available).
Winding Connections

It is worth noting that the transformer impedance voltage (expressed in percent or per-unit) is
independent of the winding connection. This is because each winding is tested separately and
normally quoted as a per-unit (or percent) impedance voltage based on the transformer's rated
line-to-line voltage (see IEEE Std C57.12.90). If the winding connections are changed, then the
line-to-line voltage would also have to change. But since it is a per-unit (or percent) value, the
impedance voltage would remain the same.
Zero Sequence Impedance
Two Winding Transformer
Impedance Measurement

Zero sequence impedance test circuit for three-phase 2-winding transformer (with accessible
neutral)
In the zero sequence test, a single-phase voltage source is applied between the three phase
terminals (connected together) and an externally available neutral terminal (see the test circuit
in the figure right). Like in the positive sequence test, the voltage is steadily increased until the
rated current is measured.

where

## is the rated transformer line-to-line voltage / base voltage (V)

is the rated transformer current (A)
is the zero sequence impedance ()
is the transformer base impedance ()
is the zero sequence impedance (pu)
Note that the measured impedance voltage is actually equivalent to a third of Z0. This is because
the three phase windings are connected together and the current flowing through each individual
winding is a third of the measured rated current.

Tleis [2] also suggests that for earthed star-star (YNyn) transformers with a three-limbed core
construction, zero sequence flux can circulate around a path through the core, tank, insulating oil
and air. Therefore this magnetic path acts like a "virtual" delta winding, and the zero sequence
impedance can be lower than the standard measured value. Tleis suggests treating these
transformers like three-winding transformers and performing at least three test measurements.
Calculation of R0 and X0
Occasionally the zero sequence copper losses (Pc,0) are also measured as part of the zero
sequence test. When this is the case, calculations similar to that of the positive sequence
impedance can be applied:

Where

## is the zero sequence resistance (pu)

is the zero sequence reactance (pu)
is the zero sequence impedance (pu)

## are the zero sequence copper losses (W)

is the transformer rated power (kVA)
However, when the zero sequence copper losses are not known, it is common to use the same
X/R ratio as in the positive sequence, i.e.

Where

## is the positive sequence X/R ratio

References

[1] IEEE Std C57.12.90, "IEEE Standard Test Code for Liquid-Immersed Distribution,
Power and Regulating Transformers", 2010

[2] Tleis, N., "Power Systems Modelling and Fault Analysis - Theory and Practice",
Newnes, 2008

Category: Transformers

## Transformer Impedance Correction Factor

IEC 60909 uses a simplifying assumption where the pre-fault voltage at the fault location is not
calculated (e.g. by a load flow), but rather an equivalent voltage source is used (assumed to be
the nominal voltage multiplied by some voltage factor c). Furthermore, the pre-fault load current
is not known (i.e. not calculated) and transformers can operate at a wide range of off-nominal
tap settings. Therefore, the simplified IEC calculations did not correspond to the calculations
based on the more accurate superposition method. An impedance correction factor was thus
introduced to improve the accuracy of the calculated fault currents.
In the older versions of IEC 60909 (pre-2001), there was no explicit impedance correction factor
for transformers, instead just a suggestion that considerations need to be made. IEC found this
unsatisfactory and introduced the correction factor in the 2001 edition. The correction factor was
essentially defined empirically through a statistical analysis of a few hundred transformers. Most
of this is described in some detail in IEC 60909-1.
Transformer Inrush
Transformer (magnetising) inrush currents are caused by sudden step-changes in the
transformer magnetising voltage and can be divided into three general types:

## Energisation inrush - occurs when a transformer is switched on from a de-energised state

Recovery inrush - occurs when voltage is restored to the transformer after a brief voltage
dip or interruption

## Sympathetic inrush - occurs when a transformer is switched on and is connected in

parallel to an already energised transformer. The abrupt voltage drop caused by
energising the first transformer can cause inrush currents (in the opposite direction) in
the already energised transformer.

Transformer energisation is considered to cause the highest inrush currents and will be the focus
of this article. When energised, an initial magnetising inrush current flows into the transformer.
Typically, the inrush current lasts in the order of 0.1s and has the following magnitude:

## For transformers greater than 2500kVA: 10x nominal current

Transformer inrush currents are predominantly due to saturation of the transformer core and can
be modelled as an RL switching transient with a saturable inductance L.
Contents
[hide]

1 Technical Background
o

## 1.4 Non-Linear Relationship between Flux and Current

1.5 Summary

2 References

Technical Background

## Figure 1. Simple model for transformer inrush

Consider the application of a sinusoidal voltage to a transformer that is modelled very simply as
a coil of N turns. By Faraday's law, we get:

Where

## is an arbitrary switching angle (radians)

is the number of turns in the transformer coil
is the transformer magnetising flux
To solve this differential equation for flux given some initial (residual) flux
the Laplace transform of it:

Solving for

Simplifying further:

, we take

## Taking the inverse Laplace transform, we finally get:

(1)
While this is a gross simplification of reality, the equation above can give us some intuition about
the nature of the transformer flux during a transient switching on (energisation) event.
Effects of Switching Angle
From equation (1) above, it can be shown that the switching angle results in a dc offset of the
flux waveform. The figure below shows the effects of the switching angle on the flux waveform at
three angles (relative to the ac supply voltage): 1) a positive zero crossing ( = 0), 2) a voltage
peak (

## Figure 2. The effects of switching angle on flux

Here it can be seen that switching at a positive zero crossing shifts the flux waveform up to a
peak flux of 2pu (and vice versa for a negative zero crossing, i.e. peak flux down to -2pu). There

is no dc offset when switching at a voltage peak. Any other switching angle will result in a dc
offset in between the zero crossing waveforms.
Effects of Residual Flux
It can be readily seen from transient flux waveform in equation (1) that the residual flux causes
a dc offset in the flux waveform, i.e. a positive residual flux offsets the waveform up and vice
versa for a negative residual flux.
Therefore, depending on the switching angle, a residual flux can actually be beneficial to keeping
inrush currents low. For example, if the switching angle was a negative zero crossing (e.g. = ,
this would offset the flux waveform down. But a positive residual flux would have the opposite
effect by offsetting the flux waveform up.
On the other hand, the residual flux can reinforce the dc offset caused by the switching angle
and can result in peak flux values (absolute) well over 2pu.
Transient Flux in Practical Transformers
In our idealised model above, the transient flux waveform on switching has constant dc offsets
depending on the switching angle and residual flux. However in a practical transformer, the effect
of leakage impedances (i.e. winding resistances and leakage reactances) will lead to an
exponentially decaying dc offset component (like in theswitching of RL circuits), with the rate of
decay depending on the time constant

The figure below presents a more realistic transient flux waveform on switching, displaying a
decaying dc component:

## Figure 4. Flux-current hysteresis loop

We saw above that during transient conditions, the magnetising flux can rise up over 2pu
(depending on the switching angle and residual flux). The other key factor that leads to high
inrush currents is the non-linear relationship between flux and current.
The transformer core exhibits saturation characteristics like the hysteresis loop in the figure
shown on the right. Here it can be seen that at 1 pu flux, the core is already saturating and the
slope of the curve begins to approache a horizontal line. Therefore, if the flux is increased further
above 1 pu flux, the current drawn can be several orders of magnitude higher.
Summary
Putting all the pieces together, the general intuition explaining transformer energisation inrush
can be put as follows:
1) On the sudden application of a voltage to the transformer (i.e. circuit breaker is closed), a
transient flux waveform is generated that, depending on the switching angle and residual flux,
can reach a peak of over two times nominal flux.
2) The relationship between flux and current is highly non-linear. At higher than nominal flux, the
core will begin to saturate and the related magnetising currents can get very high. This is
equivalent to saying that as the core saturates, the magnetising reactance decreases
significantly.
References

## Categories: EMT | Modelling/Analysis | Transformers

Transformer Impedance
(Redirected from Transformer Short Circuit Test)
Contents
[hide]

o

o

3 References

## Positive Sequence Impedance

The transformer positive sequence impedance is also called the short circuit impedance (because
it is measured from a short circuit test) or the impedance voltage (because a voltage is
measured from the short circuit test - more details below).
Two Winding Transformer
Impedance Measurement

## Positive sequence impedance test circuit for three-phase 2-winding transformer

The positive sequence impedance is measured from a standard short circuit test (see figure
right). In this test, one set of windings is shorted (typically the LV windings) and a three-phase
voltage source is applied to the other set of windings. The voltage is steadily increased until the
rated phase current is measured.
The voltage at this point is called the impedance voltage. When the impedance voltage is
expressed as aper-unit value (on the transformer rated line-to-line voltage), the impedance
voltage is equivalent to the per-unit impedance, i.e.

where

## is the rated transformer line-to-line voltage / base voltage (V)

is the rated transformer current (A)
is the positive sequence impedance ()
is the transformer base impedance ()

## is the positive sequence impedance (pu)

The impedance voltage is also often expressed as a percentage (Z%).
Copper Losses
Full load copper (or iron) losses are measured in the same test as the impedance voltage by
taking the power reading (from the wattmeter in the test circuit). The copper losses represent
the I2R losses from the full load current in the phase windings, as well as stray losses due to
induced eddy currents from leakage fluxes in the windings, core clamps, tank and other magnetic
pathways.
Calculation of R1 and X1
The resistive and reactive components of the positive sequence transformer impedance can be
estimated from the two short circuit test measurements - 1) impedance voltage, and 2) full load
copper losses. The expressions below calculate the resistance and reactance in per-unit
quanitities.

Where

## is the positive sequence resistance (pu)

is the positive sequence reactance (pu)
is the positive sequence impedance (pu)

## are the full load copper losses (W)

is the transformer rated power (kVA)
Application in Transformer Models
The positive sequence impedance measured and calculated above is most often applied in the
standard positive sequence two-winding transformer model as representing the transformer
leakage impedance. This representation assumes that the parallel magnetising and core loss
branch in the T-circuit is a negligible part of the measured positive sequence impedance (note
that the magnetising reactance and core losses are estimated separately in no-load (open circuit)
tests).
You will notice that the standard positive sequence transformer model has leakage impedances
on both the primary and secondar sides of the transformer. However in our measurements, we
only calculate a single impedance. It is common practice to distribute the impedance across both
sides (for example, 50%-50% if no other information is available).
Winding Connections
It is worth noting that the transformer impedance voltage (expressed in percent or per-unit) is
independent of the winding connection. This is because each winding is tested separately and

normally quoted as a per-unit (or percent) impedance voltage based on the transformer's rated
line-to-line voltage (see IEEE Std C57.12.90). If the winding connections are changed, then the
line-to-line voltage would also have to change. But since it is a per-unit (or percent) value, the
impedance voltage would remain the same.
Zero Sequence Impedance
Two Winding Transformer
Impedance Measurement

Zero sequence impedance test circuit for three-phase 2-winding transformer (with accessible
neutral)
In the zero sequence test, a single-phase voltage source is applied between the three phase
terminals (connected together) and an externally available neutral terminal (see the test circuit
in the figure right). Like in the positive sequence test, the voltage is steadily increased until the
rated current is measured.

where

## is the rated transformer line-to-line voltage / base voltage (V)

is the rated transformer current (A)
is the zero sequence impedance ()
is the transformer base impedance ()
is the zero sequence impedance (pu)
Note that the measured impedance voltage is actually equivalent to a third of Z0. This is because
the three phase windings are connected together and the current flowing through each individual
winding is a third of the measured rated current.
Tleis [2] also suggests that for earthed star-star (YNyn) transformers with a three-limbed core
construction, zero sequence flux can circulate around a path through the core, tank, insulating oil
and air. Therefore this magnetic path acts like a "virtual" delta winding, and the zero sequence

impedance can be lower than the standard measured value. Tleis suggests treating these
transformers like three-winding transformers and performing at least three test measurements.
Calculation of R0 and X0
Occasionally the zero sequence copper losses (Pc,0) are also measured as part of the zero
sequence test. When this is the case, calculations similar to that of the positive sequence
impedance can be applied:

Where

## is the zero sequence resistance (pu)

is the zero sequence reactance (pu)
is the zero sequence impedance (pu)

## are the zero sequence copper losses (W)

is the transformer rated power (kVA)
However, when the zero sequence copper losses are not known, it is common to use the same
X/R ratio as in the positive sequence, i.e.

Where

## is the positive sequence X/R ratio

References

[1] IEEE Std C57.12.90, "IEEE Standard Test Code for Liquid-Immersed Distribution,
Power and Regulating Transformers", 2010

[2] Tleis, N., "Power Systems Modelling and Fault Analysis - Theory and Practice",
Newnes, 2008

Category: Transformers
According to the ANSI/IEEE 946
Contents

[hide]

1 Introduction

2 Voltage Considerations

## 3 Available Short-Circuit Current

4 Calculation Approach

## 5.3 Short-Circuit Currents from Chargers

6 References

Introduction
Scope of the IEEE 946-1992: This recommended practice provides guidance for the design of the
DC auxiliary power systems for nuclear and non-nuclear power generating stations. The
components of the DC auxiliary power system addressed by this recommended practice include
lead-acid storage batteries, static battery chargers and distribution equipment. Guidance for
selecting the quantity and types of equipment, the equipment ratings, interconnections,
instrumentation, control and protection is also provided.

## Figure 1. 125 VDC system key diagram

This recommended practice is intended for nuclear and large fossil-fueled generating stations.
Each recommendation may or may not be appropriate for other generating facilities; e.g.,

combustion turbines, hydro, wind turbines, etc. The AC power supply (to the chargers), the loads
served by the DC systems, except as they influence the DC system design, and engine starting
(cranking) battery systems are beyond the scope of this recommended practice.
For more informations please refer to the standard itself IEEE 946-1992.
Voltage Considerations
The nominal voltages of 250, 125, 48, and 24 are generally utilized in station DC auxiliary power
systems. The type, rating, cost, availability, and location of the connected equipment should be
used to determine which nominal system voltage is appropriate for a specific application. 250
VDC systems are typically used to power motors for emergency pumps, large valve operators,
and large inverters. 125 VDC systems are typically used for control power for nest relay logic
circuits andthe closing and tripping of switchgear circuit breakers. 48 VDC or 24 VDC systems are
typically used for specialized instrumentation.

Figure 2. Recommended voltage range of 125 V and 250 V DC (nominal) rated components (for
designs in which the battery is equalized while connected to the load)
Available Short-Circuit Current
For the purpose of determining the maximum available short-circuit current (e.g., the required
interrupting capacity for feeder breakers/fuses and withstand capability of the distribution buses

and disconnecting devices), the total short-circuit current is the sum of that delivered by the
battery, charger, and motors (as applicable). When a more accurate value of maximum available
short-circuit current is required, the analysis should account for interconnecting cable resistance.
Calculation Approach
As defined in "Industrial power systems data book" [2], there are two calculation ways to acquire
the fault current:

1. Approximation Method: All the network is converted into the equivalent impedance
(Req, Leq are used for the time constant) and the system voltage is being used for the fault
current calculation:

2. Superposition Method: The fault current is calculated for each source individually,
while other, not observed sources, are being shorted out (with their internal resistances).
The voltage for each partial current is the rated voltage of the source. The total current is
the sum of the partial currents. This approach shall be described in following articles.

## Partial Fault Currents

Short-Circuit Current from Batteries
The current that a battery will deliver on short-circuit depends on the total resistance of the
short-circuit path. A conservative approach in determining the short-circuit current that the
battery will deliver at 25C is to assume that the maximum available short-circuit current is 10
times the 1 minute ampere rating (to 1.75 V per cell). For more than 25C the short-circuit
current for the specific application should be calculated or actual test data should be obtained
from the battery manufacturer. The battery nominal voltage should be used when calculating the
maximum short-circuit current. Tests have shown that an increase in electrolyte temperature
(above 25C) or elevated battery terminal voltage (above nominal voltage) will have no
appreciable effect on the magnitude of short-circuit current delivered by a battery.
The internal battery resistance is calculated using:

Where EB is the battery rated voltage and I8hrs is the 8-hour battery capacity.
The maximum (or peak) short-circuit current is:

RBBr is the sum of the battery internal resistance RB and the line resistance RBr up to the fault
location.
The initial maximum rate of rise of the current at t=0 s is as follows:

## The sustained short-circuit current is calculated using:

And the fault current from the battery for the time t:

## Figure 3. Typical short-circuit characteristic of DC motor/generator

DC motors, if operating, will contribute to the total fault current. The maximum current that a DC
motor will deliver to a short-circuit at its terminals is limited by the effective transient armature
resistance (r'd) of the motor. For DC motors of the type, speed, voltage, and size typically used in
generating stations, rd is in the range of 0.1 to 0.15 per unit. Thus, the maximum fault current
for a short-circuit at the motor terminals will typically range from 7 to 10 times the motors rated

armature current. Therefore, it is conservative to estimate the maximum current that a motor
will contribute to a fault as 10 times the motors rated full load current. When a more accurate
value is required, the short-circuit contribution should be calculated, using specific r d data for the
specific motor, or actual test data should be obtained from the motor manufacturer. For
additional accuracy, the calculation should account for the resistance of the cables between the
motor and the fault. A complete expression for the short-circuit current is:

Where: ia per-unit current, e0 is the internal emf prior short-circuit (p.u.), rd steady-state
effective resistance of machine (p.u.), r'd transient effective resistance of machine (p.u.). The
frequency is 60 Hz. Typically, for motors e0=0,97 p.u., and for generators e0=1,03 p.u.
The machine electrical parameter are to be calculated in case when no additional data is known
for observed machine. Normally, it is more practical to use the real machine data given by the
manufacturer. The machine inductance is derived from the following equation:

Where P is the pole number, nn nominal speed, UM nominal voltage and IM nominal current.
Cx depends on the machine type: Cx=0,4 is for motors without pole face windings, Cx=0,1 is for
motors with pole face windings, Cx=0,6 is for generators without pole face windings, and Cx=0,2
is for generators with pole face windings.
The base resistance of the machine is derived from:

Or in p.u.:

## Short-Circuit Currents from Chargers

The maximum current that a charger will deliver into a short-circuit, coincident with the
maximum battery short-circuit current, is determined by the charger current-limit circuit. The
current-limit setting is adjustable in most chargers and may vary from manufacturer to
manufacturer. Thus, the maximum current that a charger will deliver on short circuit will not
typically exceed 150% of the charger ampere rating.

## Figure 4. Peak fault current factor as a function of system constants

The initial sustained short-circuit current (or quasi steady-state current) is given by:

The factor K2 is taken from the diagram of sustained fault current factor versus rectifier terminal
voltage, zCis the commutating impedance per unit and IR is the rated rectifier current. The
commutating impedance includes AC side impedance with transformer (R C and XC).If the
commutating impedance is in per-unit value then it should be converted.

## Figure 5. Sustained fault current vs rectifier terminal voltage

Conversion of zC (p.u.) to ZC (Ohms):

## Case of double-wye rectifier:

The current Ida is used to determine equivalent rectifier resistance and inductance on the DC
side, which are then given by:

Where Eda is the assumed voltage at the rectifier terminals during the fault and equals e0 (p.u.) x
System Voltage (Volts).
If the fault current is calculated using the superposition method, then the following relations are
used:

When:

Then:

When:

Then:

## The peak current is given as:

Where the factor K1 is taken from the diagram and is in function of K3 and K4, which are
calculated as follows, for the full-wave bridge connected rectifier:

Note: The value Eda = edaED should be within 10% of the calculated value Edc, the rectifier
terminal voltage under sustained short-circuit current. The iterative process is repeated until the
desired tolerance is achieved.

## K4 - resistance constant (used to determine K1)

Index "RBr" refers to the combined resistance of the rectifier and the branch up to the
fault location

References
1. IEEE 946-1992: IEEE Recommended Practice for the Design of DC Auxiliary Power Systems for
Generating Stations For more informations please refer to the standard itselfIEEE 946-1992.
2. Industrial power systems data book, General Electric, 1956 At the Iowa Digital Library General
Electric Industrial Power Systems Data Book.
Related topics:
Short Circuit Calculation
according to the IEC 61660
Categories: Calculations | Protection
According to the IEC 61660
Contents
[hide]

1 Introduction

## 3.5 Correction Factors

4 References

Introduction

Figure 1. Equivalent circuit diagram for calculating the partial short-circuit currents
The scope of IEC 61660 is to describe a method for calculating short-circuit currents in DC
auxiliary systems in power plants and substations. Such systems can be equipped with the
following equipment, acting as short-circuit current sources:

## stationary lead-acid batteries;

smoothing capacitors;

## DC motors with independent excitation.

NOTE Rectifiers in three-phase AC bridge connection for 60 Hz are under consideration. The
data of other equipment may be given by the manufacturer.
This standard is only concerned with rectifiers in three-phase AC bridge connection. It is not
concerned with other types of rectifiers.

The purpose of the standard is to provide a generally applicable method of calculation which
produces results of sufficient accuracy on the conservative side. Special methods, adjusted to
particular circumstances, may be used if they give at least the same precision. Short-circuit
currents, resistances and inductances may also be ascertained from system tests or
measurements on model systems. In existing DC systems the necessary values can be
ascertained from measurements taken at the assumed short-circuit location. The load current is
not taken into consideration when calculating the short-circuit current. It is necessary to
distinguish between two different values of short-circuit current:

the maximum short-circuit current which determines the rating of the electrical
equipment;

the minimum short-circuit current which can be taken as the basis for fuse and protection
ratings and settings.

For more information please refer to the standard itself IEC 61660-1.
Calculating the Total Short-Circuit Current
Each DC source during the fault shall contribute to the total short-circuit current. The
superposition principle is being applied. When one source is observed then the other ones are
being disconnected and ignored. The potential DC sources are battery, rectifier, capacitor and
machine.
The partial short-circuit currents are calculated for each of those sources as follows:

for 0

tp:

Where tp is the time to peak of the partial current and 1 is the rise time constant for the partial
current source.

for tp

Tk:

Where Tk is the fault duration time and 2 the decay time constant for the partial current source.
And the total short-circuit current is the sum as follows:

for 0

Tk. And nDC is the number of the DC sources contributing the fault current, j is the

observed DC source.
Partial Fault Currents

## Fault Current from Batteries

Figure 2. Time to peak and rise time constant (Figure 10. IEC 61660:1997)
The peak short-circuit current is calculated as:

## The decay component is calculated as:

The rise-time constant (1B) and time-to-peak of short-circuit currents of batteries is taken from
the diagram (Figure 10. in IEC 61660:1997). The time constant of the battery T B is assumed to
be 30 ms. The decay-time constant (2B) is assumed to 100 ms. RBBr is the sum of the battery
internal resistance and the line (path) resistance up to the fault location (RBBr=0,9RB+RBr). LBBr is
the sum of the battery internal inductance and the line (path) inductance up to the fault location.

## Fault Current from Capacitors

Figure 3. Factor k1C to determine rise-time constant (Figure 14. IEC 61660:1997)

Figure 4. Factor k2C to determine decay-time constant (Figure 15. IEC 61660:1997)
The peak short-circuit current is calculated using:

Where EC is the voltage of the capacitor terminal before the fault, and RCBr is the sum of capacitor
and branch resistance, up to the fault location. The factor C depends on the eigen-frequency
0 and the decay coefficient , as follows:

LCBr is the inductance of the capacitor and common branch up to the fault location.

a) If > 0:

b) If < 0:

c) If = 0:

## And the decay-time constant is:

And coefficients k1C and k2C are taken from the diagrams/tables (defined in Figure 14. IEC
61660). The quasi steady-state current of the capacitor is considered to be 0.

## Fault Current from Rectifiers

The quasi steady-state short-circuit current IkD of a rectifier in three-phase AC bridge connection
is:

Where Un is the nominal system voltage on AC side of rectifier, ZN is the network impedance AC
side, UnTLV and UnTHV are transformer rated voltages of low and high voltage side, respectively. The
factor D is calculated using:

## And the factor D and

is calculated using:

for

it is

for

it is

(ms)

(ms)

## Fault Current from DC Machines

The quasi steady-state short-circuit current is calculated using:

Where LF is the field inductance and LOF is the unsaturated field inductance at no-load. This
equation is valid only if the motor speed remains constant during the duration of the short-circuit
fault. Otherwise IkM = 0.

## Figure 5. Factor M for

determining the peak shortcircuit current ipM (Figure 17.
IEC 61660:1997)

## Figure 6. Factors for

determining tpM, 1M for nominal
and decreasing speed (Figure
18. IEC 61660:1997)

## Figure 7. tpM for decresing speed

(Figure 19. IEC 61660:1997)

## The peak short-circuit current:

The factors k1M, k2M, k3M and k4M are taken from the diagrams (Figure 18, 20, 21 in IEC 61660).
The factor M is taken from the diagram (Figure 17 in IEC 61660).

Figure 8. Factor k3M for determining the risetime constant t1M for decreasing speed (Figure
20. IEC 61660:1997)
The time-to-peak in case when Mec10F:

Figure 9. Factor k4M for determining the decaytime constant t2M for decreasing speed (Figure
21. IEC 61660:1997)

## The decay-time constant:

2M = F when n=nn=const.
2M = (k4M)(Mec)(LOF/LF) when n0
In case when Mec<10F then the time-to-peak is taken from the diagram/table (Figure 19. IEC
61660).

The rise-time constant and the decay-time constant 1M and 2M are calculated using:

## Rise-time current , for 0 t tpM:

Where tp is the time to peak of the partial current and 1 is the rise time constant for the
observed voltage source.

## And the total current from the DC machine is:

Correction Factors

## Corrected resistance for the each source

Due to the fact that all non-observed sources at the time are neglected along with their branches
it is suggested to use correction factors, which are supposed to improve total results. Each
calculated correction factor is multiplied with the partial fault current of the each source, as
follows:

Where Ij is the initial partial fault current and j is the correction factor, both for the source "j".

## Y refers to the branch (Br).

References
IEC 61660: Short-circuit currents in d.c. auxiliary installations in power plants and substations Part 1: Calculation of short-circuit currents.
For more information please refer to the standard itself IEC 61660-1.
Related topics:

Arc Fault

Contents
[hide]

o

## 5.4 Other calculation approaches for the incident energy

6 NPFA-70E-2004 Application

o

9 References

## Arc Flash History

First official publication on the arc flash hazard was published by Ralph Lee published in "The
Other Electrical Hazard, Electric Arc Blast Burns", 1982. In this paper the thermal event
associated with an electric arc and its effects on the human body was analysed and described.
Value of the 1.2 cal/cm2 was defined as the "curable burn level" (defined as the lower limit for a
3rd degree burn) that is still used today, also some calculations to determine the curable burn
distance for an electric arc in air. In 1987 Ralph Lee published another paper, "Pressures
Developed from Arcs", where the sound and pressure effects of an arc in air were described.
Included in this paper were charts to determine the pressure wave forces at various distances
based on the fault duties at the location.
Two more papers were published that further defined the energies in arcing faults. The first was
the paper "Testing Update on Protective Clothing and Equipment for Electric Arc Exposure", 1997,
by Bingham, Doughty, and Neal. In that paper the authors used empirical test data to determine
the incident energy at various distances from a low voltage arcing fault. They were the first to
express the directional effect of an arc within an enclosure. In 2000, Doughty, Floyd, and Neal
published "Predicting Incident Energy to Better Manage the Electric Arc Hazard on 600 V Power
Distribution Systems", which defined incident energy based on fault duty, working distance and
clearing time for arcs in air or in an enclosure.

This work was used in the NFPA-70E Standard for Electrical Safety Requirements for Employee
Workplaces, 2000 Edition, for use in developing safe work practices with regard to arc flash
hazards, but was limited to low voltage applications. It also represented the basis for further
research that resulted in the publication of the IEEE Std. 1584-2002, "IEEE Guide for Performing
Arc-Flash Hazard Calculations".
Arc Flash Definitions
An arc fault is an electrical discharge between two or more conductors, where the insulating
atmosphere (air or gas) has been broken down by the electric field between the conductors.
Whenever there is an arc fault, the gases and vapours that make up the atmosphere between
the conductors become ionised.
The magnitude of an arc fault is highly variable. The instantaneous arc fault current may be high,
approaching the bolted short circuit current, or reasonably low, comparable to the load current.
An arc will continue until it becomes unstable and extinguishes itself or until it is interrupted by a
protection device (i.e. fuse or circuit breaker).

Figure 1. Arc fault explosion on a 480 V switchboard with 23 kA upstream fault capacity
Arc faults are characterised by extreme temperatures that can cause severe burns depending on
the distance of the operator to the arc. Neal et al [1] in Table IV determined that a 600 V, 40 kA
arc fault with a duration of 0.5 s has enough energy to cause second-degree burns at a distance
of 77 inches (1.96 m).

Additionally, arc faults tend to melt terminals that can potentially shower the immediate vicinity
with molten metal. The extreme temperatures produced by an arc fault can also lead to fires,
causing major damage to equipment.

## Figure 2. Damage caused by arc faults

Annex C of IEEE Std 1584 [2] outlines case histories of real life arc fault incidents. The majority
of incidents occurred during energisation and switching operations or live electrical installation
work. The potential causes of arc faults include contamination / pollution ingress, equipment
failure, rodents / vermin and accidental contact with tools.

Common definitions:
Incident Energy Exposure:the amount of thermal incident energy to which the worker's face
and chest could be exposed at working distance during an electrical arc event. Incident energy is
measured in joules per centimeter squared (J/cm2) or calories per centimeter squared (cal/cm2).
Flash Protection Boundary: the flash protection boundary is an approach limit at a distance
from exposed live parts or enclosed live parts if operation, manipulation, or testing of equipment
creates a potential flash hazard, within which a person could receive a second degree burn if an
electrical arc flash were to occur.
Incident Energy at Flash Protection Boundary: the arc flash protection boundary (FPB)
distance for the specific incident energy, usually provided from the manufactures for the
corresponding personal protection equipment (PPE).
Hazard Risk Category: this is the minimum level of the personal protective equipment (PPE) in
cal/cm2, as evaluated in the IEEE Standard 1584, with the intent to protect the worker from the
thermal effects of the arc flash at 45 cm or 18 inches from the source of the arc.
Grounding Type: according to the IEEE 1584 procedure two grounding classes are applied:
a) ungrounded, which included ungrounded, high-resistance grounding and low-resistance
grounding, and
b) solidly grounded.
Gap between Conductors: equipment bus gap in mm. Gaps of 3 to 40 mm were used for low
voltage testing to simulate gaps between conductors in low voltage equipment and cables. Gaps
13, 104 and 152 mm. were used in 5 and 15 kV equipment testings. For cases where gap is
outside the range of the standard empirically derived model, the theoretically derived Lee
method can be applied.
Working Distance: typical working distance is the sum of the distance between the worker
standing in front of the equipment, and from the front of the equipment to the potential arc
source inside the equipment. Arc-fash protection is always based on the incident energy level on
the person's face and body at the working distance, not the incident energy on the hands or
arms. The degree of injury in a burn depends on the percentage of a person's skin that is
burned. The head and body are a large percentage of total skin surface area and injury to these
areas is much more life threatening than burns on the extremities (see Fig.3).

## Figure 3. Arc flash zones

For the Figure 3. following definitions can be applied:
Flash Protection Boundary: An approach limit at a distance from exposed live parts within
which a person could receive a second degree burn if an electric arc flash were to occur.
Appropriate flash-flame protection equipment must be utilized for persons entering the flash
protection region.
Limited Approach Boundary: An approach limit at distance from an exposed live part within
which a shock hazard exists. A person crossing the limited approach boundary and entering the
limited region must be qualified to perform the job/task.
Restricted Approach Boundary: An approach limit at a distance from an exposed live part
within which there is an increase risk of shock, due to electrical arc over combined with
inadvertent movement, for personnel working in close proximity to the live part. The person
crossing the restricted approach boundary and entering the restricted space must have a
documented work plan approved by authorized management, use PPE that is appropriate for the
working being performed and is rated for voltage and energy level involved.
Prohibited Approach Boundary: An approach limit at a distance from and exposed live part
within which work is considered the same as making contact with the live part. The person
entering the prohibited space must have specified training to work on energized conductors or
live parts. Any tools used in the prohibited space must be rated for direct contact at the voltage
and energy level involved.
Arc Flash Mitigation in Switchgear

Annex ZC6 of AS 3439.1 [3] provides guidelines for the minimisation, detection and containment
of internal arc faults in switchgear. These are summarised below:

## Insulation of live conductors (in addition to clearances in air)

Arrangement of busbars and functional units in separate vented compartments, for more
rapid extinguishing of the arc and to contain an arc fault in a single compartment

## Use of protection devices to limit magnitude and duration of arcing current

Use of devices sensitive to energy radiated from an arc to initiate protection and interrupt
arcing current

Use of earth current detection devices for interruption of arc faults to earth

## Combinations of the above

It should be noted that uncontained arc faults can spread to other parts of the switchboard and
develop into larger faults (e.g. functional unit arc fault spreading to busbars).
Arc Flash PPE

## Figure 4. Typical arc flash suit

As a general guideline, Neal et al [1] recommends the following personal protection equipment to
safeguard against arc faults:

## Clothing consisting of outer layer(s) of loose fitting flame-resistant fabric without

openings and inner layers of non-meltable fibres

Switchmans hood or faceshield with 0.08 inch thick polycarbonate viewing window

## Heavy duty work boots

Annex C of IEEE Std 1584 [2] illustrates a case study (No. 42) of a 2.3 kV switching operation
that ultimately ended in an arc fault. The operator was wearing a full arc flash suit, safety
glasses and fire resistant shirt and pants. The PPE prevented any burn injuries from the arc flash.
Other case studies where the operators were not wearing appropriate PPE resulted in severe
burns or death.
Arc flash PPE is normally rated to an Arc Thermal Performance exposure Value (ATPV), which
specifies the maximum incident arc fault energy that can protect the wearer (measured in
calories per cm2).
By way of example, the results of an arc flash hazard calculation based on IEEE Std 1584 follows
to determine the appropriate ATPV rating of PPE. The prospective fault current used was 25 kA. A
fault clearing time of 0.5 s was chosen, which is suitably onerous for a worst-case incident.
The calculation concluded that to protect against injury from an arc fault of this magnitude, PPE
with an ATPV rating of over 50 cal/cm2). is required. The ATPV rating is typically quoted on
commonly available arc flash PPE.
Typical arc fault PPE is available from vendors such as Oberon.
Arc Flash Calculation according to the IEEE Std. 1584-2002
IEEE Std 1584-2002 contains calculation methods developed through testing by several sources
to determine boundary distances for unprotected personnel and the incident energy at the
working distance for qualified personnel working on energized equipment. The incident energy
level can be used to determine the proper PPE required for personnel. The equations developed
in the IEEE standard assess the arc flash hazard based on the available (bolted) fault current,
voltage, clearing time, equipment type, grounding, and working distance. The working voltage is
also used to determine other variables. The equations have other variables that account for
grounding, equipment type, and construction. This method can also determine the impact of
certain current limiting low voltage fuses as well as certain types of low voltage breakers. It is an
improvement over the previous work in that the calculations can be applied over a large range of
voltages. The many variables of this method make it the preferred choice for Arc-Flash
evaluations, but at the same time requires either a complex spreadsheet or computer program to
be used efficiently.
Determining the arc current
For applications under 1 kV:

## And getting the value from the log10:

where:
Ia - the arc fault current (kA),
K - for the open configurations (-0.153), for the closed/boxed configurations (-0.097),
If - is the bolted fault current for three-phase faults (symmetrical RMS)(kA),
Usys - the system voltage,
dG - the gap between conductors (mm).
The second arc current (I2a) is equal to 85% of the first current, or:

## Determine the incident energy

When the arc current is known the incident energy could be calculated. But first the incident
energy normalized for the time and distance is calculated:

Now the incident energy can be calculated as follows, for the systems where the voltage does not
exceed 15 kV:

And for the location where the voltage exceeds 15 kV the Lee method is used:

Where:
En - the incident energy normalized for time and distance (cal/cm 2),
K1 - for the open configurations (-0.792), for the closed/boxed configurations (-0.555),
K2 - for the ungrounded or high resistance grounded systems (0), for grounded systems (0.113),
dG - the gap between conductors (mm),
E - the incident energy (cal/cm2),
Cf - the voltage factor (1.0 for Usys > 1 kV, 1.5 for Usys <= 1 kV),
t - the arc duration time (s),
D - the distance from the possible arc location to the person (mm),
x - the distance factor (check table below),
If - is the bolted fault current for three-phase faults (symmetrical RMS)(kA),
Usys - the system voltage.
The arc duration time is the clearing time for the source-side protecting device that clears the
fault first.
System voltage
(kV)

Equipment type

## Typical gap between conductors

(mm)

Distance factor, x

Open air

10-40

2.0

Switchgear

32

1.473

25

1.641

Cable

13

2.0

Open air

10-40

2.0

Switchgear

13 - 102

0.973

Cable

13

2.0

Open air

10-40

2.0

Switchgear

153

0.973

Cable

13

2.0

0.208 - 1.0

## Determine the flash boundary

The flash boundary is the distance from an arcing fault where the incident energy is equal to 1.2
cal/cm2. For the IEEE Std. 1584 empirically derived model equation is:

## For the Lee method:

Where:
DB - the distance of the boundary from arcing point (mm),
En - the incident energy (cal/cm2) normalized for time and distance,
Cf - the voltage factor (1.0 for Usys > 1 kV, 1.5 for Usys <= 1 kV),
t - the arc duration time (s),
EB - the incident energy in cal/cm2 at the boundary distance,
x - the distance factor (check table above),

## If - is the bolted fault current for three-phase faults (symmetrical RMS)(kA),

Usys - the system voltage.
Other calculation approaches for the incident energy
In 2000, Doughty, Floyd, and Neal published "Predicting Incident Energy to Better Manage the
Electric Arc Hazard on 600 V Power Distribution Systems", which defined incident energy based
on fault duty, working distance and clearing time for arcs in air or in an enclosure. For open
installations:

## And for closed/boxed installations:

Where:
EMA - incident energy for an arc in open air (cal/cm2),
EMB - incident energy for an arc in a box (size 50 cm or 20 inches maximum)(cal/cm 2),
DA,DB - distance from the arc,
If - is the bolted fault current for three-phase faults (symmetrical RMS)(kA),
tA - the arc duration time (s).
NPFA-70E-2004 Application
In April 2004., the NFPA released an update to NFPA-70E that adopted the IEEE Std. 1584-2002
methods for determining the incident energy. The standard was renamed to NFPA 70E Standard
for Employee Safety in the Workplace 2004 Edition. It is different from IEEE Std. 1584 with
regard to arc flash in that it is used to determine the appropriate PPE based on the incident
energy calculated. PPE is rated by the Arc Thermal Performance Value (ATPV) with units in
cal/cm2. The required PPE is determined by comparing the calculated incident energy to the
ratings for specific combinations of PPE. An example is given in NPFA 70E as follows in table
below:
Hazard/Risk
Category

## Non-melting, flammable materials (natural or

treated materials with at least 4.5 z/yd2)

## Required Minimum Arc

Rating of PPE (cal/cm2)

N/A (1.2)

25

and FR coverall

## Cotton Underwear, plus FR shirt and FR pants

and multiple layer flash suit

40

## Figure 5. Typical arc flash warning label

This example should NOT be used for final calculations. For actual applications, the calculated
incident energy must be compared to specific PPE combinations used at the facility being
evaluated. The exception to this is the upper limit of 40 cal/cm2. While PPE is available in ATPV
values of 100 cal/cm2 or more, values above 40 are considered prohibited due to the sound,
pressure and concussive forces present. Above this level these forces are more significant than
the thermal values.
Methods for reducing arc flash hazards
Reducing the Arcing Current: certain protective devices are current limiting in design. By
limiting the current available for a fault there is a corresponding reduction in the incident energy
for clearing times that are short in duration (1-3 cycles). Fault duties at these devices must be in
the current limiting range for them to be effective (typically at least 10-15 times the device
rating).
Increasing the Working Distance: since the incident energy is proportional to the square of
the distance (in open air), increasing the working distance will significantly reduce the incident
energy. Working distance can be increased by using remote racking devices, remote operating
devices, and extension tools (i.e. hotsticks).
Reducing the Clearing Time: traditional methods to reduce clearing times include: lowered
device settings (permanently or temporarily), bus differential protection, and zone selective
interlocking (typically low voltage only). It should be noted that the calculations assume that the
protective devices are set in accordance with the study, and that the devices operate properly.
Arc Flash Detection Principles

An arc flash fault typically results in an enormous and nearly instantaneous increase in light
intensity in the vicinity of the fault. Light intensity levels often rise to several thousand times
normal ambient lighting levels. For this reason most, if not all, arc flash detecting relays rely on
optical sensor(s) to detect this rapid increase in light intensity. For security reasons, the optical
sensing logic is typically further supervised by instantaneous over-current elements (ANSI device
50) operating as a fault detector. Arc flash detection relays are capable of issuing a trip signal in
as little as 2.5 ms after initiation of the arcing fault. Arc flash relaying compliments existing
conventional relaying. The arc flash detection relay requires a rapid increase in light intensity to
operate and is designed with the single purpose of detecting very dangerous explosive-like
conditions resulting from an arc flash fault. It operates independently and does not need to be
coordinated with existing relaying schemes.
Responses to Arc Flash Faults
Once the arc flash fault has been detected, there are at least two design options. One option
involves directly tripping the upstream bus breaker(s). Since the arc flash detection time is so
short, overall clearing time is essentially reduced to the operating time of the upstream breaker.
A second option involves creating an intentional three-phase bus fault by energizing a high-speed
grounding switch. This approach shunts the arcing energy through the high-speed grounding
switch and both faults are then cleared by conventional upstream bus protection. Because the
grounding switch typically closes faster than the upstream breaker opens, this approach will
result in lower incident energy levels than the first approach. However, it also introduces a
second three-phase bolted fault on the system and it requires that a separate high-speed
grounding switch be installed and operational. Assuming there is space available for the addition
of the grounding switch, there is a significantly higher cost of implementation involved compared
to the first approach, and so may not be a practical alternative, especially for existing switchgear lineups.
Arc Flash Calculator
Also, we have provided a free arc flash calculator for android based smartphones Arc Flash
Calculator
References
1. Neal, T., Bingham, A., Doughty, R.L, Protective Clothing for Electric Arc Exposure, IEEE,
July / Aug 1997
2. IEEE Std 1584, Arc Flash Hazard Calculations, 2002
3. AS 3439.1, Low-voltage switchgear and control gear assemblies Part 1: Type-tested
and partially type tested assemblies, 2002
4. "Arc flash hazard analysis and mitigation", 2004, Christopher Inshaw, Robert A. Wilson
5. Arc advisor data
Category: Protection

Arc Fault

Contents
[hide]

o

## 5.4 Other calculation approaches for the incident energy

6 NPFA-70E-2004 Application

o

9 References

## Arc Flash History

First official publication on the arc flash hazard was published by Ralph Lee published in "The
Other Electrical Hazard, Electric Arc Blast Burns", 1982. In this paper the thermal event
associated with an electric arc and its effects on the human body was analysed and described.
Value of the 1.2 cal/cm2 was defined as the "curable burn level" (defined as the lower limit for a
3rd degree burn) that is still used today, also some calculations to determine the curable burn
distance for an electric arc in air. In 1987 Ralph Lee published another paper, "Pressures
Developed from Arcs", where the sound and pressure effects of an arc in air were described.
Included in this paper were charts to determine the pressure wave forces at various distances
based on the fault duties at the location.
Two more papers were published that further defined the energies in arcing faults. The first was
the paper "Testing Update on Protective Clothing and Equipment for Electric Arc Exposure", 1997,
by Bingham, Doughty, and Neal. In that paper the authors used empirical test data to determine
the incident energy at various distances from a low voltage arcing fault. They were the first to
express the directional effect of an arc within an enclosure. In 2000, Doughty, Floyd, and Neal
published "Predicting Incident Energy to Better Manage the Electric Arc Hazard on 600 V Power

Distribution Systems", which defined incident energy based on fault duty, working distance and
clearing time for arcs in air or in an enclosure.
This work was used in the NFPA-70E Standard for Electrical Safety Requirements for Employee
Workplaces, 2000 Edition, for use in developing safe work practices with regard to arc flash
hazards, but was limited to low voltage applications. It also represented the basis for further
research that resulted in the publication of the IEEE Std. 1584-2002, "IEEE Guide for Performing
Arc-Flash Hazard Calculations".
Arc Flash Definitions
An arc fault is an electrical discharge between two or more conductors, where the insulating
atmosphere (air or gas) has been broken down by the electric field between the conductors.
Whenever there is an arc fault, the gases and vapours that make up the atmosphere between
the conductors become ionised.
The magnitude of an arc fault is highly variable. The instantaneous arc fault current may be high,
approaching the bolted short circuit current, or reasonably low, comparable to the load current.
An arc will continue until it becomes unstable and extinguishes itself or until it is interrupted by a
protection device (i.e. fuse or circuit breaker).

Figure 1. Arc fault explosion on a 480 V switchboard with 23 kA upstream fault capacity
Arc faults are characterised by extreme temperatures that can cause severe burns depending on
the distance of the operator to the arc. Neal et al [1] in Table IV determined that a 600 V, 40 kA

arc fault with a duration of 0.5 s has enough energy to cause second-degree burns at a distance
of 77 inches (1.96 m).
Additionally, arc faults tend to melt terminals that can potentially shower the immediate vicinity
with molten metal. The extreme temperatures produced by an arc fault can also lead to fires,
causing major damage to equipment.

## Figure 2. Damage caused by arc faults

Annex C of IEEE Std 1584 [2] outlines case histories of real life arc fault incidents. The majority
of incidents occurred during energisation and switching operations or live electrical installation

work. The potential causes of arc faults include contamination / pollution ingress, equipment
failure, rodents / vermin and accidental contact with tools.
Common definitions:
Incident Energy Exposure:the amount of thermal incident energy to which the worker's face
and chest could be exposed at working distance during an electrical arc event. Incident energy is
measured in joules per centimeter squared (J/cm2) or calories per centimeter squared (cal/cm2).
Flash Protection Boundary: the flash protection boundary is an approach limit at a distance
from exposed live parts or enclosed live parts if operation, manipulation, or testing of equipment
creates a potential flash hazard, within which a person could receive a second degree burn if an
electrical arc flash were to occur.
Incident Energy at Flash Protection Boundary: the arc flash protection boundary (FPB)
distance for the specific incident energy, usually provided from the manufactures for the
corresponding personal protection equipment (PPE).
Hazard Risk Category: this is the minimum level of the personal protective equipment (PPE) in
cal/cm2, as evaluated in the IEEE Standard 1584, with the intent to protect the worker from the
thermal effects of the arc flash at 45 cm or 18 inches from the source of the arc.
Grounding Type: according to the IEEE 1584 procedure two grounding classes are applied:
a) ungrounded, which included ungrounded, high-resistance grounding and low-resistance
grounding, and
b) solidly grounded.
Gap between Conductors: equipment bus gap in mm. Gaps of 3 to 40 mm were used for low
voltage testing to simulate gaps between conductors in low voltage equipment and cables. Gaps
13, 104 and 152 mm. were used in 5 and 15 kV equipment testings. For cases where gap is
outside the range of the standard empirically derived model, the theoretically derived Lee
method can be applied.
Working Distance: typical working distance is the sum of the distance between the worker
standing in front of the equipment, and from the front of the equipment to the potential arc
source inside the equipment. Arc-fash protection is always based on the incident energy level on
the person's face and body at the working distance, not the incident energy on the hands or
arms. The degree of injury in a burn depends on the percentage of a person's skin that is
burned. The head and body are a large percentage of total skin surface area and injury to these
areas is much more life threatening than burns on the extremities (see Fig.3).

## Figure 3. Arc flash zones

For the Figure 3. following definitions can be applied:
Flash Protection Boundary: An approach limit at a distance from exposed live parts within
which a person could receive a second degree burn if an electric arc flash were to occur.
Appropriate flash-flame protection equipment must be utilized for persons entering the flash
protection region.
Limited Approach Boundary: An approach limit at distance from an exposed live part within
which a shock hazard exists. A person crossing the limited approach boundary and entering the
limited region must be qualified to perform the job/task.
Restricted Approach Boundary: An approach limit at a distance from an exposed live part
within which there is an increase risk of shock, due to electrical arc over combined with
inadvertent movement, for personnel working in close proximity to the live part. The person
crossing the restricted approach boundary and entering the restricted space must have a
documented work plan approved by authorized management, use PPE that is appropriate for the
working being performed and is rated for voltage and energy level involved.
Prohibited Approach Boundary: An approach limit at a distance from and exposed live part
within which work is considered the same as making contact with the live part. The person
entering the prohibited space must have specified training to work on energized conductors or
live parts. Any tools used in the prohibited space must be rated for direct contact at the voltage
and energy level involved.
Arc Flash Mitigation in Switchgear

Annex ZC6 of AS 3439.1 [3] provides guidelines for the minimisation, detection and containment
of internal arc faults in switchgear. These are summarised below:

## Insulation of live conductors (in addition to clearances in air)

Arrangement of busbars and functional units in separate vented compartments, for more
rapid extinguishing of the arc and to contain an arc fault in a single compartment

## Use of protection devices to limit magnitude and duration of arcing current

Use of devices sensitive to energy radiated from an arc to initiate protection and interrupt
arcing current

Use of earth current detection devices for interruption of arc faults to earth

## Combinations of the above

It should be noted that uncontained arc faults can spread to other parts of the switchboard and
develop into larger faults (e.g. functional unit arc fault spreading to busbars).
Arc Flash PPE

## Figure 4. Typical arc flash suit

As a general guideline, Neal et al [1] recommends the following personal protection equipment to
safeguard against arc faults:

## Clothing consisting of outer layer(s) of loose fitting flame-resistant fabric without

openings and inner layers of non-meltable fibres

Switchmans hood or faceshield with 0.08 inch thick polycarbonate viewing window

## Heavy duty work boots

Annex C of IEEE Std 1584 [2] illustrates a case study (No. 42) of a 2.3 kV switching operation
that ultimately ended in an arc fault. The operator was wearing a full arc flash suit, safety
glasses and fire resistant shirt and pants. The PPE prevented any burn injuries from the arc flash.
Other case studies where the operators were not wearing appropriate PPE resulted in severe
burns or death.
Arc flash PPE is normally rated to an Arc Thermal Performance exposure Value (ATPV), which
specifies the maximum incident arc fault energy that can protect the wearer (measured in
calories per cm2).
By way of example, the results of an arc flash hazard calculation based on IEEE Std 1584 follows
to determine the appropriate ATPV rating of PPE. The prospective fault current used was 25 kA. A
fault clearing time of 0.5 s was chosen, which is suitably onerous for a worst-case incident.
The calculation concluded that to protect against injury from an arc fault of this magnitude, PPE
with an ATPV rating of over 50 cal/cm2). is required. The ATPV rating is typically quoted on
commonly available arc flash PPE.
Typical arc fault PPE is available from vendors such as Oberon.
Arc Flash Calculation according to the IEEE Std. 1584-2002
IEEE Std 1584-2002 contains calculation methods developed through testing by several sources
to determine boundary distances for unprotected personnel and the incident energy at the
working distance for qualified personnel working on energized equipment. The incident energy
level can be used to determine the proper PPE required for personnel. The equations developed
in the IEEE standard assess the arc flash hazard based on the available (bolted) fault current,
voltage, clearing time, equipment type, grounding, and working distance. The working voltage is
also used to determine other variables. The equations have other variables that account for
grounding, equipment type, and construction. This method can also determine the impact of
certain current limiting low voltage fuses as well as certain types of low voltage breakers. It is an
improvement over the previous work in that the calculations can be applied over a large range of
voltages. The many variables of this method make it the preferred choice for Arc-Flash
evaluations, but at the same time requires either a complex spreadsheet or computer program to
be used efficiently.
Determining the arc current
For applications under 1 kV:

## And getting the value from the log10:

where:
Ia - the arc fault current (kA),
K - for the open configurations (-0.153), for the closed/boxed configurations (-0.097),
If - is the bolted fault current for three-phase faults (symmetrical RMS)(kA),
Usys - the system voltage,
dG - the gap between conductors (mm).
The second arc current (I2a) is equal to 85% of the first current, or:

## Determine the incident energy

When the arc current is known the incident energy could be calculated. But first the incident
energy normalized for the time and distance is calculated:

Now the incident energy can be calculated as follows, for the systems where the voltage does not
exceed 15 kV:

And for the location where the voltage exceeds 15 kV the Lee method is used:

Where:
En - the incident energy normalized for time and distance (cal/cm 2),
K1 - for the open configurations (-0.792), for the closed/boxed configurations (-0.555),
K2 - for the ungrounded or high resistance grounded systems (0), for grounded systems (0.113),
dG - the gap between conductors (mm),
E - the incident energy (cal/cm2),
Cf - the voltage factor (1.0 for Usys > 1 kV, 1.5 for Usys <= 1 kV),
t - the arc duration time (s),
D - the distance from the possible arc location to the person (mm),
x - the distance factor (check table below),
If - is the bolted fault current for three-phase faults (symmetrical RMS)(kA),
Usys - the system voltage.
The arc duration time is the clearing time for the source-side protecting device that clears the
fault first.
System voltage
(kV)

Equipment type

## Typical gap between conductors

(mm)

Distance factor, x

Open air

10-40

2.0

Switchgear

32

1.473

25

1.641

Cable

13

2.0

Open air

10-40

2.0

Switchgear

13 - 102

0.973

Cable

13

2.0

Open air

10-40

2.0

Switchgear

153

0.973

Cable

13

2.0

0.208 - 1.0

## Determine the flash boundary

The flash boundary is the distance from an arcing fault where the incident energy is equal to 1.2
cal/cm2. For the IEEE Std. 1584 empirically derived model equation is:

## For the Lee method:

Where:
DB - the distance of the boundary from arcing point (mm),
En - the incident energy (cal/cm2) normalized for time and distance,
Cf - the voltage factor (1.0 for Usys > 1 kV, 1.5 for Usys <= 1 kV),
t - the arc duration time (s),
EB - the incident energy in cal/cm2 at the boundary distance,
x - the distance factor (check table above),

## If - is the bolted fault current for three-phase faults (symmetrical RMS)(kA),

Usys - the system voltage.
Other calculation approaches for the incident energy
In 2000, Doughty, Floyd, and Neal published "Predicting Incident Energy to Better Manage the
Electric Arc Hazard on 600 V Power Distribution Systems", which defined incident energy based
on fault duty, working distance and clearing time for arcs in air or in an enclosure. For open
installations:

## And for closed/boxed installations:

Where:
EMA - incident energy for an arc in open air (cal/cm2),
EMB - incident energy for an arc in a box (size 50 cm or 20 inches maximum)(cal/cm 2),
DA,DB - distance from the arc,
If - is the bolted fault current for three-phase faults (symmetrical RMS)(kA),
tA - the arc duration time (s).
NPFA-70E-2004 Application
In April 2004., the NFPA released an update to NFPA-70E that adopted the IEEE Std. 1584-2002
methods for determining the incident energy. The standard was renamed to NFPA 70E Standard
for Employee Safety in the Workplace 2004 Edition. It is different from IEEE Std. 1584 with
regard to arc flash in that it is used to determine the appropriate PPE based on the incident
energy calculated. PPE is rated by the Arc Thermal Performance Value (ATPV) with units in
cal/cm2. The required PPE is determined by comparing the calculated incident energy to the
ratings for specific combinations of PPE. An example is given in NPFA 70E as follows in table
below:
Hazard/Risk
Category

## Non-melting, flammable materials (natural or

treated materials with at least 4.5 z/yd2)

## Required Minimum Arc

Rating of PPE (cal/cm2)

N/A (1.2)

25

and FR coverall

## Cotton Underwear, plus FR shirt and FR pants

and multiple layer flash suit

40

## Figure 5. Typical arc flash warning label

This example should NOT be used for final calculations. For actual applications, the calculated
incident energy must be compared to specific PPE combinations used at the facility being
evaluated. The exception to this is the upper limit of 40 cal/cm2. While PPE is available in ATPV
values of 100 cal/cm2 or more, values above 40 are considered prohibited due to the sound,
pressure and concussive forces present. Above this level these forces are more significant than
the thermal values.
Methods for reducing arc flash hazards
Reducing the Arcing Current: certain protective devices are current limiting in design. By
limiting the current available for a fault there is a corresponding reduction in the incident energy
for clearing times that are short in duration (1-3 cycles). Fault duties at these devices must be in
the current limiting range for them to be effective (typically at least 10-15 times the device
rating).
Increasing the Working Distance: since the incident energy is proportional to the square of
the distance (in open air), increasing the working distance will significantly reduce the incident
energy. Working distance can be increased by using remote racking devices, remote operating
devices, and extension tools (i.e. hotsticks).
Reducing the Clearing Time: traditional methods to reduce clearing times include: lowered
device settings (permanently or temporarily), bus differential protection, and zone selective
interlocking (typically low voltage only). It should be noted that the calculations assume that the
protective devices are set in accordance with the study, and that the devices operate properly.
Arc Flash Detection Principles

An arc flash fault typically results in an enormous and nearly instantaneous increase in light
intensity in the vicinity of the fault. Light intensity levels often rise to several thousand times
normal ambient lighting levels. For this reason most, if not all, arc flash detecting relays rely on
optical sensor(s) to detect this rapid increase in light intensity. For security reasons, the optical
sensing logic is typically further supervised by instantaneous over-current elements (ANSI device
50) operating as a fault detector. Arc flash detection relays are capable of issuing a trip signal in
as little as 2.5 ms after initiation of the arcing fault. Arc flash relaying compliments existing
conventional relaying. The arc flash detection relay requires a rapid increase in light intensity to
operate and is designed with the single purpose of detecting very dangerous explosive-like
conditions resulting from an arc flash fault. It operates independently and does not need to be
coordinated with existing relaying schemes.
Responses to Arc Flash Faults
Once the arc flash fault has been detected, there are at least two design options. One option
involves directly tripping the upstream bus breaker(s). Since the arc flash detection time is so
short, overall clearing time is essentially reduced to the operating time of the upstream breaker.
A second option involves creating an intentional three-phase bus fault by energizing a high-speed
grounding switch. This approach shunts the arcing energy through the high-speed grounding
switch and both faults are then cleared by conventional upstream bus protection. Because the
grounding switch typically closes faster than the upstream breaker opens, this approach will
result in lower incident energy levels than the first approach. However, it also introduces a
second three-phase bolted fault on the system and it requires that a separate high-speed
grounding switch be installed and operational. Assuming there is space available for the addition
of the grounding switch, there is a significantly higher cost of implementation involved compared
to the first approach, and so may not be a practical alternative, especially for existing switchgear lineups.
Arc Flash Calculator
Also, we have provided a free arc flash calculator for android based smartphones Arc Flash
Calculator
References
1. Neal, T., Bingham, A., Doughty, R.L, Protective Clothing for Electric Arc Exposure, IEEE,
July / Aug 1997
2. IEEE Std 1584, Arc Flash Hazard Calculations, 2002
3. AS 3439.1, Low-voltage switchgear and control gear assemblies Part 1: Type-tested
and partially type tested assemblies, 2002
4. "Arc flash hazard analysis and mitigation", 2004, Christopher Inshaw, Robert A. Wilson
5. Arc advisor data
Category: Protection

Contents
[hide]

o

o

3 Other Ratings
o

## High Voltage Circuit Breakers

Based on IEC 62271-100 (HV circuit breakers) and IEC 62271-1 (HV switchgear):
Ir (Rated normal current)
The rated continuous / uninterrupted current that the circuit breaker can carry.
Ik (Rated short-time withstand current)
The rms value of the current which must be carried by the circuit breaker in the closed position
during a specified short time under prescribed use and behaviour. The specified time is called the
rated "duration of short circuit" or tk, and has a standard value of 1s. Other recommended
values are 0.5s, 2s and 3s. The rated short-time withstand current is equal to the rated shortcircuit breaking current (Isc).
Ip (Rated peak withstand current)
The peak current associated with the rated short-time withstand current, and is defined
according to the dc time constant (where a time constant of 45ms covers the majority of cases
and corresponds to a rated peak withstand current of 2.5 x Ik for 50Hz and below or 2.6 x Ik for
60Hz systems). The rated peak withstand current is equal to the rated short-circuit making
current (Imc).

## Isc (Rated short-circuit breaking current)

The highest short-circuit current that the circuit breaker shall be capable of breaking under the
conditions of use and behaviour prescribed in IEC 62271-100. It is characterised by two values:

AC component - the rms value that is a standard current selected from the R10 series of
numbers

DC time constant - the time constant that results in a percentage of the dc component of
the short-circuit at contact separation. A standard value of 45ms covers the majority of
all cases. Special time constants can also be used depending on voltage (e.g. 120ms for
<52kV, 60ms for <420kV and 75ms for >550kV)

## Imc (Rated short-circuit making current)

The short-circuit current that the circuit breaker can withstand as it is closing where the act of
closing initiates the fault.
TRV (Transient recovery voltage)
The reference voltage which constitutes the limit of the prospective transient recovery voltage of
circuits which the circuit breaker shall be capable of withstanding under short circuit conditions.
Low Voltage Circuit Breakers
Based on IEC 60947-2 (LV switchgear and controlgear - Part 2: Circuit breakers):
In (Rated current)
The rated continuous / uninterrupted current that the circuit breaker can carry.
Icm (Rated short-circuit making current)
The short-circuit current that the circuit breaker can withstand as it is closing where the act of
closing initiates the fault.
Icu (Rated ultimate short-circuit current)
The maximum symmetrical short-circuit current the circuit breaker can interrupt.
Ics (Rated service short-circuit current)
The breaking capacity such that the circuit breaker is tested to carry its current continuously. The
test sequence verifies that the breaker can be returned to service. Ics is the maximum current
the breaker can interrupt multiple times and be returned to service without being damaged and
is expressed as a % of Icu.
Icw (Rated short time withstand current)
This is the steady state symmetrical fault current the breaker has to be able to carry for a
duration of 0.05s to 3s without exceeding its thermal integrity.
Other Ratings
Ith (Thermal short-circuit current)

Ith is the joule integral and thermal equivalent short-circuit current and is a measure of the
energy generated in the resistive element of the system by the short-circuit current (see IEC
60909-0 Clause 4.8).
Categories: Switchgear | Protection

Circuit breakers
Contents
[hide]

1 Circuit breakers

o

6 Trivia

Circuit breakers

## IEC Circuit Breaker Symbol

Electrical circuit breaker is a switching device which can be operated both manually and
automatically for controlling and protection of any electrical power system. As the modern power
system deals with huge currents, the spacial attention should be given during designing of circuit
breaker to safe interruption of arc produced during the opening/closing operation of circuit
breaker.
According to their arc quenching (rapid cooling) media the circuit breaker can be divided as:

## 2) Indoor circuit breaker

According to the operating mechanism of circuit breaker they can be divided as:

## 3) Hydraulic circuit breaker

According to the voltage level of installation types of circuit breaker are referred as:

## 3) Low voltage circuit breaker (< 1 kV)

Circuit breaker ratings according to the IEC 62271-100, IEC 62271-1 and IEC 60947-2 are
explained on this page "Circuit Breaker Ratings".
Short summary for breakers:

Plain-break air breakers are used in low voltage and medium voltage up to 15 kV

For low and medium voltages fuses can be also used, but the main disadvantage is that
they must be replaced after fault clearing

In medium voltage systems minimum oil, SF6 and vacuum breakers are also being used

For high voltages minimum oil, SF6 and blast-air breakers are used, but always with
multiple interrupters in series

The maximum voltage per interrupter is 100 kV for air-blast and SF6 breakers, 170 kV for
minimum oil breakers

## Air circuit breakers (ACB)

The circuit breaker which operates in air at atmospheric pressure.
The working principle of this breaker is rather different from those in any other types of circuit
breakers. The main aim of all kind of circuit breaker is to prevent the reestablishment of arcing
after current zero by creating a situation where the contact gap will withstand the system
recovery voltage. The air circuit breaker does the same but in different manner. For interrupting
arc it creates an arc voltage in excess of the supply voltage. Arc voltage is defined as the
minimum voltage required maintaining the arc. This circuit breaker increases the arc voltage by
mainly three different ways:

It may increase the arc voltage by cooling the arc plasma. As the temperature of arc
plasma is decreased, the mobility of the particle in arc plasma is reduced; hence more
voltage gradient is required to maintain the arc.

It may increase the arc voltage by lengthening the arc path. As the length of arc path is
increased, the resistance of the path is increased, and hence to maintain the same arc
current more voltage is required to be applied across the arc path. That means arc
voltage is increased.

Splitting up the arc into a number of series arcs also increases the arc voltage.

## Figure 1.a) ABB Low voltage air

breaker, 600V/400A

## Figure 1.b) WEG Low

voltage air breaker,
400V/6300A

Plain break
Air-break circuit breakers extinguish the arc by simply stretching it until the dielectric strength of
the gap is larger than the voltage across the gap. The longer arc has a larger cooling surface and
higher resistance, which decreases the current flow and the amount of heat created. To stretch
the arc, horn gap shaped contacts are used. Due to a natural convection, the arc moves
upwards. To further increase the length, the arc is stretched by forcing it into an arc chute made
of metal barriers or insulating material. The metal barriers chop the arc into many smaller arcs.
Used from 120 V up to 15 kV.

Fi

ra

## Figure 2.b) Air breaker

Figure 2.a) Air breaker - plain break
Air-blast break
In the air-blast breaker the arc is not stretched. To extinguish the arc, a blast of compressed air
is directed into the arc path to cool the ionized gas and remove it from the gap between the
contacts. The contacts are held closed by a spring. A blast of air into the interrupting head forces
the contacts to open. The contacts will close as soon as the air flow stops. The compressed air
can be blown into the arc perpendicular to it (cross blast), or along its axis (axial blast). All
modern breakers use the axial blast. The air blast circuit breakers are built up to the highest
used voltages (765 kV) by connecting several interrupter heads in series.

breaker

breaker

## Miniature circuit breakers

For miniature circuit breakers (or MCB) used in households refer to the Small air breakers for low
voltage domestic circuits.
Oil circuit brakers (OCB)
Mineral oil has better insulating property than air. The oil is used to insulate between the phases
and between the phases and the ground, and to extinguish the arc. When electric arc is drawn
under oil, the arc vaporizes the oil and creates a large bubble of hydrogen that surrounds the
arc. The oil surrounding the bubble conducts the heat away from the arc and thus also
contributes to deionization and extinction of the arc. Disadvantage of the oil circuit breakers is
the flammability of the oil, and the maintenance necessary (i.e. changing and purifying the oil).
The oil circuit breaker is the one of the oldest type of circuit breakers.
Bulk oil circuit breakers (BOCB)
Bulk oil circuit breaker (or BOCB) is a such type of the circuit breakers where oil is used as arc
quenching media as well as insulating media between current carrying contacts and earthed
parts of the breaker. The oil used here is same as transformer insulating oil. These types of
breakers are designed in all voltage ranges from 1 kV up to 330 kV.

Figure 4.a) 66 kV Oil Circuit Breaker Figure 4.b) Bulk oil circui
Modern arc-controlled oil breakers have an arc control device surrounding the breaker contacts
to improve extinction of arc. In cross blast interrupters, the arc is drawn in front of several lateral
vents. The gas formed by the arc causes high pressure inside the arc control device. The arc is
forced to bow into the lateral vents in the pot, which increases the length of the arc and shortens
the interruption time. The axial blast interrupters use similar principle. Oil breakers are design
for both three-phase and single-phase circuit brakers.
At voltages higher than 115 kV, separate tanks for each phase are used. The practical limit for
the bulk oil breakers is 275 kV.
Minimum oil circuit brakers (MOCB)
In minimum oil breakers the oil is used only for extinguishing of the arc. The arc control devices
are the same as for the bulk-oil breakers. However, unlike bulk oil circuit breakers, these designs
place the interrupting units in insulating chambers at live potential. To improve breaker
performance, oil is injected into the arc. The interrupter containers of the minimum oil breakers
are made of insulating material and are insulated from the ground. This is usually referred to as
live tank construction. For high voltages (above 132 kV), the interrupters are arranged in series.
It is essential to ensure that each interrupter carries its share of the duty. Care must be taken
that all breaks occur simultaneously, and that the restriking voltage is divided equally across the
breaks during the interrupting process. The features of designing MOCB is to reduce requirement
of oil, and hence these breaker are called minimum oil circuit breaker. These designs are
available in voltages ranging from 1 kV to 765 kV using the multi-break technique.

## Figure 5. 36 kV MOCB a) Typical design, b) Cross-section of the

Vacuum circuit brakers (VCB)
Vacuum circuit breakers are used mostly for low and medium voltages. Vacuum interrupters are
developed for up to 36 kV and can be connected in series for higher voltages. The interrupting
chambers are made of porcelain and sealed. They cannot be open for maintenance, but life is
expected to be about 20 years, provided that the vacuum is maintained. Because of the high
dielectric strength of vacuum, the interrupters are small. The gap between the contacts is about
1 cm for 15 kV interrupters, 2 mm for 3 kV interrupters.

## Figure 6.a) Vacuum interrupter

Figure 6.b)

circuit brea
Service life of the VCB is much longer than other types of circuit breakers. There is no chance of
fire hazard as oil circuit breaker. It is much environment friendly than SF6 circuit breaker.
Sulfur-hexafluoride (SF6) circuit breakers
Gas properties

## Figure 7. SF6 gas molecule

Sulfur-hexafluoride (SF6) is an excellent gaseous dielectric for high voltage power applications.
SF6 is a colorless non-toxic gas, with good thermal conductivity and density approximately five
times that of air (6.14 kg/m3.). It does not react with materials commonly used in high voltage
circuit breakers. It has been used extensively in high voltage circuit breakers and other
switchgear employed by the power industry. Applications for SF6 include gas insulated
transmission lines and gas insulated power distribution substations. The combined electrical,
physical, chemical and thermal properties offer many advantages when used in power
switchgear. Some of the outstanding properties of SF6 which make its use in power applications
desirable are:

## good thermal conductivity

The SF6 gas is identified as a greenhouse gas, safety regulation are being introduced in many
countries in order to prevent its release into atmosphere.
Breaker properties
The principle of operation is similar to the air blast breakers, except that SF6 is not discharged in
the atmosphere. A closed-circuit, sealed construction is used.
There are mainly three types of SF6 CB depending upon the voltage level of application:

## 3) Four interrupter SF6 CB applied for up to 800 kV (715 kV) system

During the opening operation the gas contained inside a part of the breaker is compressed by a
moving cylinder that supports the contacts or by a piston. This forces the SF6 through the
interrupting nozzle. When the contacts separate, an arc is established. If the current is not very

high, it is extinguished at the first zero crossing by the pushing the SF6 through the arc by the
piston. If the short circuit current is high, the arc extinction may not occur at the first zero
crossing, but the gas pressure will increase sufficiently to blow the arc out. By connecting several
interrupting heads in series, SF6 breakers can be constructed for voltages of up to 765 kV.

## Gas Insulated Substation (GIS)

In GIS the high-voltage conductors, circuit breaker interrupters, switches, current transformers,
voltage transformers and lightning arresters are encapsulated in SF6 gas inside grounded metal
enclosures. Locations where gas insulated substation is preferred:
Large cities and towns
Under ground stations
Highly polluted and saline environment Indoor GIS occupies very little space
Substations and power stations located Off shore
Mountains and valley regions
Gas insulated substation has gas monitoring system. Gas inside each compartment should have
a pressure of about 3 kg/cm2.The gas density in each compartment is monitored. If the pressure
drops slightly, the gas is automatically trapped up. With further gas leakage, the low pressure
alarm is sounded or automatic tripping or lock-out occurs.
Trivia
Category: Protection

## Earth Fault Protection

Contents
[hide]

1 Recommended Settings
o

## 1.3 Unearthed Systems

2 References

Recommended Settings
Solidly Earthed Systems
From Alstom Network Protection and Automation Guide (2011) Section 9.16 [3]: "Typical [earth
fault relay] settings are 30-40% of nominal full-load current or minimum earth fault current for
the circuit being protected." Therefore, a pickup setting of 30% - 40% of In is suggested, where
In is:

## For motor feeders: In = full load current of motor

Fielding [5] suggests higher sensitivity to earth faults, with pickup settings of 20% of In.
Ultimately, the decision depends on the trade-off between high sensitivity to earth faults and the
probability of spurious and nuisance tripping.
Impedance Earthed Systems
In an impedance earthed system, earth faults are limited to a maximum value by some
impedance. An earth fault pickup setting of 10% - 20% of the maximum earth fault current is
recommended, to be selected in conjunction with the following minimum pickup settings
suggested in [4] to avoid spurious tripping:

## For core balance CTs: >1A for 0.1s

Unearthed Systems
In an unearthed system, core balance CTs are necessary to have the sensitivity to detect earth
fault currents (because earth fault currents are purely capacitive). The minmum threshold for
core balance CTs should be >1A for >0.1s as suggested by [4] to avoid spurious tripping.
References

[1] IEEE Std 242, IEEE Recommended Practice for Protection and Coordination
Industrial and Commercial Power Systems (Buff book), 2001

[2] IEEE Std 142, IEEE Recommended Practice for Grounding of Industrial and
Commercial Power systems (Green book), 2007

[3] Alstom Grid, Network Protection and Automation Guide, May 2011

[4] Preve, C., Protection of Electrical Networks, 2006, ISTE Ltd, London

[5] Fielding, G., Protection of MV Industrial Networks, 1997, IEE Colloquium, London

Category: Protection
Electrical Fuse
Contents
[hide]

## 1 Main definition by IEC

2 General information

3 Construction

4 Characteristic parameters
o

5 Markings

6 Fuse standards

7 Fuse Types
o

8 Trivia

## Fuse symbol by IEC

A device that by the fusing (melting) of one or more of its specially designed and proportioned
components, opens the circuit in which it is inserted by breaking the current when this exceeds a
given value for a sufficient time. The fuse comprises all the parts that form the complete device.
General information
In electronics and electrical engineering, a fuse is a type of low resistance resistor that acts as a
"sacrificial" device to provide overcurrent protection, of either the load or source circuit. Its
essential component is a metal wire or strip that melts when too much current flows, which
interrupts the circuit in which it is connected. Short circuit, overloading, mismatched loads or
device failure are the prime reasons for excessive current.
A fuse interrupts excessive current (blows) so that further damage by overheating or fire is
prevented. Wiring regulations often define a maximum fuse current rating for particular circuits.
Overcurrent protection devices are essential in electrical systems to limit threats to human life
and property damage. Fuses are selected to allow passage of normal current plus a marginal
percentage and to allow excessive current only for short periods. Slow blow fuses are designed
to allow higher currents for a modest amount of time longer, and such considerations are and
were commonly necessary when electronics devices or systems had electronic tube tech or a
large number of incandescent lights were being powered such as in a large hall, theater or
stadium. Tubes and incandescent lights each have reduced current needs as they heat up to
operating temperatures for their internal resistance grows as they are heated the same physics
principle causes the fuse material to melt, disconnecting the circuit from power.

Construction

## Simplified fuse scheme

A fuse consists of a metal strip or wire fuse element, of small cross-section compared to the
circuit conductors, mounted between a pair of electrical terminals, and (usually) enclosed by a
non-combustible housing. The fuse is arranged in series to carry all the current passing through
the protected circuit. The resistance of the element generates heat due to the current flow. The
size and construction of the element is determined so that the heat produced for a normal
current does not cause the element to attain a high temperature. If too high current flows, the
element rises to a higher temperature and either directly melts, or else melts a soldered joint
within the fuse, opening the circuit.
The fuse element is made of zinc, copper, silver, aluminum, or alloys to provide stable and
predictable characteristics. The fuse ideally would carry its rated current indefinitely, and melt
quickly on a small excess. The element must not be damaged by minor harmless surges of
current, and must not oxidize or change its behavior after possibly years of service.
The fuse elements may be shaped to increase heating effect. In large fuses, current may be
divided between multiple strips of metal. A dual-element fuse may contain a metal strip that
melts instantly on a short-circuit, and also contain a low-melting solder joint that responds to
long-term overload of low values compared to a short-circuit. Fuse elements may be supported
by steel or nichrome wires, so that no strain is placed on the element, but a spring may be
included to increase the speed of parting of the element fragments.
The fuse element may be surrounded by air, or by materials intended to speed the quenching of
the arc. Silica sand or non-conducting liquids may be used.

Dimensions
Fuses can be built with different sized enclosures to prevent interchange of different ratings or
types of fuse. For example, bottle style fuses distinguish between ratings with different cap
diameters. Automotive glass fuses were made in different lengths, to prevent high-rated fuses
being installed in a circuit intended for a lower rating.
Special features
Glass cartridge and plug fuses allow direct inspection of the fusible element. Other fuses have
other indication methods including:

Indicating pin or striker pin extends out of the fuse cap when the element is blown.

Indicating disc a coloured disc (flush mounted in the end cap of the fuse) falls out
when the element is blown.

Element window a small window built into the fuse body to provide visual indication of
a blown element.

External trip indicator similar function to striker pin, but can be externally attached
(using clips) to a compatible fuse.

Some fuses allow a special purpose micro switch or relay unit to be fixed to the fuse body. When
the fuse element blows, the indicating pin extends to activate the micro switch or relay, which, in
turn, triggers an event.
Some fuses for medium-voltage applications use two separate barrels and two fuse elements in
parallel.
Characteristic parameters
Rated current IN
A maximum current that the fuse can continuously conduct without interrupting the circuit.
The speed at which a fuse blows depends on how much current flows through it and the material
of which the fuse is made. The operating time is not a fixed interval, but decreases as the
current increases. Fuses have different characteristics of operating time compared to current,
characterized as fast-blow, slow-blow, or time-delay, according to time required to respond to an
overcurrent condition. A standard fuse may require twice its rated current to open in one second,
a fast-blow fuse may require twice its rated current to blow in 0.1 seconds, and a slow-blow fuse
may require twice its rated current for tens of seconds to blow.
Fuse selection depends on the load's characteristics. Semiconductor devices may use a fast or
ultrafast fuse as semiconductor devices heat rapidly when excess current flows. The fastest
blowing fuses are designed for the most sensitive electrical equipment, where even a short
exposure to an overload current could be very damaging. Normal fast-blow fuses are the most
general purpose fuses. The time delay fuse (also known as anti-surge, or slow-blow) are
designed to allow a current which is above the rated value of the fuse to flow for a short period

of time without the fuse blowing. These types of fuse are used on equipment such as motors,
which can draw larger than normal currents for up to several seconds while coming up to speed.
Time-Current Characteristics Of Fuses

Time-Current characteristic
A 100 ampere fuse does not open instantly at 101 amperes, nor even at 200 amperes. The fuse
opening time is dependent on the type of fuse and magnitude of the overcurrent. In fact, this
delay may be desirable. An overload current condition may only be temporary in nature, and the
current may subside to normal current conditions in short order. For example, a typical harmless
current overload is encountered whenever most motors are started. The built-in fuse time delay
permits the motor to start without unnecessarily blowing fuses.
Two broad fuse characteristic types are (1) dual-element, time-delay fuses and (2) non-time
delay fuses. Each type has attributes suitable for specific applications. The dual-element, timedelay fuses are widely used in general purpose applications, motor circuits, transformers, and
other circuits. The non-time delay current-limiting fuses are used where fast response with little
or no overload delay is desired. A typical application of these is for protecting circuit breakers for
possible large short-circuit current levels.
The graph shows the difference between the melting curves of a typical 100 ampere dualelement time delay fuse and a non-time delay fuse. If we look at a comparison at 500 amperes,
the dual-element fuse melts in about 10 seconds and the non-time delay fuse melts in .2
seconds. This is a time ratio of 50 to one. At a current of 200 amperes (twice the nominal rating)
the time ratio is about 9 to one.
The I2t value

The amount of energy spent by the fuse element to clear the electrical fault. This term is
normally used in short circuit conditions and the values are used to perform co-ordination studies
in electrical networks. I2t parameters are provided by charts in manufacturer data sheets for
each fuse family. For coordination of fuse operation with upstream or downstream devices, both
melting I2t and clearing I2t are specified. The melting I2t, is proportional to the amount of energy
required to begin melting the fuse element. The clearing I2t is proportional to the total energy let
through by the fuse when clearing a fault. The energy is mainly dependent on current and time
for fuses as well as the available fault level and system voltage. Since the I 2t rating of the fuse is
proportional to the energy it lets through, it is a measure of the thermal damage and magnetic
forces that will be produced by a fault.
General formulation should be: I2t value of surge current < I2t value of fuse <
Maximum allowable fault current I2t
Breaking capacity
The breaking capacity is the maximum current that can safely be interrupted by the fuse.
Generally, this should be higher than the prospective short circuit current. Miniature fuses may
have an interrupting rating only 10 times their rated current. Some fuses are designated High
Rupture Capacity (HRC) and are usually filled with sand or a similar material. Fuses for small,
low-voltage, usually residential, wiring systems are commonly rated, in North American practice,
to interrupt 10,000 amperes. Fuses for larger power systems must have higher interrupting
ratings, with some low-voltage current-limiting high interrupting fuses rated for 300,000
amperes. Fuses for high-voltage equipment, up to 115,000 volts, are rated by the total apparent
power (megavolt-amperes, MVA) of the fault level on the circuit.
Rated voltage
Voltage rating of the fuse must be greater than or equal to what would become the open circuit
voltage. For example, a glass tube fuse rated at 32 volts would not reliably interrupt current from
a voltage source of 120 or 230 V. If a 32 V fuse attempts to interrupt the 120 or 230 V source,
an arc may result. Plasma inside that glass tube fuse may continue to conduct current until
current eventually so diminishes that plasma reverts to an insulating gas. Rated voltage should
be larger than the maximum voltage source it would have to disconnect. Rated voltage remains
same for any one fuse, even when similar fuses are connected in series. Connecting fuses in
series does not increase the rated voltage of the combination (nor of any one fuse).
Medium-voltage fuses rated for a few thousand volts are never used on low voltage circuits,
because of their cost and because they cannot properly clear the circuit when operating at very
low voltages.
Voltage drop
A voltage drop across the fuse is usually provided by its manufacturer. Resistance may change
when a fuse becomes hot due to energy dissipation while conducting higher currents. This
resulting voltage drop should be taken into account, particularly when using a fuse in low-voltage
applications. Voltage drop often is not significant in more traditional wire type fuses, but can be
significant in other technologies such as resettable fuse (PPTC) type fuses.
Temperature derating

Ambient temperature will change a fuse's operational parameters. A fuse rated for 1 A at 25 C
may conduct up to 10% or 20% more current at 40 C and may open at 80% of its rated value
at 100 C. Operating values will vary with each fuse family and are provided in manufacturer
data sheets.

Markings

## Typical domestic fuse, gL/gG, 500V, 16A, SIEMENS

Most fuses are marked on the body or end caps with markings that indicate their ratings.
Surface-mount technology "chip type" fuses feature few or no markings, making identification
very difficult.
Similar appearing fuses may have significantly different properties, identified by their markings.
Fuse markings will generally convey the following information, either explicitly as text, or else
implicit with the approval agency marking for a particular type:

## Product certification or approvals by national and international standards agencies.

Manufacturing/part number/series.

Breaking capacity.

Fuse standards
IEC 60269 fuses
The International Electrotechnical Commission publishes standard 60269 for low-voltage power
fuses. The standard is in four volumes, which describe general requirements, fuses for industrial
and commercial applications, fuses for residential applications, and fuses to protect
semiconductor devices. The IEC standard unifies several national standards, thereby improving
the interchangeability of fuses in international trade. All fuses of different technologies tested to
meet IEC standards will have similar time-current characteristics, which simplifies design and
maintenance.
UL 248 fuses (North America)
In the United States and Canada, low-voltage fuses to 1 kV AC rating are made in accordance
with Underwriters Laboratories standard UL 248 or the harmonized Canadian Standards
Association standard C22.2 No. 248. This standard applies to fuses rated 1 kV or less, AC or DC,
and with breaking capacity up to 200 kA. These fuses are intended for installations following
Canadian Electrical Code, Part I (CEC), or the National Electrical Code, NFPA 70 (NEC).
IEC and UL nomenclature varies slightly. IEC standards refer to a "fuse" as the assembly of a
fuse link and fuse holder. In North American standards, the fuse is the replaceable portion of the
assembly, and a fuse link would be a bare metal element for installation in a fuse.
Fuse Types
Low voltage fuses
In this category all fuses up to 1.5 kV can be included. But the most typical voltage levels for low
voltage fuses are 500 V, 690 V and 750 V.
LV HRC fuses are used for installation systems in non-residential, commercial and industrial
buildings, as well as in the switchboards of power supply companies. They therefore protect
essential building parts and installations. LV HRC fuse links are available in the following
operational classes:

## gR or aR for the protection of power semiconductors

gS operational class combines cable and line protection with semiconductor protection.

## Various gG fuses for 500V

fuses
High voltage fuses
All fuses used on power systems from 1.5 kV up to 138 kV are categorized as high voltage fuses.
High voltage fuses are used to protect instrument transformers used for electricity metering, or
for small power transformers where the expense of a circuit breaker is not warranted. For
example, in distribution systems, a power fuse may be used to protect a transformer serving 13
houses. A circuit breaker at 115 kV may cost up to five times as much as a set of power fuses,
so the resulting saving can be tens of thousands of dollars. Pole-mounted distribution
transformers are nearly always protected by a fusible cutout, which can have the fuse element
replaced using live-line maintenance tools.
Large power fuses use fusible elements made of silver, copper or tin to provide stable and
predictable performance. High voltage expulsion fuses surround the fusible link with gas-evolving
substances, such as boric acid. When the fuse blows, heat from the arc causes the boric acid to
evolve large volumes of gases. The associated high pressure (often greater than 100
atmospheres) and cooling gases rapidly quench the resulting arc. The hot gases are then
explosively expelled out of the end(s) of the fuse. Such fuses can only be used outdoors.
Various high voltage fuses

## High voltage fuses, 115 kV Medium voltage fuse for transformer

protection, 24 kV, 200 A

## Medium voltage fuse, 24

kV

High voltage high power fuses are standalone protective switching devices used to 138 kV. They
are used in power supply networks and for distribution uses. The most frequent application is in
transformer circuits, with further uses in motor circuits and capacitor banks. These type of fuses
may have an impact pin to operate a switch mechanism, so that all three phases are interrupted
if any one fuse blows.
High-power fuse means that these fuses can interrupt several kiloamperes. Some manufacturers
have tested their fuses for up to 63 kA cut-off current.
Resettable fuses
So-called self-resetting fuses use a thermoplastic conductive element known as a Polymeric
Positive Temperature Coefficient (or PPTC) thermistor that impedes the circuit during an
overcurrent condition (by increasing device resistance). The PPTC thermistor is self-resetting in
that when current is removed, the device will cool and revert back to low resistance. These
devices are often used in aerospace/nuclear applications where replacement is difficult, or on a
computer motherboard so that a shorted mouse or keyboard does not cause motherboard
damage.

## PTC Resettable fuse, 30V

Thermal fuses
A thermal fuse is often found in consumer equipment such as coffee makers or hair dryers or
transformers powering small consumer electronics devices. They contain a fusible, temperaturesensitive alloy which holds a spring contact mechanism normally closed. When the surrounding
temperature gets too high, the alloy melts and allows the spring contact mechanism to break the
circuit. The device can be used to prevent a fire in a hair dryer for example, by cutting off the
power supply to the heater elements when the air flow is interrupted (e.g., the blower motor
stops or the air intake becomes accidentally blocked). Thermal fuses are a 'one shot', nonresettable device which must be replaced once they have been activated (blown).

## Thermal fuse, 120V, 15A

Trivia
Category: Protection
Electrical Fuse
(Redirected from Fuse)
Contents
[hide]

## 1 Main definition by IEC

2 General information

3 Construction

4 Characteristic parameters
o

5 Markings

6 Fuse standards

7 Fuse Types

8 Trivia

## Fuse symbol by IEC

A device that by the fusing (melting) of one or more of its specially designed and proportioned
components, opens the circuit in which it is inserted by breaking the current when this exceeds a
given value for a sufficient time. The fuse comprises all the parts that form the complete device.
General information
In electronics and electrical engineering, a fuse is a type of low resistance resistor that acts as a
"sacrificial" device to provide overcurrent protection, of either the load or source circuit. Its
essential component is a metal wire or strip that melts when too much current flows, which
interrupts the circuit in which it is connected. Short circuit, overloading, mismatched loads or
device failure are the prime reasons for excessive current.
A fuse interrupts excessive current (blows) so that further damage by overheating or fire is
prevented. Wiring regulations often define a maximum fuse current rating for particular circuits.
Overcurrent protection devices are essential in electrical systems to limit threats to human life
and property damage. Fuses are selected to allow passage of normal current plus a marginal
percentage and to allow excessive current only for short periods. Slow blow fuses are designed
to allow higher currents for a modest amount of time longer, and such considerations are and
were commonly necessary when electronics devices or systems had electronic tube tech or a
large number of incandescent lights were being powered such as in a large hall, theater or
stadium. Tubes and incandescent lights each have reduced current needs as they heat up to
operating temperatures for their internal resistance grows as they are heated the same physics
principle causes the fuse material to melt, disconnecting the circuit from power.

Construction

## Simplified fuse scheme

A fuse consists of a metal strip or wire fuse element, of small cross-section compared to the
circuit conductors, mounted between a pair of electrical terminals, and (usually) enclosed by a
non-combustible housing. The fuse is arranged in series to carry all the current passing through
the protected circuit. The resistance of the element generates heat due to the current flow. The
size and construction of the element is determined so that the heat produced for a normal
current does not cause the element to attain a high temperature. If too high current flows, the
element rises to a higher temperature and either directly melts, or else melts a soldered joint
within the fuse, opening the circuit.
The fuse element is made of zinc, copper, silver, aluminum, or alloys to provide stable and
predictable characteristics. The fuse ideally would carry its rated current indefinitely, and melt
quickly on a small excess. The element must not be damaged by minor harmless surges of
current, and must not oxidize or change its behavior after possibly years of service.
The fuse elements may be shaped to increase heating effect. In large fuses, current may be
divided between multiple strips of metal. A dual-element fuse may contain a metal strip that
melts instantly on a short-circuit, and also contain a low-melting solder joint that responds to
long-term overload of low values compared to a short-circuit. Fuse elements may be supported
by steel or nichrome wires, so that no strain is placed on the element, but a spring may be
included to increase the speed of parting of the element fragments.
The fuse element may be surrounded by air, or by materials intended to speed the quenching of
the arc. Silica sand or non-conducting liquids may be used.

Dimensions
Fuses can be built with different sized enclosures to prevent interchange of different ratings or
types of fuse. For example, bottle style fuses distinguish between ratings with different cap
diameters. Automotive glass fuses were made in different lengths, to prevent high-rated fuses
being installed in a circuit intended for a lower rating.
Special features
Glass cartridge and plug fuses allow direct inspection of the fusible element. Other fuses have
other indication methods including:

Indicating pin or striker pin extends out of the fuse cap when the element is blown.

Indicating disc a coloured disc (flush mounted in the end cap of the fuse) falls out
when the element is blown.

Element window a small window built into the fuse body to provide visual indication of
a blown element.

External trip indicator similar function to striker pin, but can be externally attached
(using clips) to a compatible fuse.

Some fuses allow a special purpose micro switch or relay unit to be fixed to the fuse body. When
the fuse element blows, the indicating pin extends to activate the micro switch or relay, which, in
turn, triggers an event.
Some fuses for medium-voltage applications use two separate barrels and two fuse elements in
parallel.
Characteristic parameters
Rated current IN
A maximum current that the fuse can continuously conduct without interrupting the circuit.
The speed at which a fuse blows depends on how much current flows through it and the material
of which the fuse is made. The operating time is not a fixed interval, but decreases as the
current increases. Fuses have different characteristics of operating time compared to current,
characterized as fast-blow, slow-blow, or time-delay, according to time required to respond to an
overcurrent condition. A standard fuse may require twice its rated current to open in one second,
a fast-blow fuse may require twice its rated current to blow in 0.1 seconds, and a slow-blow fuse
may require twice its rated current for tens of seconds to blow.
Fuse selection depends on the load's characteristics. Semiconductor devices may use a fast or
ultrafast fuse as semiconductor devices heat rapidly when excess current flows. The fastest
blowing fuses are designed for the most sensitive electrical equipment, where even a short
exposure to an overload current could be very damaging. Normal fast-blow fuses are the most
general purpose fuses. The time delay fuse (also known as anti-surge, or slow-blow) are
designed to allow a current which is above the rated value of the fuse to flow for a short period

of time without the fuse blowing. These types of fuse are used on equipment such as motors,
which can draw larger than normal currents for up to several seconds while coming up to speed.
Time-Current Characteristics Of Fuses

Time-Current characteristic
A 100 ampere fuse does not open instantly at 101 amperes, nor even at 200 amperes. The fuse
opening time is dependent on the type of fuse and magnitude of the overcurrent. In fact, this
delay may be desirable. An overload current condition may only be temporary in nature, and the
current may subside to normal current conditions in short order. For example, a typical harmless
current overload is encountered whenever most motors are started. The built-in fuse time delay
permits the motor to start without unnecessarily blowing fuses.
Two broad fuse characteristic types are (1) dual-element, time-delay fuses and (2) non-time
delay fuses. Each type has attributes suitable for specific applications. The dual-element, timedelay fuses are widely used in general purpose applications, motor circuits, transformers, and
other circuits. The non-time delay current-limiting fuses are used where fast response with little
or no overload delay is desired. A typical application of these is for protecting circuit breakers for
possible large short-circuit current levels.
The graph shows the difference between the melting curves of a typical 100 ampere dualelement time delay fuse and a non-time delay fuse. If we look at a comparison at 500 amperes,
the dual-element fuse melts in about 10 seconds and the non-time delay fuse melts in .2
seconds. This is a time ratio of 50 to one. At a current of 200 amperes (twice the nominal rating)
the time ratio is about 9 to one.
The I2t value

The amount of energy spent by the fuse element to clear the electrical fault. This term is
normally used in short circuit conditions and the values are used to perform co-ordination studies
in electrical networks. I2t parameters are provided by charts in manufacturer data sheets for
each fuse family. For coordination of fuse operation with upstream or downstream devices, both
melting I2t and clearing I2t are specified. The melting I2t, is proportional to the amount of energy
required to begin melting the fuse element. The clearing I2t is proportional to the total energy let
through by the fuse when clearing a fault. The energy is mainly dependent on current and time
for fuses as well as the available fault level and system voltage. Since the I 2t rating of the fuse is
proportional to the energy it lets through, it is a measure of the thermal damage and magnetic
forces that will be produced by a fault.
General formulation should be: I2t value of surge current < I2t value of fuse <
Maximum allowable fault current I2t
Breaking capacity
The breaking capacity is the maximum current that can safely be interrupted by the fuse.
Generally, this should be higher than the prospective short circuit current. Miniature fuses may
have an interrupting rating only 10 times their rated current. Some fuses are designated High
Rupture Capacity (HRC) and are usually filled with sand or a similar material. Fuses for small,
low-voltage, usually residential, wiring systems are commonly rated, in North American practice,
to interrupt 10,000 amperes. Fuses for larger power systems must have higher interrupting
ratings, with some low-voltage current-limiting high interrupting fuses rated for 300,000
amperes. Fuses for high-voltage equipment, up to 115,000 volts, are rated by the total apparent
power (megavolt-amperes, MVA) of the fault level on the circuit.
Rated voltage
Voltage rating of the fuse must be greater than or equal to what would become the open circuit
voltage. For example, a glass tube fuse rated at 32 volts would not reliably interrupt current from
a voltage source of 120 or 230 V. If a 32 V fuse attempts to interrupt the 120 or 230 V source,
an arc may result. Plasma inside that glass tube fuse may continue to conduct current until
current eventually so diminishes that plasma reverts to an insulating gas. Rated voltage should
be larger than the maximum voltage source it would have to disconnect. Rated voltage remains
same for any one fuse, even when similar fuses are connected in series. Connecting fuses in
series does not increase the rated voltage of the combination (nor of any one fuse).
Medium-voltage fuses rated for a few thousand volts are never used on low voltage circuits,
because of their cost and because they cannot properly clear the circuit when operating at very
low voltages.
Voltage drop
A voltage drop across the fuse is usually provided by its manufacturer. Resistance may change
when a fuse becomes hot due to energy dissipation while conducting higher currents. This
resulting voltage drop should be taken into account, particularly when using a fuse in low-voltage
applications. Voltage drop often is not significant in more traditional wire type fuses, but can be
significant in other technologies such as resettable fuse (PPTC) type fuses.
Temperature derating

Ambient temperature will change a fuse's operational parameters. A fuse rated for 1 A at 25 C
may conduct up to 10% or 20% more current at 40 C and may open at 80% of its rated value
at 100 C. Operating values will vary with each fuse family and are provided in manufacturer
data sheets.

Markings

## Typical domestic fuse, gL/gG, 500V, 16A, SIEMENS

Most fuses are marked on the body or end caps with markings that indicate their ratings.
Surface-mount technology "chip type" fuses feature few or no markings, making identification
very difficult.
Similar appearing fuses may have significantly different properties, identified by their markings.
Fuse markings will generally convey the following information, either explicitly as text, or else
implicit with the approval agency marking for a particular type:

## Product certification or approvals by national and international standards agencies.

Manufacturing/part number/series.

Breaking capacity.

Fuse standards
IEC 60269 fuses
The International Electrotechnical Commission publishes standard 60269 for low-voltage power
fuses. The standard is in four volumes, which describe general requirements, fuses for industrial
and commercial applications, fuses for residential applications, and fuses to protect
semiconductor devices. The IEC standard unifies several national standards, thereby improving
the interchangeability of fuses in international trade. All fuses of different technologies tested to
meet IEC standards will have similar time-current characteristics, which simplifies design and
maintenance.
UL 248 fuses (North America)
In the United States and Canada, low-voltage fuses to 1 kV AC rating are made in accordance
with Underwriters Laboratories standard UL 248 or the harmonized Canadian Standards
Association standard C22.2 No. 248. This standard applies to fuses rated 1 kV or less, AC or DC,
and with breaking capacity up to 200 kA. These fuses are intended for installations following
Canadian Electrical Code, Part I (CEC), or the National Electrical Code, NFPA 70 (NEC).
IEC and UL nomenclature varies slightly. IEC standards refer to a "fuse" as the assembly of a
fuse link and fuse holder. In North American standards, the fuse is the replaceable portion of the
assembly, and a fuse link would be a bare metal element for installation in a fuse.
Fuse Types
Low voltage fuses
In this category all fuses up to 1.5 kV can be included. But the most typical voltage levels for low
voltage fuses are 500 V, 690 V and 750 V.
LV HRC fuses are used for installation systems in non-residential, commercial and industrial
buildings, as well as in the switchboards of power supply companies. They therefore protect
essential building parts and installations. LV HRC fuse links are available in the following
operational classes:

## gR or aR for the protection of power semiconductors

gS operational class combines cable and line protection with semiconductor protection.

## Various gG fuses for 500V

fuses
High voltage fuses
All fuses used on power systems from 1.5 kV up to 138 kV are categorized as high voltage fuses.
High voltage fuses are used to protect instrument transformers used for electricity metering, or
for small power transformers where the expense of a circuit breaker is not warranted. For
example, in distribution systems, a power fuse may be used to protect a transformer serving 13
houses. A circuit breaker at 115 kV may cost up to five times as much as a set of power fuses,
so the resulting saving can be tens of thousands of dollars. Pole-mounted distribution
transformers are nearly always protected by a fusible cutout, which can have the fuse element
replaced using live-line maintenance tools.
Large power fuses use fusible elements made of silver, copper or tin to provide stable and
predictable performance. High voltage expulsion fuses surround the fusible link with gas-evolving
substances, such as boric acid. When the fuse blows, heat from the arc causes the boric acid to
evolve large volumes of gases. The associated high pressure (often greater than 100
atmospheres) and cooling gases rapidly quench the resulting arc. The hot gases are then
explosively expelled out of the end(s) of the fuse. Such fuses can only be used outdoors.
Various high voltage fuses

## High voltage fuses, 115 kV Medium voltage fuse for transformer

protection, 24 kV, 200 A

## Medium voltage fuse, 24

kV

High voltage high power fuses are standalone protective switching devices used to 138 kV. They
are used in power supply networks and for distribution uses. The most frequent application is in
transformer circuits, with further uses in motor circuits and capacitor banks. These type of fuses
may have an impact pin to operate a switch mechanism, so that all three phases are interrupted
if any one fuse blows.
High-power fuse means that these fuses can interrupt several kiloamperes. Some manufacturers
have tested their fuses for up to 63 kA cut-off current.
Resettable fuses
So-called self-resetting fuses use a thermoplastic conductive element known as a Polymeric
Positive Temperature Coefficient (or PPTC) thermistor that impedes the circuit during an
overcurrent condition (by increasing device resistance). The PPTC thermistor is self-resetting in
that when current is removed, the device will cool and revert back to low resistance. These
devices are often used in aerospace/nuclear applications where replacement is difficult, or on a
computer motherboard so that a shorted mouse or keyboard does not cause motherboard
damage.

## PTC Resettable fuse, 30V

Thermal fuses
A thermal fuse is often found in consumer equipment such as coffee makers or hair dryers or
transformers powering small consumer electronics devices. They contain a fusible, temperaturesensitive alloy which holds a spring contact mechanism normally closed. When the surrounding
temperature gets too high, the alloy melts and allows the spring contact mechanism to break the
circuit. The device can be used to prevent a fire in a hair dryer for example, by cutting off the
power supply to the heater elements when the air flow is interrupted (e.g., the blower motor
stops or the air intake becomes accidentally blocked). Thermal fuses are a 'one shot', nonresettable device which must be replaced once they have been activated (blown).

## Thermal fuse, 120V, 15A

Trivia
Category: Protection
IS Limiter
Contents
[hide]

1 Introduction

2 Application

3 Parameter Settings

3.2 di/dt

4 References

Introduction

## Figure 1. Typical IS limiter design (image courtesy of [1])

IS limiters are fault current limiting devices that use chemical charges and current-limiting fuses
to interrupt the fault current within the first quarter to half cycle (i.e. before the first peak).
In a typical IS limiter design, the device is composed of two current paths connected together in
parallel one path is an element rated for the full load current (which can have high continuous
current ratings, e.g. 3000A), and the other path provides the current limiting function via a
current-limiting fuse (which typically has a continuous current rating of <300A at 15kV).
In the event of a fault, the device operates by physically destroying the continuous current path
using one or more chemical charges triggered by an electronic sensing and control unit. The fault
current is thus forced through the current-limiting fuse.

## Figure 2. IS limiter block diagram (courtesy of [1])

Application
IS limiters are used for fault reduction in a system, typically to limit the fault current to within
the rated capacity of downstream equipment. This is usually necessary due to system overexpansion or undersizing of equipment fault ratings. By using IS limiters, expensive upgrades or
replacement of equipment can potentially be avoided.
A natural question to ask is why current-limiting fuses can't just be used in lieu of IS limiters?
The answer is that they can - but within limits. Current-limiting fuses typically have continuous
current ratings <300A [1], so if the application calls for currents lower than that, then currentlimiting fuses by themselves are fine. However in many applications, the fault current needs to

be limited on a busbar with higher continuous load currents. This is where IS limiters or other
types of fault current limiting devices need to be used.
IS limiters are often installed at bus-ties / couplers to limit the fault contribution from one or
more bus sections. This can allow the interconnection of systems that would normally have
prospective short circuit currents exceeding fault ratings. IS limiters can also be installed at bus
incomers to limit the upstream fault contribution.
Parameter Settings
IS limiters typically operate using a combination of two parameters:

Trigger level

di/dt

Trigger Level
The trigger level is the current magnitude at which the fault current limiter will initiate the
transfer to the current limiting path (i.e. by activating the chemical charge). The trigger level is
typically defined as the "the maximum short-circuit contribution permitted by a major power
source, so that the total overall fault current superimposed from all short-circuit contributions will
not exceed the momentary and interrupting ratings of the switchgear" [2].
The trigger level is set using trial and error, typically based on an initial trial value of the
difference between the switchgear instantaneous rating and the peak instantaneous fault current.
When selecting the trigger level, other considerations such as transformer inrush currents,
overcurrent protection coordination and breaker operating margins should also be examined.
di/dt
The di/dt parameter is a value describing the minimum fault current rate of change (in kA/s) at
which the transfer will be initiated. This is used to avoid nuisance tripping for asymmetrical faults
that may have high peak values (above the trigger level), but rms values within the ratings of
the switchgear. The transfer to the current limiting path will only be initiated if the fault current
exceeds both the trigger level and di/dt limit.
The di/dt limit can be approximated as follows [2]:

Where

## is the peak symmetrical short circuit current (A)

References
[1] Chao, T., "Electronically Controlled Current Limiting Fuses", 1995, Proceedings of 1995 IEEE
Annual Pulp and Paper Industry Technology Conference, Vancouver, Canada
[2] Wu, Al., and Yin,Y., "Fault-Current Limiter Applications in Medium- And High-Voltage Power
Distribution Systems", 1998, IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, Vol. 34, No. 1
Category: Protection

Overcurrent Protection
Contents
[hide]

1 Recommended Settings
o

## 1.4 Generator Protection

2 References

Recommended Settings
Transformer Protection
Normally the transformers are protected by overcurrent protection devices at the primary (HV)
and secondary (LV) winding.
The primary winding overcurrent protection is typically set with three steps:

The first step (I>) is adjusted to between 1.0 and 1.3 times the nominal current of the
transformer with an inverse curve. A pickup of >1.25 times the nominal current is
suggested by [6].

The second step (I>>) operates as back-up protection for short circuits at the secondary
side of the transformer and is adjusted to 80% 90% of the minimum possible short
circuit at the low voltage terminal. This step is usually a definite time curve and is time
selective with the protection at the secondary side.

The third step (I>>>) operates in instantaneous time and is adjusted to 110% - 120% of
the maximum possible short circuit at the secondary side of the transformer. If the relay
has only two steps, the second step will be adjusted according to I>>>.

The secondary winding overcurrent protection is typically set with two steps:

The first step (I>) is adjusted to between 1.0 and 1.3 times the nominal current of the
transformer if possible with an IDMT extremely inverse curve. A pickup of >1.25 times
the nominal current is suggested by [6].

The second step (I>>) is used for short circuit protection and it is usually a definite time
curve. The current setting of I>> is at maximum 80-90% of the minimum possible short
circuit current and it has to be time selective with the downstream protection devices.

Protection devices should also consider transformer inrush currents. Overcurrent relays should
not trip during energisation and inrush. An assumption of 20 times the nominal full load current
for 10ms can be used to approximate inrush currents when no other data is available.
Motor Protection

Thermal overload [49]: The current setting has been adjusted where possible between 1.0
and 1.1 times the motor nominal current. The nominal current of the motor has been taken from
the load lists supplied by Petrobel staff. The time setting has been selected in order that the
protection curve lay over the starting current at the maximum starting time of the motor but
lower than the maximum permissible operation limit under warm condition.
Short circuit and locked rotor protection [51, 51LR]: The setting for locked rotor protection
has been selected between 1.0 and 1.1 times the motor starting current. The short circuit
protection has been adjusted at maximum 80-90% of the minimum short circuit current at motor
terminals but at least 1.5 times the starting current of the motor. The short circuit protection of
almost all motors is done by fuses. Nevertheless in this study the setting for the short circuit
protection has been calculated for all relays with this protection function available. For all motors
where the contactor is not able to disconnect short circuit currents the undelayable short circuit
protection has to be put out of service. The size of the recommended fuse has been selected in
order that the nominal current of the fuse is higher than 130% of the nominal current of the
motor and that the fuse curve is higher than 120% of the starting current of the motor.
Branch / Feeder Protection
Branches and feeders can be set with overcurrent protection devices of two steps. The first step
will be usually adjusted to 120% of the nominal current of the branch. The second step has to be
current and time selective with the downstream protection devices.
Generator Protection
The setting for the overload protection is suggested to be between 100% and 120% of the
nominal current of the generators. The short circuit protection may be selected to 80% of the
current contribution of each generator to the minimum short circuit current.
References

[1] IEEE Std 242, IEEE Recommended Practice for Protection and Coordination
Industrial and Commercial Power Systems (Buff book), 2001

[2] IEEE Std 142, IEEE Recommended Practice for Grounding of Industrial and
Commercial Power systems (Green book), 2007

[3] Alstom Grid, Network Protection and Automation Guide, May 2011

[4] Preve, C., Protection of Electrical Networks, 2006, ISTE Ltd, London

[5] Fielding, G., Protection of MV Industrial Networks, 1997, IEE Colloquium, London

[6] Gers, J. M., and Holmes, E. J., Protection of Electricity Distribution Networks, 2nd
Edition, Institution of Electrical Engineers, London, 2004

Category: Protection
Protection Devices

12 Overspeed Device

14 Underspeed Device

21 Distance Relay

## 25 Synchronizing or Synchronism-Check Device

27 Undervoltage Relay

## 58 Rectification Failure Relay

59 Overvoltage Relay

## 68 Blocking or "Out-of-Step" Relay

76 DC Overcurrent Relay

79 AC Reclosing Relay

81 Frequency Relay

82 DC Reclosing Relay

86 Lockout Relay

## 94 Tripping or Trip-Free Relay

For the entire list of ANSI device numbers, refer to this Wikipedia page.

Relays
Contents
[hide]

1 Introduction
o

## 1.5.3 Reactance relays

1.6 Trivia

Introduction
The relays is the element that senses an abnormal condition in the circuit and commands the
operation of the breaker. They can be classified in a number of ways:

According to the quantity sensed: current, voltage, active power, reactive power,
impedance relays

According to the tripping: instantaneous trip, delayed trip, inverse timecurrent response

## According to the operating principle: electromagnetic relays, induction relays, thermal

relays, static or digital relays

## More general classification distinguish two types of relays:

1. Electromechanical relays

2. Digital relays

Currently, electromechanical relay in all its forms is being replaced by static, digital and
numerical relays, each change bringing with it reductions and size and improvements in
functionality.
In most types (except digital relays) the relays contacts are closed by a moving part which
senses a force proportional to the current (or other sensed quantity) in the circuit. A restraining
force produced by a spring or other means sets the threshold above which the relay operates.
In a protection relay, the term "static" refers to the absence of moving parts to create the relay
characteristic. Compared to static relays, digital relays introduced A/D conversion of all measured
analogue quantities and use a microprocessor to implement protection algorithm. The distinction
between digital and numerical relays rests on points of fine technical detail, and is rearly found in
areas other than protection. They can be viewed as natural developments of digital relays as a
result of advances in technology.

## Relay timing mechanisms: a) Instantaneous, b) Inverse time, c) Timed

Overcurrent relays
IEC definition states that overcurrent relay is a measuring relay which operates when the value
of the current exceeds the setting (operating value) of the relay. There are generally 3 types of
these relays: instantaneous, inverse and induction.
Relays are adaptable to transmission lines, buses, feeder circuits, transformers and motors.
Overcurrent relays - instantaneous
Overcurrent relays are electromagnetic relays. They are based on electrodynamic force produced
on a moving part by the current flowing through a coil. Instantaneous relays operate without
intentional time delay. They are used for faults close to the source when the fault current is very
high. The operating time is approximately 10 ms. The construction of instantaneous relays is
usually moving armature, plunger, or induction disk.
An important characteristic of an instantaneous relay is a drop-out ratio.
drop-out ratio = (drop-out current) / (pick-up current)
Drop-out ratio is usually less than 1.

Instantaneous overcurrent
relay

Instantaneous overcurrent
protection

## Overcurrent relays inverse time

Time overcurrent relays operate with a time delay, which is adjustable. For given setting, the
actual time delay depends on the current through the relay coil. Higher current will cause a
faster operation of the relay. The minimum relay operation current (pick-up current) is also
adjustable.
The most commonly used overcurrent relay has both the instantaneous response for very large
currents and the inverse time response for lower currents.
Time overcurrent relays come in five different versions that are defined by the steepness of the
time-overcurrent characteristic:

definite time

moderately inverse

inverse

very inverse

extremely inverse

## Inverse time overcurrent relay

characteristics, different delay
settings

## Time overcurrent relay

characteristics, all versions

relay

## Overcurrent relays induction disk

The inverse time response can be provided by an induction disk unit.
In the induction disk unit, a metal disk is mounted on a shaft that can freely rotate. The current
coils are fixed and create magnetic field that induces eddy currents in the metal disk. The
magnetic field of the eddy currents interacts with the magnetic field of the stationary coils and
produce torque on the disk. The disk and its shaft rotate and bring the moving contact towards
the fixed contact into a closed position.
The motion of the shaft is opposed by a spring that returns the disk and the moving contact into
the open position when the current drops below a preset value. The time to close the contact
depends on the contact travel distance which is set by a time dial. The pick-up current is
adjustable by selecting current taps on the current coil. The relays are normally available with
three ranges of current taps: 0.5 to 2.0 A, 1.5 to 6.0 A, and 4 to 16 A. The time dial has usually
positions marked from 0 to 10, where for 0 setting the contact is permanently closed.

## Induction disk overcurrent relay

Induction disk type relay
Recommended settings for overcurrent protection
More on recommended settings for overcurrent devices: Overcurrent Protection
Small air breakers for low voltage domestic circuits
Circuit breakers that are used at the distribution board in houses are called MCBs (minature
circuit breakers). The distribution board is also called the consumer unit.
Thermal
The load current is passed through a small heater, the temperature of which depends upon the
current it carries. The heater will warm up a bimetal strip. When excessive current flows the
bimetal strip will warp to trip the latch mechanism.
Some delay occurs owing to the transfer of heat produced by the load current to the bimetal
strip. Thermal trips are suitable only for small overloads of long duration. Excessive heat caused
by heavy overload can buckle and distort the bimetal strip.
Magnetic
The principle used in this type is the magnetic force of attraction set up by the magnetic field of
a coil carrying the load current. At normal currents the magnetic field is not strong enough to
attract the latch. Overload currents will increase the force of attraction and operate the latch to
trip the main contacts.
Inside a 10 amp thermal-magnetic circuit breaker. These circuit breakers are standard in modern
domestic and commercial electrical distribution boards.

Simple MCB

Cross-section of the
thermal-magnetic
circuit breaker

Thermal-magnetic circuit
Typical magnetic
circuit breaker

## breaker (1Ph + N) 2A250VAC

Number description:
1. Actuator lever - used to manually trip and reset the circuit breaker. Also indicates the status of
the circuit breaker (On/Off/tripped).
2. Actuator mechanism - forces the contacts together or apart.
3. Contacts - Allow current to flow when touching and break the flow of current when moved
apart.
4. Terminals
5. Bimetallic strip
6. Calibration screw - allows to adjust the trip current of the device after assembly.
7. Solenoid
8. Arc divider / extinguisher
Differential (unit) protection
Differential protection is a very reliable method of protecting generators, transformers, buses,
and transmission lines from the effects of internal faults. In normal operating conditions, the
current through the CTs is the same so the relay sees no differential current. This is also the case

for external faults. Differential protection can be used for protecting generators from faults to
ground. Differential protection of busbars in substations uses one CT for each incoming line. All
incoming currents are added up and compared to the sum of all outgoing currents.

Microproce
General schematics of the differential relay
Differential (unit) protection for transformers
In applying the principles of differential protection to transformers, a variety of considerations
have to be taken into account. These include:
a) correction for possible phase shift across the transformer windings (phase correction)
b) the effects of the variety of earthing and winding arrangements (filtering of zero sequence
currents)
c) correction for possible unbalance of signals from current transformers on either side of the
windings (ratio correction)
d) the effect of magnetising inrush during initial energisation
e) the possible occurrence of overfluxing
The primary and secondary currents have different magnitudes and phases, so the magnitude
and the phase shift must be balanced by appropriate ratio of the CTs. If the transformer is Y-,
the currents also have 30 phase shift. The phase shift is corrected by connecting the CTs on the
side in Y, and on the Y side in .

relay

## Differential protection in transformers

When used on the overhead lines, the differential protection has the practical length limitation of
40 km for problems with the pilot wire (wire used to transfer state data of the protected line, i.e.
to send information if the fault has occured).
Distance relays
The impedance of a transmission line is proportional to its length, for distance measurement it is
appropriate to use a relay capable of measuring the impedance of a line up to a predetermined
point (the reach point). Such a relay is described as a distance relay and is designed to operate
only for faults occurring between the relay location and the selected reach point, thus giving
discrimination for faults that may occur in different line sections.
The basic principle of distance protection involves the division of the voltage at the relaying point
by the measured current. The apparent impedance so calculated is compared with the reach
point impedance. If the measured impedance is less than the reach point impedance, it is
assumed that a fault exists on the line between the relay and the reach point. The reach point of
a relay is the point along the line impedance locus (set of points) that is intersected by the
boundary characteristic of the relay. Since this is dependent on the ratio of voltage and current
and the phase angle between them, it may be plotted on an R/X diagram. The loci of power
system impedances as seen by the relay during faults, power swings and load variations may be
plotted on the same diagram and in this manner the performance of the relay in the presence of
system faults and disturbances may be studied.

## General setting of the distance protec

As the power systems become more complex and the fault current varies with changes in
generation and system configuration, directional overcurrent relays become difficult to apply and
to set for all contingencies, whereas the distance relay setting is constant for a wide variety of
changes external to the protected line.
Following topics give the main overview over the different distance relay types:
Impedance relays
Impedance relays are used whenever overcurrent relays do not provide adequate protection.
They function even if the short circuit current is relatively low. The speed of operation is
independent of current magnitude.
The relay consists of a balanced beam. At each end of the balanced beam is a coil that exerts a
force on the beam at that end. One coil is connected to a current transformer, the other coil to a
potential transformer. Under normal conditions, the contact of the relay is kept open. During a
fault, the voltage drops, and the current rises. The torque due to the current coil overpowers the
torque due to the voltage coil, and the relay closes its contact.
The impedance relay has a circular characteristic centered at the origin of the R-X diagram. It is
nondirectional and is used primarily as a fault detector.
Admittance relays
The admittance relay is the most commonly used distance relay. It is the tripping relay in pilot
schemes and as the back-up relay in step distance schemes. Its characteristic passes through the

origin of the R-X diagram and is therefore directional. In the electromechanical design it is
circular, and in the solid state design, it can be shaped to correspond to the transmission line
impedance.
Reactance relays
The reactance relay is a straight-line characteristic that responds only to the reactance (X L) of
the protected line. It is nondirectional and is used to supplement the admittance relay as a
tripping relay to make the overall protection independent of resistance. It is particularly useful on
short lines where the fault arc resistance is the same order of magnitude as the line length.
Trivia
MCB short overview:

Category: Protection
Zones of protection
To limit the extent of the power system that is disconnected when a fault occurs, protection is
arranged in zones. Ideally, the zones of protection should overlap, so that no part of the power
system is left unprotected.
For practical physical and economic reasons, this ideal is not always achieved, accommodation
for current transformers being in some cases available only on one side of the circuit breakers.
This leaves a section between the current transformers and the circuit breaker A that is not
completely protected against faults. In Figure 2 b) a fault at F would cause the busbar protection
to operate and open the circuit breaker but the fault may continue to be fed through the feeder.
The feeder protection, if of the unit type, would not operate, since the fault is outside its zone.
This problem is dealt with by intertripping or some form of zone extension, to ensure that the
remote end of the feeder is tripped also. The point of connection of the protection with the power
system usually defines the zone and corresponds to the location of the current transformers. Unit
type protection will result in the boundary being a clearly defined closed loop. Figure 3 illustrates
a typical arrangement of overlapping zones.
Alternatively, the zone may be unrestricted; the start will be defined but the extent (or reach)
will depend on measurement of the system quantities and will therefore be subject to variation,
owing to changes in system conditions and measurement errors.

## Figure 3 Overlapping zones of

protection systems

Figure 2 CT locations
Figure 1 Division of power
system into protection zones
Selectivity
When a fault occurs, the protection scheme is required to trip only those circuit breakers whose
operation is required to isolate the fault. This property of selective tripping is also called
'discrimination' and is achieved by two general methods:

1. Time Grading

Protection systems in successive zones are arranged to operate in times that are graded through
the sequence of equipments so that upon the occurrence of a fault, although a number of
protection equipments respond, only those relevant to the faulty zone complete the tripping

function. The others make incomplete operations and then reset. The speed of response will
often depend on the severity of the fault, and will generally be slower than for a unit system.

2. Unit Systems

It is possible to design protection systems that respond only to fault conditions occurring within a
clearly defined zone. This type of protection system is known as 'unit protection'. Certain types of
unit protection are known by specific names, e.g. restricted earth fault and differential
protection. Unit protection can be applied throughout a power system and, since it does not
involve time grading, is relatively fast in operation. The speed of response is substantially
independent of fault severity. Unit protection usually involves comparison of quantities at the
boundaries of the protected zone as defined by the locations of the current transformers. This
comparison may be achieved by direct hard-wired connections or may be achieved via a
communications link. However certain protection systems derive their 'restricted' property from
the configuration of the power system and may be classed as unit protection, e.g. earth fault
protection applied to the high voltage delta winding of a power transformer. Whichever method is
used, it must be kept in mind that selectivity is not merely a matter of relay design. It also
depends on the correct coordination of current transformers and relays with a suitable choice of
relay settings, taking into account the possible range of such variables as fault currents,
maximum load current, system impedances and other related factors, where appropriate.
Category: Protection
Contact Resistance Test
The contact resistance test (commonly known as the Ductor test) measures the resistance of
electrical connections such as joints, terminations, connectors, etc. These can be connections
between any two conductors, for instance busbar sections or cable connections. The test
measures the resistance at the micro- or milli-ohm level and is used primarily to verify that
electrical connections are made properly, and can detect the following problems:

Loose connections

## Contaminated or corroded contacts

This is particularly important for contacts that carry large amounts of current (e.g. switchgear
busbars) as higher contact resistance leads to higher losses and lower current carrying capacity.
Test Equipment
Contact resistance tests are normally performed using a micro/milli-ohmmeter or low resistance
ohmmeter. "Ductor" was the name originally given to the low resistance ohmmeter manufactured
by the Megger company, which became an industry standard.
Test Criteria
The criteria for evaluating the contact resistance of electrical connections largely depends on the
type of connection (e.g. bolted, soldered, clamped, welded, etc), the metallic contact surface
area, the contact pressure, etc. These will differ by equipment and manufacturer and there is no

## code or standard that mandates minimum contact resistances. As such, manufacturer

recommendations need to be consulted. For example, manufacturers sometimes quote a
maximum contact resistance of 10 micro-ohms for large bolted busbar joints.
International Standards

ASTM B539-02 (R2008), "Standard Test Method for Measuring Resistance of Electrical
Connections (Static Contacts)"

## Category: Electrical Testing

Category:Electrical Testing
Contents
[hide]

1 Introduction

2 Types of Tests

## 3 Tests for Specific Equipment

4 Standards

Introduction
Types of Tests
Electrical tests for assessing insulation systems:

Other tests:

## Tests for Specific Equipment

Transformer impedance (short-circuit) tests - short-circuit tests for positive and zero
sequence impedance of transformers

## Dry-type transformer testing

Standards

ANSI/NETA ATS, "Standard for Acceptance Testing Specifications for Electrical Power
Equipment and Systems", 2009

## Pages in category "Electrical Testing"

The following 9 pages are in this category, out of 9 total.
DGA Testing
Contents
[hide]

1 Introduction

2 Interpretation of Results

3 Types of Faults

4 References

Introduction
Dissolved Gas Analysis (DGA) is a test used to assess paper-oil insulation systems, and the
most commonly used technique for oil-insulated power transformers. Over time (and due to
electrical stresses and thermal decomposition), the cellulose paper and insulating (mineral) oil in
paper-oil insulation systems break down and forms gases which are dissolved in the oil. In DGA
testing, a sample of oil is collected and analysed for the types, volumes, concentrations and
formation rates of dissolved gases. This can provide important information on the condition of
the insulation system, as well as the nature of the electrical disturbances that the system has
been subjected to.
Gas decomposition typically involves chemical reactions that break up the carbon and hydrogen
bonds of the hydrocarbon chains in both the cellulose and oil. The following gases are most
commonly formed and are considered the most significant in the context of DGA testing:

From insulating oil: hydrogen (H2), methane (CH4), acetylene (C2H2), ethylene (C2H4) and
ethane (C2H6)

From cellulose: hydrogen (H2), methane (CH4, carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide
(CO2)

Interpretation of Results
ANSI/IEEE Std C57.104 [1] provides guidance on concentration limits of the key gases:

Interpretati

on

Carbo
Hydroge

Methan

Acetylen

n (H2)

e (CH4)

e (C2H2)

Ethylen

Ethan

Carbon

monoxid

dioxid

(C2H4)

(C2H6) e (CO)

TDC
G (*)

(CO2)

100

120

101 -

121 -

700

400

701 -

401 -

1800

1000

50

2-9

51 - 100

10 - 35

65

350

2500

720

Satisfactory

66 -

351 -

2500 -

721 -

Fault may be

100

570

4000

1920

present

101 -

101 -

571 -

4001 -

200

150

1400

10000

1921
4630

Fault probably
present

Continued
>1800

>1000

>35

>200

>150

>1400

>1000

>463

operation

could result in
failure

## (*) TDCG = Total dissolved combustible gas

Types of Faults
The relative proportions of gas types can suggest the type of fault that has occurred in the
transformer to form the particular gases, as shown in the figure below (courtesy of IEEE
C57.104 [1]):

References

[1] ANSI/IEEE C57.104, IEEE Guide for the Interpretation of Gases Generated in OilImmersed Transformers, 2008

[2] IEC 60599, Mineral oil-impregnated electrical equipment in service - Guide to the
interpretation of dissolved and free gases analysis, 1999

## Category: Electrical Testing

DLA Testing
Dielectric loss angle tests, also called dissipation factor, power factor or tan delta tests,
determine the insulation dielectric power loss by measuring the power angle between an applied
AC voltage and the resultant current. In the ideal insulator / dielectric, the power angle would be
90C as it is purely capacitive and non-conducting. However in real insulators, there is some
leakage current and resistive losses through the dielectric.
Relative increases in dielectric power losses are indicative of insulation deterioration and may
further accelerate degradation due to increased heating. Note that dielectric power loss does not
translate to dielectric strength, though there are often common causes for increases in power
loss and decreases in dielectric strength.
Contents
[hide]

2 Measurement
o

## 2.2 Transformer Ratio-Arm Bridge

3 Interpretation of Results

4 References

## Relationship between Power Factor and Dissipation Factor

The cosine of the power angle () is called the power factor. The complement of is called the
loss angle and is denoted by in the diagram above. The power factor can also be approximated
by taking the tangent of (hence the name tan delta). This approximation is called the
dissipation factor (or loss tangent) and is roughly equal to the power factor between values of 0
and 0.08 pu, which covers the majority of tests (in insulating oils of good condition, the
dissipation factor / power factor is in the order 0.005). Therefore, dissipation factor and power
factor can be considered interchangeable.
The exact relationship between dissipation factor (DF) and power factor (PF) is as follows [2]:

The dissipation factor is essentially the ratio between the resistive and capacitive components of
the insulation and can be measured directly (e.g. with a capacitance bridge circuit - more on this
later). The lower the quality of the insulation condition, the more resistive it will appear and the
more power loss will be dissipated through it (in the form of heat), and thus the dissipation
factor will be higher.
The increase in the dissipation factor values as the test voltage is increased is called the "tip-up"
(dissipation factor or power factor tip-up).
Measurement
Schering Bridge

## Schering capacitance bridge circuit

As mentioned earlier, the dissipation factor can be measured directly using a Schering
capacitance bridge circuit (named after Harald Schering). The basic circuit is shown in the figure
right where Cx is the unknown capacitance under test. Like other bridge circuits (such as the
Wheatstone bridge), the circuit is tuned until the current through the middle of the bridge is zero
and the circuit is balanced. For a capacitanceCn with low losses, the unknown capacitance and
dissipation factor can be calculated as follows:

The Schering bridge is typically accurate for measuring dissipation factors down to 0.001 (i.e.
good for liquid insulating materials). For other solid insulating materials such as XLPE and
polypropylene that have dissipation factors <0.001, the Schering bridge may not be able to
provide the accuracy without careful screening and good earthing.
Transformer Ratio-Arm Bridge
TBA
Interpretation of Results

Dissipation factor or power factor is either expressed as a decimal per-unit value (e.g. 0.005) or
as a percentage (e.g. 0.5%).
TBA
The technical literature on this subject has noted that this test is useful for detecting moisture
ingress in bushings and windings. About 90% of bushing failures may be attributed to moisture
ingress evidenced by an increasing power factor from dielectric loss angle testing on a scheduled
basis.
References

[1] ANSI/NETA ATS, "Standard for Acceptance Testing Specifications for Electrical Power
Equipment and Systems", 2009

[2] ASTM D924, "Standard Test Method for Dissipation Factor (or Power Factor) and
Relative Permittivity (Dielectric Constant) of Electrical Insulating Liquids", 2008

[3] ASTM D150, "Standard Test Methods for AC Loss Characteristics and Permittivity
(Dielectric Constant) of Solid Electrical Insulation", 2011

## Category: Electrical Testing

Insulation Resistance Test
The insulation resistance (IR) test (also commonly known as a Megger) is a spot insulation test
which uses an applied DC voltage (typically either 250Vdc, 500Vdc or 1,000Vdc for low voltage
equipment <600V and 2,500Vdc and 5,000Vdc for high voltage equipment) to measure
insulation resistance in either k, M or G. The measured resistance is intended to indicate the
condition of the insulation or dieletric between two conductive parts, where the higher the
resistance, the better the condition of the insulation. Ideally, the insulation resistance would be
infinite, but as no insulators are perfect, leakage currents through the dielectric will ensure that a
finite (though high) resistance value is measured.
Because IR testers are portable, the IR test is often used in the field as the final check of
equipment insulation and also to confirm the reliability of the circuit and that there are no
leakage currents from unintended faults in the wiring (e.g. a shorted connection would be
obvious from the test results).
One of the advantages of the IR test is its non-destructive nature. DC voltages do not cause
harmful and/or cumulative effects on insulation materials and provided the voltage is below the
breakdown voltage of the insulation, does not deteriorate the insulation. IR test voltages are all
well within the safe test voltage for most (if not all) insulation materials.
Contents
[hide]

1 Test Equipment

2 Test Procedure

o

4.1 Temperature

4.2 Humidity

5 Related Tests

6 References

Test Equipment

## IR test set (courtesy ofMegger)

The Megger company were the original manufacturers of IR test equipment over 100 years ago
and have become synonymous with insulation resistance testing. Most modern IR testers are
digital, portable / handheld units and some have multi-functional capabilities (e.g. built-in
continuity testing).
Test Procedure
Firstly ensure that the equipment to be tested and the work area is safe, e.g. equipment is deenergised and disconnected, all the relevant work permits have been approved and all locks /
tags in place.
Next, discharge capacitances on the equipment (especially for HV equipment) with static
discharge sticks or an IR tester with automatic discharging capabilities.
The leads on the IR tester can then be connected to the conductive parts of the equipment. For
example, for a three-core and earth cable, the IR test would be applied between cores (Core 1 to
Core 2, Core 1 to Core 3 and Core 2 to Core 3) and between each core and earth. Similarly for
three-phase motors, circuit breakrs, switch-disconnectors, etc the IR test can be applied at the
equipment terminals (and earth connection).
Note that when applying an IR test to earth, it is good practice to connect the positive pole of the
IR tester to earth in order to avoid any polarisation effects on the earth.
Once connected, the IR tester is energised for a typical test duration of 1 minute. The IR test
measurements are recorded after 1 minute.
When the IR test is finished, discharge capacitances again for a period of 4-5 times the test
duration.

## Interpretation of Test Results

The minimum values for IR tests vary depending on the type of equipment and the nominal
voltage. They also vary according to international standards. Some standards will define the
minimum IR test values for the general electrical installations.
For example, for low voltage installations in the IEC world, IEC 60364-6 [1] Table 6A gives the
minimum IR values and also suggests test voltage, i.e.
Nominal Circuit Voltage (Vac)

## Extra low voltage

250

0.5

Up to 500V

500

1.0

Above 500V

1,000

1.0

In the ANSI/NEC world, the standard ANSI/NETA ATS-2009 [2] provides test procedures and
acceptance levels for most types of electrical equipment. Table 100.1 provides representative
acceptance values for IR test measurements, which should be used in the absence of any other
guidance (from the manufacturer or other standards):
Nominal Equipment Voltage

(Vac)

(Vdc)

(M)

250

500

25

600

1,000

100

1,000

1,000

100

2,500

1,000

500

5,000

2,500

1,000

8,000

2,500

2,000

15,000

2,500

5,000

25,000

5,000

20,000

## 34,500 and above

15,000

100,000

NFPA 70B [3] also provides some guidance on insulation resistance testing for different types of
equipment.
Factors Affecting Test Results
There are two main factors that will affect IR test results:
Temperature
Electrical resistance has an inverse exponential relationship with temperature, i.e. as
temperature increases, resistance will decrease and vice versa. Since the minimum acceptable IR
test values are based on a fixed reference temperature (usually 20 oC), the measured IR test
values must be corrected to the reference temperature in order to make sense of them.
As a rule of thumb, the resistance halves for every 10oC increase in temperature (and vice
versa). So if the measured IR test value was 2M at 20oC, then it would be 1M at 30oC or
4M at 10oC.
ANSI/NETA ATS-2009 Table 100.14 provides correction factors for IR test measurements taken at
temperatures other than 20oC or 40oC, which were in turn based on the correction factors in the
freely available Megger book "A stitch in time..." [4].
Humidity
The presence (or lack) of moisture can also affect the IR test measurements, the higher the
moisture content in the air, the lower the IR test reading. If possible, IR tests should not be
carried out in very humid atmospheres (below the dew point). While there are no standard
correction factors or guidance for humid conditions, it is good practice to record the relative
humidity of each IR test so that they can be used for baseline comparisons in future tests. For
example, having past data on the IR test values for dry and humid days will give you a
foundation for evaluating future test values.
Related Tests
For equipment maintenance, the Dielectric Absorption Test is normally performed in conjunction
with the IR test using the same testing equipment. The results are either in the form of a
Dielectric Absorption Ratio (DAR) or a Polarisation Index (PI). Refer to the Dielectric Absorption
Test article for more details.
References

## 1. IEC 60364-6, "Low voltage electrical installations - Part 6: Verification", 2006

2. ANSI/NETA ATS, "Standard for Acceptance Testing Specifications for Electrical Power
Equipment and Systems", 2013

## 3. NFPA 70B, "Recommended Practice for Electrical Equipment Maintenance", 2013

4. Megger, "A stitch in time - The Complete Guide to Electrical Insulation Testing", a free
book which is an excellent resource on IR testing

## Category: Electrical Testing

Load Bank Testing
The purpose of a load bank test is to simulate real-world scenarios that can be used to confirm
proper functionality. Load banks are provided to simulate electrical load, as it is important to test
various electrical apparatus in its installed location. While the equipment under test (EUT) may
have been tested at the factory, the installation variables (Eg. altitude, ambient temperature, air
intake, fuel, exhaust, cooling systems and contractor/sub-contractor workmanship quality) can
be significantly affected by the installation. The proper use of a load bank can be used to
effectively test the operating capability of the complete system, as delivered from the
manufacturer.
A load bank is a device which develops an electrical load, applies the load to an electrical power
source and converts or dissipates the resultant power output of the source.
The purpose of a load bank is to accurately mimic the operational or real load that a power
source will see in actual application. However, unlike the real load, which is likely to be
dispersed, unpredictable and random in value, a load bank provides a contained, organized and
fully controllable load.
Consequently, a load bank can be further defined as a self-contained, unitized, systematic device
that includes load elements with control and accessory devices required for operation.
Whereas the real load is served by the power source and uses the energy output of the source
for some productive purpose, the load bank serves the power source, using its energy output to
test, support or protect the power source.
Contents
[hide]

1 Applications

o

o

## 4 Load Bank Manufacturers

Applications
Load banks are used in a variety of applications, including:

## Load bank types

The three most common types of load banks are resistive, inductive, and capacitive. Both
inductive and capacitive loads create what is known as reactance in an AC circuit. Reactance is a
circuit element's opposition to an alternating current, caused by the build up of electric or
magnetic fields in the element due to the current and is the "imaginary" component of
impedance, or the resistance to AC signals at a certain frequency. Capacitive reactance is equal
to 1/(2fC), and inductive reactance is equal to 2fL. The unit of reactance is the ohm.
Inductive reactance resists the change to current, causing the circuit current to lag voltage.
Capacitive reactance resists the change to voltage, causing the circuit current to lead voltage.
Resistive load bank
A resistive load bank, the most common type, provides equivalent loading for
both generators and prime movers. That is, for each kilowatt (or horsepower) of load applied to
the generator by the load bank, an equal amount of load is applied to the prime mover by the
generator. A resistive load bank, therefore, removes energy from the complete system: load
bank from generatorgenerator from prime moverprime mover from fuel. Additional energy is
removed as a consequence of resistive load bank operation: waste heat from coolant, exhaust
and generator losses and energy consumed by accessory devices. A resistive load bank impacts
upon all aspects of a generating system.

The load of a resistive load bank is created by the conversion of electrical energy to heat via
high-power resistors such as grid resistors. This heat must be dissipated from the load bank,
either by air or by water, by forced means or convection.
In a testing system, a resistive load simulates real-life resistive loads, such as incandescent
lighting and heating loads as well as the resistive or unity power factor component of magnetic
(motors, transformers) loads.
The most common type uses wire resistance, usually with fan cooling, and this type is often
portable and moved from generator to generator for test purposes. Sometimes a load of this
type is built into a building, but this is unusual.
Rarely a salt water rheostat is used. It can be readily improvised, which makes it useful in
remote locations.
Reactive load banks
Inductive load banks
An inductive load includes inductive (lagging power factor) loads.
An inductive load consists of an iron-core reactive element which, when used in conjunction with
a resistive load bank, creates a lagging power factor load. Typically, the inductive load will be
rated at a numeric value 75% that of the corresponding resistive load such that when applied
together a resultant 0.8 power factor load is provided. That is to say, for each 100 kW of
resistive load, 75 kVAr of inductive load is provided. Other ratios are possible to obtain other
power factor ratings. An inductive load is used to simulate a real-life mixed commercial loads
consisting of lighting, heating, motors, transformers, etc. With a resistive-inductive load bank,
full power system testing is possible, because the provided impedance supplies currents out of
phase with voltage and allows for performance evaluation of generators, voltage regulators, load
tap changers, conductors, switchgear and other equipment.
Capacitive load banks
An capacitive load includes capacitive (leading power factor) loads.
A capacitive load bank or capacitor bank is similar to an inductive load bank in rating and
purpose, except leading power factor loads are created, so reactive power is supplied from these
loads to the system, hence improves the power factor. These loads simulate certain electronic or
non-linear loads typical of telecommunications, computer or UPS industries.
Resistive/Reactive load banks
These are a combination of primarily resistive and inductive load elements suitable for
performing power factor testing. Resistive/reactive combination load banks are used to test the
engine generator set at its rated power factor and in the majority of cases this will be 0.8 power
factor.
The reactive component of the load will have a current that lags the voltage. The resulting
power is described in two terms, the KW, or real power and the KVA or apparent power.
Since the current lags the voltage in the reactive load the total power is not the direct sum of the
two but their vector sum. That vector is the phase angle difference between the voltage and the

current. The combination of resistive and reactive current in the load will allow for the full
nameplate KVA rating of the generator windings to be tested. Even though the generator set is
producing more KVA it is actually not producing more KW. The real power or horsepower
required from the engine is essentially the same.
Alternative load banks
Electronic load banks
An electronic load bank tends to be a fully programmable, air- or water-cooled design used to
simulate a solid state load and to provide constant power and current loading on circuits for
precision testing.
These units tend to be somewhat rare, but are great for testing labs to perform constant power,
voltage and current load tests.
Water-Cooled load banks
Often times, situations require customers to test power supplies, namely generators and UPS
systems, in locations that are not conducive to normal forced air cooled load banks, either due
to environment or physical constraints. For example, a UPS system that is underground, located
in a parking garage or located on top of a rooftop.
In these situations, very long runs of cable sometimes more then 300'+ may be used, but due
increased resistance and subsequent voltage drop, may pose and add to the existing challenge.
In addition to the above scenario, water cooled load banks can be used to provide heated
water to simulate water based server and or chillers
So this leaves us with an open loop, water cycle load cell, whereby chilled water is supplied
to a device with heating elements. An easy way to envision this is to think of it as an expensive
hot water heater.
Medium-Voltage load banks
The notion of using medium voltage load bank for portable testing purpose, came about from
thinking outside the box. The extra logistics costs for transporting, craning into position and
connecting the low voltage cable, became rather tedious.
A medium voltage load bank is just like any other load bank in that it contains resistors,
reactors or capacitors. However, the voltage ratings are greater than 600 VAC and below 69,000
VAC.
Medium voltage load banks are often used for commissioning power plants, maritime electrical
systems, standby generator systems and substations, essentially the same as low voltage load
banks, the only difference being the voltage.
The alternate method of testing without medium voltage load banks is to use low voltage load
banks with step down transformers used to serve the low voltage load banks.
Typically it is always advantageous to test with medium voltage load banks versus just using
low voltage load banks, as the added logistics and procurement costs for low voltage load
banks are far more expensive.

## Server Simulating load banks

These are typically rack mountable and used to simulate true hot aisle/cold aisle
containment systems, heat and air flow. These simulate physical servers as installed at a data
center by way of heat discharge, electrical resistance and air flow. The resultant heat
output of the load banks are of a benefit in that they are used to load computer room air
conditioners, whilst creating an electrical load to the primary and standby systems in the data
center.
Non-linear load banks
A load is considered non linear if its impedance changes with the applied voltage. The changing
impedance means that the current drawn by the non linear load will not be sinusoidal even
when it is connected to a sinusoidal voltage. These non sinusoidal currents contain harmonic
currents that interact with the impedance of the power distribution system to create voltage
distortion that can affect both the distribution system equipment and the loads connected to it.
In the past, non linear loads were primarily found in heavy industrial applications such as arc
furnaces, large variable frequency drives (VFD), heavy rectifiers for electrolytic refining, etc. The
harmonics they generated were typically localized and often addressed by knowledgeable
experts.
Times have changed and harmonic problems are now common in not only industrial applications
but in commercial buildings as well. This is due primarily to new power conversion technologies,
such as the Switch mode Power Supply (SMPS), which can be found in virtually every power
electronic and power conversion device. Namely wind farms are notorious for this and require
special considerations due tot eh extra harmonic content.
400Hz load banks
These are normally used on aircraft and ship based systems that require commissioning or
testing before being placed in service. 400 Hz systems are used where weight is important
because the magnetic cores can be smaller/lighter. This applies to transformers as well since a
lower inductance (smaller core/number of turns) can be used than required by lower frequencies.
It is worthy to note that resistors rated for 60Hz can operate at the higher value of 400Hz
without a problem, but inductors and capacitors cannot.
Regenerative load banks
Reverse power/regenerative power protection of generator by sensing power direction,
magnitude and automatic addition to act as a power sink.
These are seen primarily used to capture and dissipate regenerative power from large motors
and are found in the following settings:

Mining

Elevators

## Resonant load banks

Resonant loads are becoming increasingly prevalent due to solar inverter anti islanding testing
and commissioning per IEEE on photovoltaic systems. These are comprised of an exact balance
of resistive, capacitive and inductive loads in a 1:1:1, or 1:2.5:2.5 ratios so as to provide a
specific quality factor.
Many solar inverters are designed to be connected to a utility grid, and will not operate when
they do not detect the presence of the grid. They contain special circuitry to precisely match the
voltage and frequency of the grid.
Traditional utility electric power systems were designed to support a one way power flow from
the point of generation through a transmission system to distribution level loads. These systems
were not originally intended to accommodate the back feed of power from distributed
generation systems at the distribution level.
Islanding refers to the condition in which a distributed generator continues to power a location
even though electrical grid power when the electric utility is no longer present. Islanding can be
dangerous to utility workers, who may not realize that a circuit is still powered, and it may
prevent automatic re connection of devices. For that reason, distributed generators must
detect islanding and immediately stop producing power; this is referred to as anti islanding.
Load Bank Manufacturers
Here is a brief listing of commonly known load bank manufacturers:

Avtron

Loadtec

Cannon

Hawthorne

Crestchic UK

Northbridge

Froment

Simplex

## Note: This listing is by no way complete or absolute.

Category: Electrical Testing

Partial Discharge
A partial discharge, as defined by IEC 60270, is a "localised electrical discharges that only
partially bridges the insulation between conductors and which can or cannot occur adjacent to
conductors". In other words, it is a partial breakdown in the insulation between two active
conductors.
Partial discharges can occur in any location where the local electrical field strength is sufficient to
breakdown that portion of the dielectric material (whether it be a deteriorated piece of insulation

or an air cavity). The discharges generally appear as pulses with a typical duration of less than
1us. While very short in duration, the energy present in the discharge can interact with the
surrounding dielectric material resulting in further insulation degradation and eventually if left
unchecked, insulation failure.
Partial Discharge Testing
Partial discharge testing can detect the presence and location of partial discharge activity in
electrical equipment. Suppose a piece of electrical equipment has a small air cavity in its
insulation due to prolonged degradation and the cavity is subject to partial discharge. We want to
test for partial discharge and so we connect a set of coupling capacitors in parallel to measure
the charges caused by the partial discharge.

## Partial discharge equivalent circuit with test circuit

The figure right shows a simplified equivalent circuit combined with a typical test circuit (as
suggested in IEC 60270). The circuit elements are as follows:

## Cp is the capacitance of an air cavity in the insulation due to degradation

Ci' is the capacitance of the rest of the insulation around the air cavity

## M is the measuring system hooked up in series

At some inception volage, the electromagnetic field is strong enough to bridge the air cavity in
the insulation and a partial discharge occurs. After the breakdown of the air gap, the rest of the
insulation around the cavity (Ci) now sees the full voltage Vn and therefore the charge across Ci'
increases.
This extra charge must be provided by all of the parallel capacitances around it (e.g. in this
model Ci and Ck) or the voltage source (though it is usually too slow to react). So in a typical
situation, the capacitances Ci and Ck discharge a short pulse into Ci' to provide the extra charge.
However doing so reduces the voltage across all the capacitances and the voltage source Vn
reacts by charging all of the capacitances in the system (including the air cavity) back to the
normal voltage Vn.

Partial discharge testing is done by directly measuring the short pulse discharged into Ci' by the
coupling capacitor Ck. In the equivalent circuit, the measuring system is represented by a single
box M, but in practice, this includes the coupling device, connecting cables, measuring device,
etc.
Now it's clear that any pulse measured by the measuring system is not the actual partial
discharge, but an apparent charge caused by the real partial discharge (i.e. because the
coupling capacitor Ck has to help provide the extra charge for Ci'). It's not possible to directly
measure the partial discharge, but the apparent charges can be used to infer the level of partial
discharge activity in the insulation system.
Test Circuit Calibration
Because only the apparent charges can be measured, it is important that the test circuit is
properly calibrated. During calibration, a pulse of known magnitude is delivered into the system
to simulate a partial discharge. The measuring system is then monitored to ensure that the test
pulses are captured. The calibration process is done so that pulses with magnitudes of interest
(i.e. that will damage the system) are reliably captured. A scaling factor can also be inferred
based on the calibration tests.
References

[1] IEC 60270 (2000) "High Voltage Test Techniques - Partial Discharge Measurements"

[2] IEEE 400 (2001) "IEEE Guide for Field Testing and Evaluation of the Insulation of
Shielded Power Cable Systems"

[3] IEEE 1434 (2000) "IEEE Trial-Use Guide to the Measurement of Partial Discharges in
Rotating Machinery"