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Jul 18, 2015

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physics

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physics

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- How Not to Be Wrong: The Power of Mathematical Thinking
- Chaos: Making a New Science
- The Dancing Wu Li Masters: An Overview of the New Physics
- The Joy of x: A Guided Tour of Math, from One to Infinity
- The Field Updated Ed: The Quest for the Secret Force of the Universe
- The Other Einstein: A Novel
- Einstein: His Life and Universe
- Out of My Later Years: The Scientist, Philosopher, and Man Portrayed Through His Own Words
- The Housekeeper and the Professor: A Novel
- Why Science Does Not Disprove God
- Genius: The Life and Science of Richard Feynman
- Brief Answers to the Big Questions
- Cosmos: A Personal Voyage
- The Making of the Atomic Bomb
- The Universe in a Nutshell
- The Black Swan
- A Briefer History of Time
- The World Without Us
- Einstein: His Life and Universe

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Circuits

This packet includes problems we will do in class and problems that you can do at home to prepare for the

test. You may not need to do every problem in this packet to be fully prepared.

Fully worked solutions to the problems in this packet can be found on The Hub (hub.hw.com) in the Unit

9 section.

The packet is organized roughly chronologically, with the broadest questions at the end.

1. Whatistheforce(magnitudeanddirection)ofthepositivechargeonthenegativechargeinthe

diagramshownbelow?Whatistheforceofthenegativechargeonthepositivecharge?

0.50cm

6.3C

4.1C

2. Whatisthenetforceontheparticleinthemiddle?Dontforgettoincludeadirection!

18cm

21cm

13C

6.5C

7.0C

3. Whatisthenetforceonthe1.0Ccharge?Includedirectionandmagnitude.

3.0C

0.30m

5.0C

1.0C

+

0.60m

Answers:1)9300Nleft(onthenegativecharge)andright(onthepositivecharge)2)30Nright

3)0.33N,23leftofvertical

4. Whatisthenetforceonthefarlefthandparticle?Includemagnitudeanddirection.

3.0C

+

0.010m

3.0C

0.010m

0.010m

3.0C

0.010m

+

3.0C

5. Whatistheanglethattheparticleonthestringwillhangatonceitcomestorest?Thenegative

particleisheldfixedinplace,andthepositivechargeisfreetomove.Themassofthepositive

particleis3.0kg.

6.0105C

+

4.0m

0.00070C

4

Answers:4)780Nleft5)38

MoreCoulombsLawCalculations

q proton 1.6 1019 C

m proton 1.67 1027 kg

melectron 9.11 1031 kg

1. Inside of a hydrogen atom, a proton and an electron are attracted to each other by both a

gravitational force and an electric force. Calculate the ratio of these two forces (i.e. calculate

Gm1m2

11

2

2

(G 6.67 10 N m kg ) .

Fe/Fg). You will need to recall that Fg

d2

2. Three point charges are arranged in a line as shown below. Assume that the objects are fixed

in place and that gravity is negligible. Calculate the magnitude and direction of the net

electric force on each charge.

40cm

Q1=+4.0C

60cm

Q1=+6.0C

Q1=3.0C

Answers:1)2.2810392)1.24Nleft1.80Nright0.56Nleft

problem are fixed at the corners of a right triangle

as shown.

Q1=+4.0C

40cm

Q2=+6.0C

Calculatethemagnitudeanddirectionofthenet

electricforceonQ1.

60cm

Q3=3.0C

WhyisitmuchhardertocalculatethenetelectricforceonQ2?

Answers:3(a)1.38N12.5downofleft(b)thediagonalforcevectormeansthatalotof

componentswillneedtobecalculated

ElectricForces

Chapter23

12.2Adoorframeistwiceastallasitiswide.Thereisapositivechargeonthe

topleftcornerandanequalbutnegativechargeinthetoprightcorner.Whatis

thedirectionoftheelectricforceduetothesechargesonanegativelycharged

dustmiteinthebottomleftcornerofthedoorframe?

A.3Two0.600kgoppositelychargedbasketballsarefollowingaclockwisecircularpathonafrictionless,

freshlywaxedbasketballcourt.Theballsareonoppositesidesofthecircleatalltimes,andare10.0m

apart.Theirchargescausetheballstocontinueonthecircularpathataspeedof1.20m/s.(a)

Determinetheproductofthechargesonthebasketballs.(b)Nowassumethechargeonthepositively

chargedballistwicethemagnitudeofthenegativelychargedone.Determinethechargeonthe

negativeball.

Answers:12.2)39upfromleft;A.3(a)1.92109C2(b)3.10105C

Introduction to Circuits

6V

resistor.

a) What current flows through the resistor?

b) Draw an ammeter into the circuit above to show how to measure the current through the

resistor.

c) Draw a voltmeter into the circuit above to show how to measure the potential difference

across the resistor.

d) What would the voltmeter in (c) read

i.

If the wires are ideal?

ii.

f) What is the change in electric potential of one electron just as it goes around the circuit?

g) What happens to the electrons electric potential energy as the electron travels around the

circuit?

Answers: (a) 2 A

(b) in series with resistor (c) in parallel with resistor

(d) i. 6V ii. Slightly less than 6V

(e) 7.51020

(f) -6 V

(g) turns into thermal energy, mostly when the electron passes through the resistor

2. A 10 resistor is added in parallel to the 3 resistor in the circuit in the previous problem.

a) Draw a circuit diagram of the new circuit.

b) Assuming that the wires used in the circuit are ideal, when the new resistor is added to

the circuit,

i. Does the voltage supplied by the battery to the external circuit change?

ii.

Does the potential energy of each electron leaving the battery change?

iii.

How many resistors does an electron pass through before returning to the battery?

iv.

v.

vi.

How would your answers change if the wires were not ideal?

c) Still assuming ideal wires, when the new resistor is added to the circuit,

i. Does the current through the 3 resistor change?

ii.

iii.

Answers: (b) i. No ii. No iii. One iv. Yes v. 6V vi. Voltage drop across each resistor is slightly less than 6V

(c) i. No ii. 0.6A iii. 2.6A

iv.

Why does one resistor have more current through it than the other?

v.

When the new resistor is added to the circuit, does the total resistance of the

circuit increase, decrease, or stay the same? Explain.

3. The 3 and 10 resistors are placed in series with the 6 V battery, using ideal wires.

a) Draw a diagram of the circuit below.

b) How many resistors does an electron have to pass through before returning to the battery?

Is this different than the previous two circuits?

c) Do the two resistors have the same current through them? Why or why not?

d) When the 10 resistor is added in series to the 3 , does the current out of the battery

increase, decrease, or stay the same in comparison to the circuit in #1? Why?

e) What is the voltage drop across each resistor? Think about which resistor will take more

energy for an electron to travel through it, and how they might split that energy.

g) Circuits #1, 2, and 3 are each attached to brand-new 6 V batteries. Which battery will die

first?

Answers: 2. (c) iv. Same PD can push fewer electrons per second through larger resistor, so current is smaller in

proportion to resistance. (d) Total current increased, so total resistance decreased.

3. (b) Two, yes (c) Yes they are connected in series, one after another

(d) Current decreases more resistance to get

through with the same PD (e) 3/13th of 6V (1.4V) and 10/13th of 6V (4.6V)

(f) 0.46A

(g) #2 parallel circuit

10

A 60 resistor and a 40 resistor are connected in parallel. This parallel arrangement is

connected in series with a 30 resistor. The entire circuit is then placed across a 120 V

potential difference.

1. Draw a diagram of this circuit.

11

Answers: 2) 54 3) 2.2A

4) 54V

12

Answers:1)18 2)0.623)144)135)4.56)267)1.5A

1. What is the effective (total) resistance of this circuit?

3. What else in the circuit has this same current flowing through it?

4. How does the total current relate to the current through the 4 and 2 resistors? Write an

equation that includes all of these quantities.

5. How does the voltage drop across the 2 resistor relate to the voltage drop across the 4

resistor? Why?

6. What is the voltage drop across the 2 resistor? You will need to use Kirchhoffs Loop Law

and Ohms Law to find the voltage.

Answers:

1) 16/3 = 5.3; 2) 9/4A = 2.3A; 3) 1 and 3; 4) Itot = I4 + I2; 5) V2 = V4 b/c in parallel; 6) 3V;

= 1.5A; 8) 3/4A = 0.75A

7) 3/2A

13

9. For this circuit, find the current through, the voltage across, and

the power dissipated by each of the resistors.

Answers:

30: 80V, 8/3A, 213W

20: 2A, 40V, 80W

10: 2/3A, 20/3V, 4.4W

14

Concept Questions

1. How can a metal soda can be attracted to a charged plastic rod, even if the rod does not touch

the can?

2. In the previous situation, could the can ever be repelled from the charged rod if:

a. They do not come into physical contact?

4. Could you have a low voltage and high current in a circuit? What is an example?

5. Is it possible to have a high voltage and a low current in a circuit? What is an example?

7. Which has a greater resistance, a 100 W incandescent light bulb or a 75 W incandescent light

bulb? Explain your answer.

15

8. When the same 100 W and 75 W light bulbs are wired as indicated below, which is brighter?

Explain your answer.

a. In series

b. In parallel

11. What are the benefits and downsides of wiring Christmas lights in series? In parallel?

12. In many cars, the rear window defogger consists of eight heating

elements connected as shown to the right. If one of the heating

elements were to burn out, would the other elements receive more,

less, or the same amount of current (as when the defroster was fully

functional)? Note that your answer may be different for the three

elements that are in parallel with the burned out element than for

the other four elements.

16

Burning Bright

Bulbs light up when current flows through them. The electrical power that they dissipate is a

measure of how much light energy they emit per second. Since electrical power depends on both

voltage and current, both of these quantities are a factor in determining how bright a bulb is.

**For all of the following problems, assume that the bulbs have the same resistance**

1. In circuit 3, how does the brightness of A relate to the

brightness of B? Why?

dimmest.

3. How does Bs brightness in circuit 3 relate to Bs brightness in circuit 5? Explain.

6. What bulbs in circuit 7 have the same brightness? Which bulb(s) is/are the brightest and

which is/are the dimmest? Justify your answer.

17

Resistor Circuits

Textbook problems

Chapter 29

3.3 A battery charger is connected to a "dead" battery and causes 4.4 A of current to flow

through the battery for 1.5 hours. It maintains a potential difference of 1.5 V across the terminals

of the battery. (a) What is the power the charger delivers? (b) How much energy does it supply to

the battery during the 1.5 hours?

14.2 For the circuit to the right: (a) What will the ammeter read?

Report this as a positive number. (b) How much power is

dissipated by one of the 10.0 resistors?

20.2)0.109W

18

2010B #3.

Two small objects, each with a charge of 4.0 nC, are held together by a 0.020 m length of

insulating string as shown in the diagram above. The objects are initially at rest on a horizontal,

nonconducting frictionless surface. The effect of gravity on each object due to the other is

negligible.

(a) Calculate the tension in the string.

The masses of the objects are ml = 0.030 kg and m2 = 0.060 kg. The string is now cut.

(b) Calculate the magnitude of the initial acceleration of each object.

(c) On the axes below, qualitatively sketch a graph of the acceleration a of the object of

mass m2 versus the distance d between the objects after the string has been cut.

(d) Describe qualitatively what happens to the speeds of the objects as time increases,

surface.

19

2010 #3. (10 points)

Three particles are fixed in place in a horizontal plane, as shown in the figure above. Particle 3 at the top

of the triangle has charge q3 of +1.010-6 C, and the electrostatic force F on it due to the charge on the

two other particles is measured to be entirely in the negative x-direction. The magnitude of the charge q1

on particle 1 is known to be 4.0-6 C, and the magnitude of the charge q2 on particle 2 is known to be

1.7-6 C, but their signs are not known.

(a) Determine the signs of the charges q1 and q2 and indicate the correct signs below.

q1 ____ Negative

q2 ____ Negative

____ Positive

____ Positive

(b) On the diagram below, draw and label arrows to indicate the direction of the force F1 exerted

by particle 1 on particle 3 and the force F2 exerted by particle 2 on particle 3.

(d) On the figure below, draw a small in the box that is at a position where another

positively charged particle could be fixed in place so that the electrostatic force on

particle 3 is zero.

20

2007 #3. (15 points) The circuit above contains a battery with negligible internal resistance, a

closed switch S, and three resistors, each with a resistance of R or 2R.

(a)

(i) Rank the currents in the three resistors from greatest to least, with number 1 being

greatest. If two resistors have the same current, give them the same ranking.

_______IA

_______IB

_______IC

(ii) Justify your answers.

(b)

(i) Rank the voltages across the three resistors from greatest to least, with number 1

being greatest. If two resistors have the same voltage across them, give them the same

ranking.

_______VA

_______VB

_______VC

(ii) Justify your answers.

(c) Calculate the equivalent resistance of the circuit.

21

2003B #2. (15 points) A student is asked to design a circuit to supply an electric motor with

1.0 mA of current at 3.0 V potential difference.

a. Determine the power to be supplied to the motor.

c. Operating as designed above, the motor can lift a 0.012 kg mass a distance of 1.0 m in 60 s at

constant velocity. Determine the efficiency of the motor.

To operate the motor, the student has available only a 9.0 V battery to use as the power source

and the following five resistors.

d. In the space below, complete a schematic diagram of a circuit that shows how one or

more of these resistors can be connected to the battery and motor so that 1.0 mA of

current and 3.0 V of potential difference are supplied to the motor. Be sure to label each

resistor in the circuit with the correct value of its resistance.

22

2002 #3 (15 points) Two lightbulbs, one rated 30 W at 120 V and another rated 40 W at 120 V,

are arranged in two different circuits.

(a) The two bulbs are first connected in parallel to a 120 V source.

i. Determine the resistance of the bulb rated 30 W and the current in it when it is connected

in this circuit.

ii. Determine the resistance of the bulb rated 40 W and the current in it when it is connected

in this circuit.

(b) The bulbs are now connected in series with each other and a 120 V source.

i. Determine the resistance of the bulb rated 30 W and the current in it when it is connected

in this circuit.

ii. Determine the resistance of the bulb rated 40 W and the current in it when it is connected

in this circuit.

(c) In the spaces below, number the bulbs in each situation described, in order of their brightness.

(1= brightest, 4 = dimmest)

_____30 W bulb in the parallel circuit

_____40 W bulb in the parallel circuit

_____30 W bulb in the series circuit

_____40 W bulb in the series circuit

(d) Calculate the total power dissipated by the two bulbs in each of the following cases.

i. The parallel circuit

ii. The series circuit

23

2002B #3. (15 points) Light bulbs of fixed resistance 3.0 and 6.0 , a 9.0 V battery, and a

switch S are connected as shown in the schematic diagram above. The switch S is closed.

(a)

Calculate the current in bulb A.

(b)

(c)

Switch S is then opened. By checking the appropriate spaces below, indicate whether the

brightness of each light bulb increases, decreases, or remains the same. Explain your reasoning

for each light bulb.

i. Bulb A: The brightness

increases

decreases

remains the same

Explanation:

Explanation:

increases

decreases

Explanation:

increases

decreases

24

1996 # 4.

A student is provided with a 12.0 V battery of negligible internal resistance and

four resistors with the following resistances: 100 , 30 , 20 , 10 . The student also has

plenty of wire of negligible resistance available to make connections as desired.

(a)

Using all these components, draw a circuit diagram in which each resistor has a non-zero

current through flowing through it, but in which the current from the battery is as small as

possible.

(b)

Using all these components, draw a circuit diagram in which each resistor has a non-zero

current flowing through it, but in which the current from the battery is as large as possible

(without short circuiting the battery).

The battery and resistors are now connected in the circuit shown above.

(c)

i.

The current in the 10- resistor.

ii.

The total power consumption of the circuit.

(d)

Assuming the current remains constant, how long will it take to provide a total of 10

kilojoules of electrical energy to the circuit?

25

1995 # 2. A certain light bulb is designed to dissipate 6 watts when it is connected to a 12 volt

source.

(a)

(b)

If the light bulb functions as designed and is lit continuously for 30 days, how much energy

is used? Be sure to indicate the units in your answer.

The 6 watt, 12 volt bulb is connected in a circuit with a 1,500 watt, 120 volt toaster; an

adjustable resistor; and a 120 volt power supply. The circuit is designed such that the bulb and

the toaster operate at the given values and, if the light bulb fails, the toaster will still function at

these values.

(c)

On the diagram below, draw in wires connecting the components shown to make a

complete circuit that will function as described above.

(d)

Determine the value of the adjustable resistor that must be used in order for the

circuit to work as designed.

(e)

If the resistance of the adjustable resistor is increased, what will happen to the

following?

i.

ii.

The power dissipated by the toaster. Briefly explain your reasoning.

26

1998 # 4: In the circuit shown above, A, B, C, and D are identical light bulbs. Assume that the

battery maintains a constant potential difference between the terminals (i.e., the internal

resistance of the battery is assumed to be negligible) and the resistance of each light bulb remains

constant.

(a)

Draw a diagram of the circuit. Label the resistors A, B, C, and D to refer to the

corresponding light bulbs.

(b)

List the bulbs in order of brightness, from brightest to least bright. If any two or more

bulbs have the same brightness, state which ones. Justify your answer.

(c)

i.

Describe the change in brightness, if any, of bulb A when D is removed from its

socket. Justify your answer.

ii. Describe the change in the brightness, if any, of bulb B when D is removed from its

socket. Justify your answer.

27

Answers:

approach constant speed as move infinitely far apart

2007 #3: a) IA > IC > IB

b)

c) 533

c) 65-67%

d) upper-right box

d) 0.015 A

d)

decreases in brightness

c) 0.0028 N

b) VA > VB = VC

b) 0.180 J

c)

c) 2, 1, 3, 4

d) 70 W, 17 W

1996 # 4: a) draw all 4 resistors in series (1 loop consisting of battery, 4 resistors in any order)

resistors in parallel (each resistor has its own loop)

c) i. 0.28 A ii. 3.3 W

d) 50 minutes (3000 s)

b) draw all 4

1995 # 2: a) 24

c) Toaster in parallel with a series combination of 12-V bulb and Adjustable resistor. For example,

d) 216

e) i. the bulb gets dimmer. Increasing the resistance of the adjustable resistor will increase the total resistance

in the loop that includes the bulb and will thus decrease the current through the bulb.

ii. the power dissipated by the toaster will be unaffected, since it has its own separate loop (*if you consider

the power supply as having significant internal resistance or the wires connecting to the

power supply as having significant resistance, then the power dissipated by the toaster may

increase slightly, since the total current flowing from the power supply will diminish and

hence the voltage drop across the wires/internal resistance of the power supply itself will

diminish slightly)

1998 # 4: (b) A, D, B = C

28

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