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Unit 9 Packet:

Charged Particles and


Circuits
This packet includes problems we will do in class and problems that you can do at home to prepare for the
test. You may not need to do every problem in this packet to be fully prepared.
Fully worked solutions to the problems in this packet can be found on The Hub (hub.hw.com) in the Unit
9 section.
The packet is organized roughly chronologically, with the broadest questions at the end.

Coulombs Law Example Problems


1. Whatistheforce(magnitudeanddirection)ofthepositivechargeonthenegativechargeinthe
diagramshownbelow?Whatistheforceofthenegativechargeonthepositivecharge?

0.50cm

6.3C

4.1C

2. Whatisthenetforceontheparticleinthemiddle?Dontforgettoincludeadirection!
18cm

21cm

13C

6.5C

7.0C

3. Whatisthenetforceonthe1.0Ccharge?Includedirectionandmagnitude.

3.0C

0.30m

5.0C

1.0C

+
0.60m

Answers:1)9300Nleft(onthenegativecharge)andright(onthepositivecharge)2)30Nright

3)0.33N,23leftofvertical

4. Whatisthenetforceonthefarlefthandparticle?Includemagnitudeanddirection.

3.0C

+
0.010m
3.0C

0.010m

0.010m

3.0C

0.010m

+
3.0C

5. Whatistheanglethattheparticleonthestringwillhangatonceitcomestorest?Thenegative
particleisheldfixedinplace,andthepositivechargeisfreetomove.Themassofthepositive
particleis3.0kg.

6.0105C

+
4.0m

0.00070C

4
Answers:4)780Nleft5)38

MoreCoulombsLawCalculations
q proton 1.6 1019 C
m proton 1.67 1027 kg

qelectron 1.6 1019 C


melectron 9.11 1031 kg

1. Inside of a hydrogen atom, a proton and an electron are attracted to each other by both a
gravitational force and an electric force. Calculate the ratio of these two forces (i.e. calculate
Gm1m2
11
2
2
(G 6.67 10 N m kg ) .
Fe/Fg). You will need to recall that Fg
d2

2. Three point charges are arranged in a line as shown below. Assume that the objects are fixed
in place and that gravity is negligible. Calculate the magnitude and direction of the net
electric force on each charge.
40cm

Q1=+4.0C

60cm

Q1=+6.0C

Q1=3.0C

Answers:1)2.2810392)1.24Nleft1.80Nright0.56Nleft

3. Now assume the same charges as in the previous


problem are fixed at the corners of a right triangle
as shown.

Q1=+4.0C

40cm
Q2=+6.0C

Calculatethemagnitudeanddirectionofthenet
electricforceonQ1.

60cm

Q3=3.0C

WhyisitmuchhardertocalculatethenetelectricforceonQ2?

Answers:3(a)1.38N12.5downofleft(b)thediagonalforcevectormeansthatalotof

componentswillneedtobecalculated

ElectricForces
Chapter23
12.2Adoorframeistwiceastallasitiswide.Thereisapositivechargeonthe
topleftcornerandanequalbutnegativechargeinthetoprightcorner.Whatis
thedirectionoftheelectricforceduetothesechargesonanegativelycharged
dustmiteinthebottomleftcornerofthedoorframe?

A.3Two0.600kgoppositelychargedbasketballsarefollowingaclockwisecircularpathonafrictionless,
freshlywaxedbasketballcourt.Theballsareonoppositesidesofthecircleatalltimes,andare10.0m
apart.Theirchargescausetheballstocontinueonthecircularpathataspeedof1.20m/s.(a)
Determinetheproductofthechargesonthebasketballs.(b)Nowassumethechargeonthepositively
chargedballistwicethemagnitudeofthenegativelychargedone.Determinethechargeonthe
negativeball.

Answers:12.2)39upfromleft;A.3(a)1.92109C2(b)3.10105C

Introduction to Circuits
6V

1. A circuit is constructed as shown above with a battery of potential difference 6 V and a 3


resistor.
a) What current flows through the resistor?

b) Draw an ammeter into the circuit above to show how to measure the current through the
resistor.
c) Draw a voltmeter into the circuit above to show how to measure the potential difference
across the resistor.
d) What would the voltmeter in (c) read
i.
If the wires are ideal?

ii.

If the wires are not ideal?

e) How many electrons leave the battery in 1 minute? (e = 1.610-19 C)

f) What is the change in electric potential of one electron just as it goes around the circuit?

g) What happens to the electrons electric potential energy as the electron travels around the
circuit?

Answers: (a) 2 A
(b) in series with resistor (c) in parallel with resistor
(d) i. 6V ii. Slightly less than 6V
(e) 7.51020
(f) -6 V
(g) turns into thermal energy, mostly when the electron passes through the resistor

2. A 10 resistor is added in parallel to the 3 resistor in the circuit in the previous problem.
a) Draw a circuit diagram of the new circuit.

b) Assuming that the wires used in the circuit are ideal, when the new resistor is added to
the circuit,
i. Does the voltage supplied by the battery to the external circuit change?
ii.

Does the potential energy of each electron leaving the battery change?

iii.

How many resistors does an electron pass through before returning to the battery?

iv.

Does the voltage drop across the 3 resistor remain 6 V?

v.

What is the voltage drop across the 10 resistor?

vi.

How would your answers change if the wires were not ideal?

c) Still assuming ideal wires, when the new resistor is added to the circuit,
i. Does the current through the 3 resistor change?

ii.

What is the current through the 10 resistor?

iii.

What is the total current leaving the battery?

Answers: (b) i. No ii. No iii. One iv. Yes v. 6V vi. Voltage drop across each resistor is slightly less than 6V
(c) i. No ii. 0.6A iii. 2.6A

iv.

Why does one resistor have more current through it than the other?

v.

When the new resistor is added to the circuit, does the total resistance of the
circuit increase, decrease, or stay the same? Explain.

3. The 3 and 10 resistors are placed in series with the 6 V battery, using ideal wires.
a) Draw a diagram of the circuit below.

b) How many resistors does an electron have to pass through before returning to the battery?
Is this different than the previous two circuits?
c) Do the two resistors have the same current through them? Why or why not?

d) When the 10 resistor is added in series to the 3 , does the current out of the battery
increase, decrease, or stay the same in comparison to the circuit in #1? Why?

e) What is the voltage drop across each resistor? Think about which resistor will take more
energy for an electron to travel through it, and how they might split that energy.

f) How much current comes out of the battery?

g) Circuits #1, 2, and 3 are each attached to brand-new 6 V batteries. Which battery will die
first?

Answers: 2. (c) iv. Same PD can push fewer electrons per second through larger resistor, so current is smaller in
proportion to resistance. (d) Total current increased, so total resistance decreased.
3. (b) Two, yes (c) Yes they are connected in series, one after another
(d) Current decreases more resistance to get

through with the same PD (e) 3/13th of 6V (1.4V) and 10/13th of 6V (4.6V)
(f) 0.46A
(g) #2 parallel circuit

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Intro to Complex Circuits


A 60 resistor and a 40 resistor are connected in parallel. This parallel arrangement is
connected in series with a 30 resistor. The entire circuit is then placed across a 120 V
potential difference.
1. Draw a diagram of this circuit.

2. What is the effective resistance of this entire circuit?

3. What is the current supplied by the battery?

4. What is the potential drop across the 40 resistor?

5. What is the potential difference across the 60 resistor?

6. What is the current through the 40 resistor?

7. What is the power output of the 40 resistor?

11

Answers: 2) 54 3) 2.2A

4) 54V

5) 54V 6) 1.4A 7) 76W

12

Answers:1)18 2)0.623)144)135)4.56)267)1.5A

Complex Circuit Problems


1. What is the effective (total) resistance of this circuit?

2. What is the current coming out of the battery (total current)?

3. What else in the circuit has this same current flowing through it?

4. How does the total current relate to the current through the 4 and 2 resistors? Write an
equation that includes all of these quantities.

5. How does the voltage drop across the 2 resistor relate to the voltage drop across the 4
resistor? Why?

6. What is the voltage drop across the 2 resistor? You will need to use Kirchhoffs Loop Law
and Ohms Law to find the voltage.

7. What is the current in the 2 resistor?

8. What is the current in the 4 resistor?

Answers:
1) 16/3 = 5.3; 2) 9/4A = 2.3A; 3) 1 and 3; 4) Itot = I4 + I2; 5) V2 = V4 b/c in parallel; 6) 3V;
= 1.5A; 8) 3/4A = 0.75A
7) 3/2A

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9. For this circuit, find the current through, the voltage across, and
the power dissipated by each of the resistors.

Answers:
30: 80V, 8/3A, 213W
20: 2A, 40V, 80W
10: 2/3A, 20/3V, 4.4W

50: 2/3A, 100/3V, 22W

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Concept Questions
1. How can a metal soda can be attracted to a charged plastic rod, even if the rod does not touch
the can?

2. In the previous situation, could the can ever be repelled from the charged rod if:
a. They do not come into physical contact?

b. They are brought into contact?

3. What is the difference between current and voltage?

4. Could you have a low voltage and high current in a circuit? What is an example?

5. Is it possible to have a high voltage and a low current in a circuit? What is an example?

6. What is a short circuit, and why is it not usually a good situation?

7. Which has a greater resistance, a 100 W incandescent light bulb or a 75 W incandescent light
bulb? Explain your answer.

15

8. When the same 100 W and 75 W light bulbs are wired as indicated below, which is brighter?
Explain your answer.
a. In series

b. In parallel

9. What does it mean to say that an object is ohmic?

10. How does temperature affect resistance?

11. What are the benefits and downsides of wiring Christmas lights in series? In parallel?

12. In many cars, the rear window defogger consists of eight heating
elements connected as shown to the right. If one of the heating
elements were to burn out, would the other elements receive more,
less, or the same amount of current (as when the defroster was fully
functional)? Note that your answer may be different for the three
elements that are in parallel with the burned out element than for
the other four elements.

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Burning Bright

Bulbs light up when current flows through them. The electrical power that they dissipate is a
measure of how much light energy they emit per second. Since electrical power depends on both
voltage and current, both of these quantities are a factor in determining how bright a bulb is.

**For all of the following problems, assume that the bulbs have the same resistance**
1. In circuit 3, how does the brightness of A relate to the
brightness of B? Why?

2. In circuit 5, rank the three bulbs in order from brightest to


dimmest.
3. How does Bs brightness in circuit 3 relate to Bs brightness in circuit 5? Explain.

4. Will the battery in circuit 3 or in circuit 5 run out first? Why?

5. If E is unscrewed in circuit 7, does As brightness change? Explain.

6. What bulbs in circuit 7 have the same brightness? Which bulb(s) is/are the brightest and
which is/are the dimmest? Justify your answer.

7. What happens to A and B when C, D, or E is unscrewed in circuit 8? Explain.

See The Hub for solutions

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Resistor Circuits

Textbook problems
Chapter 29
3.3 A battery charger is connected to a "dead" battery and causes 4.4 A of current to flow
through the battery for 1.5 hours. It maintains a potential difference of 1.5 V across the terminals
of the battery. (a) What is the power the charger delivers? (b) How much energy does it supply to
the battery during the 1.5 hours?

14.2 For the circuit to the right: (a) What will the ammeter read?
Report this as a positive number. (b) How much power is
dissipated by one of the 10.0 resistors?

20.2 How much power is dissipated by the 9.00 resistor?

Answers: 3.3(a) 6.6 W (b) 3.6104 J; 14.2(a) 1.60 A (b) 6.40 W;

20.2)0.109W

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Old AP Free Response Problems

2010B #3.
Two small objects, each with a charge of 4.0 nC, are held together by a 0.020 m length of
insulating string as shown in the diagram above. The objects are initially at rest on a horizontal,
nonconducting frictionless surface. The effect of gravity on each object due to the other is
negligible.
(a) Calculate the tension in the string.

The masses of the objects are ml = 0.030 kg and m2 = 0.060 kg. The string is now cut.
(b) Calculate the magnitude of the initial acceleration of each object.

(c) On the axes below, qualitatively sketch a graph of the acceleration a of the object of

mass m2 versus the distance d between the objects after the string has been cut.

(d) Describe qualitatively what happens to the speeds of the objects as time increases,

assuming that the objects remain on the horizontal, nonconducting frictionless


surface.

19


2010 #3. (10 points)
Three particles are fixed in place in a horizontal plane, as shown in the figure above. Particle 3 at the top
of the triangle has charge q3 of +1.010-6 C, and the electrostatic force F on it due to the charge on the
two other particles is measured to be entirely in the negative x-direction. The magnitude of the charge q1
on particle 1 is known to be 4.0-6 C, and the magnitude of the charge q2 on particle 2 is known to be
1.7-6 C, but their signs are not known.
(a) Determine the signs of the charges q1 and q2 and indicate the correct signs below.
q1 ____ Negative

q2 ____ Negative

____ Positive

____ Positive

(b) On the diagram below, draw and label arrows to indicate the direction of the force F1 exerted
by particle 1 on particle 3 and the force F2 exerted by particle 2 on particle 3.

(c) Calculate the magnitude of F, the electrostatic force on particle 3.


(d) On the figure below, draw a small in the box that is at a position where another
positively charged particle could be fixed in place so that the electrostatic force on
particle 3 is zero.

Justify your answer.

20

2007 #3. (15 points) The circuit above contains a battery with negligible internal resistance, a
closed switch S, and three resistors, each with a resistance of R or 2R.
(a)
(i) Rank the currents in the three resistors from greatest to least, with number 1 being
greatest. If two resistors have the same current, give them the same ranking.
_______IA
_______IB
_______IC
(ii) Justify your answers.

(b)

(i) Rank the voltages across the three resistors from greatest to least, with number 1
being greatest. If two resistors have the same voltage across them, give them the same
ranking.
_______VA
_______VB
_______VC
(ii) Justify your answers.

For parts (c) and (d), use = 12 V and R = 200 .


(c) Calculate the equivalent resistance of the circuit.

(d) Calculate the current in resistor RC.

21

2003B #2. (15 points) A student is asked to design a circuit to supply an electric motor with
1.0 mA of current at 3.0 V potential difference.
a. Determine the power to be supplied to the motor.

b. Determine the electrical energy to be supplied to the motor in 60 s.

c. Operating as designed above, the motor can lift a 0.012 kg mass a distance of 1.0 m in 60 s at
constant velocity. Determine the efficiency of the motor.

To operate the motor, the student has available only a 9.0 V battery to use as the power source
and the following five resistors.

d. In the space below, complete a schematic diagram of a circuit that shows how one or
more of these resistors can be connected to the battery and motor so that 1.0 mA of
current and 3.0 V of potential difference are supplied to the motor. Be sure to label each
resistor in the circuit with the correct value of its resistance.

22

2002 #3 (15 points) Two lightbulbs, one rated 30 W at 120 V and another rated 40 W at 120 V,
are arranged in two different circuits.
(a) The two bulbs are first connected in parallel to a 120 V source.
i. Determine the resistance of the bulb rated 30 W and the current in it when it is connected
in this circuit.

ii. Determine the resistance of the bulb rated 40 W and the current in it when it is connected
in this circuit.

(b) The bulbs are now connected in series with each other and a 120 V source.
i. Determine the resistance of the bulb rated 30 W and the current in it when it is connected
in this circuit.

ii. Determine the resistance of the bulb rated 40 W and the current in it when it is connected
in this circuit.

(c) In the spaces below, number the bulbs in each situation described, in order of their brightness.
(1= brightest, 4 = dimmest)
_____30 W bulb in the parallel circuit
_____40 W bulb in the parallel circuit
_____30 W bulb in the series circuit
_____40 W bulb in the series circuit
(d) Calculate the total power dissipated by the two bulbs in each of the following cases.
i. The parallel circuit
ii. The series circuit

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2002B #3. (15 points) Light bulbs of fixed resistance 3.0 and 6.0 , a 9.0 V battery, and a
switch S are connected as shown in the schematic diagram above. The switch S is closed.
(a)
Calculate the current in bulb A.

(b)

Which light bulb is brightest? Justify your answer.

(c)
Switch S is then opened. By checking the appropriate spaces below, indicate whether the
brightness of each light bulb increases, decreases, or remains the same. Explain your reasoning
for each light bulb.
i. Bulb A: The brightness
increases
decreases
remains the same
Explanation:

ii. Bulb B: The brightness


Explanation:

increases

decreases

remains the same

iii. Bulb C: The brightness


Explanation:

increases

decreases

remains the same

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1996 # 4.
A student is provided with a 12.0 V battery of negligible internal resistance and
four resistors with the following resistances: 100 , 30 , 20 , 10 . The student also has
plenty of wire of negligible resistance available to make connections as desired.
(a)

Using all these components, draw a circuit diagram in which each resistor has a non-zero
current through flowing through it, but in which the current from the battery is as small as
possible.

(b)

Using all these components, draw a circuit diagram in which each resistor has a non-zero
current flowing through it, but in which the current from the battery is as large as possible
(without short circuiting the battery).

The battery and resistors are now connected in the circuit shown above.
(c)

Determine the following for this circuit.


i.
The current in the 10- resistor.
ii.
The total power consumption of the circuit.

(d)

Assuming the current remains constant, how long will it take to provide a total of 10
kilojoules of electrical energy to the circuit?

25

1995 # 2. A certain light bulb is designed to dissipate 6 watts when it is connected to a 12 volt
source.
(a)

Calculate the resistance of the light bulb.

(b)

If the light bulb functions as designed and is lit continuously for 30 days, how much energy
is used? Be sure to indicate the units in your answer.

The 6 watt, 12 volt bulb is connected in a circuit with a 1,500 watt, 120 volt toaster; an
adjustable resistor; and a 120 volt power supply. The circuit is designed such that the bulb and
the toaster operate at the given values and, if the light bulb fails, the toaster will still function at
these values.
(c)

On the diagram below, draw in wires connecting the components shown to make a
complete circuit that will function as described above.

(d)

Determine the value of the adjustable resistor that must be used in order for the
circuit to work as designed.

(e)

If the resistance of the adjustable resistor is increased, what will happen to the
following?
i.
ii.

The brightness of the bulb. Briefly explain your reasoning.


The power dissipated by the toaster. Briefly explain your reasoning.

26

1998 # 4: In the circuit shown above, A, B, C, and D are identical light bulbs. Assume that the
battery maintains a constant potential difference between the terminals (i.e., the internal
resistance of the battery is assumed to be negligible) and the resistance of each light bulb remains
constant.
(a)

Draw a diagram of the circuit. Label the resistors A, B, C, and D to refer to the
corresponding light bulbs.

(b)

List the bulbs in order of brightness, from brightest to least bright. If any two or more
bulbs have the same brightness, state which ones. Justify your answer.

(c)

Bulb D is then removed from its socket.


i.
Describe the change in brightness, if any, of bulb A when D is removed from its
socket. Justify your answer.
ii. Describe the change in the brightness, if any, of bulb B when D is removed from its
socket. Justify your answer.

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Answers:

2010B #3: a) 3.610-4 N b) 1.210-2 m/s2, 6.010-3 m/s2


approach constant speed as move infinitely far apart

2010 #3: a) q1 negative, q2 positive


2007 #3: a) IA > IC > IB

2003B #2: a) 0.003 W

b)

2002 #3: a) 0.25 A, 0.33 A

c) 533

c) 65-67%

d) upper-right box

d) 0.015 A

d)

b) 480 , 0.14 A; 360 , 0.14 A

2002B #3: a) 1.8 A b) A is brightest


decreases in brightness

d) speed up at a decreasing rate,

c) 0.0028 N

b) VA > VB = VC

b) 0.180 J

c)

c) 2, 1, 3, 4

d) 70 W, 17 W

c) i. A decreases in brightness ii. B increases in brightness iii. C

1996 # 4: a) draw all 4 resistors in series (1 loop consisting of battery, 4 resistors in any order)
resistors in parallel (each resistor has its own loop)
c) i. 0.28 A ii. 3.3 W
d) 50 minutes (3000 s)

b) draw all 4

b) 1.56107 J (or 4.32 kW-h)

1995 # 2: a) 24

c) Toaster in parallel with a series combination of 12-V bulb and Adjustable resistor. For example,

d) 216
e) i. the bulb gets dimmer. Increasing the resistance of the adjustable resistor will increase the total resistance
in the loop that includes the bulb and will thus decrease the current through the bulb.
ii. the power dissipated by the toaster will be unaffected, since it has its own separate loop (*if you consider
the power supply as having significant internal resistance or the wires connecting to the
power supply as having significant resistance, then the power dissipated by the toaster may
increase slightly, since the total current flowing from the power supply will diminish and
hence the voltage drop across the wires/internal resistance of the power supply itself will
diminish slightly)
1998 # 4: (b) A, D, B = C

(c) i. dimmer, ii. Brighter

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