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IC APPLICATIONS LAB

ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

INDEX
S.No

Date

Name of Experiment

Sign

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1

Grade

IC APPLICATIONS LAB

ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

R2

-Vcc

R3 1k

R1 1k

O/P Vo1

OP1 TL081C
2

O/P Vo2

-Vcc

OP2 TL081C
2

Input signal (1Volts)+Vcc


+Vcc
+Vcc

FIG: Negative Feedback Amplifiers


MODEL WAVEFORMS:
1.00

Input signal (Volts)

-1.00
1.00

Output

-1.00
0.00

250.00n

500.00n
Time (s)

750.00n

2k

V1 10

R2

-Vcc

OP3 TL081C
V2 10

2k

-Vcc

+Vcc

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

1.00u

Fig: Slew rate Measurement at High Frequency for Unity Gain Amplifier

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2

O/P V03

IC APPLICATIONS LAB

ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

EXPERIMENT NO:

DATE:

NEGATIVE FEEDBACK AMPLIFIER


AIM:
To Study the Negative feedback Amplifier by Designing the Following amplifiers
a) A unity gain amplifier
b) A non-inverting amplifier with gain of A
c) A inverting amplifier with gain of A
APPARATUS:
S.NO TYPE
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Op-Amp
Resistors
Function generator
Regulated power supply
IC bread board trainer
CATHODE RAY OSCILLOSCOPE
Patch cards and CRO probes

NAME OF
EQUIPMENT/COMPONENT
IC TL081C
-

RANGE

QUANTITY

1kohms
0-30MHz
0-30V(dual)

1
4
1
1
1
1
As required

0-30MHz

THEORY:
An OP-Amp can be used in negative feedback mode to build unity gain amplifiers, noninverting amplifiers and inverting amplifiers. While an ideal OP-Amp is assumed to have infinite
open-loop gain and infinite bandwidth, real OP-Amps have finite numbers for these parameters.
Therefore, it is important to understand some limitations of real OP-Amps, such as finite Gain
Bandwidth Product (GB). Similarly, the slew rate and saturation limits of an operational amplifier are
equally important.
An OP-Amp can be considered as a Voltage Controlled Voltage Source (VCVS) with the
voltage gain tending towards infinity. For finite output voltage, the input voltage is practically zero.
This is the basic theory of OP-Amp in the negative feedback configuration.

APPLICATIONS:
Amplifying bioelectric potentials (ECG,EEG,EMG,EGG) and piezoelectric with high output
impedance.
Amplifying sensor output signals (temperature sensors, humidity sensors, pressure
sensors(etc).

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FREQUENCY RESPONSE:
10.00
O/P V03
-20.00
0.00
O/P Vo1
-20.00
10.00
O/P Vo2
-20.00
10

100

1k

10k
Frequency (Hz)

100k

1M

Fig: Frequency Response of Negative feedback Amplifiers


TABULAR COLOUMS:
Table 1.1:Slew rate:
S.No.

Input Frequency

Peak to Peak Amplitude of output (Vpp)

1
2
3
4
5
6

Table:1.2:Frequency Response:
S.No.

Input Frequency

Gain A=Vo/Vi

Magnitude variation

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

CALCULATIONS:

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4

10M

IC APPLICATIONS LAB

ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

PROCEDURE:
1. Connect the circuit as per circuit diagram
2. Transient Response:
a. Apply a Square wave of fixed magnitude as an input signal
b. Change the input frequency and study the peak to peak amplitude of the output.
c. Calculate slew rate of amplifiers.
3. Frequency Response:
a. Apply a sine wave of fixed amplitude as a input signal
b. Obtain the gain bandwidth product of individual amplifiers.
4. Calculate the gain in dB for wide range of frequencies for all the three configurations of op-amp
5. Plot the Transient and frequency response of op-amp for all the three configurations
PRECAUTIONS:
1.
Avoid Loose connections.
2.
Check the Power supply and connections before switch ON
VIVA QUESTIONS:
1. Explain the need for unity gain amplifier?

2. Advantages of Op-Amp based amplifiers as compare to BJT Amplifiers

3. Mention the Applications for Inverting and Non Inverting Amplifiers?

4. Give Your inference on the frequency response of the amplifier?

5. Give the significance of gain-bandwidth product?

RESULT:

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CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:
Vo1

+Vcc
-Vcc

+Vcc
3

+
V1 10

I/P V1 Sine/Square Wave 1v

R1 1k

R2 1k

V2 10

OP1 TL081C
-Vcc
-Vcc
R3 1k

OP TL081C
2

R3 1k

Vo3

R1 1k
-Vcc
OP2 TL081C
2

+Vcc

6
3

I/P V2 Sine/Sqare wave

O/P

Vo2

RG 10k

R2 1k

+Vcc

Fig: Instrumentation Amplifier

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EXPERIMENT NO:

DATE:

INSTRUMENTATION AMPLIFIER
AIM: To design an Instrumentation amplifier of a differential mode gain of A by using an
Operational Amplifier
APPARATUS:
S.NO TYPE
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Op-Amp
Resistors
Function generator
Regulated power supply
IC bread board trainer
CATHODE RAY OSCILLOSCOPE
Patch cards and CRO probes

NAME OF
EQUIPMENT/COMPONENT
IC TL081C
-

RANGE

QUANTITY

1kohms
0-3MHz
0-30V(dual)

3
7
1
1
1
1
As required

0-30MHz

THEORY:
Three Op-Amps instrumentation amplifiers are popular because they offer high input
resistance, adjustable differential gain, and high common mode rejection ratio (CMRR).
An instrumentation (or instrumentational) amplifier is a type of differential amplifier that
has been outfitted with input buffer amplifiers, which eliminate the need for input impedance
matching and thus make the amplifier particularly suitable for use in measurement and test
equipment. Additional characteristics include very low DC offset, low drift, low noise, very
high open-loop gain, very high common-mode rejection ratio, and very high input impedances.
Instrumentation amplifiers are used where great accuracy and stability of the circuit both short and
long-term are required.
The most commonly used instrumentation amplifier circuit is shown in the figure. The gain of
the circuit is

Applications:
which used in measuring instruments designed for achieving high accuracy and high stability.
Which used for amplifying low voltage, low frequency and higher output impedance signals.

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MODEL WAVEFORMS:
1.00
I/P V1 Sine/Square Wave 1v
-1.00
500.00m
I/P V2 Sine/Sqare wave
-500.00m
2.00
O/P
-2.00
0.00

1.00m

2.00m
3.00m
Time (s)

4.00m

Fig: Instrumentation Amplifier Response for different i/p Frequencies


TABULAR COLOUMS:
Table 2.1:Slew rate:
Input Frequency

S.No.

Peak to Peak Amplitude of output (Vpp)

1
2
3
4
5
6

Table:2.2Frequency Response:
Input Frequency

S.No.

Gain A=Vo/Vi

Magnitude variation

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

CALCULATIONS:

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8

5.00m

IC APPLICATIONS LAB

ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

PROCEDURE:
1. Connect the circuit as per circuit diagram
2. Transient Response:
a. Apply a Square wave of fixed magnitude as an input signal
b. Change the input frequency and study the peak to peak amplitude of the output.
c. Calculate slew rate of amplifiers.
3. Frequency Response:
a. Apply a sine wave of fixed amplitude as a input signal
b. Obtain the gain bandwidth product of individual amplifiers.
4. Calculate the gain in dB for wide range of frequencies for all the three configurations of op-amp
5. Plot the Transient and frequency response of op-amp for all the three configurations
PRECAUTIONS:
1.
2.

Avoid Loose connections.


Check the Power supply and Switch ON after connections once verified.

VIVA QUESTIONS:
1. Explain the need for two stages in any instrumentation amplifier.

2. Why CMRR is high for instrumentation Amplifiers?

3. Give some examples for low voltage, low frequency and higher output impedance signals?

4. How does the tolerance of resistors affect the gain of the instrumentation amplifier?

RESULT:

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CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:
+Vcc

OP1 TL081C
2

-Vcc

-Vcc

O/P2:Square w ave

V2 10

I/P Sine 10Vpp

V1 10

+Vcc

R1 1k

R2 1k

Fig: Schmitt Trigger

+Vcc

O/P1

OP1 TL081C
6

V2 10

V1 10

O/P2

R 1k

+Vcc
R2 1k

Fig : Astable Multivibrator

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10

C 1u

R1 1k

-Vcc

-Vcc

IC APPLICATIONS LAB

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EXPERIMENT NO:

DATE:

ASTABLE MULTIVIBRATOR CHARCTERISTICS


AIM: To Study the characteristics of regenerative feedback system with extension to design an
Astable Multivibrator.

APPARATUS:
S.NO TYPE
1
2
3
4
5

Op-Amp
Resistors
Capacitor
Function generator
Regulated power supply

NAME OF
RANGE
EQUIPMENT/COMPONENT
IC TL081C
1kohms
1uF
0-3MHz
0-30V(dual)

6
7
8

IC bread board trainer


CATHODE RAY OSCILLOSCOPE
Patch cards and CRO probes

0-30MHz

QUANTITY

1
1
As required

1
2
1
1
1

THEORY:
In electronics a Schmitt trigger is a comparator circuit with hysteresis implemented by
applying positive feedback to the noninverting input of a comparator or differential amplifier. It is an
active circuit which converts an analog input signal to a digital output signal. The circuit is named a
"trigger" because the output retains its value until the input changes sufficiently to trigger a change. In
the non-inverting configuration, when the input is higher than a chosen threshold, the output is high.
When the input is below a different (lower) chosen threshold the output is low, and when the input is
between the two levels the output retains its value. This dual threshold action is called hysteresis and
implies that the Schmitt trigger possesses memory and can act as a bistable circuit (latch or flip-flop).
There is a close relation between the two kinds of circuits: a Schmitt trigger can be converted into a
latch and a latch can be converted into a Schmitt trigger.
Schmitt trigger devices are typically used in signal conditioning applications to remove noise
from signals used in digital circuits, particularly mechanical switch bounce. They are also used
in closed loop negative feedback configurations to implement relaxation oscillators, used in function
generators and switching power supplies.
APPLICATIONS:
It can be used in signal generators and generation of timing signals?
It can be used in code generators and trigger circuit?

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MODEL WAVEFORMS:
10.00

O/P2

-10.00
10.00

VG1

-10.00
0.00

2.00m

4.00m
Time (s)

6.00m

8.00m

Fig: Schmitt Trigger Output


8.00

6.00

4.00

Output

2.00

0.00

-2.00

-4.00

-6.00

-8.00
0.00

10.00m

20.00m
Time (s)

30.00m

Fig:Astable Multivibrator Output


CALCULATIONS:

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12

40.00m

IC APPLICATIONS LAB

ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

PROCEDURE:
1. Connect the Schmitt Trigger circuit as per circuit diagram
2. Apply sine wave as an input for Schmitt Trigger circuit
3. Observe the square wave across the output pin
4. Measure UTP and LTP and compare with theoretical values
5. Modify Schmitt trigger circuit as the Astable Multivibrator circuit
6. Observe the Triangular wave across the output pin

PRECAUTIONS:
1. Avoid Loose connections.
2. Check the Power supply Polarities and Switch ON after connections once verified.
VIVA QUESTIONS:
1.

Discuss the difference between astable and b-stable multivibrator?

2.

Discuss the frequency limitation of astable multivibrator.

3.

Discuss the various applications of Bi-stable?

RESULT:

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CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:
C1 100n

R2 10k

+
V1 10

R3 1k

+Vcc

-Vcc

+Vcc

OP2 TL081C

V2 10
I/P Square w ave 1v 1kHz

-Vcc

Fig: Integrator Circuit

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14

O/P2:VCO

IC APPLICATIONS LAB

ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

EXPERIMENT NO:

DATE:

INTEGRATOR CIRCUIT CHARCTERISTICS


AIM: To design and study the characteristics of integrator circuit by using an opampTL081C
APPARATUS:
S.NO TYPE
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

Op-Amp
Resistors
Capacitor
Function generator
Regulated power supply
IC bread board trainer
CATHODE RAY OSCILLOSCOPE
Patch cards and CRO probes

NAME OF
RANGE
EQUIPMENT/COMPONENT
IC TL081C
1kohms
1uF
0-30MHz
0-30V(dual)
0-30MHz
-

QUANTITY
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
As required

THEORY:
The operational amplifier integrator is an electronic integration circuit. Based on
the operational amplifier (op-amp), it performs the mathematical operation of integration with respect
to time; that is, its output voltage is proportional to the input voltage integrated over time.
The frequency responses of the practical and ideal integrator are shown in the above figure.
For both circuits, the crossover frequency

The 3 dB cutoff frequency

, at which the gain is 0 dB, is given by:

of the practical circuit is given by:

The practical integrator circuit is equivalent to an active first-order low-pass filter. The gain is
relatively constant up to the cutoff frequency and decreases by 20 dB per decade beyond it. The
integration operation occurs for frequencies in the range
condition can be achieved by appropriate choice of

and

, provided that
time constants.

APPLICATIONS:
Used in functiongenerators, PI/PID Controllers.
Used in analog computers, analog to digital converters and wave shaping circuits.
Used as a charge amplifier.

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15

. This

IC APPLICATIONS LAB

ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

MODEL WAVEFORMS:

TABULAR COLOUM:

S No

I/P Voltage

Frequency

O/P Voltage

CALCULATIONS:

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PROCEDURE:
1. Connect the circuit as per circuit diagram
2. Transient Response:
a. Apply a Square wave of fixed magnitude as an input signal
b. Change the input frequency and study the peak to peak amplitude of the output.
c. Calculate slew rate of amplifiers.
3. Frequency Response:
a. Apply a sine wave of fixed amplitude as a input signal
b. Obtain the gain bandwidth product of individual amplifiers.
4. Calculate the gain in dB for wide range of frequencies for all the three configurations of op-amp
5. Plot the Transient and frequency response of op-amp for all the three configurations
PRECAUTIONS:
1.
Avoid Loose connections.
2.
Check the Power supply and Switch ON after connections once verified.

VIVA QUESTIONS:
1. Compare the output with that of ideal integrator.

2. How will you design a differentiator and mention its drawback?

3. Discuss the limitation of the output voltage of the integrator?

4. How will you obtain drift compensation in an inverting integrator?

RESULT:

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CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

R1 10k

R2 10k

I/P Sine Wave 1v

R4 1k

R5 10k

OP1 TL081C

V2 10

C1 100n

OP2 TL081C

-Vcc

C2 100n

V1 10

C3 10u

R6 1k

R3 1k

+Vcc

+Vcc

-Vcc

+Vcc

Fig: II Order Butterworth Band Pass Filter

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18

-Vcc

O/P

IC APPLICATIONS LAB

ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

EXPERIMENT NO:

DATE:

II ORDER BUTTER WORTH BAND PASS FILTER


CHARACTERISTICS
AIM:
To design a second order Butterworth band-pass filter for the given higher and lower cutoff
frequencies by using an opampTL081C
APPARATUS:
S.NO TYPE
1
2
3
4
5

Op-Amp
Resistors
Capacitor
Function generator
Regulated power supply

NAME OF
RANGE
EQUIPMENT/COMPONENT
IC TL081C
1kohms
1uF
0-30MHz
0-30V(dual)

6
7
8

IC bread board trainer


CATHODE RAY OSCILLOSCOPE
Patch cards and CRO probes

0-30MHz

QUANTITY

1
1
As required

2
6
3
1
1

THEORY:
Bandpass is an adjective that describes a type of filter or filtering process; it is to be
distinguished from passband which refers to the actual portion of affected spectrum. Hence, one
might say "A dual bandpass filter has two passbands." A bandpass signal is a signal containing a band
of frequencies not adjacent to zero frequency, such as a signal that comes out of a bandpass filter.
An ideal bandpass filter would have a completely flat passband (e.g. with no gain/attenuation
throughout) and would completely attenuate all frequencies outside the passband. Additionally, the
transition out of the passband would have brickwall characteristics The bandwidth of the filter is
simply the difference between the upper and lower cutoff frequencies. The shape factor is the ratio of
bandwidths measured using two different attenuation values to determine the cutoff frequency, e.g., a
shape factor of 2:1 at 30/3 dB means the bandwidth measured between frequencies at 30 dB
attenuation is twice that measured between frequencies at 3 dB attenuation.
A band-pass filter can be characterised by its Q factor. The Q-factor is the inverse of the
fractional bandwidth. A high-Q filter will have a narrow passband and a low-Q filter will have a wide
passband. These are respectively referred to as narrow-band and wide-band filters.
APPLICATIONS:
Used in signal conditioning circuits for processing audio signals.
Used in measuring instruments.
Used in Radio receivers.

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MODEL GRAPH:

Fig: II Order Butterworth Band Pass Filter frequency Response


OBSERVATIONS:

Frequency(Hz)

Output voltage(v)

Gain(Vo/Vi)

Magnitude in db

CALCULATIONS

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PROCEDURE:
1. Connect the circuit as per circuit diagram
2. Frequency Response:
a. Apply a sine wave of fixed amplitude as a input signal
b. Obtain the gain bandwidth product of individual amplifiers.
3. Calculate the gain in dB for wide range of frequencies for the configuration of op-amp
4. Plot the frequency response of op-amp for configuration.
PRECAUTIONS:
1.
Avoid Loose connections.
2.
Check the Power supply and Switch ON after connections once verified.
VIVA QUESTIONS:
1. Discuss the effect of order of the filter on frequency response?

2. How will you vary Q factor of the frequency response.

3. Discuss the need for going to sallen key circuit.

4. Compare the performance of Butterworth filter with that of Chebyshev filter.

RESULT:

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ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

+Vcc

-Vcc
C2 470n

OP1 TL081C

R1 6.6k

C3 1u

Input signal (1 Volts)

R2 6.6k

R3 3.3k

V1 10

C1 470n

V2 10
+

-Vcc

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

+Vcc

FIG: Notch Filter

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22

Output : C.R.O

IC APPLICATIONS LAB

ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

EXPERIMENT NO:

DATE:

NOTCH FILTER CHARACTERISTICS


AIM:
To design a notch filter to eliminate the 50Hz power line frequency by using an op-amp
TL081C
APPARATUS:
S.NO TYPE
1
2
3
4
5

Op-Amp
Resistors
Capacitor
Function generator
Regulated power supply

NAME OF
EQUIPMENT/COMPONENT
IC TL081C
-

6
7
8

IC bread board trainer


CATHODE RAY OSCILLOSCOPE
Patch cards and CRO probes

RANGE

QUANTITY

1kohms
1uF
0-30MHz
0-30V(dual)

1
3
3
1
1

0-30MHz

1
1
As required

THEORY:
Operational amplifiers can be used to make notch filter circuits. Here shown a twin T notch
filter circuit.A notch filter is used to remove a particular frequency, having a notch where signals are
rejected. Often they are fixed frequency, but some are able to tune the notch frequency. Having a
fixed frequency, this operational amplifier, op amp, notch filter circuit may find applications such as
removing fixed frequency interference like mains hum, from audio circuits.
The twin T notch filter with variable Q is a simple circuit that can provide a good level of
rejection at the "notch" frequency. The variable Q function for the twin T notch filter is provided by
the potentiometer placed on the non-inverting input of the lower operational amplifier
The notch filter circuit can be very useful, and the adjustment facility for the Q can also be
very handy. The main drawback of the notch filter circuit is that as the level of Q is increased, the
depth of the null reduces. Despite this the notch filter circuit can be successfully incorporated into
many circuit applications
Applications:
Used for removing power supply interference.
Used for removing spur in RF Signals.

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MODEL GRAPH:
0.00

Output

-50.00
10

100
Frequency (Hz)

Fig: Notch Filter Frequency Response

OBSERVATIONS:

Frequency(Hz)

Output voltage(v)

Gain(Vo/Vi)

Magnitude in db

CALCULATIONS

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24

IC APPLICATIONS LAB

ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

PROCEDURE:
1. Connect the circuit as per circuit diagram
2. Frequency Response:
a. Apply a sine wave of fixed amplitude as a input signal
b. Obtain the gain bandwidth product of individual amplifiers.
3. Calculate the gain in dB for wide range of frequencies for the configuration of op-amp
4. Plot the frequency response of op-amp for configuration.
PRECAUTIONS:
1.
Avoid Loose connections.
2.
Check the Power supply and Switch ON after connections once verified.
VIVA QUESTIONS:
1. Explain the effect of supply frequency interference while amplifying sensor signals?

2. Suggest a method for adjusting the Q factor of the frequency response of NOTCH filter?

3. What is the Purpose of going for Twin T notch filter circuit?

RESULT:

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IC APPLICATIONS LAB

ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

<-----------------------------Universal active filter section---------------><--Integrator---->

FIG:Self tuned filter based on a voltage controlled filter

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IC APPLICATIONS LAB

ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

EXPERIMENT NO:

DATE:

SELF TUNED FILTER CHARACTISTICS


AIM: Design and test a high-Q Band pass self tuned filter for a given center frequency.
APPARATUS:
S.NO TYPE
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

Op-Amp
Universal Active Filter IC
Resistors
Capacitor
Function generator
Regulated power supply
IC bread board trainer
CATHODE RAY OSCILLOSCOPE
Patch cards and CRO probes

NAME OF
EQUIPMENT/COMPONENT
IC TL081C
UAF42
-

RANGE

QUANTITY

1kohms
1uF
0-3MHz
0-30V(dual)
0-30MHz
-

1
1
3
1
1
1
1
1
As required

THEORY:
The self tuned filter is shown in figure. The universal active filter is follwed byanother
integrator with multiplier,Then the circuit becomes a voltage controlled filter or a voltage controlled
phase generator.This forms the basic circuit for self tuned filter.
The output of the self tuned filter for square wave inpit, including the control voltage
waveform. For varying input frequency the output phase will alays lock to the input phase with 90.
APPLICATIONS:
Used in Spectrum Analyzers.

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FREQUENCY RESPONSE

Fig:Self tuned filter output

CALCULATIONS:

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IC APPLICATIONS LAB

ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

PROCEDURE:
1. Connect the circuit as per circuit diagram
2. Transient Response:
a. Apply a square wave of fixed amplitude as a input signal
b. Obtain the output for 1kHz input frequency.
3. Measure the output amplitude at varying input frequency at fixed input amplitude.
4. Output amplitude should remain constant for varying input frequency within the lock
range of the system.
5. Plot the input and output waveforms on graph sheet.
PRECAUTIONS:
1.
Avoid Loose connections.
2.
Check the Power supply and Switch ON after connections once verified.
VIVA QUESTIONS:
1. Discuss the effect of the harmonics when a square wave is applied to the filter.

2. Determine the lock range of the self tuned filter.

RESULT:

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IC APPLICATIONS LAB

ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

+Vcc

OP2 TL081C
4

O/P 1:Sqrw av

V2 10
3

-Vcc
R1 6.6k

+Vcc

R4 3.3k

V1 10

OP1 TL081C
4

-Vcc

R2 3.3k

+Vcc

-Vcc

C1 470n

Fig:Function generator circuit

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30

O/P2:Tri Wav

IC APPLICATIONS LAB

ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

EXPERIMENT NO:

DATE:

FUNCTION GENERATOR
AIM: To design and test a function generator that can generate square wave and triangular wave
output for a given frequency by using an opampTL081C
APPARATUS:
S.NO TYPE
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

Op-Amp
Resistors
Capacitor
Function generator
Regulated power supply
IC bread board trainer
CATHODE RAY OSCILLOSCOPE
Patch cards and CRO probes

NAME OF
RANGE
EQUIPMENT/COMPONENT
IC TL081C
1kohms
1uF
0-3MHz
0-30V(dual)
0-30MHz
-

QUANTITY
2
3
1
1
1
1
1
As required

THEORY:
The feedback loop is made up of a two bit A/D converter(+ or V levels), also called
Schmitt trigger and an integrator. The circuit is also known as a function generator is shown in figure
1. And the output of the function generator is shown in figure 2.
Applications:
Used in testing, measuring instruments and radio receivers.
Used For obtain frequency response of devices and circuits.
Used for testing and servicing of electronic equipments.
Used in electronic musical instruments
Used for obtaining audiograms(threshold of audibility Vs frequency)

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31

IC APPLICATIONS LAB

ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

MODEL WAVEFORMS:
10.00

O/P 1

-10.00
10.00

O/P2

-10.00
0.00

20.00m

40.00m
Time (s)

60.00m

Fig: Function Generator Output waveforms


CALCULATIONS:

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32

80.00m

IC APPLICATIONS LAB

ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

PROCEDURE:
1. Connect the circuit as per circuit diagram
2. Observe the output across the opamp1 which is an square wave
3. The output of an op-amp 1 (ie square wave) is applied as an input for opamp2
4. Observe the output across the opamp2 which is an triangular wave

PRECAUTIONS:
1.

Avoid Loose connections.

2.

Check the Power supply and Switch ON after connections once verified.

VIVA QUESTIONS:
1. Discuss typical specifications of a general purpose function generator?

2. How can you obtain reasonably accurate sine wave from triangular wave?

3. Discuss the reason for higher distortion in sine wave produed by function generators?

4. What do you mean by Duty cycle and how can you vary the same in a function generator?

RESULT:

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IC APPLICATIONS LAB

ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

+Vcc

-Vcc
2

R3 10k

OP1 TL081C
D1 1N4007

+
O/P 1:Sqrw av +

VG1 500m

O/P2:Tri Wav

R4 22k

V2 10

OP2 TL081C

+Vcc

C1 22n

-Vcc

R2 22k

V1 10

+Vcc

-Vcc

R1 22k

D2 1N4007

FIG: Voltage Controlled Oscillator

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34

R5 220k

IC APPLICATIONS LAB

ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

EXPERIMENT NO:

DATE:

VOLTAGE CONTROLLED OSCILLATOR


AIM: Design and test voltage controlled oscillator for a given specification (voltage range and
frequency range)
APPARATUS:
S.NO TYPE

NAME OF
EQUIPMENT / COMPONENT
Op-Amp
IC TL081C
Diodes
Resistors
Capacitor
Function generator
Regulated power supply
IC bread board trainer
CATHODE RAY OSCILLOSCOPE Patch cards and CRO probes
-

RANGE

QUANTITY

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

IN4007
1kohms
1uF
0-30MHz
0-30V(dual)

2
2
5
1
1
1
1
1
As required

0-30MHz

THEORY:
A voltage-controlled oscillator or VCO is an electronic oscillator whose oscillation
frequency is controlled by a voltage input. The applied input voltage determines the instantaneous
oscillation frequency. Consequently, modulating signals applied to control input may cause frequency
modulation (FM) or phase modulation (PM). A VCO may also be part of a phase-locked loop. VCOs
can be generally categorized into two groups based on the type of waveform produced: 1) harmonic
oscillators, and 2) relaxation oscillators.
Linear or harmonic oscillators generate a sinusoidal waveform. Harmonic oscillators in electronics
usually consist of a resonator with an amplifier that replaces the resonator losses (to prevent the
amplitude from decaying) and isolates the resonator from the output (so the load does not affect the
resonator). Some examples of harmonic oscillators are LC-tank oscillators and crystal oscillators. In a
voltage-controlled oscillator, a voltage input controls the resonant frequency.
Relaxation oscillators can generate a sawtooth or triangular waveform. They are commonly used in
monolithic integrated circuits (ICs). They can provide a wide range of operational frequencies with a
minimal number of external components. Relaxation oscillator VCOs can have three topologies: 1)
grounded-capacitor VCOs, 2) emitter-coupled VCOs, and 3) delay-based ring VCOs.The first two of
these types operate similarly. The time spent in each state depends on the rate of charge or discharge
of a capacitor. The delay-based ring VCO operates somewhat differently however. For this type, the
gain stages are connected in a ring. The output frequency is then a function of the delay in each stage.
APPLICATIONS:
Used in Phase Lock Loop Circuits.
Used in Frequency modulation circuits.
Used in Function generators.
Used in Frequency Synthesizers of Communication equipments

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35

IC APPLICATIONS LAB

ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

MODEL WAVEFORMS:
10.00

O/P 1

-10.00
10.00

O/P2

-10.00
2.00

VG1

-1.00
0.00

100.00m

200.00m

300.00m
Time (s)

Fig: Output of the VCO


Table: Change in frequency as a function of control voltage
S.No

Control Voltage (Vc)

Change in Frequency

CALCULATIONS:

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36

400.00m

500.00m

IC APPLICATIONS LAB

ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

PROCEDURE:
1. Build the circuit as shown circuit diagram on ALSK Kit.
2. Observe the VCO output waveform
3. Plot the observed input ,Output waveforms.
PRECAUTIONS:
1.
2.

Avoid Loose connections.


Check the Power supply and Switch ON after connections once verified.

VIVA QUESTIONS:
1. Discuss the following characteristics of a voltage controlled oscillator?
i)Tuning range ii)Tuning Gain iii)Phase noise

2. Compare the performances VCO based Harmonic Oscillators and Relaxation Oscillators

3. What are ther various methods adopted in controlling the frequency of Oscillation in VCOs

4. Discuss any one method of obtaining FM Demodulation using aVCO.

RESULT:

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37

IC APPLICATIONS LAB

ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

Fig: PLL Circuit

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38

IC APPLICATIONS LAB

ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

EXPERIMENT NO:

DATE:

PHASE LOCKED LOOP


AIM: Design and test a PLL to get locked to a given frequency f. Measure the locking range of the
system and also measure the change in phase of the output signal as input frequency is varied within
the lock range.
APPARATUS:
S.NO

TYPE

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

Op-Amp
Analog Multiplier
Resistors
Capacitor
Function generator
Regulated power supply
ASLK trainer KIT
CATHODE RAY OSCILLOSCOPE
Patch cards and CRO probes

NAME EQUIPMENT
/ COMPONENT
IC TL081C,
IC MPY634
-

RANGE

QUANTITY

1kohms
1uF
0-30MHz
0-30V(dual)
0-30MHz

2
2
3
2
1
1
1
1
As required

THEORY:
A PLL is a feedback system that includes a VCO, phase detector, and low pass filter within its
loop. Its purpose is to force the VCO to replicate and track the frequency and phase at the input when
in lock. The PLL is a control system allowing one oscillator to track with another. It is possible to
have a phase offset between input and output, but when locked, the frequencies must exactly track.

The PLL output can be taken from either Vcont, the filtered (almost DC) VCO control voltage, or
from the output of the VCO depending on the application. The former provides a baseband output that
tracks the phase variation at the input. The VCO output can be used as a local oscillator or to generate
a clock signal for a digital system. Either phase or frequency can be used as the input or output
variables.
Of course, phase and frequency are interrelated by:

Applications:
There are many applications for the PLL,
VCO. In PLL applications, the VCO is treated as a linear, time-invariant system. Excess phase of the
VCO is the system output.
LOCK Range:Range of input signal frequencies over which the loop remains locked once it has
captured the input signal. This can be limited either by the phase detector or the VCO frequency
range.
Capture range: Range of input frequencies around the VCO center frequency onto which the loop
will lock when starting from an unlocked condition. Sometimes a frequency detector is added to the
phase detector to assist in initial acquisition of lock.

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39

IC APPLICATIONS LAB

ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

MODEL WAVEFORM:

Fig: Output of PLL


CALCULATIONS:

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40

IC APPLICATIONS LAB

ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

APPLICATIONS:

Used in tracking band pass filter for angle modulated signals


Used in Frequency divider and frequency multiplier circuits.
Used as Amplifiers for angle modulated signals
Used in AM and FM Demodulators
Used in Suppressed carrier recovery circuits

PROCEDURE :
1. Build the circuit on ASLK KIT as shown in circuit diagram.
2. Measure the lock range of the system and measure the change in the phase of the ouput
signal as input frequency is varied within the lock range.
3. Vary the input frequency and obtain the change in the control voltage.
4. Plot output wave forms on graph sheet.
PRECAUTIONS:
1.
Avoid Loose connections.
2.
Handle the ASLK KIT with carefully
3.
Check the Power supply polarities and Switch ON after connections once verified.
VIVA QUESTIONS:
1. Draw the block diagram of a PLL based divider and multiplier and explain the functions
performed by each block.

2. Distinguish between lock range and capture range, explain the method of estimating the same
for a given PLL Circuit?

3. Discuss the differences between analog phase lock loop and digital phase lock loop.-

RESULT:

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41

IC APPLICATIONS LAB

ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

Fig: Automatic Gain control

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42

IC APPLICATIONS LAB

ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

EXPERIMENT NO:

DATE:

AUTOMATIC GAIN CONTROL


AIM: Design and test an AGC system for a given peak amplitude of sine wave output.
APPARATUS:
S.NO

TYPE

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

Op-Amp
Analog Multiplier
Resistors
Capacitor
Function generator
Regulated power supply
ASLK trainer KIT
CATHODE RAY OSCILLOSCOPE
Patch cards and CRO probes

NAME EQUIPMENT
/ COMPONENT
IC TL081C,
IC MPY634
-

RANGE

QUANTITY

1kohms
1uF
0-30MHz
0-30V(dual)
0-30MHz

1
2
3
2
1
1
1
1
As required

THEORY
Automatic Gain Control or AGC is a circuit design which maintain the same level of
amplification for sound or radio frequency. If the signal is too low the AGC circuit will increase
(amplify) the level and if is to high will lower it to maintain a constant level as possible. The
Automatic Gain Control principle is widely use in AM receivers and sometimes AGC is called an
compressor-expander because it acts just like one.
Simple AGC: It is implemented in the form of a circuit which extracts the dc offset voltage which is
present along with the demodulated message. This voltage is fed as degenerative or negative feedback
to the control the gain of super heterodyne receivers.
Delayed AGC: In simple AGC circuits even if the signal level received is low, the AGC circuit
operates and the overall gain of the receiver gets reduced. To avoid this situation, a delayed AGC
circuit is used. In this case AGC bias voltage is not applied to amplifiers, until signal strength has
reached a predetermined level after which AGC bias is applied like simple AGC.
APPLICATIONS:
Used in AM Receivers
Used as Voice Operated Gain Adjusting Device (VOGAD) in Radio Transmitters
Used in Telephone speech Receivers, Used in Radar Systems.

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43

IC APPLICATIONS LAB

ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

MODEL WAVEFORMS

Fig:Input-Output Characteristics of AGC/AVC

Table :Transfer Characteristics of AGC/AVC


S.No

Input Voltage

Output Voltage

CALCULATIONS:

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44

IC APPLICATIONS LAB

ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

PROCEDURE :
1. Build the circuit on ASLK KIT as shown in circuit diagram.
2. Apply the sine wave asinput signal from function generator.
3. Vary the input frequencys amplitude and obtain the change in the voltage.
4. Plot output wave forms on graph sheet.
PRECAUTIONS:
1.
Avoid Loose connections.
2.
The ASLK KIT ,handle with care.
3.
Check the Power supply and Switch ON after connections once verified.
VIVA QUESTIONS:
1. Explain clearly the need for AGC in AM Receivers.

2. Draw the block diagram of feedback and feed forward AGC systems and explain the functions
of each block

3. Discuss any one gain control mechanism present in biological systems.

4. How can you use AGC in a received signal strength indicator(RSSI)?

RESULT:

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45

IC APPLICATIONS LAB

ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

Vcc

V1 15

-Vcc

V+ 15
Vcc

R1 10k
T1 BC108
+
Z1 1N5920
6.2V Zener

Vout

+
U1 TLC081

-Vcc
R2 10k

R3 10k

Fig: LDO circuit

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46

R4
100-1000Ohms

IC APPLICATIONS LAB

ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

EXPERIMENT NO:

DATE:

LOW DROP OUT REGULATOR


AIM: Design and test a low Dropout regulator using op-amps for a given voltage regulation
characteristic and compare the characteristics with TPS7250 IC.
APPARATUS:
S.NO TYPE
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

Op-Amp
Resistors
Potentiometer
Capacitor
Function generator
Regulated power supply
ASLK trainer KIT
CATHODE RAY OSCILLOSCOPE
Patch cards and CRO probes

NAME OF
EQUIPMENT/COMPONENT
IC TL081C
-

RANGE

QUANTITY

1kohms
100 to 1000Ohms
0-30MHz
0-30V(dual)
0-30MHz

2
6
1
1
1
1
1
As required

THORY:
TPS40200 evaluation module included on Kit. Kit uses the TPS40200 non
synchronous buck converter to provide a resistor selected, 3.3v or 5v output that delivers up to 2.5A
from up to 16V input bus. The evaluation module operates from a single supply and uses the single Pchannel power FET and schottky diode to produce a low cost buck converter.
APPLICATIONS
Used in Power supply of all Electronic Instruments and Equipments
Used as Reference Power Supply in Comparators
Used in Emergency Power Supplies
Used in Current Sources

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IC APPLICATIONS LAB

ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

MODEL GRAPH:

Fig:Load regulation characteristics in LDO

Fig: Line Regulation characteristics in LDO


TABULAR COLOUS:
S.No

Reference Voltage

Output Voltage

1
2
3

Table: Variation of Load Regulation with Load Current in an LDO


S.No

Reference Voltage

Output Voltage

1
2
3

Table: Line Regulation in LDO


CALCULATIONS:

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48

IC APPLICATIONS LAB

ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

PROCEDURE :
1. Build the circuit on ASLK KIT as shown in circuit diagram.
2. Line Regulation:
a.Vary the input voltage from 5.5v to 11v in steps of 0.5v
b.Plot the output voltage as the function of the input voltage for a fixed output load
3. Load Regulation:
a. Vary the load such that load current varies and obtain the output voltage for a fixed
input voltage
4. Plot Line regulation and Load Regulation on graph sheet.
PRECAUTIONS:
1.
Avoid Loose connections.
2.
The ASLK KIT ,handle with care
3.
Check the Power supply and Switch ON after connections once verified.
VIVA QUESTIONS:
1. Distinguish between Load Regulation and Line Regulation.

2. Mention Some of the other important parameters in selecting a LDO.

3. What is power supply rejection ratio(PSRR)

RESULT:

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49

IC APPLICATIONS LAB

ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

+Vcc

I/P Triangular 5Vpp

L1 1m

VF1

OP1 TL081C
-Vcc

Vref 1V 1

Fig:DC-DC Converter

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50

R1 100k

V2 10

C1 1u

V1 10

+Vcc

-Vcc

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

IC APPLICATIONS LAB

ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

EXPERIMENT NO:

DATE:

DC-DC CONVERTOR
AIM: Design of a switched mode power supply that can provide a regulated output voltage for a
given input range using the TPS40200 IC
APPARATUS:
S.NO TYPE
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

Op-Amp
Resistors
Capacitor
Inductor
Function generator
Regulated power supply
ASLK trainer KIT
CATHODE RAY OSCILLOSCOPE
Patch cards and CRO probes

NAME OF
EQUIPMENT/COMPONENT
IC TL081C/TMS40200
-

RANGE

QUANTITY

1kohms
1uF
1mH
0-30MHz

1
1
1
1
1

0-30V(dual)

1
1
1
As required

0-30MHz

THEORY:
Function generator is the basic block for DC-DC converter. The triangular output of the
function generator with peak amplitude Vp and frequency F is fed to the comparator whose other
input is connected to the reference voltage Vref. The output of this comparator is the PWM (Pulse
width modulation) waveform whose duty cycle is given by

where T is time period of triangular wave and is equal to .1/F


This duty cycle is directly proportional to reference voltage Vref. If we connect the lossless
low-pass filter (LC filter) at the output of the comparator as shown in Figure , it is possible to get
stable DC voltage with high efficiency

APPLICATIONS:
Used is DSL/Cable Modems
Used in Distributed Power Systems.

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51

IC APPLICATIONS LAB

ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

MODEL WAVEFORM:

TABULAR COLOUMS:

CALCULATIONS:

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52

IC APPLICATIONS LAB

ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

PROCEDURE:
1. Build the Circuit as per shown circuit diagram.
2. Apply the triangular wave as an input to op-amp.
3. Observe the Transient response of the system
4. Plot the observed the response

PRECAUTIONS:
1. Avoid loose connections
2. Carefully Handle the ASLK Kit
3. Check the power supply Polarities and switch ON after Connections verified.
VIVA QUESTIONS:
1. Discuss the effect of varying the input voltage for a fixed regulated output voltage over the
duty cycle of PWM?

2. Draw the PWM Wave form?

RESULT:

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53