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Land Reforms in India- ( Agriculture )


Indian agriculture - atindependence

Hugeshareincountry'snetoutput
Agriculturewastransformedtoacommercialactivitybutinacolonialfashionnotbenefitingthe
peasents
veryhightaxdemand
ZamindariPermanentsettlementmiddlemen,intermediarytocollectfixedtaxfrom
farms,peasents,Itwasnotabletogetthebenefitofriseinagriculturalpricesandincometo
thegovt,hence
RyotwariTemporarysettlementslandrevenuerateperiodicallyincreased.
Rigidandnonflexibletaxationsystemtroubledthefarmertonoend
Growthoflandlordismandrackrenting,Tenancycultivators
Highrents,extraction,begarfrompeasants
Destructionoftraditionalhandicraftindustryanbdartisansandlackofmodernindustrygrowthcaused
enormouspressureonagriculture
Verysmalllandholdingpatternduetopartitionoflandplotswithinfamily
Extremeindebtednessofthepeasantry
Britishdidnotinvestafractionofwhattheyextracted
Yieldsperacreweredeclining,lackofproperirrigation,overuse,longtremstagnationetc
Indiathusfacedacutefoodshortageatindependence
GoalsofindependentIndianGovtwereReforms:
Reducelegal/illegalburdensonthefarmer
removesemifeudalintermediarieszamindarsetc
improvetermsoftenancyagriculture
providecheapcredit
stepupinvestmentinagricultureandinfrastructure
generatescientificresearch
Attainfoodsufficnecy
Peasentmovementsinindiabefore1947
INCdemandedlowtaxationeveryyearinresolutionsinannualsummits
JusticeRanadereplacesemifeudalagriwithcapitalistagri,mixedmodelofcapitalistagritook
effectafterindependencebynehrugovt
1880BengalTenancybillpeasentsdemandedoccupancyrights,permanentrentfixations
IndianassosciationandPoonasarvajaniksabhasupported
1920NonCooperationmovtpeasentmovementsinMalabarandUP
1928BardoliSatyagarahaSardarPatelandMKGandhi
1930CivildisobedienceNoTaxNoRentcampaigns
1931Karachisessiondemanded
Reductioninagriculturalslandrent/revenue
relieffromindebtedness
Labourtobefreedfromserfdom
Righttoformpeasentunions
Impositionofincometaxoverafixedincome
1935AllindiakissanconferencesardarpatelDemandedabolitionofzamindari,reductionin
canalandirrigationrates
19371939congressgovtindifferentprovincespassedresolutionsbillsagainsttenecyand
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indebtedness
193940000bondedlaboursserfswereliberated
1945afterww2TelanganamovtinHYderabadTebhagaMovementinBengal
NationalPlanningCommittee1938JHNehru,BombayPlan1945etcdemanded
aboishionofzamindars/talukdarspaidneccessarycompensation
ruralindebtedness
cheapcredit
cooperativefarmingtobeencouraged
Landceilingconceptfixingmaxlandholding
replacelandrevenuewithprogressiveagriculturalincometax
organizevillagepanchayatstocoordinatesuchactivities(73rdCA1993)
Landreformsafterindependance194760
Stepstaken
1.Abolishionofzamindari,jagirdarsetc
2.Tenacncyreformsprovidingsecurityoftenure
3.ceilingsonlandholding
4.cooperativesandcommunityfarmingdevelopment
ZamindariAbolishion
Billsintoducedandpassesinvariousprovincialassembliestoabolishzamindarsandland
lordshipsgivenlowcompensations
Theserecommendationsweremadenonjusticable
Zamindarsapproachedcourtsgivetpassed1stCA1951(changestorighttoprivateproperty
,added9thschedule//NonJusticableacts//totheconstitution)and4thCA1955tostrengthen
statestotakeonzamindars
Zamindarsweresociallyisolatedseenasbritishsuporters
tenantsbecamelandowners,lowcompensationtozamidars
somelandownersevictedthetenantsinthemeantimebeforebillswerepassed
WeaknessinZamindariAbolitionActs
exceptionslike"personalcultivation"looselydefined
largescaleevictionoftenantsbyownerstoclaimpersonalcultivation
challengingtheconstitutionalityinsupremecourtofthebills
Noproperdocumentsavailableforlandrecords,recreatealotfromscratch,some
destroyedbyzamindarsandowners
TenancyReforms
Ryotwarisystemlandswererentedoutforcultivations
basicobjectivesoftenancyreforms
guaranteesecurityoftenure
reductioninrents
righttoownershipoflandshecultivatedforaverylowpricecomparedtomarketwithland
distributiondeterminedonasystemoffloorsandceilings,onlyiflandownerhadenough
landsforpersonalcultivation
Weaknessagianpersonalcultivationclause,eviction,lackofdsocuemtedproofof
tenency,sharecroppersnotcovered
Charansinghhadtolaunchamassiveoperationtocreateorfindmissingdocumentsin
UP
Lefthegemonyinkeralaandbengalhelpedtobetterthepurposeofthebills
1960confernentoftitlestolandtohutmentdwellers
1977operationBarghabengalleftgovtregistrationofsharecropperstosecurelegal
rightstolandlandtothetillerconcept
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Smalllandholdingpatternsoflandowners,rotationbasisofsharecroppersallleadto
failureofoperationbargha.mainreasonlargeman:landratioinbengal
Attheendresultedahugepoolofsmalllandplotsallocatedtoownersandtenantswho
acquiredownerships
CeilingLaws
FirstplanplannedtosetanupperlimitforlandholidingsKumarappacommittemaxland
holding3timesofaneconomicalholding(landrequiredforreasonablestdoflife)
NDC1957meetingofallCMsdecisiontoimposeceilings
Nagpursession1959surpluslandbewithpanchayatsandmanagedthroughcooperatives.
Somerightwingleadersresentedinfollowingsuchasocialistchinalikemodelandinsistedon
capitalistmodelandformedtheswatantarataparty.NGRangaC.Rajagopalachariminoo
masanietc
1961moststatespassesceilingbills
Weakness
Ceilingsfixedwereveryhigh
largenumberofexcemptionsplantations,cattlebreedingfarms,dairyingfarms,
sugarcanefarmswithsugarfactoriesetc
longdelayenablinglandownerstotransferthelandtorelativesandbenamis
massevictionoftenetstogetthemaximumallowedlandasperceilings
verylesslandwasdeclaredsurplusevenafterpassinglegislations
alltheseweaknessleadtodiscontent.Furtherinflation,devaluation,indopakwarectresulted
inradicalism.
NaxalismpeakedinWB,AP,Kerala,OrissaandBihar
Westbengalsawlotsoflandgrabmovementsquicklysuppressed
1971IndiragandhireformsnCentrallandreformscommitterecommendedreformstoceiling
laws
ceilinglimitsreducedcosiderably
ceilingwastobeapplicabletoafamilyof5,maximumlimitallowedinfamilieswithmore
memberstobedoubletheceiling
surplustobedistributedtolandless,prioritytoSC/ST
Compensationpayablewasverylowfixedbelowthemarketrate
Againlandownerssoughtjudicialintervention
34thCA1974addedmostofthelawsinto9thscheduletomakethemnonjusticiable
stillverylesslandwasdeclaredsuplus7.5millionacres
Effectofceilinglawsdestroyedthelandmarketreducinglandprices,preventedincreasing
concentration
Highpopulationgrowthrenderedthemovesuseless,rapidsubdivisionoflandholdings
Adverseland:manratiopreventsanyfurtherlandredistribution,makinginnonpolitically
feasibleandeconomicallynonviable.
Viableprogrampossiblenow:distributinghomesteadlands,homesites,ensuringminimum
wagestofarmlaborers,providingsecurityoftenuretotenants,
fairrentstosharecroppers,developmentofanimalhusbandryandotherruralofffarmactivities
BhoodanMovementEminenyGandhianVinobaBhave
1950sBhaveorganizedsarvodaysamaj
padyatrathroughoutindianvillagestopersuadelandownerstodonateonesixthtopoor.
Target50millionacres
JPNaryayanofPrajasocialistpartywithdrewformactivepoliticstosupportbhoodanmovt
satredoffromPochamapallineartelangana
metwithinitialsuccess12200acresfro200villages
spreadtoUPBihar4millionacrescollectedby1956
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thenfailedtheintialmomemntum
considerableamountoflanddonatedwasnotfitforcultivation
Gramdangandhiannotionthatalllandbelongedtothegod,movemntdeclaredthatlandwas
collectivelyownedbywholevillageandnotbyindividuals
thismovementwasmainlysuccessfullonlywhereclassdiffernetiationwasminimumand
peoplewereallalikeandpoormainlytribalvillages.itisallegedvinobhahadchosensuch
villagesonly.
1960lostallthemomentumandgradualldiedout
1999BIHARgovtdissolvedstatebhoodancommitteduetoitsinabiltytodistributeevenhalf
thelandcollected
Utopianargumentssomeclaimittoserveasabreaktorevolutionaryagrarianstruggles
Somesignificantaspects
Efforttobringlandreformthroughamovementandnotlaw
ideaoftrusteeshipofgod,gandhianstrugglesagainstnonrelentinglandlords
Sarvodayasamajfailedtogenerateactivemasssupporttoformanactiverevolutionarymass
civildisobediencytypemovementtogenerateirresistiblepressurelikethleaderofPSPhad
wanted

Cooperatives
nogeneralconsencusparticularyamongpeasentry
Kumarappacommittee1949statesshouldempoweredtoforcecooperativisationinfarming
firstplanencourageandassistcooperativefrmingbasedonChinaModel
19562delegationsvistedchinatostudycooperativefarming.
chinahadfalselyclaimedhigheragriculturalgrowthratesincooperativefarmingmethods(4
6%)toindias2%.butthatwasafalseclaim
Nehruwasagreatadvocateofcooperativesclaimedraiseof25%canbeachievedby
cooperativisationbutstatesresistedsuchamove
1959NagpursummitvillageshouldbebasedonPanchayatandvillagecooperativesand
Jointcooperativefarmingtobeachievedwithpooledlandforjointcultivationwithin3yrs
C.Rajagopalachari,NRangaandcharansinghopposeditasanattempttomakethecountry
followtotalitarianregimeslikecommunistchina
1959parliamentsessionnehruassurestherewillbenoenforced/lawtomakefarming
cooperatives
Chineeserepressionsin1959oftibetand1962warwithindiachinaensurednochinamodel
canbesoldtoindainmasses
Hencecooperativefarmingtobecarriedoutintenpilotprojectsonanexperimentalbasiswas
decidedby3rdplan'
LimitationsofCooperativisationPolicystalematewasreachedduetoabovementioned
reasons
twotypeofcooperativeswereobserved
fromedtoevadelandreformsandgetincentivesformstatesmadebywelltodo
peoplecomingtogether
Pilotprojectsstatesponsoreddoneonpreviouslyuncultivatedpoorlandbypoordalit
people.utterfailureduetolandqualityandlackofirrigation
servicecooperativescouldnevertrasformtocooperativefarming
Servicecooperativeswereusuallycontrolledbywelltodobigpeopleofthevillages
cooperativesrefusedtogivecheapcroploanstofarmersinitially.itrequiredIndiargandhis
garibibhataoinitiativestoforcesomecheapcreditschemesforfarmers
MilkCooperativesAMULWhiterevolution
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StartedmodestlyinKairadistrictGujaratKheda
Peasentsapprochedsardarpatelfeelingcheatedforsupplyofmilktobobmbay
heaskedthemtoformuniionkairasiatrictcooperativemilkproducersunionformedin
dec1949
TribhuvankPatelgandhianfreedomfighter1stchairman25yrs
DrvargesseKurienmechenginner19501973.inhistimeAMULgrewtremendouslyandgot
involvedinmilkproducts,babyfood,cattlefeedetcandmadehugeprofitsrangingtors487
crores
Amulbecameahouseholdname,strartedusingcmpuetertechtogetcorrectcompositions
startedartificialinsemminationservices,insurancetocattle

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