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Questionnaire Answers

Thank you for completing the questionnaire and showing an


interest in the answers.
Nutrition during pregnancy is very important and should always be
discussed individually. If you are pregnant or planning to get
pregnant, please talk over your diet with a health care professional.
I am available for consultations on nutrition during pregnancy. For
enquiries or any further requests, please feel free to contact me
(vklanner@gmail.com).

Several of the questions asked for personal believes and attitudes. Those questions
will not be covered in the following answer sheet.
General dietary knowledge
Do health experts recommend eating more or less of the following foods?

Vegetables
Sugary foods
Meat
Starchy foods
Fatty foods
High fibre foods
Fruit
Salty foods

more

less

Which of the following foods are high in carbohydrates?


Potatoes
Rice
Cheese
Ham
Bread
Not sure

not sure

Which of the following foods are high in added sugars?


Bananas
Unflavoured yoghurt
Lemonade
Tomato ketchup
Tinned fruit in natural juice
Not sure
Which of the following foods are high in fibre?
Eggs
Red meat
Vegetables
Oats
White bread
Not sure
Which of the following foods are high in fat? (Several answers possible)
Pasta
Nuts
Cheese
Honey
Butter
Not sure
Which fats are good for the human body?
Saturated fat
Unsaturated fat
Not sure
Which of the following foods are high in protein?
Chicken
Fruit
Nuts
Rice
Beans
Not sure

Energy Intake
How much weight should women with a normal BMI (18.5-24.9kg/m) roughly
gain during pregnancy?
25 kg/ 55lbs
20 kg/ 44 lbs
15 kg/ 33lbs
7 kg/ 15lbs
4 kg/ 8lbs
Not sure
What risk factors are linked to excessive weight gain during pregnancy?
High blood pressure
Gestational diabetes
Obesity (mother)
Obesity (child)
Severe retardation (child)
Not sure
How much more energy should a pregnant woman (with a normal BMI)
consume?
Not more than before pregnancy
About an extra 200-400 kcal per day in the last three months of pregnancy
About an extra 200-400 kcal per day during all pregnancy months
Eating for two, about an extra 1500 kcal during all pregnancy months
Not sure
Physical Activity
What is the official recommendation?
Pregnant women
should abstain from physical activity
should continue their physical activity program as before pregnancy, women that
were sedentary before pregnancy should not start to work out during pregnancy
should engage in moderate physical activity 5-7 days per week
should engage in high intensity training 5-7 days per week
I dont know

What effects have been linked to physical activity during pregnancy?


Fewer delivery complications
Better maternal posture
Raised general health and well being
More delivery complications
Low birth weight
I dont know
What types of exercise are recommended during pregnancy?
Contact sports
High intensity work outs
Moderate aerobic sports
Horse riding
Moderate strength exercises
No exercise at all
I dont know
Folate
Which food is the best source of folate?
Leafy green vegetables
Red meat
Dairy products
White bread
Rice
I dont know
What is recommended in your country?
Pregnant women
should follow a diet high in folate
should follow a diet low in folate
should supplement folic acid during all pregnancy months
should supplement folic acid in the last trimester
Women who want to become pregnant should supplement folic acid before
pregnancy and the first trimester in pregnancy
I dont know
What are the benefits of a folate supplementation?
Reduced risk of neurodevelopmental problems
Reduced risk of maternal obesity
Reduced risk of severe disabilities
Reduced childhood obesity

I dont know
Iron
Which food is the best source of iron?
Red meet
Bread
Citrus fruits
Potatoes
Corn
I dont know
What is recommended in your country?
Pregnant women
should follow a diet rich in iron, anaemic women might need supplementation
should take iron supplements during pregnancy
should supplement iron in the last trimester only
do not have to watch their iron status
Women who want to become pregnant should take iron supplements
I dont know
What risks are linked to maternal iron deficiency?
Increased morbidity and mortality (mother)
Increased blood loss within 24 hours of delivery
Maternal obesity
Low birth weight
Childhood obesity
I dont know
Vitamin D
What is the best source of vitamin D?
Red meat
Sunlight exposure
Leafy green vegetables
Oranges
White meat (poultry)
I dont know
What is recommended in your country?
Pregnant women
should supplement vitamin D
should follow a diet rich in vitamin D
should spend a lot of time in the sun

do not have to be concerned about their vitamin D status


I dont know
What risk factors have been linked to maternal vitamin D deficiency?
High blood pressure
Preterm delivery
Low birth weight
Low bone mass (in the child)
Learning disabilities
I dont know
Alcohol consumption
What is recommended in your country?
To abstain from alcohol completely throughout pregnancy, as the amount of
alcohol considered safe for the foetus is unknown
To abstain from alcohol in the first trimester only
To not drink more than one or two units of alcohol once or twice a week
To avoid binge drinking (more than 5 units on a single occasion)
There is no recommendation on alcohol consumption during pregnancy in my
country
I dont know
When is the fetus most likely to be harmed by alcohol exposure?
First trimester
Second trimester
Third trimester
There is no difference
I dont know
Children exposed to alcohol in the womb can show:
Facial abnormalities
Lifelong disabilities
Lifelong behavioural problems
Effects of alcohol use on a child usually disappear as the child grows older
I dont know
Breastfeeding
What is recommended in your country concerning the duration of exclusive
breastfeeding?
Less than 3 months
At least 3 months
At least 6 months
At least 9 months

At least 12 months
I dont know
What is the recommended in your country concerning the duration of
continued part breastfeeding?
Breastfeeding should be stopped after the recommended duration of exclusive
breastfeeding
Part breastfeeding should be continued for at least 3 months
Part breastfeeding should be continued for at least 6 months
Part breastfeeding should be continued for more than 6 months
There is no official recommendation on part breastfeeding
I dont know
What do you think is the percentage meeting the official recommended
guidelines for exclusive breastfeeding in your country?
0-15%
16-25%
26-50%
51-75%
76-100%
I dont know
Why is it important to breastfeed?
Decreased risk of infections
Decreased risk of childhood obesity
Decreased risk of breast cancer
Decreased risk of sudden infant death syndrome
I dont know
How does Formula Milk compare to human breast milk?
No major differences
The immune systems of breast fed infants are more developed than immune
systems of formula fed infants
Formula milk is fortified with many vitamins and minerals and is therefore better
than breast milk
Vitamins and minerals in the human milk are better absorbed by the baby than
vitamins and minerals in formula milk
Formula milk is better digestible than human milk
I dont know