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Practical no.

1
Identification of plant body parts
Objectives
1. To introduce plant nomenclature and classification.
2. To become familiar with basic plant morphology.
3. To begin to identify plants using morphological characteristics.

Relevant information
The plant body
Plants have a very definite bodily form and they show great diversity in their forms and
organizations, ranging from unicellular microscopic to giant red wood trees. The higher
plants are made up of series of distinct and visibly different parts, each of which possess a
specific function which are literally called as organs. The origin is not homogenous in
texture and structure because they are made up of a group of cellular materials called
tissues, each of which performs particular task in the generally function of the entire
organ. The plant body of a typical seed plant basically consists of two parts, the part
above the ground growing up ward in to the air and comprises of green vegetative leaves
and reproductive floral parts is called shoot and part below ground, growing down ward
to the soil and contributes the function of water observation and anchorage is called root.
The main root develops the radicle, is the tap root or primary root (common in dicots)
and the root develops from any parts of the plant in cluster is called adventitious root
(common in monocots).From the primary root, secondary root (branches) and the
epidermal tubular elongations called root hairs are developed. The terminal apex of the
root always remains protected by root cap, a group of cells produced by apical meristem
of the root. The aerial parts of the plant, collectively known as shoot system, consists of
stem, lateral branches, leaves, flowers and fruits. The stem posses a node from which
leaves are developed. The leaflets portion between any two nodes is called internodes.
The angle between the base of a leaf and the stem is called as leaf axils, from which
axillary buds are raised. The actively growing tip of the stem is called apex which
consists of a group of dividing cells called terminal or apical bud that helps in elongation
of main stem. The main parts of leaf are leaf blades (lamina), leaf base and petiole (leaf
stalk). The leaf (or) leaflets have a main vein called midrib and from lateral veins arise,
forming a network known as venation. The appendages develops from the sides of leaf
base are called as stipules.
1

Diagrammatic representation of the plant body parts

Ex. No: 1 label the parts of the plant body in the diagram indicated by alphabets
Aim
The purpose of this exercise is to study the structure of the primary plant body of a
typical seed bearing plant. You are asked to indentify the various vegetative and
reproductive parts of the plants in the diagrams provided here.
The plant parts are,
A. tape root system

G. adventitious roots

B. stem

H. lateral roots internodes

C. node

I. Axillary bud

D. apical bud/shoot apex

J. Floral bud petiole

E. veins

K. Leaf axil

F. flower

L. cotyledons

Carefully study the structure of the whole plant body and answer the following question
1. what are the advantage of organization (division of labor) in a plant

2. Roots are confined almost entirely to land plants. Explain?

Practical no. 2
Structure of the seed and seedling
Objectives

To familiarize the student with the structure of the seed, parts of the seed and
function each parts of the seed

To demonstrate with germination process of the seed.

Theory
A seed consists of three parts: a Dormant Embryo, a Storage Tissue, and a Seed Coat.
Not every seed that has evolved on this planet has precisely the same structure. In some
seeds, the endosperm is retained as the storage tissue. In other seeds, the endosperm is
more or less used up to put storage chemicals into the embryo itself (commonly in the
cotyledons). Below is a diagram of two hypothetical seeds. The upper seed shows a dicot
that lacks endosperm; its storage material (blue) is held in the cotyledons, the lower seed
shows a monocot that has a well-developed endosperm (also blue). Both of these
examples qualify as true seeds because they possess all three parts needed to make a true
seed.

Seeds, otherwise known as mature ovules, morphologically exhibit vast variation among
the angiosperms. Generally, the integuments are developed into seed coats and the egg
nucleus into the embryo. The seed coats are the outer most coverings showing a great
diversity and variation in size, shape, colour, thickening and texture. Normally, the seeds
are attached with the fruits by a small stalk called funiculus and on detachment of
funiculus make a scar on the ovule, the hilum. The basal region of the ovule where it
merges with the funiculus is termed as chalaza and the minute opening below the hilum
is called as micropyle.
The bean seed as an example of dicot, have a brown leathery covering called seed coat
and seed coat is marked by an elliptic scar, hilum and a small openining, micropyle at one
end of the hilum. The two fleshy structures which constitute most of the volume of the
seed are the cotyledons of the embryo. The tiny leaves in the embryo represent the
epicotyls and the little axis represents the hypocotyls. In the seedling, the hypocotyls has
elongated and ruptured the seed coat, giving rise to the primary root and epicotyls give
rise to the upper portion of the stem bearing first leaves. The kernel or seeds of corn as an
example of monocots have white shield shaped embryo, single cotyledons, and long axis
of epicotyls, hypocotyls and the endosperm. In the seedling, the root may originate from
a point above the attachment of cotyledons which are referred as adventitious roots.

Seeds and germination - seed structure


A seed is the product of sexual reproduction in flowering plants. In dicotyledonous plants
the seed consists of a miniature plant, the embryo and two modified leaves, the
cotyledons, swollen with foodtesta
reserves.
Cotyledons
plumule
plumule

epicotyl

radicle

Cotyledon stalk

micropyle

hypocotyl

Cotyledon

(a) Longitudinal section

radicle

(b) Diagram of seed structure

Fig.1 Seed structure of a dicotyledonous

Seed structure of a dicotyledonous


Testa: The seed coat; encloses and protects the seed from insects and fungi. It is usually
hard and dry.
Micropyle: hole which admits water when the seed starts to germinate.
Plumule: The embryo shoot; two leaves and a growing point.
Cotyledons: Modified leaves containing food reserves.
Radicle: Embryo root.
Epicotyl: The section of stem above the cotyledon stalk.
Hypocotyl: The section of stem below the cotyledon stalk.
Germination: is the process by which the embryo grows and develops, eventually
becoming a fully mature plant. The pattern of germination is similar in most
dicotyledonous seeds. When the seed is shed, it is usually dry and hard, containing very
little water. In this dehydrated state it is best suited to withstand drought and extreme
temperatures.
When conditions become suitable for germination, the seed takes in water through its
micropyle. The tissues absorb water and swell and the testa becomes soft. The radicle
grows first, pushing though the testa and entering the soil. Next, either the hypocotyl or
the epicotyl, depending on the species, starts to elongate and carry the plumule upwards
through the soil.
Elongation of the epicotyl brings the embryo out from between the cotyledons and
through the soil, leaving the cotyledons below ground. Elongation of the hypocotyl brings

the cotyledons and the plumule above ground.Whichever pattern of germination occurs,
the energy and raw materials required for growth come from the food (usually starch)
stored in the cotyledon.

Ex. No: 2 label the parts of the germinating seed and seedling in the diagrams
Aim

This exercise is designed to illustrate the basic parts of the germinating seed and the
seedling of the flowering plants (both dicot and monocots). You are asked to observe the
germinating seed and seedling provided to you and indentifying and label all the parts
mentioned in the diagram.

The basic parts of a seed and seedlings are,


A. Cotyledons

D. Hilum

B. Micropyle

E. Seed coat

C. Primary root

F. Lateral root

Examine carefully the seed and seedlings and answer the following questions
What is the advantage of seed-bearing habit to a plant?

Give any two reasons that differentiate the seedlings into dicot or monocot?

Why the root system of the corn plants referred as adventitious roots?

Fill the following table

Seed/seedlings

Number of

Position of the Types of roots

cotyledons

cotyledons

endosperm

Bean
corn