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RNC

Architecture & Functionalities

Synchronous Classroom v.01


RSO EFLM
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Content
RNC Release versions & Mechanics
IPA2800 Platform description and comparison with DX200
Redundancy Types
RNC2600 Block diagram & ATM Switching Functionality
RNC2600 Computer units & Functionality

Radio Resource Management


RNC2600 Hardware plug in units capability & interfaces
WCDMA Protocol & Traffic Flow Scenarios
RNC Preventive Maintenance & Troubleshooting
RNC SW Build Safe-copying & Restoration
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RNC Product Naming

initial

Release version is associated with particular hardware release.


All type of RNCs can be upgradable to capability of higher releases with some H/W and S/W up-gradation.
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Controllers- RNCs

RNC196

RNC 196: First WCDMA


RNC and have 8 step upgradation steps with latest
RU30 SW.

RNC 450

Three capacity steps


150 Mbit/s,
300 Mbit/s
450 Mbit/s

RNC 2600

RNC is built on IPA 2800


platform.
Scalability and flexibility for
network evolution.
2000 Mbps in download,
600Mbps upload

mcRNC

Highly scalable & compact.


Data capacity upto
50 Gbps.
(Iub interface throughput )
Up to ~30,000 cells.
Scalable : 2-8 modules

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Mechanics
M2000

M80 & M90

MSC, HLR

M98 (M98N,
M98F, M98F2,
M98A)

MSCi, HLRi, Transit MSCi, MSS, SGSN, BSC3i, TCSM3

M2000

RNC 196, RNC 450, RNC 2600

ATCA

ATCA MSS, ATCA SGSN, Flexi NS


(Advanced Telecommunications Computing Architecture)

Box HW

ATCA

Box

mcBSC, mc RNC

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Dept. / Author / Date

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IPA2800

Modular
IPA2800 is a SW and HW
Platform for Network
Elements

Refers to the design of any system composed of


separate components that can be connected
together.
Independent smaller parts (modules) and use them in
different systems to drive multiple functionalities.
The opposite of a modular architecture is
an integrated architecture, in which no clear divisions
exist between components

IPA2800 is Modular,
Scalable and Redundant

Personal Computers ( PCs) are classic example of a modular


system . Processors, main boards, graphics cards, hard drives, power
supply units, optical drives, etc are independent units assembled to get
a compelte system
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IPA2800

Scalable

IPA2800 is a SW and HW
Platform for Network
Elements

Refers to how well a hardware or software system can


adapt to increased demands.

IPA2800 is Modular, Scalable

Redundant

and Redundant

N+1 Principle:
Units which are used in call setup and not critical for calls in
progress.

2N Principle:
Units which are critical for calls in progress
SN+ Principle:
Units can have load sharing mode.

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IPA2800 Basic Principle


Network Interface

Switching

Load sharing based on


functional distribution

Subscri
ber
lines

Network of independent
computers

Trunk
circuit lines
Operation and
maintenance

High speed Ethernet


connectivity for intercomputer communications
Fault tolerance achieved by
hardware redundancy

Control Part
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Platform : IPA2800 (RNC) vs. DX200 (BSC) Hardware Platform

Mechanics Type

IPA2800 M2000 & Box HW


DX200 M92, M98 & Box HW

System Internal
Communication

IPA2800 - ATM
DX200 MB & LAPD

Hardware
Management
System

IPA2800 - HMS
DX200 Wired Alarms

Improved & new hardware for computing & processing to adapt with new interfaces.
In an IPA2800 network element, each functional unit usually consists of one plug-in
unit, which has a fixed capacity.
For internal
use new system communication and advanced applications.
Compatible
with
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Platform : IPA2800 (RNC) vs. DX200 (BSC) Computing & Swithching


Platform

Basic Switching
Technology
Computing

IPA2800 ATM
DX200 TDM
IPA2800 Improved POSIX
DX200 POSIX

Both Platform support some common features:


Distributed Processing Architecture
Modularity
Common Hardware
Modular Software
Fault Tolerance
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Computer System

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Redundancy Types

Used in the RNC

2N

N+1/R
Redundancy
Types

N+1
N+1/L
No Redundancy

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Redundancy principles : 2N

Active

Faulty

Hot Standby

Active

Spared unit is ready to take over the action all the


time. - SFU, RSMU, TBU, NPGEP etc.
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Redundancy principles : N+1/Replaceable

Active

Active

Active

Active

Active

Faulty

Active

Active

Active

Stand by

Stand by

Active

In case of failure, information of WO unit must be loaded into the SP one before SP starting the
operation- ICSU
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Redundancy principles : SN+ or N+1/Load sharing

33%

25%

Active
25%

Active

Active
0%

Active

Active

Faulty
33%

25%

Active

Active

Active
33%

25%

Active

Active

Active

The same as n+1, but the redundant unit is used to shared the load of each WO unit.
i.e. DMCU in RNC
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Sub rack, Rack,


Cabinet, Functional
unit, PIUs, Cards.....
??

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Dept. / Author / Date

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Mechanics
C A R TR I D G E

SIDE COVER
PLATE - SCP
OR
EMC GASKET
FRAME

1/ 2

1/ 1

POWER SUPPLY
CONNECTOR GROUP

COVER FOR
POWER SUPPLY

FILTER

FUSE UNIT
(PDFU)

CARTRIDGE

1/ 3

1/ 4

1/ 6
DOOR RIGHT

P L U G - IN U N IT
DX 200

RAIL FOR
SHELVES

DOOR LEFT

RA C K

CARTRIDGE
SHELF

CABLE
SUPPORT

VERTICAL
GROUNDING
BAR

HORIZONTAL
GROUNDING
BAR

ADJUSTABLE FEET

WHEEL

COVER FOR WHEEL BOX

Racks can be equipped with four or five shelves on which the cartridges are laid
Cartridge sizes 1/1, 2/3, 1/2, 1/3, 1/4 or 1/6 of the shelf width
Cartridge has typically its own power supply
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Mechanics (M2000)
Cabinet mechanics for indoor use
Cabinet contains 4 subracks, 4 fan trays,
and power distribution equipment
EMC shielding at subrack level rather
than at cabinet level
Front and back cabling
Based on metric dimensioning (IEC/ETSI)
Old hardware mechanics (prior to A5):
IC186-B
Indoor Cabinet, 1800*600*600 mm
SRA1 Subrack, ATM, type 1
SRA2 Subrack, ATM, type 2
FTRA Fan Tray
New hardware mechanics (A5HW):
EC216 Equipment Cabinet, 2100*600*600 mm
SRA3 Subrack, ATM, type 3
FTRA-B Fan Tray 1200W

For internal use


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Generic Block Diagram of IPA2800


IPGO/GE

STM-1
TDM

IWS1E/T

E1/T1/JT1
ATM

Computing
Platform

NIP1

E1/T1/JT1
TDM

IPFE

Ethernet
100M

NIS1

STM-1/VC-4 STM1/VC-3
ATM

NPGE

Ethernet
1G

NPS1

STM-1/VC-4 STM1/VC-3
ATM

MXU

NIWU
SFU

Ethernet

CU*

A2SU

CU*

CU*

100Base-TX

MXU

MXU

CU*

OMS

Ethernet
100Base-TX
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SWU

SPU*

OMU
FDU

Ethernet
1G

TBU

WDU

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Switching
Platform

Generic Functional Architecture of IPA2800


ATM E1/T1/JT1
1.5-2 Mbit/s

NIP1
TDM STM-1
155 Mbit/s

Switching Functions

lower traffic
capacity

IWS1E
IWS1T

MXU

Interface Functions
ATM STM-1
155 Mbit/s

higher traffic
capacity

TDM E1/T1/JT1
1.5-2 Mbit/s

TBU

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ISU
/ICSU
Signaling

RSMU
/CACU

Resource
mangement

Ethernet
1G (optical/
electric)

Ethernet
100M

MXU
DMCU
/TCU

System Functions

IPGO/GE
NPGE

IPFE

A2SU

Signal Processing

NIS1
NPS1

SFU

NIWU

Control Functions

OMU

FDU

SWU

Ethernet
10/100 Mbit/s

OMS

WDU

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Looks COMPLEX
& COMPLICATED ?
Actually it is NOT
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Dept. / Author / Date

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ATM VCI & VPI

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ATM VCI & VPI

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Switching

1.
2.

Well, that requires a input and output device,


The transportation of information from an incoming logical channel
to an outgoing logical channel

VCI : Virtual channel identifier


VPI : Virtual path identifier

Outputs

Inputs

VCI/VPIs

Physical Ports
VCI/VPIs
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Switching
1.

Well, that requires a input and output device Ethernet / STM-1 / E1 connectivity

VCI : Virtual channel identifier


VPI : Virtual path identifier

Outputs

Inputs

VCI/VPIs

VCI/VPIs

Physical Ports
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Dept. / Author / Date

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Switching
1. Well, that requires a input and output device - Ethernet / STM-1 / E1 connectivity
2. Input and output alone will not work right ? We need a switch to connect these two.
And here we call it as

SFU Switch fabric unit


SFU
Outputs

Inputs

VCI/VPIs

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Dept. / Author / Date

VCI/VPIs

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Switching

1. Well, that requires a input and output device - Ethernet / STM-1 / E1 connectivity
2. We need a switch to connect these two, and here we call it as Switch Fabric Unit SFU.

SFU
Outputs

Inputs

VCI/VPIs

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VCI/VPIs

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Switching
We need a switch to connect these two, and here we call it as Switch Fabric Unit SFU.
We all know that a switch wont

We need somebody to

work

independently

Outputs

Inputs

VCI/VPIs

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Operate\Control it

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SFU

VCI/VPIs

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Switching
We need a switch to connect these two, and here we call it as Switch Fabric Unit SFU.

RSMU
Outputs

Inputs

VCI/VPIs

SFU

VCI/VPIs

RSMU
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Dept. / Author / Date

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Lets review the BASIC functionalities of a BSC


1. Switching

Input device

SFU

Output device

switch

Switching platform

RSMU
Controlling\
computing unit

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Computing
platform

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Switching

Circuit Switching

Guaranteed Capacity
Constant Transmission Delay

Packet Switching

Flexibility
Efficiency for Intermittent traffic

ATM
Switching

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ATM Switching Functionality

Circuit Switching
ATM
Switching

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Switching
Packet Switching

Guaranteed Capacity
Constant Transmission Delay

Flexibility
Queuing
Efficiency for Intermittent traffic

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ATM
Time
Switching
space switch
Functionality

ATM Switching

ATM
Switching
x

MXU

3
Line change

Switching

SFU
MXU

Queuing

Time Slot
change

y
n

Time Stage

Space Stage

Any Inputs can be connected to any output.


Both time slot & lines can be switched.

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MXU

Time space switch

Cell x
1

3
Line change
VC / VP
change
Cell y

Time Stage

Space Stage

ATM Switching :
Time slot is replaced with
Virtual Connections / Ports

Any Inputs can be connected to any output.


Both virtual connections & ports can be switched.
In ATM technology, it is easier to design switching devices with high capacity and low delay.
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ATM Switching Functionality

ATM
Switching

Switching

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Queuing

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ATM Switching Functionality

Queuing

FIFO
First in First out
Who comes earlier
leaves earlier

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The number of input staying in the system including the ones being under
service. The service discipline determines the rule according to the next
input is selected. The most commonly used laws are :

LIFO
Last in First out
Who comes later
leaves earlier

RS
Random service
Input is selected
randomly

PRIORITY
Customized
Preferences
Input is selected
as per the priority
settings

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ATM Switching

ATM Switching

Ports

Comp
uter /
Proce
ssing
Units

Via MXU

MXU
Extern
al
Interfa
ce
Units

SFU
MXU

Via MXU

Comp
uter /
Proce
ssing
Units

SFU

For internal use


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NPS1
/
NPGE

Generic Block Diagram of IPA2800


IPGO/GE

STM-1
TDM

IWS1E/T

E1/T1/JT1
ATM

Computing
Platform

NIP1

E1/T1/JT1
TDM

IPFE

Ethernet
100M

NIS1

STM-1/VC-4 STM1/VC-3
ATM

NPGE

Ethernet
1G

NPS1

STM-1/VC-4 STM1/VC-3
ATM

MXU

NIWU
SFU

Ethernet

CU*

A2SU

CU*

CU*

100Base-TX

MXU

MXU

CU*

OMS

Ethernet
100Base-TX
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SWU

SPU*

OMU
FDU

Ethernet
1G

TBU

WDU

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Switching
Platform

SFU Switching Fabric Unit


Switching Fabric Unit (SFU) are required for switching
both circuit and packet-switched data channels.
Also used for connecting signalling channels and for the
system's internal communication.
Provides redundant, fully accessible and non-blocking
connection at ATM level.

With a total of 32 ports, the

Ports

Com
puter
/
Proc
essin
g
Units
Com
puter
/
Proc
essin
g
Units

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Exter
nal
Interf
ace
Units

Via MXU

Via MXU

SFU

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SF20H provides a 1.655 Gbit/s


serial switching fabric interface
with single port.
Ports can be combined for
higher capacity ports.
The port redundancy of the
ports is implemented by
mirroring two fabric ports
together
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Test
Purposes

SF20H

MXU Multiplexer Unit


Multiplexes/de-multiplexes traffic from tributary units to
the ATM switching fabric vice versa.
Enable connection of the low-to-medium bit-rate signal
processing units and computer units, as well as low-bitrate network interface units, to the ATM switch fabric.
Ports
Trib
utar
y
Unit
s

.
Trib
utar
y
Unit
s

Exter
nal
Interf
ace
Units

<160
Mbps

M
XU

Netw
ork
Proc
esso
r

1.65
Gbps

SFU

Test
Purposes

The port redundancy


of the ports is
implemented by
mirroring two fabric
ports together

MX1G6-/A

20

Note : The MXU does not support traffic concentration, that the total capacity of tributary units connected to one MXU (pair) must be less than 1.65 Gbit/s.
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RNC 2600
RNC 2600
STEP-2
RNC 2600
STEP-1

RNC 2600
STEP-3

For internal use


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RNC 2600 Capacity

For internal use


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RNC 2600 Units Redundancy Type

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RSMU Resource and Switch Management unit


RSMU
Switch
Management

Functions of the ATM Switch Management


controls and supervises the SFU, MXUs.
Transmission resource management
finds free circuits (hunting), connects and
releases all Connections

Call Connection

Resource
Management

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Functions of DSP Resource Management


Supervision & management of DMCU.
Management of ATM connections within
DMCU.
Allocation of DSPs & associated
computer resources to different tasks.
Software dowloading of DMCU.

Call Connection:
It also performs the call
connection related
functions according to
requests received from
signalling computer units
(ICSU).
Having ATM interface with
MXU

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DMCU Data and Macro Diversity Combining unit


DMCU
L1
Functionalities

Handling of the L1 Functionalities like


WCDMA L1 functionalities
Macro diversity combining
Outer loop Power Control

CDSP & Macro


Diversity

L2
Functionalities

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Handling of WCDMA L2 Functionalities


WCDMA L2 protocol processing
RLC-U & RLC-C, MAC-C & MAC-D protocol
processing.
Packet data convergence protocol
processing : Header compression
HSPA signal Processing : MAC-SH & EDCH

It uses configurable dynamic


signal processing platform
in which signal processing
tasks can be configured and
altered dynamically for each
DSP.
DSPs and RISC processors of
the unit are automatically
allocated within the RNC
according to the capacity
need.
Encryption, ciphering
related tasks are performed
by DMCU.
It also handles GPRS
Tunneling protocol
termination

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Micro Diversity Combining

Transmitted signal

UE

46

Received signals (+noise)

Time and phase


adjustment

WBTS

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Combined signal (+
residual noise)

Macro Diversity Combining

Active
Set

The aim is to combat fading and


to increase the received signal
strength and signal quality.
WBTS1
Macro Diversity Combining Point

UL
Direction

WBTS2
SRNC

UE
Core Network
WBTS3
DRNC

For internal use


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OMU
HMS

Houses to
mirrored Hard
disks

Interface for
USB I/O
Controller

Collects
hardwired
alarms within
the RNC

OMU

OMS

Service
Terminal

For internal use


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Localizes faults
& Initiates
recovery

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OMU: Operational and Management Unit


Functions:
- Cellular management
Handles all RNC's crucial upper-level system maintenance functions
Serves as an interface between OMS and the other units of the network element
Maintains radio network configuration and recovery
Houses radio network database and ATM/IP configuration database
Has dedicated storage devices
- Basic maintenance

Hardware configuration management


HMS supervision
Centralised recovery functions

Type: Computer unit with a dedicated storage device unit as a sub-unit


Interfaces of OMU :

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Ethernet interface to OMS.


SCSI interface for mass memory devices (when not using HDS-C).
Service Terminal Interface.
Hardware management System (HMS) Interface.

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ICSU Interface Control and Signalling unit


ICSU

Signalling

Handling of the Signalling part


Signalling protocols to Iu, Iub, and Iur
interfaces.
Handling all layer 3 protocols in RNC like
RANAP, NBAP etc.
Monitoring and recovery of the signalling
links.

Location based
services

Radio Resource
Management

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Functions of Radio Resource Management


Admission control, Handover control.
Load Control, Power Control
Packet Scheduler control
Allocation of DSPs & associated
computer resources to different tasks.

Location calculations for


location based services.
Transport network level
singalling protocol - ALCAP.

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Radio Resource Management


Radio Resource Management (RRM) is responsible for optimal utilization of the air interface resources.

Target for RRM is to ensure the RAN offers:


The planned coverage for each targeted service
High capacity i.e. low blocking (new calls, handovers)
The required Quality of Service (QoS)
Optimize the use of available capacity (priorities)
By continuously monitoring/adjusting how the available resources are used in accordance with user
requests

For internal use


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RRM Functional Split


RRM is made up of a number of closely interdependent functions (i.e. algorithms)
These functions can be divided into;

Cell Based

LC

- Load Control (LC)


- Admission Control (AC)

PS

RM

AC

- Packet Scheduling (PS)


Cell based functions

- Resource Manager (RM)

PC
Connection Based
- Handover Control (HC)
- Power Control (PC)

HC
Connection based functions

For internal use


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RRM Functionalities Network Element Level

MS

NodeB

RNC

Power Control

Power Control

Power Control

Load Control

Load Control
Admission Control
Packet Scheduler
Handover Control

For internal use


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CCP18
Main Control Processor unit in IPA2800 Platform.
ATM connections to other plug-in units. This is done by an
interface to the ATM multiplexer (MXU).
Common H/W platform for RSMU, ICSU & OMU (with
SCSI).

Com
puter
/
Proce
ssing PCI Bus
Units Interfaces

CCP18
-A

USB
1.1
Interf
ace
I/O
Controller
Interfaces

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HMS
Mast
er/Sl
ave
Node

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CCP18-C

CCP18-C :
No SCSI Interface
No HMS Master Node
No USB Interfaces

Up to 16 Ultra
units
2/3

SCSI
Interf
ace

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CCP18-A

CCP1D-A

CCP1D-A

Main Control Processor unit in IPA2800 Platform R6.


ATM connections to other plug-in units. This is done by an
interface to the ATM multiplexer (MXU).
Common H/W platform for RSMU, ICSU & OMU.

Com
puter
/
Proce
ssing
/
HDS- PCI Bus
Interfaces
C
Units

HMS
Mast
er/Sl
ave
Node

CCP1
D-A

USB
2.0
Interf
ace

Seria
l
Interf
ace

I/O
Controller
Interfaces

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HDS-B : OMU's Storage Device


- New plug-in unit HDS-B, consist of two
Hard Disk Drive (HDD): One for OMU and
another for OMS
- 73 GB formatted storage capacity/disk
- Redundancy type : 2N
- External devices: USB memory stick, one
for each OMU (for CCP18-A only)
HDS-B

OMS

HDD 0
(OMS)

WDU 0
(OMU)
SCSI 0

SCSI 0

SCSI 1

OMU 0

HD: B

HD: A

HDS-B

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HDD 1
(OMS)

WDU 1
(OMU)

HD: B

HD: A

For internal use


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HDS-B
Connectivity
Principle

OMU 1

SCSI 1

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Operations and Maintenance (O&M)


- Operations and Maintenance (O&M)
Provides the means for operations personnel to maintain the RNC and Radio
Network in optimal condition
- Easy to use Graphical User Interfaces (GIUs) for
Configuration
Fault Management
Performance Management
- Accessible via Local Management System (LMS) or Network Management
System (NMS)
Configuration
Reconfiguration of the RNC
Reconfiguration of the WBTS
Reconfiguration of the Radio Network Parameters
Support for remote software upgrades to the RNC and WBTS
For internal use
57

2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.

Operations and Maintenance (O&M)


- Fault Management
- Continuous checking of the network to detect any irregularities in the operation of
the Network Elements
- Identification of faulty units in the RNC and notifying the NMS and recovery
system of the problem
- Isolates the faulty unit/s from the system and places spare units into operation if
they exist
- Fault diagnosis system pinpoints the exact nature of the problem and verifies the
status of the faulty unit and the system as a whole
- Maintains an alarm and events history
- Performance Management
- Continually monitors and collects performance statistics from the network and
network elements
- Provides the ability to set triggers in order to identify possible problem areas in
the network before they become a real problem
For internal use
58

2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.

OMS : O&M Server


Performs RNC element management
tasks.
Provide platform for different O&M
applications.
OMS offers adaptation, post processing
& value adding functions between NMS &
RNC.
It provides high availability, security,
flexibility & uses the LINUX operating
system.
Sharing Hard disk drive with OMU through
SCSI Interface.
Communication between OMS & other
RNC units is through Ethernet switch card
(ESA24).
Duplicated SCSI & Ethernet interfaces.
For internal use
59

2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.

Network Interface Unit NPS1(P)


-

60

Functions:

Provides 8 SDH STM-1/STM-4 interfaces and an RJ45


connector, and handles multiprotocol packet processing
at wire speed and network connectivity
Maps ATM cells to/from transmission frame structure of
SDH/Sonet.
Performs AAL2 minipacket switching.
Translates ATM header.
Performs UPC/NPC, traffic management, performance
management and performance data collection.
Provides optional reference clock for timing and
synchronisation.
Redundancy type: NONE or 2N
Plugin unit type

NP8S1, NP8S1-A, NP8S1-B (two slots wide)

5 Feb. 2014

For internal use


RSO - NBSS

2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.

Network Interface Unit NPGE(P)


-

Functions:

Redundancy type: NONE or 2N


Plugin unit type

61

Provides Ethernet interfaces and handles multiprotocol packet


processing at wire speed.
Two 1000Base-LX/T (optical or electrical) Gigabit Ethernet
interfaces and two 10/100 Base-T (electrical) Fast Ethernet
interfaces
Maps IP packet to/from transmission frame structure of
Ethernet.
Translates IP header.
Performs traffic management, performance management and
performance data collection.
Terminates GTP protocol when used at Iu-PS.

5 Feb. 2014

NP2GE, NP2GE-A, NP2GE-B


For internal use
RSO - NBSS

2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.

RNC2600 - Physical Interfaces

The physical network interfaces provide the means to connect to external


elements and execute
Physical layer functions
ATM layer functions
- Policing
- Statistics
- O&M
- Buffer management
- Scheduling
If IP transport QoS is used the O&M statistics are handled at IP level and the IP
packets then mapped to the Ethernet frames
One network interface unit may include more than one physical interface
depending on the type
Any interface unit can be configured as an Iu, Iub or Iur interface
In addition to the network interfaces, synchronisation and Local Area Network
(LAN) interfaces are also provided
For internal use
62

2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.

RNC2600 - Physical Interfaces

STM-1 / OC-3
- The NPS1 or NPS1P functional unit offers ATM over SDH/Sonet interfaces
The NPS1P offers MSP 1+1 and APS 1+1 protection
- Plug in unit type is NP8S1-B for both NPS1 and NPS1P
- Each plug in unit contains 8 x SDH STM-1/Sonet OC-3 optical interfaces
Gigabit Ethernet
- The NPGE or NPGEP functional unit offers IP over Ethernet interfaces
The NPGEP supports 2N redundancy
- Plug in unit type is NP2GE for both NPGE and NPGEP

For internal use


63

2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.

RNC2600 - Capacity licensing


The RNC2600 capacity licensing allows for capacity configurations based upon
the actual RNC2600 traffic
This allows for cost efficient usage of the RNC2600 resources in different
networks
Capacity is licensed using three capacity parameters
Iub PS data throughput in Mbps
AMR capacity in Erlang
Number of required carriers
The license keys are required to be installed in the RNC2600
The initial RNC2600 capacity is defined when ordering the RNC2600
The corresponding license file will be delivered with the RNC2600
RNC2600 capacity upgrades can be performed by ordering new capacity license
files and activating them via
NetAct
Local Element Manager

For internal use


64

2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.

RNC2600 - Capacity licensing


Capacity can only be upgraded to a level supported by the hardware that is
already available in the RNC2600
The hardware requirements of certain features may affect the overall capacity
capability of the RNC2600
The capacity figures are calculated without considering any of the optional
features

For internal use


65

2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.

RNC2600 - Power Redundancy

Power to the RNC2600 is protected by a duplicated power supply feed from the rectifier/s
and Battery/ies
At cabinet level the duplicated power is distributed via MCBs to each sub rack in the
same cabinet
At sub rack level each duplicated power feed is received by the PD30 unit that
distributes 4 duplicated 5A power feed lines to the plug in units via the backplanes

For internal use


66

2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.

RNC2600 - Forced Cooling System Redundancy


Each sub rack and fan tray is connected to separate thermal circuits
A failure in one cooling system does not affect the cooling system for other
sub racks
The Fan trays are supervised by the PD30 supervisory block in each sub
rack
In case of a single fan unit failure the remaining fans are switched to full
rotational speed in order to maintain sufficient cooling under the specified
environmental conditions

For internal use


67

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Timing and Synchronisation - Line Timing

RNAC
NPS1P 0/
NPS1 0

The Synchronisation unit has 5


interface inputs available
The synchronisation unit
inputs are connected via
cable to 3 selected
network interface units
(NPS1 or NPS1P)
Two External interfaces
can also be provided.
The synchronised timing signal is
then delivered to the other timing
units and then distributed to all
the other RNC2600 plug in units
Line timing is also supported on
E1/T1 interfaces

RNBC
0
0

TSS3 0

TBUF
0

Subrack 1

NPS1P 1/
NPS1 1

TBUF

TBUF

TBUF

Subrack 2
TSS3 1

NPS1P 2/
NPS1 2

1
1

TBUF

TBUF

TBUF

TBUF

TBUF

Subrack 3

TBUF

Bus 0
term.

TBUF

Bus 0
term.

Subrack 4
TBUF

Timing signal distribution can also be provided in star topology.

Bus 1
term.

For internal use


68

1
TBUF

2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.

TBUF

Bus 1
term.

Traffic Flow
Permanent signalling links

ATM Iub/Iu/Iur

NIU - NPS1(P)
ICSU

IP Iub/Iu/Iur

NIU - NPGE(P)
DMCU

SFU
RSMU
SWU

ICSU

OMU

DMCU

OMS

TBU
EHU

HDD

PDU

WDU

Standalone or Integrated
For internal use
69

2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.

Traffic Flow
Common control channel

ATM Iub

NIU - NPS1(P)
ICSU
NIU - NPGE(P)

IP Iub

DMCU

SFU
RSMU
SWU

ICSU

OMU

DMCU

OMS

TBU
EHU

HDD

PDU

WDU

Standalone or Integrated
For internal use
70

2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.

Example of Traffic Flow


Dedicated control channel

NIU - NPS1(P)

ATM Iub

ICSU
NIU - NPGE(P)

IP Iub

DMCU

SFU
RSMU
SWU

ICSU

OMU

DMCU

OMS

TBU
EHU

HDD

PDU

WDU

Standalone or Integrated
For internal use

71

2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.

Traffic Flow
CS user data

NIU - NPS1(P)

ATM Iub

ICSU
NIU - NPGE(P)

IP Iu-CS

DMCU

SFU
RSMU
SWU

ICSU

OMU

DMCU

OMS

TBU
EHU

HDD

PDU

WDU

Standalone or Integrated
For internal use

72

2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.

Traffic Flow
PS user data over DCH

NIU - NPS1(P)

ATM Iub

ICSU
NIU - NPGE(P)

IP Iu-PS

DMCU

SFU
RSMU
SWU

ICSU

OMU

DMCU

OMS

TBU
EHU

HDD

PDU

WDU

Standalone or Integrated
For internal use

73

2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.

Traffic Flow
PS user data over FACH/RACH

NIU - NPS1(P)

ATM Iub

ICSU
NIU - NPGE(P)

IP Iu-PS

DMCU

SFU
RSMU
SWU

ICSU

OMU

DMCU

OMS

TBU
EHU

HDD

PDU

WDU

Standalone or Integrated
For internal use

74

2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.

Traffic Flow
HSPA user data

NIU - NPS1(P)

ATM Iub

ICSU
NIU - NPGE(P)

IP Iu-PS

DMCU

SFU
RSMU
SWU

ICSU

OMU

DMCU

OMS

TBU
EHU

HDD

PDU

WDU

Standalone or Integrated
For internal use

75

2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.

RNC Preventive Maintenance & Trobleshooting


Prm, Alarm handling, Health Check & ST

76

5 Feb. 2014

For internal use


RSO - NBSS

2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.

System Maintenance

Mechanisms to guarantee high availability and required performance in fault


situations
Maintenance tasks
preventive maintenance
fault control
fault correction

For internal use


77

2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.

System Maintenance Principles

Fault
Detection

Recovery
system

Alarm
system

Supervision
system
Alarm
message

Failure

Alarm
printouts

Activation
of
recovery

Fault
elimination

Fault location
system
Activation
of fault
location

Updating of
failure
information

HW supervision
SW supervision
Real time supervision

Alarms collection
Uses redundancy/restarts
Alarm storage
Controls restarts
Output alarms
Starts Automatic fault
Control alarm output
location
Startup recovery
Informing about an alarm

Locates fault
Uses HW config data
Provides alarm printout
and LED alarms

For internal use


78

Fault
elimination

2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.


RSO - NBSS

Alarms Classification
- The alarms arriving in the Network can be divided into various classes
depending upon the criterion chosen.
a. Network Element Environment
Alarms division in Mobile
Communication System is based
on:

b. Network Architecture

c. Severity of Alarm

d. Network Service Alarms

For internal use


79

2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.

Types of alarms:
Network Element Environment
Network Element Environment

i. External Alarm

ii. Internal Alarms

These alarms are not caused by Network Element itself.


They can effect the operation of Network Element in many ways.
External alarms can be configured on a Network Element in
accordance with the Network Provider preferences and requirements.
Example:

7415 ***
On_air_N
PROP_82110B
;; ; ;
PLMN-PLMN/RNC-1017/WBTS-33917
EXTERNAL AL 15
Started 2007-03-06 10:36:17
Notif ID 20465
Suppl Info Mains Break
Object 82110B
Ctrl NE RNOREBR2

EQUIPMENT
Orebro
On_air_N

These alarms are generated by the Network Element itself.


These alarms represent some malfunction in the operation of
Network Element.
Both HW and SW alarms come under this category.
Example:

7653 ***
On_air_S
25154A
RNJONKP1 IF15/P2
PLMN-PLMN/RNC-1011/WBTS-16027/WCEL-2016029
CELL FAULTY
Started 2007-03-06 08:27:59
Notif ID 9373
Suppl Info Cell power monitoring
User info
Diag Info 02 03 03 0125WPAJ 03 00
Object 25154A3
EQUIPMENT
Ctrl NE RNJONKP1
Jonkoping
On_air_S

For internal use


80

2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.

Types of alarms:
Severity of the Alarm
Severity of Alarm

Notice Alarms

These alarms only inform about an event giving information about the situation in the Network
Element. For example the user is informed of a unit state change by a notice.

Disturbance Alarms

Disturbance alarms are used for informing about temporary disturbance situations that means
informing about a short failure event that does not have any permanent effect on service.

Minor Alarms

Minor alarms ( one star alarms) give information to help the operator to decide that measures
should be taken to remove the alarm.

Major Alarms

Major alarms ( two stars alarms) dont threaten the operation of the system; the fault
requires operator action during normal working hours.

Critical Alarms

Critical alarms (

three stars alarms) require immediate FM group action at all times.

For internal use


81

2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.

Alarms Classes and Numbers


MML: command class "A

Alarm Number

Notice
Disturbance
Alarm
Diagnostic
External 4000-5999
BTS

0-999
1000-1999
2000-3999
3700-3999

OMS

70001-71999

Alarm Classes
Notice
Disturbance
Alarm *
Alarm **
Alarm ***

7000-7999

For internal use


82

2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.

Alarm system in NSN RAN Equipment


1. Alarm blocking:
2. Alarm canceling:
3. Alarm history:

block incoming alarm & alarm printing to avoid excessive repetitive


alarms, use "AF"
can by done by system or user (except external alarm that user
must do it), use "AA"
- in WDU / Hard disk of OMU
- use "AH"

4. Operation instructions: - extra info in alarm printout, e.g.. Who takes care of
this alarm
- use "AO"
5. External alarm:

- use "AQ : External alarm connections handling


- e.g.. Room temperature

For internal use


83

2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.

Alarm system in NSN RAN Equipment


Alarm Handling
Alarm Printing Handling <AT
operator can define what alarm printout to be printed in a certain
equipment
printing time of active alarm can be set up to 3 times a day
Alarm History <AH
No matter which alarm is printed, all alarms will be stored in alarm history
in a ring buffer system, except for those alarm that are block by <AB

For internal use


84

2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.

Alarm System
Structure of the alarm
2. Consecutive
alarm number

6. Event
type

3. Exchange

COMM communication failure


QUAL quality of service
PROCES processing failure
EQUIPM equipment failure
ENVIR environmental failure

7. Recovery Info
*RCY* - send to system, if
requires recovery action to
perform

4. Remote Object

8. Date

1. Type of
alarm printout

9. Time
12. Alarm Object

10. Urgency level

Alarm Text

*** requires immediate actions


** requires actions during working
hours
* no actions required
11. Printout type
ALARM fault situation
CANCEL fault terminated
DISTUR disturbance
NOTICE notice

Supplementary text
Supplementary text
Supplementary information fields
Supplementary information fields

17. Computer
Sending the Alarm
14. Alarm number

18 to 23 : Provide diff. Info


like flow control etc.

13. RNW Object Name

16. Program Block :


Related to alarm

Example:

HST
..

(19437)
CANCEL
7654
OBH_QX

For internal use


85

NBSS01

EQUIPM
2014-01-25
WBTS-1402 WCEL-14028
U_KAN_Nirmalagi
CELL OPERATION DEGRADED
OMU-0
64 0B 64 2010FRGP 01 00
Failure in optical RP3 interface

21:14:15.00

2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.

expressed either as a
single object or in the
form of an object
hierarchy. WBTS WCEL
etc.
5. Location of Alarm
Object
a. Rack
b. Shelf
c. Plug-in unit location
d. Plug-in unit type
e. Unit
f. Subunit

NSN Definition of Maintenance procedures


Preventive Maintenance

Maintenance

Provide regular maintenance to the RNC in order to


reduce the possibility of failures or decreasing of
performance

Corrective Maintenance
The activity in order to rectify or solve faults
happened in the network. This usually carried out
after a trouble shooting procedure.

Troubleshooting
Detecting, tracing and analysing the mistakes
of fault in the system networks

For internal use


86

2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.


RSO - NBSS

Preventive Maintenance
Daily HC
Comp unit status
Status of all links
Signaling load
Unit status
SYNC Status
Disc unit status
Active alarms
Blocked alarms

Monthly PrM

Pre festival

Physical visit
External Power supply
Environmental conditions
TXN redundancy

Unit working status


Processor load
Status of links
Load distribution
Service affecting alarms
Call handling parameters &
timers.

Half Yearly
Unit diagnostician
Unit Switchover

Pre festival and Half yearly activities are Major activities


severity level thus CH permission to be obtained
before carrying out the activities.
For internal use
87

2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.


RSO - NBSS

RNC health Check report

Comp unit State

Software consistency

Unavailable
Signaling Links

SW and CD level

RNC Synch and Control word value

Hard Disk State

Alarm Status
Blocked
Command
calendar

Measurement status

For internal use


88

2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.


RSO - NBSS

Functional unit states

For internal use


89

2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.


RSO - NBSS

RNC Synchronization Handling : DYI

CURRENT OPERATION MODE OF ACTIVE SYSTEM CLOCK IS:


SYNCHRONIZED
CURRENT VALUE OF CONTROL WORD OF SYSTEM CLOCK OSCILLATORS ARE:
ACTIVE:
2066
SPARE:
1886
SITUATION OF EXTERNAL OUTPUT SQUELCHING:
DISABLED
SITUATION OF REVERTIVE SWITCHING:
ENABLED
SITUATION OF SPECIAL CONFIGURATION:
DISABLED
SSM VALUES USED DURING REFERENCE SELECTION:
YES

For internal use


90

2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.


RSO - NBSS

State changes in computer


No redundancy

Ex: OMS in RNC


SE-NH

SE-OU

TE-EX

WO-RE

For internal use


91

2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.


RSO - NBSS

WO-EX

State changes in computer


2N redundancy
Ex: RSMU in RNC
SP-UP
SE-NH
SP-RE

SP-EX

WO-RE

WO-EX

TE-EX

SE-OU

For internal use


92

2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.


RSO - NBSS

State changes in computer


N+1/R redundancy
Ex: ICSU in RNC

SE-NH
SP-RE

SP-EX

WO-RE

WO-EX

TE-EX

SE-OU

For internal use


93

2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.


RSO - NBSS

SP-UP

Unit State Handling in MML


WORKING STATE AND RESTART HANDLING COMMAND <US_>
< ZUSI;
LOADING PROGRAM VERSION 6.12-0
WORKING STATES OF UNITS

UNIT
OMU-0
OMU-1
MXU-0
MXU-1
...
DMCU-0
DMCU-1
...

PHYS
0000H
0001H
0017H
001CH
>
>

LOG
4002H
4002H
4242H
4242H

2010-02-24

STATE
WO-EX
SE-NH
WO-EX
SP-EX

INFO
-

WO-EX
WO-EX

12:45:26

COMMAND EXECUTED

For internal use


94

2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.

Interrogation of Child Unit States


WORKING STATE AND RESTART HANDLING COMMAND <US_>
< USI:DMCU,0::FULL;
LOADING PROGRAM VERSION 6.12-0
WORKING STATES OF UNITS

UNIT
DMCU-0
DMPG-0

DSP-0

DSP-1
DMPG-1

DSP-2

DSP-3
...

PHYS
000CH

0010H

2010-02-25

10:49:13

LOG

STATE INFO
WO-EX 4470H WO-EX WO-EX WO-EX 4471H WO-EX WO-EX WO-EX -

For internal use


95

2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.

Disk Handling
Two main choices to interrogate disks and copy info:
- MML
Interrogation Command IW
Copying Command IBC
- Service terminal
Interrogation/Copying with MASHAN

For internal use


96

2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.

MASHAN
0000-MAS> X:W0-/;

Interrogation

VOLUME DIRECTORY .DIR


CREATED 89-01-01 LAST WRITE 89-01-01
DIRECTORY OF /
CREATED 89-01-01 LAST WRITE 89-01-01
NUM NAME
EXT VER DATA SIZE CREATED
YY-MM-DD
0001 DISK
.DATA:01 FFFFFE00 97-12-11
0002 DISK
.TEST:01 FFFFFE00 97-12-11
0003 SECTORS
.MAP :01 FFFFFE00 97-12-11
0004 SECTORS
.BAK :01 FFFFFE00 97-12-11
0007 080110
.dir :01 00000000 10-01-18
0008 121009
.dir :01 00000000 09-10-12

TOTAL
FFFFF800
LISTED LABELS

LAST MOD
YY-MM-DD
97-12-11
97-12-11
97-12-11
97-12-11
10-01-18
09-10-12

ATTR
DW
DW
DW
DW
D
D

00000045

DISK SIZE 08376D74H BLOCKS

Copying

MAS> M:W0-ABCDEF.ABC:2,F0-FEDCBA.CBA;
ABCDEF.ABC:
0010H BLOCKS COPIED

For internal use


97

2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.

Show Software Package Information


MMI command

< ZWQO:CR;

Printout Description

PACKAGES CREATED IN OMU:


SW-PACKAGE

STATUS

DIRECTORY
ENVIRONMENT
PACKAGE-ID (REP-ID) DELIVERY
CD-ID

RNCHOT

FB

RNCHOT
C2 7.15-1

Build_Name

ACT

Q1 1.24-0
CID000QX 1.1-0

Q1012400

BU

Q1012400
C2 7.15-1

Q1 1.24-0
CID000QX 1.1-0

FB010726

UT

FB010726
C2 7.15-1

Q1 1.24-0
CID000QX 1.1-0

TRAINING

UT

TRAINING
C2 7.15-1

Q1 1.24-0
CID000QX 1.1-0

TEST

UT

TEST
C2 7.15-1

Q1 1.24-0
CID000QX 1.1-0

For internal use


98

Build_Dir

DEF

2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.

Statuses of Created SW Build

Fallback copy ZWKS...

FB

Switch active package ZWSS...

BU

Rollback statuses ZWSR

Change
of status
ZWSC...

Rollback
statuses
ZWSR

UT
Change of status ZWSC...

UT
UT

NW
Switch active package ZWSS...
Rollback statuses ZWSR
Fallback copy with parameter "FULL" ZWKS...

For internal use


99

2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.

...

Safecopying Recommendations

Take fallbacks during low traffic, e.g. at night


Avoid database updates or other changes during the fallback copying
Check recent FB build prior major changes in soft- or hardware
Take safecopies and backups systematically, the system generates an alarms (2518) if fallback
is too old
Note that automatic fallback via command calendar assumes that the network element is stable
Have initialized hard disks available
Train at least two persons to take safecopies, backups and to restore SW build from fallback or
backup
Note command calendar files are not copied to Fallback build

For internal use


100

2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.

Verify Fallback Build


ZWKP...
DISPLAY FALLBACK LOGFILE

-> displays phases, files and errors of the fallback process


ZWQB ...
VERIFY SOFTWARE PACKAGE

-> verifies that SW build corresponds to the MAFILE


Related Alarms concerning Fallback build:
-

Notice 0027 displays the state of the fallback copying during the process
Alarm 2393 "Fallback copying terminated in error"
Alarm 2394 "Error in finishing fallback copying"
Alarm 2518 "No valid fallback copy for default package"

For internal use


101

2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.

Backup Copying FB Build to Optical Disk or USB Stick


IWY:S:UNIT=OMU,PATH=/FB080801,DRIVE=WDU-S,;
-> define Source directory

WDU-S

MMI
commands

IWL::F0,NODEF::FB080801:;
-> create destination directory on FDU

FB_build
IWY:D:UNIT=OMU,PATH=/FB080801,DRIVE=FDU-N0,;
-> define Destination directory
IBC:,,%,%,,,,,,DIR::;
-> copy all files and directories

/
FDU-N0

FB_build

For internal use


102

COPYING IPA2800 OMU WDU-S: --> IPA2800 OMU FDU-0:


NODEF:FB080801/ --> NODEF:FB080801/
.
.
.
SUCCEEDED
:
1287
Example for a successful printout !
FAILED
:
0
TOTAL
: 131212976 BYTES

Whole FB_build Backup takes about 15 minutes !


2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.

Thank You
For internal use
103

2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.