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TuB14.5

L. Bossi, L. Magni, C. Rottenbacher and G. Mimmi

Abstract The modeling and validation problem of a laboratory planar flexible manipulator with a link in composite

material has been considered. The goal of the paper is to

obtain a model useful for the synthesis of feedback control

laws. A mathematical linear model, based on the Hamilton

principle, is complemented with a nonlinear friction model.

Suitable experiments are designed in order to identify the parameters of the model that cannot be measured or analytically

computed. Once the single components of the model have been

identified, the whole model has been validated with open- and

closed-loop experiments. The closed loop validation has been

performed using two control strategies. The first one is a single

input (position error) single output (motor torque) controller

synthesized in the frequency domain and the second one is a

multi input (position error and link deflection) single output

(motor torque) controller based on a Linear Quadratic (LQ)

optimal control law complemented with an observer and an

integral action.

I. INTRODUCTION

Lightweight exible manipulators have been a widely

investigated topic in the eld of mechatronic systems. They

represent an attractive alternative to heavy and bulky robots

in a wide spectrum of applications because of their high

payload-weight ratio and lower energy consumption. Examples of this go from simple pick and place tasks of an

industrial robot to micro-surgery and substitution of human

operations in inhospitable environments like nuclear plant

or space [3]. Many papers on modeling and control issue of

such systems have appeared during the last decades exploring

a huge variety of different strategies some of which has

proved rather effective in real applications [1]. Very complex

and accurate models have been developed to describe the

nonlinear dynamical behavior of multilink lightweight robots

[5]. However, more experimental investigations should be

carried on to better understand the actual effectiveness of

the various techniques developed in this eld. Moreover

only very few researchers considered the possibility of

modeling manipulators in composite materials so that a

lot of experimental work is still required to control the

exibility effects [6]. This paper is intended to ll the gap

of literature in the eld of theoretical modeling validation

and control of exible manipulators with composite material

links. In particular the goal of this paper is to obtain a model

useful for the synthesis of feedback control laws. A linear

mathematical model, derived by using the Hamilton principle

L. Bossi and L. Magni are with the Dipartimento di Informatica e

Sistemistica, Universita degli Studi di Pavia, via Ferrata 1, 27100 Pavia,

Italy. {luca.bossi, lalo.magni}@unipv.it

C. Rottenbacher and G. Mimmi are with the Dipartimento di Meccanica

Strutturale, Universita degli Studi di Pavia, via Ferrata 1, 27100 Pavia, Italy.

{rottenbacher, giovanni.mimmi}@unipv.it

978-3-9524173-9-3

Copyright EUCA 2009

is considered. Then a parameters identication procedure is

described. In particular suitable experiments are designed in

order to identify the parameters of the model that cannot

be measured or analytically computed. The closed loop

validation has been done using two control strategies. The

rst one is a single input (position error) single output (motor

torque) controller synthesized in the frequency domain and

the second one is a multi input (position error and deection)

single output (motor torque) controller based on an LQ

control law complemented with an observer and an integral

action. Conclusions are drawn in the last section.

II. EXPERIMENTAL APPARATUS

The experimental device is a part of the TEMSRAD

(Testbed for Microgravity Simulation in Robotic Arm Dynamics) [9] and consists of a exible robotic arm driven by

a brushless servomotor, operating in a working space compatible with the volume of a standard Express Pallet Adapter

(EPA) for on board experiments on the International Space

Station (ISS). It is made of an aluminium fork and composite

laminate material beam. The robotic arm is suspended on a

special air-pad oating on a planar friction-free glass surface

in order to simulate the dynamic behavior in a micro-gravity

environment. In this way the torsional vibration components

are reduced even with a payload mounted at the end point

of the manipulator. The link in kevlar bre tissue is very

exible in the operating plane; on the contrary it can be

considered rigid in the other directions. The robotic arm is

actuated with a Kollmorgen 713RBH brushless motor with

a maximum torque of 0.3 Nm driven by a sinusoidal digital

servoamplier Danhaer Motion Servostar S606, capable to

produce a maximum current of 6A. An internal current loop,

realized by the servo amplier, with parameters tuned by

the manufacturer, supplies the control torque of the motor.

A resolver is mounted on motor axis to furnish the rotor

position, needed by the amplier in order to provide the

right signal for motor driving. The system is equipped with

strain gauges in a full-bridge conguration mounted both

at the base and in the middle of the link, to measure

deections and with a potentiometer mounted on the motor

hub, to measure the angular position of the motor shaft.

The Real Time Application used is the MATLAB Real

Time Target interfaced with a PCMCIA DAQ Card 6036E

by National Instruments. This interface permits a real time

signal monitoring of potentiometer, strain gauges, actual

in-phase current (active component Iq ), and enables to an

easy implementation of innovative control strategies without

wasting time on programming issues.

2809

TuB14.5

A. Linear Model Equations

The following boundary value problem is obtained applying the Hamilton Principle [8] using the reference frame Xp ,

Yp (see Fig. 1) passing through the center of mass:

p (x, t) + x

(t)) = 0

EIwp (x, t) + (w

(1)

(t) J

(t) = 0

where x and t are respectively spatial and time coordinate,

wp (x, t) is the link deection, is the linear mass density,

(t) is the applied torque, (t) is the angle of the center of

mass, E is the Young modulus, I is the cross area inertia and

J is the total inertia of the system considering the rotating

inertia of the joint, the inertia of the payload at the tip and

the inertia of the beam.

For the expansion theorem the solution of (1) can be

represented by an absolutely and uniformly convergent series

in the eigenfunctions in the form

pi (x)pi (t)

wp (x, t) =

i=1

dependent term. Truncating the series at the n considered

modes of vibration, the following system is derived [4]

J

(t) = (t)

pi (t) + 2i pi (t) + i2 pi (t) = pi (0) (t)

i = 1, . . . , n where i2 are the eigenvalues of the system

which correspond

to the squares of angular frequencies

i = i2 EI/ , being i the innite solutions of the

characteristic equation of the eigenvalue problem [2]. Note

that the damping ratio includes the dissipation effects due

to the internal frictions of the link, the friction between

the air-pad and the table and the air resistance. However,

it does not represent the damping of the overall structure,

in fact, the effect of other friction sources such as the

friction produced by the motor will be described separately

in the next subsection. As it will be claried in the model

identication section, the decision to consider some friction

phenomena in the damping ratio and some explicitly in

the friction model is driven by the possibility to design

experiments able to identify them.

In order to obtain the system description with respect to

the clamped reference frame Xc Yc (see Fig. 1) the following

change of coordinates is done:

ci (x) = pi (x) xpi (0)

ci (t) = pi (t) = i (t)

where ci (x) is the exact eigenfunction and ci (t) is the time

dependent term in the new reference frame.

In this way the hub angle hub (t), the tip angle tip (t)

and the deection at the end point of the end-effector in the

clamped reference frame wc (l, t) can be derived as follows:

n

n + i=1 pi (0)i (t)

wc (l, t) = i=1 ci (l)i (t)

w (l,t)

= (t) + p l

tip (t) = hub (t) + wc (l,t)

l

Fig. 1.

where

wp (l, t) =

n

pi (l)i (t).

i=1

= 1 n 1 n

y = hub wc (l, )

space representation

(t)

= A(t) + B (t)

(2)

Y (t) = C(t)

where

A =

0

..

.

0

..

.

..

.

..

.

0

0

0

0

0 12

..

..

.

.

0

0

B = 0 0

1 p1 (0)

C=

0 c1 (l)

0

..

.

0

0

0

..

.

n2

1

0

..

.

1

..

..

.

.

0

0

0

0

0 21 1

..

..

.

.

0

0

..

.

..

.

0

..

.

1

0

0

..

.

2n n

0 J1 p1 (0) pn (0)

pn (0) 0 0 0

cn (l) 0 0 0

B. Friction model

In the considered plant the dissipative effects that are not

taken into account in the damping factor are the internal

friction of the motor and the friction due to wires torsion.

We will take into account these complex effects introducing

the following friction model, that is a simplication of the

classical Karnopp friction model described in [10]:

if |hub | > d

c sgn(hub )

f =

s sgn(hub )

otherwise

c the Coulomb friction, d the velocity dead-zone.

2810

Proceedings of the European Control Conference 2009 Budapest, Hungary, August 2326, 2009

TABLE I

C. Actuator limitation

control variable (i.e. min (t) max ) due to the limit

on the torque supplied by the motor.

0.005

0.010

0.015

0.020

0.025

In this section the values of the parameters of the plant

reported in Table II are derived. In particular the mass of

the payload mp , the linear mass density of the beam , the

beam length l, the cross area inertia I are easily measurable

from the plant; the mass moment of inertia of the payload

Jp and the hub inertia J0 are computed starting from the

geometrical and physical characteristics of the system, while

the Young modulus E, the damping ratio and the friction

are identied on the base of experimental data obtained with

suitable experiments performed on single parts of the plant

or on the overall plant.

A. Young modulus characterization

The identication of the Young modulus E requires a

beam test. In fact the theoretical estimation of this parameter

may be quite different from the real one because the composite material link has peculiar characteristics strongly dependent on the manufacturing process. The composite materials

are also subject to ageing that produces link stiffness loss.

The beam test is performed as follows: the link is clamped

at one end and increasing mass payloads are hanged up at

the free end of the link.

Fig. 2.

TuB14.5

Displacement [m]

0.023

0.029

0.034

0.039

0.044

6.6867

6.4081

6.4081

6.4081

6.4081

point.

The obtained values, summarized in Table I, highlight a

quite linear elasticity model of the beam in the range of

displacements where the tests have been performed. Nevertheless different experiments made on the overall system

show the presence of a nonlinear behavior of the system for

very small and very large values of the beam deections. Different sweep signals with increasing amplitude are applied

to the motor as torque references. As can be seen in Fig.

3 the wider is the produced displacement, the lower is the

frequency at which the resonance peak occurs. In conclusion

the most suitable choice seemed to be E = 6.408 [GPa] since

it better describes the vibrations dynamic behavior in a wider

range.

F and the displacement we can nd the Young modulus

by the following equation derived by structural mechanic [7]

E=

F l3

3I

Fig. 3.

beam; m and g are respectively the total applied mass and

the gravity acceleration, with m = m1 + m2 where m1 is

the weight of the applied mass reported in Table I, while

m2 = 0.019[kg] is the weight of a thin plate, inserted in the

cavity of the link, in correspondence of the area where the

to understand which modes of vibration are actually excited.

The values of the resonant frequencies computed with the

analytical model are f1 = 7.27 Hz the rst one and f2 =

18.21 Hz the second one. The test performed to nd out

the relevant modes, consists in the application of a torque

sweep to the motor, sweeping frequencies from 0 to 50 Hz.

2811

TuB14.5

TABLE II

shown in Fig. 4. We can recognize the rst mode, with a

frequency that is very similar to the analytical one, while

we see a relevant peak at about 28 Hz that is very different

from the second analytical mode. To better understand this

phenomena a second experiment has been performed with an

air-pad at the end of the arm. From the spectral analysis of

M ODEL PARAMETERS

Parameter

I

Jp

s

c

max

d

Spectrum estimate

0.18

Value

0.034

2.95E 11 [m4 ]

1.73E 5 [kgm2 ]

0.065[N m]

0.0055[N m]

0.214[N m]

0.002[m/s]

Airpad, Central

Airpad, Base

No Airpad, Central

No Airpad, Base

0.16

0.14

Parameter

E

J0

l

mp

min

Value

8.46E 9 [P a]

0.0016[kgm2 ]

0.42[m]

0.09[kg/m]

0.155[kg]

0.214[N m]

TABLE III

R EPEATABILITY

EXPERIMENTS ANALYSIS

0.12

Designed

Hub Rotation

20

45

60

90

120

Gain

0.1

0.08

0.06

0.04

0.02

0

0

10

15

20

25

30

Model

Hub rotation

18.84

42.70

58.25

85.00

112.00

Mean Value

10.49

29.15

51.60

69.00

67.62

Actual Hub

Rotation SD

0.25

0.45

0.44

0.46

2.01

35

Frequency (Hz)

Fig. 4.

Modal analysis

the amplitude of the second peak is signicantly reduced.

This is due to the fact that this is not a exural mode but a

torsional one that is not described by the model. In view of

these experimental results we decided to consider only one

exural mode of vibration.

C. Damping and friction Identification

1) Damping Identification: As it is described in the previous section the damping ratio describes also the effect of

some friction terms. The ones due to the motor rotation are

not involved in it. Then in order to identify we clamp the

link at the joint end. Then, given an initial displacement to

the end effector, the resulting free vibrations are analyzed.

Applying the method of logarithmic decrement [11] we

identify the damping ratio value = 0.034.

2) Friction identification: To obtain the friction model of

the plant, three parameters should be identied: the static

friction s , the velocity threshold d and the coulomb friction

c . The rst parameter is identied applying increasing

torque till a joint motion is produced. The needed torque

value to move the motor is the value assigned to s . The value

d is usually very small and difcult to estimate. We have

arbitrarily chosen it equal to 0.001 degrees/s. The procedure

to identify c follows the sequent steps. First an experiment

similar to the one made for the identication of the damping

factor but without clamping the link is made. Based on it

an estimation of an equivalent damping factor of the whole

plant is obtained. Then we perform several simulations

for different increasing values of c . The damping value for

each simulation is computed by means of the logarithmic

decrement applied to the deection responses obtained in

simulation. Then the damping values are plotted on the yaxis vs the correspondent c values on the x-axis. Finally,

starting from the knowledge of the real global damping ratio

, we can obtain an estimation of c .

V. MODEL VALIDATION FOR CONTROL

Once the single components of the model have been

identied it is necessary to validate the whole model. The

goal of this paper is to obtain a model useful for the synthesis

of feedback control laws. It is well known that this requires

a good model in a particular range of frequencies while it is

not necessary to have a very precise model at low or high

frequencies. However the rst validation experiments have

been done in open loop in order to verify the repeatability

of the experiments. Then, a closed loop validation has been

done using two control strategies. The rst one is a single

input (position error) single output (motor torque) controller

synthesized in the frequency domain and the second one is

a multi input (position error and deection) single output

(motor torque) controller based on an LQ control law complemented with an observer and an integral action.

A. Open loop validation

Well suited bang-bang torque proles, designed on the

base of the system model without friction, are applied several

times to the motor in order to obtain an hub rotation of 20 ,

45 , 60 , 90 and 120 respectively. Table III summarizes

the obtained results. In particular the asymptotic value of

the rotation obtained in simulation with the full model (also

with the friction model), the mean value and the standard

deviation (SD) of the asymptotic value obtained on the

experimental set-up are reported. It is important to notice

that the standard deviations obtained are very small. On

the contrary, the mean value is rather different from the

simulated one and also with a nonlinear behavior with

respect to the amplitude of the hub rotation. This information

2812

Proceedings of the European Control Conference 2009 Budapest, Hungary, August 2326, 2009

to obtain a small regulation asymptotic error.

Fig. 7.

hub [Degrees]

only the hub position measurement. The controller, synthesized in the frequency domain, is given by

[Degrees]

hub

11.5

12

12.5

13

13.5

14

14.5

15

w(l,t) [mm]

50

50

10

(t) [Nm]

1.5

2.5

3.5

4.5

0.5

1.5

2.5

3.5

4.5

w(l,t) [mm]

(t) [Nm]

0.5

0

Simulation

Real#1

Real#2

0.5

0.5

1.5

2.5

3.5

4.5

10.5

11

11.5

12

12.5

13

13.5

14

14.5

also the base strain gauge measure. To this aim, a regulator

based on a Linear Quadratic (LQ) optimal control law

has been adopted. In Fig. 8 the overall control scheme is

15

0.1

0

Simulation

Real# 1

Real# 2

0.1

10

0.5

the rigid mode as well as the exible one, while the torque

required by the regulator in the real plant and in the simulated

one are comparable, with only very small deviations likely

due to the approximation of friction model, such as the

chosen threshold d.

50

11

100

100

10.5

100

The validation has been performed applying sinusoidal position references with different frequencies and amplitudes.

In particular Fig. 5 and 6 show the system response to a

sinusoidal position reference signal, having 40 amplitude at

0.2 Hz and 0.4 Hz frequency respectively.

0

10

100

100

5(s + 1)

(s + 5)(s + 300)

150

200

R(s) =

TuB14.5

10.5

11

Fig. 5.

11.5

12

12.5

Time [s]

13

13.5

14

14.5

15

[Degrees]

150

50

hub

100

0

10

10.5

11

11.5

12

12.5

13

13.5

14

14.5

15

10.5

11

11.5

12

12.5

13

13.5

14

14.5

15

w(l,t) [mm]

100

100

10

Fig. 8.

(t) [Nm]

0.5

0

Simulation

Real#1

Real#2

0.5

10

10.5

Fig. 6.

11

11.5

12

12.5

Time [s]

13

13.5

14

14.5

15

ones are experimental results. Finally Fig. 7 shows the

system response to the 120 amplitude position reference

signal reported with the black dashed line in the rst subplot. Looking at the gures, we can observe that the model is

capable to capture with good approximation the dynamics of

stressed by the open loop validation, an integral action on

the position error has been introduced in order to guarantee

an asymptotic zero-error regulation. Moreover an observer

is required. The LQ controller is synthesized, assuming that

the state is available, based only on the linear model (2),

without considering the friction model, and the model of the

integrator. For this reason the following enlarged system has

been derived:

.

0

(t) + B

hub

(t)

= A(t)

+ B

(t),

t 0,

where

2813

(0)

=

0

A

C1

0

0

=

B

B

0

=

B

0

1

!

A =

TuB14.5

0

matrix C and hub

is the reference signal for hub .

The cost function to be minimized is

J (

0 , ()) =

() Q

() + () R () d

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0 0.05

Q=

0

0

1

0

0

"

50 0

0 1

0 0

0 0

0 0

where

R = 1000

!

Fig. 9.

LQ control validation

(t) = K (t)

VI. C ONCLUSION

where

P

K = R1 B

equation

1 B

P.

0 = P A + A P + Q P BR

The cost matrices Q and R are chosen in order to penalize

more the position error and less the integral action. Moreover

since the plant is equipped only with two transducers that

furnish a measure proportional to the motor rotation and

a measure proportional to the end-effector displacement

from the neutral axis, the state system is not completely

measurable. Then the following state observer is used:

.

(t)

= A(t)

+ B (t) L (y(t) C (t))

where (t)

is chosen such that the eigenvalues of the matrix A+LC are

BK.

In particular

the

vector

of

the

eigenvalues

of

A+LC

is

equal

is given by

.

(t)

= A(t)

+ B (t) L (y(t) C (t))

0

v(t)

(t)

(t) = K

v(t)

In Fig. 9 a step response of 120 of the hub is reported.

The blue line is the simulated evolution while the other ones

are the experimental responses. The mean value and the

standard deviation of the hub position after 5 seconds for

several experiments are 121.1 and 0.3 respectively. From

the mean value it is possible to notice that in spite of the

presence of the integral action a small error remains. This

is due to the small value of the element (5,5) of the matrix

Q that penalizes the integral state. However, this small error

is negligible while an increase of the penalty on the integral

action increases the oscillations on the arm. Moreover, the

SD is reduced with respect to the same experiment made in

open-loop (see Table III).

a laboratory planar exible manipulator has been proposed

and successfully validated. Remarkably, even if the nonlinear

friction model and the actuator limitation are not directly

considered in the synthesis of the control law, they are

required to choose the values of the controller parameters

in simulation before applying them to the experimental setup.

R EFERENCES

[1] L. Bascetta and P. Rocco. Two-time scale visual servoing of eye-inhand exible manipulators. IEEE Trans. On Robotics, 22:818830,

2006.

[2] F. Bellezza, L. Lanari, and G. Ulivi. Exact modeling of the exible

slewing link. In Int. Conference on Robotics and Automation,

Cincinnati, USA, May 13-18, pages 734739, 1990.

[3] W. J. Book. Structural exibility of motion systems in the space

environement. IEEE Trans on Robotics and Automation, 9:524530,

1993.

[4] C. Canudas de Wit and B. Siciliano. Theory of Robot Control.

Springer, London, 1996.

[5] A. De Luca and B. Siciliano. Closed-form dynamic model of planar

multilink lightweight robots. IEEE Trans. On Systems, Man, and

Cybernetics, 21:826839, 1991.

[6] S. K. Dwivedy and P. Eberhard. Dynamic analysis of exible

manipulators, a literature review. Mechanism and Machine Theory,

41:749777, 2006.

[7] M. E. Gurtin. An Introduction to Continuum Mechanics. Academic

Press, New York, 1981.

[8] L. Meirovitch. Analytical Methods in Vibrations. Mac Millan

Publishing, 1967.

[9] G. Mimmi, C. Rottenbacher, and G. Bonandrini. Theoretical and

experimental sensitivity analysis of extra insensitive input shapers

applied to open loop control of exible arm. International Journal

of Mechanics and Materials in Design, 2008.

[10] H. Olsson, K. AAstrom, C. Canudas-de Wit, M. Gafvert, and

P. Lischinsky. Friction models and friction compensation. European

Journal of Control, 4:176195, 1998.

[11] S. S. Rao. Mechanical Vibrations. Prentice Hall, 4th edition, 2003.

2814

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