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ABSTRACT
Attached to a construction company that is building a building located at Semenyih,

Selangor and Hazard Identification, Risk Assessment and Risk Control (HIRARC) has
been carried out at the construction site. As known, construction industry is one of the
industries that have been classified as the highest number that contribute to the accident
and resulted fatal.
This report aims to identify the hazard and risk assessment for the most critical hazard
and recommend control measures and review measures for the construction and to
archive the above objectives, the methods used to identify the hazard is by observation
and risk assessment in the workplace. The results of above methods, the risk of the most
critical safety hazards in at the site is crushed by heavy object while the most critical
health hazard is exposed to extreme temperature(heat). Measure to control the risk of
both hazards is suggested is based on hierarchy of control which is elimination,
substitution, isolation, engineering controls, administrative controls and last but not least
personal protective equipments (PPE)

to minimize, reduce and control the exposure

towards the hazards. Risk work activities interpreted by using risk tables (qualitative) and
schedule risk assessment matrix (quantitative).

INTRODUCTION

2.1 COMPANY BACKGROUND


S.N. Akmida Holding SDN BHD (SNAH) was incoperated in October 1984. SNAH is
actively involved as a contractor in the Civil, Infrastructure and building construction.
SNAH currently holds class G7 contractor license of CIDB Malaysia. SNAH also a
PKK(G7) Bumiputra Status contractor and is credited with the government as fully 100%
Bumiputra contractor.
The company has completed and undertake projects worth more than RM880
million from both the government and private sectors. A full list of projects and the
relevant details are available in the next page. With the current project banking facilities
amounting of RM68 million and technical expertise more than 30 engineers, SNAH is
now ready to explore and take up new challenges in the construction industry. SNAH has
been awarded ISO9001:2000 Quality Management System certificates in 2006 and
upgraded to ISO9001:2008 in early 2009 of recognition to our quality management
system in the construction industry.
Total of 6 months were taken for my internship program at one of the site that
SNAH Company have which is at Town Park 6, Bandar Tun Hussein Onn, Cheras,
Selangor. I was directed to the site that construct a condominium. UDA LAND SDN
BHD is the client for build the condominium.
Most of the time I was observing my supervisor conduct his task and gained some
experience from it. Then, they teach us the way of the safety and health at construction

2.2 ORGANIZATION CHART

2.3 COMPANY POLICY (QESH Policy)


S.N.Akmida, is place the highest priority on quality service, care for health, safety and
environment as well as welfare of all their employees, clients, suppliers and
subcontractors.
During the execution of all activities in Engineering, Procurement, and Construction, It is
our policy to implement an effective, efficient and auditable management system to
ensure that

We are identified in the industry as a provider of quality products and services that
are cost effective, technologically advanced in compliance with our clients
requirement with standard accuracy.

We provide a safe and productive work environment where people work together
towards common objectives effectively, efficiently and with pleasure.

We design and build facilities that are safe and environmentally sound and our
work processes, actions and attitudes are geared towards prevention from
pollution and avoidance of all circumstances that could cause personal injury,
illness and negative impact on the natural environment. In order to achieve such
objective, the system will be structured in accordance with ISO 9001 and
implemented in accordance with the applicable local laws and regulations.

We will strive for continuous improvement of our performance in all quality, health,
safety and environmental aspects through proactive planning, awareness, creative
thinking, openness and dialogue with all stakeholders and involved parties to be
consistent with the alteration may be occurred.
We recognize that achievement of this policy depends on the personal commitment and
input of each individual in all levels. The management level personnel have a special
responsibility and shall lead by example to ensure that this policy is thoroughly
communicated and substantially implemented.

2.4 OVERALL WORK PROCESS

SITE CEARLANCE

SETTING OUT

EXCAVATION

STRUCTURE WORK

PILING WORK

ARCHITECT & M&E

INFRASTRUCTURE
HAND OVER
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2.5 SELECTED WORK PROCESS ( PILING )

MACHINE MOBILIZATION
MACHINE
MOBILIZATION

INJECTING PILE

WELDING
JOINT

2.6 HAZARD IDNETIFICATION

WORK PROCESS
MACHINE MOBILISATION

HAZARD
1.

STRUCK BY MOVING MACHINE

1.

FLYING FRAGMENT

2.

EXCESSIVE NOISE

3.

DUST

4.

CRUSHED BY FALLING OBJECT

INJECTING OF PILE

1. RADIATION
WELDING JOINT

2. .HEAT

3. AKWARD POSTURE

3 OBJECTIVE
The objective or aim of this HIRARC assignment are;
To implement HIRARC
Identifying the safety and health hazard in the workplace.
To assess the risk arising from the nature of the workplace.
To propose and give the recommendation by using the
hierarchy of control.
To find out the 5 safety hazard and 3 health hazard through the
work activity.
To get the risk rating by using the formula (likelihood X

severity).

4 METHODOLOGY
Methodology is the method that helps to accumulate all the information for the findings.
Information about the work process, the potential risk and any existing hazard at the
workplace. In this assignment, there are 3 types of methodology were used which are
interview, observation, risk assessment steps, severity table, likelihood table and risk
rating table.
Hazard Identification Process
Hazard identification process is the first step in the risk management process. Hazard is
defined as anything that can cause harm to the workers, property of company, and
environment. The purpose of identifying hazards is to determine any situation in the
workplace that has the potential to harm the safety and health of people and damage the
plant. The method that used to be obtaining data of the hazard in this report was;
I.

Interview

Interview one of the staff has given any related information regarding the work process
and the whole information about existing risk and potential hazards. The interview
session was asking about;

The company background


Any incident/accident have occurred
Work process
Work activity
Any assessment have been made before
Any existing control by the management

II.

Observation

Observed the workstation area and the work process to identify existing risk and potential
hazards. The observation such as:

Observe the workplace


Observe the work activities
Observe any potential hazard
Observe the lack of safety

III. Risk Assessment


Risk assessment is usually conducted after a hazard identification process. The risk
assessment consist the calculation of risk rating which is related to the hazard during the
work process. . Hazard can be categorized into 2 types, safety hazard and health hazard.
Safety hazard is hazard that can harm us in form of physical contact and can cause injury
and property damages. Health hazard is hazard that can impose our health through the route
of entries of human and can develop the occupational illnesses and poisoning in prolong
time. With this types of hazard, we can assess through the risk rating method whether it
impose to our safety and health or not during the working
Process.
Due to a big company, there is no record review was made. It is because this company
did not have any record about any incident occurred to the workers. This company also
never has any risk assessment. That is why three methods is more suitable and applicable
for this assessment.

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Likelihood Table

Severity Table

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Risk Matrix

Risk Description

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EXAMPLE OF RISK ASSESMENT FOR SAFETY AND HEALTH HAZARD


Safety Hazard
Hazard
Carry a heavy

Effect
-Bone fracture

bag of cement

at shoulder.

To get the value and rating base on


the observation or review the
document record of the company.
Refer the likelihood table.

Likelihood
5

Severity
4

Risk Level
20

Frequent

Major

Incident

Lost time

happened more

injuries or

than 1 time in

illness (5 or

a year.

more MC)

Severity table normally to


show the impact based on
each value and ranking.
Refer the severity table.

Very High

Risk level is the result from


likelihood and severity. Formula
to get risk rating or level is
Likelihood X Severity = Risk
Rating
Normally the recommendation
based on the action table

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5 HIRARC TABLE

1.
NO

HAZARD INDETIFICATION

WORK
ACTIVITI

HAZARD

WHICH CAN
CAUSE /
EFFECT

2.
EXISTING RISK
CONTROL ( IF
ANY)

MACHINE

STRUCK BY

FATAL /

HANDLE BY COMPETENT

MOBILISATION

MOVING

PERMANENT

PERSON

MACHINE

DISABILITY

RISK ANALYSIS

3.

RISK CONTROL

4.

RISK RATING

Likelihood Severity Risk

CONTROL
MEASURE/

LAW &
REGULATION

RECOMMENDATION
2

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administrative Control
-ensure the machine was handle
by a competent person
-Place signalman to give direction
and communicate with operator
directly

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FLYING

SCRATCH

FRAGMENT

Personal Protective Equipment


(PPE)
-provide protective clothing
-Provide PPE such as safety
helmet and safety boot

EXCESSIVE
NOISE
2

HEARRING
DAMAGE

administrative Control
-job rotation
-increase length of frequent break
Personal Protective Equipment
(PPE)
-provide suitable PPE like ear
muff, ear plug

Engineering Control
-install water spray

PERSONAL PROTECTIVE
EQUIPMNET

INJECTING OF
PILE
DUST

LUNG DAMAGE

CRUSHED BY

FATAL

PERSONAL PROTECTIVE

Administrative Control
-job rotation
-increase length of frequent break
Personal Protective Equipment
(PPE)
-provide suitable PPE like face
mask

EQUIPMNET

3
FALLING /
HEAVY OBJECT

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Isolation
-Provide barricade to avoid other
worker to enter piling work site
-Place warning sign to inform
other worker that piling work are
being caried out
Engineering Control
-Service the lump frequently
Administrative Control
-Provide training to all worker
-Ensure person that handle piling
machine is a competence person
Personal Protective Equipment
(PPE)
-Provide proper PPE like safety
helmet, safety boot and etc

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RADIATION

HEAT

ARC FLASHES MAY

PERSONAL PROTECTIVE

DAMAGE EYE

EQUIPMNET

DEHYDRATION

-JOB ROTATION

Personal Protective Equipment


(PPE)
-provide welding mask or google

Engineering Control
-Reduce the temperature and
humidity through air cooling
-Provide cool, shaded work areas
-Provide air-conditioned rest area
- Increase air movement if
temperature is below 35C (e.g., use
fans)
Administrative Control
-Employer should assess the demands
of all jobs and have monitoring and
control strategies in place for hot
days and hot workplaces
-Increase the frequency and length of
rest breaks
-Schedule strenuous jobs to cooler
times of the day
-Provide cool drinking water near
workers and remind them to drink a
cup about every 20 minutes, or more
frequently, to stay hydrated
Personal Protective Equipment
(PPE)
-Provide proper PPE like protective
clothing
-Influence worker to wear light
summer clothing should be worn to
allow free air movement and sweat
evaporation.

Administrative Control
-provide training to worker

PERSONAL PROTECTIVE
EQUIPMNET

WELDING JOINT

AKWARD
POSTURE

BACK PAIN

Administrative Control
-provide training to worker

-frequent break

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6.1

The Critical Hazard

Critical hazard is defined as the hazard which poses the highest risk rating in the Hazard
identification, Risk analysis and Risk control of HIRARC FORM. This is to identify by
calculating the risk which is likelihood multiply severity. In order to identify the value of
the risk, use the risk matrix table to know the value lies at what stage and use risk rating
table to determine the range of the hazard. They are two types of critical hazards such as
safety critical hazard and health critical hazard.
Most critical safety hazard
Work activity: Injecting pile (crushed by heavy object)
Engineering Control
-Provide barricade to avoid other worker to enter piling work site
-Place warning sign to inform other worker that piling work are being caried out
Administrative Control
-Provide training to all worker
-Ensure person that handle piling machine is a competence person
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
-Provide proper PPE like safety helmet, safety boot and etc

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Most critical health hazard


Work activity: Welding Joint (heat)
Engineering Control
-Reduce the temperature and humidity through air cooling
-Provide cool, shaded work areas
-Provide air-conditioned rest area
- Increase air movement if temperature is below 35C (e.g., use fans)
Administrative Control
-Employer should assess the demands of all jobs and have monitoring and control
strategies in place for hot days and hot workplaces
-Increase the frequency and length of rest breaks
-Schedule strenuous jobs to cooler times of the day
-Provide cool drinking water near workers and remind them to drink a cup about every 20
minutes, or more frequently, to stay hydrated
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
-Provide proper PPE like protective clothing
-Influence worker to wear light summer clothing should be worn to allow free air
movement and sweat evaporation.

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Benefit and conclusion


Construction site is high risk workplace where the hazard everywhere and anytime can
happen. Hazard identification, Risk Assessment and Risk Control can be used to control
and eliminate the hazard at the workplace. Any person who exits the construction site
must get working permit from authority person such as site supervisor or safety and
health officer (SHO). Others than that, SHO and management need to know how to
communicate and cooperate with the workers, sub-contractor and client at the
construction site. The instruction must be clear and receive by everybody in site work.
In conclusion, HIRARC procedures can identify the hazard thoroughly form the process
of the work. After identification process, the risk assessment can be conduct to determine
the risk rating base on the work activity and hazard come from it. The highest risk rating
must be prevent first to reduce the number of accident occur. After that, the appropriate
control measure must be implemented in order to increase the safety measurement during
conducting works. Although the existing control measure is given, the efficiency and
effectiveness of the existing control measures is not appropriate due to the hazard occur
during the works process

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Hazard identification and risk assessment will beneficial to the employer :


- Recognize and control hazards in the workplace.

Training

Inspections

Work procedures

Planned maintenance of equipment and structures

Ensuring sufficient and competent supervision

- Create awareness among the employee and use it as training tool as well.
- Set risk management standards (OSHAS 18001 & ISO 1900), based on on acceptable
safe practices and legal requirement. (OSHA 1994 & FMA 1967)
- Reduce incidents in the workplace by creating safety culture among the workers.
- Save costs by being proactive instead of reactive.

Reduce medical bills, compensation cost, retrain new workers and repair damage
property.

Hazard identification and risk assessment will beneficial to the employee :

They will work more confident in the work place

Absenteeism among the workers will not occur.

Workers will trust to the employer who that concern about the safety and health
and welfare.

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