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NEXUS VISTA SPM ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS FORM 4 & 5

Page 67 (More Cloned SPM Questions)

Chapter 5:

Supplementary Materials for

Indices and Logarithms

Cloned SPM Question (Paper 1)


Solve the equation 273 x 5 =

1
93 x

Solution
273 x 5 =

33(3 x 5) =

1
93 x
1
1

32(3 x ) 2
1
= (3 x )
3
= 3 (3 x )
3(3x 5) = (3 x)
9x 15 = x 3
8x = 12
3
x=
2

Equate the indices.

Pointers
Since 27 and 9 are both powers of 3, both sides of the equation can be expressed in index
form as powers of 3.
When the bases on both sides of the equation are the same, the indices on both sides of the
equation must be the same.
The equation is then solved by equating the indices.

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NEXUS VISTA SPM ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS FORM 4 & 5


Page 67 (More Cloned SPM Questions)

Supplementary Materials for

Cloned SPM Question (Paper 1)


Given log 3 pq = 2 + 3 log 3 p log 3 q , express p in terms of q.

Solution
log 3 pq = 2 + 3 log 3 p log 3 q

log 3 pq log 3 p 3 + log 3 q = 2

log 3

pq 2
=2
p3
q2
= 32
2
p
q
p=
3

Pointers
Since all the terms involving logarithms are to the same base, that is base 3, they can be
combined as a single term using the laws of logarithms.
The equation is then changed into index form. Then make p the subject of the equation.

Cloned SPM Question (Paper 1)


Solve the equation 3 + log 2 ( x 1) = log 2 x .

Solution
3 + log 2 ( x 1) = log 2 x

3 = log 2 x log 2 ( x 1)
log 2

x
=3
x 1
x
= 23
x 1
x = 8x 8
7x = 8
8
x=
7

Pointers
Combine all terms involving logarithms into a single term using the laws of logarithms.
Then, change the equation from the logarithmic form to the index form, which can be easily
solved.

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ii

NEXUS VISTA SPM ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS FORM 4 & 5


Page 67 (More Cloned SPM Questions)

Supplementary Materials for

Cloned SPM Question (Paper 1)


27 p
in terms of m and n.
q

Given log 3 p = m and log3 q = n , express log9

Solution

27 p
=
q

log9

27 p

log3

log 3 9
log 3 27 + log3 p log3 q
=
log3 32
log3 33 + m n
=
2
1
= (3 + m n)
2

Pointers
Observe that the given logarithms are to the base 3 while the given expression is to the
base 9. So, change the logarithm to the base 9 to logarithms to the base 3 using the
formula log a b =

log c b
.
log c a

Next, apply the laws of logarithms on product and quotient.


Since 27 and 9 are both powers of 3, their logarithms to the base 3 are 3 and 2 respectively.

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iii

NEXUS VISTA SPM ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS FORM 4 & 5


Page 67 (More Cloned SPM Questions)

Supplementary Materials for

Cloned SPM Question (Paper 1)


Given 8(2n 2) = 16n, find the value of n.

Solution
8(2n 2) = 16n
23(2n 2) = (24)n
23 + n 2 = 24n
2n + 1 = 24n
n + 1 = 4n
3n = 1

n=

1
3

Pointers
Observe that all the numbers in this equation are powers of 2.
Use the laws of indices to express:

23(2n 2) as 23 + n 2
(24)n as 24n

When both sides of the equation are numbers in index form with the same base, we can
equate the indices and solve the equation.

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iv

NEXUS VISTA SPM ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS FORM 4 & 5


Page 67 (More Cloned SPM Questions)

Supplementary Materials for

Cloned SPM Question (Paper 1)


Given log 81 x2 = log 3 5, find the value of x.

Solution
log 81 x2 = log3 5
log 3 x 2
= log3 5
log 3 81
2 log 3 x
= log 3 5
4
log 3 x
= log 3 5
2
log 3 x = log 3 52
Thus,

x = 52
= 25

Pointers
To solve any logarithmic equation, first change the bases of all the logarithms of the
equation to a common base.
Observe that the terms in the given logarithmic equation are to the bases 81 and 3.
Since 81 is a power of 3, change log 81 x2 to the base 3 by using the formula log a b =
Note that log 3 81 = 4 because log 3 81 = log 3 34 = 4 log 3 3 and log 3 3 = 1.

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log c b
.
log c a