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Lista principalelor verbe neregulate in engleza

Infinitiv
-forma 1to abide
to arise
to awake

Participiu trecut
-forma 3abode
arisen
awoken
awaked
been
born
beaten
become
begun
beheld
bent
besought
bet

Traducere
verb
a astepta, a sta, a locui
a se ridica
a se trezi

to be
to bear
to beat
to become
to begin
to behold
to bend
to beseech
to bet

Trecut
-forma 2abode
arose
awoke
awaked
was, were
bore
beat
became
began
beheld
bent
besought
bet

to bid
to bind
to bite
to bleed
to bless
to blow
to break
to breed
to bring
to broadcast
to burn
to burst
to buy
can
to cast
to catch
to choose
to cleave
to cling

bade
bound
bit
bled
blest
blew
broke
bred
brought
broadcast
burnt (burned)
burst
bought
could
cast
caught
chose
cleft
clung

bidden
bound
bitten
bled
blest
blown
broken
bred
brought
broadcast
burnt (burned)
burst
bought
been able to
cast
caught
chosen
cleft
clung

a oferi, a licita
a lega
a musca
a sangera
a binecuvanta
a sufla
a sparge
a creste
a aduce
a transmite prin radio
a arde
a izbucni
a cumpara
a putea
a arunca
a prinde
a alege
a despica
a se lipi

a fi
a se naste
a bate
a deveni
a icepe
a zari, a vedea
a indoi, a curba
a implora
a paria

to come
to cost
to creep
to cut
to deal
to dig
to do
to draw
to dream
to drink
to drive
to dwell
to eat
to fall
to feed
to feel
to fight
to find
to fly
to forbid
to forecast
to foresee
to foretell
to forget
to forgive
to forgo

came
cost
crept
cut
dealt
dug
did
drew
dreamt (dreamed)
drank
drove
dwelt
ate
fell
fed
felt
fought
found
flew
forbade
forecast
foresaw
foretold
forgot
forgave
forwent

come
cost
crept
cut
dealt
dug
done
drawn
dreamt (dreamed)
drunk
driven
dwelt
eaten
fallen
fed
felt
fought
found
flown
forbidden
forecast
foreseen
foretold
forgotten
forgiven
forgone

forsake
to freeze
to get
to give
to go
to grind
to grow
to hang
to have
to hear
to hide

forsook
froze
got
gave
went
ground
grew
hung (hanged)
had
heard
hid

forsaken
frozen
got
given
gone
ground
grown
hung (hanged)
had
heard
hidden

a veni
a costa
a se tara
a taia
a se ocupa, a trata afaceri
a sapa
a face
a desena
a visa
a bea
a conduce masina
a locui, a ramane, a insista
a manca
a cadea
a hrani
a simti
a lupta
a gasi
a zbura
a interzice
a prevedea
a prevedea
a prezice
a uita
a ierta
a renunta la,
a da uitarii
a parasi
a igheta
a primi
a da
a merge
a macina
a creste
a spanzura
a avea
a auzi
a ascunde

to hit
to hold
to hurt
to keep
to kneel
to knit
to know
to lay
to lead
to lean
to learn
to leave
to lend
to let
to lie
to light
to lose
to make
to mean
to meet
to misgive
to mislead
to mistake
to outdo
to overcome
to overdo
to pay
to put
to read
to rend
to ride
to ring
to rise
to run
to say
to see
to seek

hit
held
hurt
kept
knelt
knit
knew
laid
led
leant
learnt (learned)
left
lent
let
lay
lit
lost
made
meant
met
misgave
misled
mistook
outdid
overcame
overdid
paid
put
read
rent
rode
rang
rose
ran
said
saw
sought

hit
held
hurt
kept
knelt
knit
known
laid
led
leant
learnt (learned)
left
lent
let
lain
lit
lost
made
meant
met
misgiven
misled
mistaken
outdone
overcome
overdone
paid
put
read
rent
ridden
rung
risen
run
said
seen
sought

a lovi
a tine
a rani
a pastra
a igenunchia
a tricota
a sti, a cunoaste
a aseza
a conduce
a se sprijini de
a ivata
a parasi
a mprumuta (cuiva)
a permite
a fi culcat
a aprinde
a pierde
a face
a isemna
a intalni
a inspira neicredere
a induce in eroare
a intelege gresit
a intrece
a invinge
a face exces
a plati
a pune
a citi
a sfasia, a rupe
a calari
a suna
a se ridica
a alerga
a spune
a vedea
a cauta

to sell
to send
to set
to sew
to shake
to shave
to shed
to shine
to shoe
to shoot
to show
to shrink
to shut
to sing
to sink
to sit
to slay
to sleep
to slide
to sling
to slit
to smell
to smite
to sow
to speak
to speed
to spell
to spend
to spill
to spin

sold
sent
set
sewed
shook
shaved
shed
shone
shod
shot
showed
shrank
shut
sang
sank
sat
slew
slept
slid
slung
slit
smelt (smelled)
smote
sowed
spoke
sped
spelt (spelled)
spent
spilt
spun

sold
sent
set
sewn (sewed)
shaken
shaven
shed
shone
shod
shot
shown
shrunk
shut
sung
sunk
sat
slain
slept
slid
slung
slit
smelt (smelled)
smitten
sown
spoken
sped
spelt (spelled)
spent
spilt
spun

to spit
to split
to spoil
to spread
to spring
to stand
to steal

spat
split
spoilt
spread
sprang
stood
stole

spat
split
spoilt
spread
sprung
stood
stolen

a vinde
a trimite
a regla, a fixa
a coase
a scutura, a clatina
a se barbieri
a varsa (lacrimi)
a straluci
a icalta, a potcovi
a mpusca
a arata
a se strange
a inchide
a canta
a se scufunda
a sta (pe ceva)
a ucide
a dormi
a aluneca
a azvarli
a despica
a mirosi
a lovi
a semana
a vorbi
a accelera
a pronunta litera cu litera
a cheltui
a varsa
a toarce,
a se roti
a scuipa
a despica
a strica
a intinde
a sari, a tasni
a sta in picioare
a fura

to stick
to sting
to stink
to strike
to string

stuck
stung
stank
struck
strung

stuck
stung
stunk
struck
strung

to strive
to swear
to sweep
to swim
to swing
to take
to teach
to tear
to tell
to think
to throw
to thrust
to tread
to underlie
to understand
to upset
to wake
to wear
to weave
to wet
to win
to wind
to wring

strove
swore
swept
swam
swung
took
taught
tore
told
thought
threw
thrust
trod
underlay
understood
upset
woke
wore
wove
wet
won
wound
wrung

striven
sworn
swept
swum
swung
taken
taught
torn
told
thought
thrown
thrust
trodden
underlain
understood
upset
woken
worn
woven
wet
won
wound
wrung

to write

wrote

written
DIATEZA ACTIVA

I have seen a tree.

Subiectul (cel care face actiunea) = eu ("I")

a infige, a se lipi
a itepa
a mirosi urat
a lovi
a insira,
a incorda
a se stradui
a jura
a matura
a inota
a se legana
a lua
a invata, a preda
a rupe, a sfasia
a spune
a gandi, a crede
a arunca
a mbranci
a calca
a sustine
a intelge
a supara
a se trezi
a purta
a tese
a uda
a castiga
a se rasuci
a frange,
a smulge
a scrie

Actiunea "se rasfrange" asupra copacului ("tree").

Yesterday, he broke his bicycle.

Subiectul (cel care face actiunea) = el ("he")


Actiunea "se rasfrange" asupra bicicletei sale ("his bicycle").

DIATEZA PASIVA

I have seen a tree. (diateza activa).


The tree has been seen by me. (diateza pasiva).

Yesterday, he broke his bicycle. (diateza activa).


Yesterday, his bicycle was broken by him. (diateza pasiva).

I will buy a car. (diateza activa).


The car will be bought by me. (diateza pasiva).

DIATEZA REFLEXIVA

Mary washes herself.


Maria s-a spalat.

Jen and Greg kiss each other.


Jen si Greg se saruta.

He shaved himself.
El s-a barbierit.

CONJUGAREA VERBELOR

Persoana
I singular

Past Simple
I came

Past Continuous
I was coming

Past Perfect Simple


I had come

Past Perfect Continuous


I had been coming

II singular

You came

You were coming

You had come

You had been coming

III
singular

He/She/It came

He/She/It was coming

He/She/It had come

He/She/It has been coming

I plural

We came

We were coming

We had come

We had been coming

II plural

You came

You were coming

You had come

You had been coming

III plural

They came

They were coming

They had come

They had been coming

Forma negativa a verbelor in limba engleza (ex. verbul "to come")


Persoana

Past Simple

Past Continuous

Past Perfect Simple

Past Perfect Continuous

I singular

I did not come

I was not coming

I had not come

I had not been coming

II singular

You did not come

You were not coming

You had not come

You had not been coming

III singular

He/She/It did not


come

He/She/It was not


coming

He/She/It had not


come

He/She/It has not been coming

I plural

We did not come

We were not coming

We had not come

We had not been coming

II plural

You did not come

You were not coming

You had not come

You had not been coming

III plural

They did not come

They were not coming

They had not come

They had not been coming

Forma interogativa a verbelor in limba engleza (ex. verbul "to come")


Persoana
I singular

Past Simple
Did I come?

Past Continuous
Was I coming?

Past Perfect Simple


Had I come?

Past Perfect Continuous


Had I been coming?

II singular

Did you come?

Were you coming?

Had you come?

Had you been coming?

III
singular

Did he/she/it come?

Was he/she/it
coming?

Had he/she/it come?

Has he/she/it been coming?

I plural

Did we come?

Were we coming?

Had we come?

Had we been coming?

II plural

Did you come?

Were you coming?

Had you come?

Had you been coming?

III plural

Did they come?

Were they coming?

Had they come?

Had they been coming?

Prezent/ Present
Forma afirmativa a verbelor in limba engleza (ex. verbul "to come")

Persoana

Present Simple

I singular
II singular
III singular
I plural
II plural
III plural

I come
You come
He/She/It comes
We come
You come
They come

Present Perfect
Simple

Present Continuous
I am coming
You are coming
He/She/It is coming
We are coming
You are coming
They are coming

I have come
You have come
He/She/It has come
We have come
You have come
They have come

Present Perfect Continuous


I have been coming
You have been coming
He/She/It has been coming
We have been coming
You have been coming
They have been coming

Forma negativa a verbelor in limba engleza (ex. verbul "to come")


Persoana

Present Simple

Present Continuous

Present Perfect Simple

Present Perfect Continuous

I singular

I don't come

I am not coming

I have not come

I have not been coming

II singular

You don't come

You are not coming

You have not come

You have not been coming

III
singular

He/She/It doesn't
come

He/She/It is not
coming

He/She/It has not come

He/She/It has not been coming

I plural

We don't come

We are not coming

We have not come

We have not been coming

II plural

You don't come

You are not coming

You have not come

You have not been coming

III plural

They don't come

They are not coming

They have not come

They have not been coming

Forma interogativa a verbelor in limba engleza (ex. verbul "to come")

Persoana

Present Simple

Present Continuous

Present Perfect Simple

Present Perfect
Continuous

I singular

Do I come?

Am I coming?

Have I come?

Have I been coming?

II singular

Do you come?

Are you coming?

Have you come?

Have you been coming?

III
singular

Does he/she/it
come?

Is he/she/it coming?

Has he/she/it come?

Has he/she/it been coming?

I plural

Do we come?

Are we coming?

Have we come?

Have we been coming?

II plural

Do you come?

Are you coming?

Have you come?

Have you been coming?

III plural

Do they come?

Are they coming?

Have they come?

Have they been coming?

Viitor/ Future
Forma afirmativa a verbelor in limba engleza (ex. verbul "to come")
Persoana

Be Going To Future

Simple Future

Future Continuous

I singular

I am going to come

I will come

I will be coming

II singular

You are going to come

You will come

You will be coming

III singular

He/She/It is going to come

He/She/It will come

He/She/It will be coming

I plural

We are going to come

We will come

We will be coming

II plural

You are going to come

You will come

You will be coming

III plural

They are going to come

They will come

They will be coming

Persoana

Future Perfect

Future Perfect Continuous

"Be about to" Future

I singular

I will have come

I will have been coming

I am about to come

II singular

You will have come

You will have been coming

You are about to come

III singular

He/She/It will have come

He/She/It will have been coming

He/She/It is about to come

I plural

We will have come

We will have been coming

We are about to come

II plural

You will have come

You will have been coming

You are about to come

III plural

They will have come

They will have been coming

They are about to come

Forma negativa a verbelor in limba engleza (ex. verbul "to come")


Persoana

Be Going To Future

Simple Future

Future Continuous

I singular

I am not going to come

I will not come

I will not be coming

II singular

You are not going to come

You will not come

You will not be coming

III
singular

He/She/It is not going to come

He/She/It will not come

He/She/It will not be coming

I plural

We are not going to come

We will not come

We will not be coming

II plural

You are not going to come

You will not come

You will not be coming

III plural

They are not going to come

They will not come

They will not be coming

Persoan
a

Future Perfect

Future Perfect Continuous

"Be about to" Future

I singular

I will not have come

I will not have been coming

I am not about to come

II singular

You will not have come

You will not have been coming

You are not about to come

III
singular

He/She/It will not have come

He/She/It will not have been coming

He/She/It is not about to


come

I plural

We will not have come

We will not have been coming

We are not about to come

II plural

You will not have come

You will not have been coming

You are not about to come

III plural

They will not have come

They will not have been coming

They are not about to come

Forma interogativa a verbelor in limba engleza (ex. verbul "to come")


Persoan
a

Be Going To Future

Simple Future

Future Continuous

I singular

Am I going to come?

Will I come?

Will I be coming?

II singular

Are you going to come?

Will you come?

Will you be coming?

III
singular

Is he/she/it going to come?

Will he/she/it come?

Will he/she/it be coming?

I plural

Are we going to come?

Will we come?

Will we be coming?

II plural

Are you going to come?

Will you come?

Will you be coming?

III plural

Are you going to come?

Will they come?

Will they be coming?

Persoan
a

Future Perfect

Future Perfect Continuous

"Be about to" Future

I singular

Will I have come?

Will I have been coming?

Am I about to come?

II singular

Will you have come?

Will you have been coming?

Are you about to come?

III
singular

Will he/she/it have come?

Will he/she/it have been coming?

Is he/she/it about to come?

I plural

Will we have come?

Will we have been coming?

Are we about to come?

II plural

Will you have come?

Will you have been coming?

Are you about to come?

III plural

Will they have come?

Will they have been coming?

Are they about to come?

TRECUTUL/ PAST

Trecutul (Simplu) Continuu/ The Past Tense Continuous


1. pentru a exprima o actiune in progres la un anumit moment din trecut
2. pentru a arata ca o actiune trecuta a fost intrerupta de o alta
3. folosind "Past Continuous Tense" pentru actiuni trecute sublinieaza ideea de paralelism, simultaneitate
(se cunoaste timpul)
4. pentru a exprima iritarea vis-a-vis de actiuni care se repetau in trecut
5. pentru a exprima conditionalul prezent ireal continuu

Cum se formeaza

was/were + present participle

Cand se foloseste & Exemple

1. pentru a exprima o actiune in progres la un anumit moment din trecut

I remember that yesterday at 5 Pm I was watching TV.


(Imi amintesc ca ieri la ora 5 pm, ma uitam la Tv.)

2. pentru a arata ca o actiune trecuta a fost intrerupta de o alta

I was playing a computer game when she called.


(Ma jucam pe calculator cand ea a sunat.)

While we were having the picnic, it started to rain.


(In timp ce eram la picnic, a inceput sa ploua.)

3. folosind "Past Continuous Tense" pentru actiuni trecute sublinieaza ideea de paralelism,
simultaneitate (se cunoaste timpul)

Last evening at 5 Pm, I was studying while he was


making dinner.
(Seara trecuta, la ora 5 pm, eu invatam in timp ce el pregatea cina.)

4. pentru a exprima iritarea vis-a-vis de actiuni care se repetau in trecut

He was constantly/ always coming late to the English class.


(Intotdeauna venea tarziu la ora de engleza.)

5. pentru a exprima conditionalul prezent ireal continuu

What would you say if the boy were studying now ?


(Discutie intre parinti cand se pregatesc sa intre in camera copiilor. Ei nu se asteapta ca baiatul lor sa
invete acum.)

(Ce ai spune daca baiatul ar invata acum?)

Trecutul Simplu/ The Simple Past Tense


1. actiunea e in trecut; timpul e definit cu exactitate (last week, last month, last year, that day, that week,
that year, in 1990, on Thursday, 10 years ago)
2. pentru o actiune care era o obistuinta in trecut (acum nu mai e)
3. in fraze ce implica utilizarea lui "Present Conditional (Unreal)"
4. in fraze ce implica utilizarea lui "Future-in-the-Past" (cand actiunile viitoare fata de actiunea trecuta
sunt simultane)

Cum se formeaza
Acest timp desemneaza o actiune care a avut loc in trecut, dar care este amintita in momentul prezent.

a) VERB+ed --> pentru verbele regulate.


b) forma a 2-a a verbelor neregulate --> pentru verbele neregulate.

Lista principalelor verbe neregulate in engleza


Infinitiv
-forma 1to abide
to arise
to awake
to be
to bear
to beat
to become
to begin
to behold
to bend
to beseech
to bet

Trecut
-forma 2abode
arose
awoke
awaked
was, were
bore
beat
became
began
beheld
bent
besought
bet

Participiu trecut
-forma 3abode
arisen
awoken
awaked
been
born
beaten
become
begun
beheld
bent
besought
bet

Traducere
verb
a astepta, a sta, a locui
a se ridica
a se trezi
a fi
a se naste
a bate
a deveni
a icepe
a zari, a vedea
a indoi, a curba
a implora
a paria

to bid
to bind
to bite
to bleed
to bless
to blow
to break
to breed
to bring
to broadcast
to burn
to burst
to buy
can
to cast
to catch
to choose
to cleave
to cling
to come
to cost
to creep
to cut
to deal
to dig
to do
to draw
to dream
to drink
to drive
to dwell
to eat
to fall
to feed
to feel
to fight
to find

bade
bound
bit
bled
blest
blew
broke
bred
brought
broadcast
burnt (burned)
burst
bought
could
cast
caught
chose
cleft
clung
came
cost
crept
cut
dealt
dug
did
drew
dreamt (dreamed)
drank
drove
dwelt
ate
fell
fed
felt
fought
found

bidden
bound
bitten
bled
blest
blown
broken
bred
brought
broadcast
burnt (burned)
burst
bought
been able to
cast
caught
chosen
cleft
clung
come
cost
crept
cut
dealt
dug
done
drawn
dreamt (dreamed)
drunk
driven
dwelt
eaten
fallen
fed
felt
fought
found

a oferi, a licita
a lega
a musca
a sangera
a binecuvanta
a sufla
a sparge
a creste
a aduce
a transmite prin radio
a arde
a izbucni
a cumpara
a putea
a arunca
a prinde
a alege
a despica
a se lipi
a veni
a costa
a se tara
a taia
a se ocupa, a trata afaceri
a sapa
a face
a desena
a visa
a bea
a conduce masina
a locui, a ramane, a insista
a manca
a cadea
a hrani
a simti
a lupta
a gasi

to fly
to forbid
to forecast
to foresee
to foretell
to forget
to forgive
to forgo

flew
forbade
forecast
foresaw
foretold
forgot
forgave
forwent

flown
forbidden
forecast
foreseen
foretold
forgotten
forgiven
forgone

forsake
to freeze
to get
to give
to go
to grind
to grow
to hang
to have
to hear
to hide
to hit
to hold
to hurt
to keep
to kneel
to knit
to know
to lay
to lead
to lean
to learn
to leave
to lend
to let
to lie
to light
to lose
to make

forsook
froze
got
gave
went
ground
grew
hung (hanged)
had
heard
hid
hit
held
hurt
kept
knelt
knit
knew
laid
led
leant
learnt (learned)
left
lent
let
lay
lit
lost
made

forsaken
frozen
got
given
gone
ground
grown
hung (hanged)
had
heard
hidden
hit
held
hurt
kept
knelt
knit
known
laid
led
leant
learnt (learned)
left
lent
let
lain
lit
lost
made

a zbura
a interzice
a prevedea
a prevedea
a prezice
a uita
a ierta
a renunta la,
a da uitarii
a parasi
a igheta
a primi
a da
a merge
a macina
a creste
a spanzura
a avea
a auzi
a ascunde
a lovi
a tine
a rani
a pastra
a igenunchia
a tricota
a sti, a cunoaste
a aseza
a conduce
a se sprijini de
a ivata
a parasi
a mprumuta (cuiva)
a permite
a fi culcat
a aprinde
a pierde
a face

to mean
to meet
to misgive
to mislead
to mistake
to outdo
to overcome
to overdo
to pay
to put
to read
to rend
to ride
to ring
to rise
to run
to say
to see
to seek
to sell
to send
to set
to sew
to shake
to shave
to shed
to shine
to shoe
to shoot
to show
to shrink
to shut
to sing
to sink
to sit
to slay
to sleep

meant
met
misgave
misled
mistook
outdid
overcame
overdid
paid
put
read
rent
rode
rang
rose
ran
said
saw
sought
sold
sent
set
sewed
shook
shaved
shed
shone
shod
shot
showed
shrank
shut
sang
sank
sat
slew
slept

meant
met
misgiven
misled
mistaken
outdone
overcome
overdone
paid
put
read
rent
ridden
rung
risen
run
said
seen
sought
sold
sent
set
sewn (sewed)
shaken
shaven
shed
shone
shod
shot
shown
shrunk
shut
sung
sunk
sat
slain
slept

a isemna
a intalni
a inspira neicredere
a induce in eroare
a intelege gresit
a intrece
a invinge
a face exces
a plati
a pune
a citi
a sfasia, a rupe
a calari
a suna
a se ridica
a alerga
a spune
a vedea
a cauta
a vinde
a trimite
a regla, a fixa
a coase
a scutura, a clatina
a se barbieri
a varsa (lacrimi)
a straluci
a icalta, a potcovi
a mpusca
a arata
a se strange
a inchide
a canta
a se scufunda
a sta (pe ceva)
a ucide
a dormi

to slide
to sling
to slit
to smell
to smite
to sow
to speak
to speed
to spell
to spend
to spill
to spin

slid
slung
slit
smelt (smelled)
smote
sowed
spoke
sped
spelt (spelled)
spent
spilt
spun

slid
slung
slit
smelt (smelled)
smitten
sown
spoken
sped
spelt (spelled)
spent
spilt
spun

to spit
to split
to spoil
to spread
to spring
to stand
to steal
to stick
to sting
to stink
to strike
to string

spat
split
spoilt
spread
sprang
stood
stole
stuck
stung
stank
struck
strung

spat
split
spoilt
spread
sprung
stood
stolen
stuck
stung
stunk
struck
strung

to strive
to swear
to sweep
to swim
to swing
to take
to teach
to tear
to tell
to think
to throw
to thrust

strove
swore
swept
swam
swung
took
taught
tore
told
thought
threw
thrust

striven
sworn
swept
swum
swung
taken
taught
torn
told
thought
thrown
thrust

a aluneca
a azvarli
a despica
a mirosi
a lovi
a semana
a vorbi
a accelera
a pronunta litera cu litera
a cheltui
a varsa
a toarce,
a se roti
a scuipa
a despica
a strica
a intinde
a sari, a tasni
a sta in picioare
a fura
a infige, a se lipi
a itepa
a mirosi urat
a lovi
a insira,
a incorda
a se stradui
a jura
a matura
a inota
a se legana
a lua
a invata, a preda
a rupe, a sfasia
a spune
a gandi, a crede
a arunca
a mbranci

to tread
to underlie
to understand
to upset
to wake
to wear
to weave
to wet
to win
to wind
to wring

trod
underlay
understood
upset
woke
wore
wove
wet
won
wound
wrung

trodden
underlain
understood
upset
woken
worn
woven
wet
won
wound
wrung

to write

wrote

written

a calca
a sustine
a intelge
a supara
a se trezi
a purta
a tese
a uda
a castiga
a se rasuci
a frange,
a smulge
a scrie

Observatii:
1) consoana finala a formei de infinitive se dubleaza cand vocala care o precede este scurta si
accentuate:
stop -> stopped
prefer -> preferred
2) verbele terminate in y precedat de consoana il schimba in i:
study -> studied
3) verbele terminate in e adauga doar d:
move -> moved

Cand se foloseste & Exemple

1. actiunea e in trecut; timpul e definit cu exactitate (last week, last month, last year, that
day, that week, that year, in 1990, on Thursday, 10 years ago)

I visited London 10 years ago.


(Am vizitat Londra acum 10 ani.)

2. pentru o actiune care era o obistuinta in trecut (acum nu mai e)

We went to the Black See every year.


(acum nu mai mergem in fiecare an la Marea Neagra)

(Am mers la Marea Neagra in fiecare an. /Obisnuiam sa mergem la Marea Neagra in fiecare
an)

3. in fraze ce implica utilizarea lui "Present Conditional (Unreal)"

Where would you stay if you went to Bucharest?

(Unde ai sta daca ai merge la Bucuresti?)


Tom would help me with my homework if he had time.
(Tom m-ar ajuta cu temele daca ar avea timp.)

4. in fraze ce implica utilizarea lui "Future-in-the-Past" (cand actiunile viitoare fata de actiunea
trecuta sunt simultane)

He promised me that we would go to Italy when he had time.


simultaneitatea)
(Mi-a promis ca vom merge in Italia cand va avea timp.)

Trecutul Perfect/ The Past Perfect Tense

(when arata

1. exprima o actiune anterioara altei actiuni din trecut sau anterioara unui moment din trecut
2. in constructiile care folosesc Conditional in Trecut (Ireal)
3. pot exprima o dorinta nerealizata
4. exprima o actiune anterioara unei actiuni a carui timp e "Future-in-the-Past"

Cum se formeaza

had + past participle

Cand se foloseste & Exemple


1. exprima o actiune anterioara altei actiuni din trecut sau anterioara unui moment din trecut

The little boy said that he had seen a flying saucer in the garden.

(Baietelul a spus ca vazuse o farfurie zburatoare in gradina.)

The little spoke as if he had seen a flying saucer.


(Micutul a vorbit ca si cum vazuse o farfurie zburatoare.)

2. in constructiile care folosesc Conditional in Trecut (Ireal)

Tom would have helped me with my homework if


he had had time.
(situatie ipotetica in trecut)
(Tom m-ar fi ajutat cu temele daca ar fi avut timp.)

Conditional in Trecut (Ireal)

Cum se identifica

If ... Past Perfect ..., ... would have + past participle ...

Exemple

Tom would have helped me with my homework if he had had time.


situatie ipotetica in trecut)

If the weather had been nice, I would have walked to my office.


(situatie ipotetica in trecut)

If I had had a day off from work, I would have gone to the beach.
(situatie ipotetica in trecut)

Comentarii

1)

"Past Real Conditional" face referire la o situatie trecuta ipotetica.

2) Pentru situatiile imaginare (ireale) nu se foloseste "when" deoarece se considera ca


actiunea/ evenimentul nu a avut loc.

Trecutul Perfect Continuu/ The Past Perfect Continuous Tense


1. exprima o actiune continua inainte unei actiuni situate in trecut

Cum se formeaza

had been + present participle

Cand se foloseste & Exemple

1. exprima o actiune continua inainte unei actiuni situate in trecut

They had been talking for over two hours before Tom arrived.

(Ei vorbeau de peste doua ore, cand Tom a ajuns.)

Aceeasi situatie poate fi prezenta si in vorbirea indirecta:

John said that he had been watching TV at 9 o'clock.


(John a spus ca se uitase la TV la ora 9. )

Prezentul Simplu/ Simple Present Tense


1. pentru a exprima adevaruri general valabile (nu poti sa le schimbi in viitor)
2. pentru a exprima actiuni care se repeta in mod regulat (sau nu se repeta deloc si devin general valabile)
3. in vorbirea directa pentru a marca ce a spus cineva
4. pentru a exprima actiuni planificate in viitor
5. in modul conditional (Conditional Prezent Real)
6. cateodata cand se povesteste o intamplare (de regula se folosesc si expresii, cuvinte care sa accentueze
surprinderea, sau rapiditatea cu care se intampla o alta actiune paralela sau imediat urmatoare actiunii de
baza)

Cum se formeaza

VERB + s/es (pentru persoana a 3-a singular)

Cand se foloseste & Exemple

1. pentru a exprima adevaruri general valabile (nu poti sa le schimbi in viitor)

The sun rises in the East and sets in West.

(Soarele rasare in Est si apune in Vest.)

(Apa fierbe la 100 C.)

The water boils at 100 degrees Celsius.

2. pentru a exprima actiuni care se repeta in mod regulat (sau nu se repeta deloc si devin general
valabile)

I drink a tea every day.

I never drink tea.

(Beau ceai in fiecare zi.)

(Nu beau ceai niciodata.)

In acest caz repetarea actiunii se "marcheaza" prin: every day/ month/ week/ year, occasionally, often,
usually, sometimes, seldom, twice a week.
3. in vorbirea directa pentru a marca ce a spus cineva

John says: "I speak French".

(John spune: Vorbesc Franceza.)

4. pentru a exprima actiuni planificate in viitor

The match starts at 2pm on Sunday.

(Meciul incepe la ora 2 pm, duminica.)

5. in modul conditional (Conditional Prezent Real)

Tom helps me with my homework when he has time.


(Tom ma ajuta cu temele cand are timp.)

6. cateodata cand se povesteste o intamplare (de regula se folosesc si expresii, cuvinte care sa
accentueze surprinderea, sau rapiditatea cu care se intampla o alta actiune paralela sau imediat urmatoare
actiunii de baza)

I went into the house and suddenly I see a misterious map.


(Am intrat in casa si dintr-o data am vazut o harta misterioasa.)

I went into the house = actiunea de baza


(suddenly) I see a misterious map = actiune paralela sau imediat urmatoare actiunii de baza
care accentueaza surprinderea

Comentarii

a) "-es" se adauga la persoana a 3-a singular pentru verbele care se termina in s, z, sh, ch, consoana+y

b) Din punct de vedere al formei, prezentul simplu este identic cu infinitivul, la toate

persoanele singular si plural, cu exceptia persoanei a III- a singular, care se adauga (e) s.

Prezentul (Simplu) Continuu/ Present Tense Continuous

1. pentru o actiune ce are loc in prezent si e in progres (are loc chiar acum)
2. pentru o actiune ce are loc in prezent si e in progres (dar care se va termina in viitorul mai departat)
3. pentru a exprima planuri in viitorul apropiat (are nuanta subiectiva; Prezentul Simplu in acest caz nu
are nuanta subiectiva)
4. pentru o actiune care se repeta regulat, frecvent

Cum se formeaza

am/is/are + present participle

Cand se foloseste & Exemple

1. pentru o actiune ce are loc in prezent si e in progres (are loc chiar acum)

I am just writing my exercise.

(Tocmai imi scriu exercitiul.)

I am writing my exercise now.

(Imi scriu exercitiul acum.)

In acest caz, de regula, in propozitie intalnim cuvinte (care sa intareasca aceasta idee) precum: just,
now.

2. pentru o actiune ce are loc in prezent si e in progres (dar care se va termina in viitorul mai departat)

I am studying French.

(Studiez franceza.)

Cand fac afirmatia poate ca nu studiez franceza (la acea ora), insa aceasta actiune/ activitate e inceputa in
trecut si va continua si in viitor. In acest caz nu se folosesc cuvinte de subliniere a prezentului precum just,
now.

3. pentru a exprima planuri in viitorul apropiat (are nuanta subiectiva; Prezentul Simplu in acest caz
nu are nuanta subiectiva)

What are you doing tomorrow ?

(Ce faci maine?)

In acest caz frecvent se folosesc verbe de miscare precum to come, to arrive, to go, to leave:

My friend is leaving tomorrow.

(Prietenul meu pleaca maine.)

4. pentru o actiune care se repeta regulat, frecvent


I am constantly thanking God for the opportunities that He has given me in my
life.

(nu exprima iritarea)

(Ii multumesc lui Dumnezeu in permanenta, pentru oportunitatile pe care mi le-a dat in
viata.)

De regula exprima iritarea vis-a-vis de actiune:

He is continually making noise.


(El face galagie in permanenta.)

Repetarea se exprima folosind adverbe precum: always, constantly, continually, often.

Comentarii

Exista verbe care nu au forma continua. Puteti vedea aici lista verbelor care nu au forma continua.

PREZENTUL/ PRESENT - in limba engleza

Prezentul Simplu/ Simple Present Tense


1. pentru a exprima adevaruri general valabile (nu poti sa le schimbi in viitor)
2. pentru a exprima actiuni care se repeta in mod regulat (sau nu se repeta deloc si devin general valabile)
3. in vorbirea directa pentru a marca ce a spus cineva
4. pentru a exprima actiuni planificate in viitor
5. in modul conditional (Conditional Prezent Real)
6. cateodata cand se povesteste o intamplare (de regula se folosesc si expresii, cuvinte care sa accentueze
surprinderea, sau rapiditatea cu care se intampla o alta actiune paralela sau imediat urmatoare actiunii de
baza)

Cum se formeaza
VERB + s/es (pentru persoana a 3-a singular)

Cand se foloseste & Exemple

1. pentru a exprima adevaruri general valabile (nu poti sa le schimbi in viitor)

The sun rises in the East and sets in West.

The water boils at 100 degrees Celsius.

(Soarele rasare in Est si apune in Vest.)

(Apa fierbe la 100 C.)

2. pentru a exprima actiuni care se repeta in mod regulat (sau nu se repeta deloc si devin general
valabile)

I drink a tea every day.

I never drink tea.

(Beau ceai in fiecare zi.)

(Nu beau ceai niciodata.)

In acest caz repetarea actiunii se "marcheaza" prin: every day/ month/ week/ year, occasionally, often,
usually, sometimes, seldom, twice a week.
3. in vorbirea directa pentru a marca ce a spus cineva

John says: "I speak French".

(John spune: Vorbesc Franceza.)

4. pentru a exprima actiuni planificate in viitor

The match starts at 2pm on Sunday.

(Meciul incepe la ora 2 pm, duminica.)

5. in modul conditional (Conditional Prezent Real)

Tom helps me with my homework when he has time.


(Tom ma ajuta cu temele cand are timp.)

6. cateodata cand se povesteste o intamplare (de regula se folosesc si expresii, cuvinte care sa
accentueze surprinderea, sau rapiditatea cu care se intampla o alta actiune paralela sau imediat urmatoare
actiunii de baza)

I went into the house and suddenly I see a misterious map.


(Am intrat in casa si dintr-o data am vazut o harta misterioasa.)

I went into the house = actiunea de baza


(suddenly) I see a misterious map = actiune paralela sau imediat urmatoare actiunii de baza
care accentueaza surprinderea

Comentarii

a) "-es" se adauga la persoana a 3-a singular pentru verbele care se termina in s, z, sh, ch, consoana+y

b) Din punct de vedere al formei, prezentul simplu este identic cu infinitivul, la toate

persoanele singular si plural, cu exceptia persoanei a III- a singular, care se adauga (e) s.

Prezentul (Simplu) Continuu/ Present Tense Continuous


1. pentru o actiune ce are loc in prezent si e in progres (are loc chiar acum)
2. pentru o actiune ce are loc in prezent si e in progres (dar care se va termina in viitorul mai departat)
3. pentru a exprima planuri in viitorul apropiat (are nuanta subiectiva; Prezentul Simplu in acest caz nu
are nuanta subiectiva)
4. pentru o actiune care se repeta regulat, frecvent

Cum se formeaza

am/is/are + present participle

Cand se foloseste & Exemple

1. pentru o actiune ce are loc in prezent si e in progres (are loc chiar acum)

I am just writing my exercise.

(Tocmai imi scriu exercitiul.)

I am writing my exercise now.

(Imi scriu exercitiul acum.)

In acest caz, de regula, in propozitie intalnim cuvinte (care sa intareasca aceasta idee) precum: just,
now.

2. pentru o actiune ce are loc in prezent si e in progres (dar care se va termina in viitorul mai departat)

I am studying French.

(Studiez franceza.)

Cand fac afirmatia poate ca nu studiez franceza (la acea ora), insa aceasta actiune/ activitate e inceputa in
trecut si va continua si in viitor. In acest caz nu se folosesc cuvinte de subliniere a prezentului precum just,
now.

3. pentru a exprima planuri in viitorul apropiat (are nuanta subiectiva; Prezentul Simplu in acest caz
nu are nuanta subiectiva)

What are you doing tomorrow ?

(Ce faci maine?)

In acest caz frecvent se folosesc verbe de miscare precum to come, to arrive, to go, to leave:

My friend is leaving tomorrow.

(Prietenul meu pleaca maine.)

4. pentru o actiune care se repeta regulat, frecvent


I am constantly thanking God for the opportunities that He has given me in my
life.

(nu exprima iritarea)

(Ii multumesc lui Dumnezeu in permanenta, pentru oportunitatile pe care mi le-a dat in
viata.)

De regula exprima iritarea vis-a-vis de actiune:

He is continually making noise.


(El face galagie in permanenta.)

Repetarea se exprima folosind adverbe precum: always, constantly, continually, often.

Comentarii

Exista verbe care nu au forma continua. Puteti vedea aici lista verbelor care nu au forma continua.

1. Verbele de perceptie

to feel, to hear, to notice, to see, to smell, to taste


ex: I see a red car.

TOTUSI, daca actiunea e una voluntara, una constienta se poate folosi


aspectul continuu:
What are you seeing ? (se presupune ca persoana care vede ceva realizeaza o actiune voluntara;
de exemplu: se uita cu binoclu, s-a urcat pe ceva sa vada mai departe, etc)

DEASEMENEA, daca sensul verbului nu mai este cel de baza, iar se poate
folosi forma continua:
I am seeing my dentist on Wednesday. (sensul nu mai e de a vedea ci de a fi consultat, de a se
duce la)

2. Verbele care exprima activitati mentale

to agree, to believe, to distrust, to imagine, to doubt, to remember,


to understand, to suppose, to recognize, to forget, to think, to mean

NOTA: Daca se foloseste forma continua apare o modificare de sens:


I am thinking. (nu se spune si ce gandesc.)

3. Verbe care exprima dorinta

to wish, to want, to intend, to desire

ex: I wish to go there.

4. Verbe care exprima sentimente, atitudini, trairi


emotionale

to love, to like, to dislike, to detest, to prefer, to abhor, to adore, to


hate

ex.: I like it.

5. verbele modale

can, may, must, ought to

ex.: I can do it.

6. Verbe care exprima posesia

to posses, to owe, to belong to, to own, to keep, to hold

ex.: I keep it for me.

7. Alte verbe care nu pot avea forma continua

to expect, to suffice, to differ, to appear, to contain, to deserve

ex.: This movie appears to be interesting.

Prezentul Perfect/ The Present Perfect Tense


1. pentru o actiune trecuta cand nu se precizeaza timpul exact (dar se stie ca e in trecut)
2. actiunea din trecut are repercursiuni in prezent
3. actiunea e terminata in trecutul apropiat.
4. cand actiunea e inceputa in trecut, continua in prezent si se folosesc FOR sau SINCE
5. in propozitiile care se folosesc adverbele YET (=INCA) si ALREADY (=DEJA)
6. cand actiunea trecuta s-a desfasurat intr-o perioada care a inceput in trecut dar care nu s-a terminat

Cum se formeaza

has/have + past participle

Cand se foloseste & Exemple

1. pentru o actiune trecuta cand nu se precizeaza timpul exact (dar se stie ca e in trecut)

I have seen that movie 10 times. (Am vazut acel film de 10 ori.)
Yes, I have seen that movie. (Da, am vazut acel film.)

Uneori se pot folosi adverbe de frecventa sau de timp care nu precizeaza timpul cu exactitate ( ever,

never, often, seldom, always, sometimes):


I have never seen him. (Nu l-am vazut niciodata.)

2. actiunea din trecut are repercursiuni in prezent

I have seen an interesting museum.


(Am vazut un muzeu interesant.) ... in prezent imi amintesc bine acel muzeu.

A terrible accident has happened.


(Un accident teribil a avut loc.) ... inca sunt afectat de acel lucru.

3. actiunea e terminata in trecutul apropiat.

It has just rained. (Tocmai a plouat.)

In general, propozitiile contin adverbe precum just,

recently, lately, latterly, till now,


up to now, so far, up to the present, last week.

4. cand actiunea e inceputa in trecut, continua in prezent si se folosesc FOR sau SINCE

I have been at home since 5Pm. (Sunt acasa de la ora 5 pm.)


I have been at home for 2 hours. (Sunt acasa de 2 ore.)

SINCE: specifica de la ce data/ ora.

FOR: specifica perioada

In cazul in care actiunea/ activitatea e facuta fara intrerupere sau se doreste accentuarea ei se va
folosi The Present Perfect Continuous

5. in propozitiile care se folosesc adverbele YET (=INCA) si ALREADY (=DEJA)

Have you learned Polish curses already ?


(Ai invatat deja cursurile in poloneza? )

I have already learned the Polish curses.


(Am invatat dj cursurile in poloneza.)

I have not learned the Polish curses yet.


(Inca nu am invatat cursurile in poloneza.)

6. cand actiunea trecuta s-a desfasurat intr-o perioada care a inceput in trecut dar care nu s-a
terminat

I have eaten a good cake this morning. (este ora 9 am si dimineata nu s-a
terminat)

(Am mancat o prajitura buna in aceasta dimineata.)

In acest caz se folosesc constructii ca: this

all day, all night, today, etc.

week, this day, this year, this month,

Prezentul Perfect Continuu/ Present Perfect Continuous Tense


1. cand actiunea e inceputa in trecut, continua (FARA INTRERUPERE) in prezent si se folosesc FOR sau
SINCE
2. actiunea tocmai s-a terminat (si dorim sa subliniem asta)

Cum se formeaza

has/have + been + present participle

Cand se foloseste & Exemple

1. cand actiunea e inceputa in trecut, continua (FARA INTRERUPERE) in prezent si se folosesc


FOR sau SINCE

I have been working for 2 hours. (Lucrez de 2 ore.)


dar,

I have worked in this factory for two years.


modul general; acum poate ca sunt acasa si ma uit la TV)
(Lucrez in aceasta fabrica de 2 ani.)

2. actiunea tocmai s-a terminat (si dorim sa subliniem asta)

(inca mai lucrez, dar la

I have been reading all afternoon. Ive just finished the


novel.
(Am citit toata dupa-masa. Tocmai am terminat de citit romanul.)

Comentarii

Atentie la verbele care nu au forma continua !

Pentru a vedea verbele care nu au forma continua va rog sa dati click aici: Verbele care nu au forma

continua in engleza

VIITORUL/ FUTURE - in limba engleza

Viitorul simplu/ Simple Future Tense


1.Viitorul simplu se foloseste in propozitiile simple si in cele subordonate care incep cu verbe ce exprima
promisiunea, actiuni neplanificate, predictii. In aceste cazuri, de regula, in propozitia principala avem verbe
precum: think, assume, expect, hope, doubt, belive, suppose, be sorry, wonder, be sure pentru a exprima
opinii/ optiuni personale despre o actiune viitoare.

Cum se formeaza

will + verb

Cand se foloseste & Exemple


Viitorul simplu se foloseste in propozitiile simple si in cele subordonate care incep cu verbe ce
exprima promisiunea,actiuni neplanificate, predictii. In aceste cazuri, de regula, in
propozitia principala avem verbe precum: think, assume, expect, hope, doubt, belive,
suppose, be sorry, wonder, be sure pentru a exprima opinii/ optiuni personale despre o
actiune viitoare.

I suppose I will be there.

(predictia)

(Presupun ca voi fi acolo.)

I will be there at 7 o'clock.

(promisiunea)

(Voi fi acolo la ora 7.)

Comentarii

1) Pentru actiunile planificate in viitor nu se foloseste viitorul simplu ci "TO BE


GOING TO" sau Simple Present Continuous !

Daca actiunea e planificata in decursula a 1-7 zile sau e vorba de o activitate repetitiva in viitor de
regula se foloseste viitorul format cu "to be going to":

I am going to see that movie on Friday.


"am going to" are sensul de "planific sa"
(Imi planific/ Intentionez sa merg vineri la acel film.)

Daca actiunea e planificata mult mai tarziu (in viitor) de regula se foloseste prezentul simplu continuu:

Mike is moving to New York next month.


(Mike se muta la New York luna viitoare.)

Nota: viitorul format cu "to be going to" are nuanta de viitor apropiat; cel format cu prezentul simplu
continuu nu are nici o nuanta de acest fel.

2) In propozitiile de timp nu se foloseste viitorul ! Astfel, in propozitiile


introduse cuafter,while, when, before, as soon as, by the time, if nu vom
avea viitor !

Viitorul Continuu/ Future Continuous Tense


1. la un anumit timp in viitor actiunea e in desfasurare (incepuse inainte de acel moment/ timp)
2. o actiune viitoare se va intinde pe toata durata viitoare

Cum se formeaza
will be + present participle

am/is/are + going to be + present participle (pentru "to be going to")

Cand se foloseste & Exemple

1. la un anumit timp in viitor actiunea e in desfasurare (incepuse inainte de acel moment/ timp)

Tonight at 7 o'clock, Tom will be watching TV.

(Acum e1 Pm si Tom va

incepe sa se uite la TV la 6:30 Pm)


(Deseara la ora 7, Tom se va uita la TV. ... deja se uita de ceva vreme)

2. o actiune viitoare se va intinde pe toata durata viitoare

Ann will be writing letters all day long.


(Ann va scrie scrisori toata ziua.)

Comentarii
1) O varianta a cazului 1 de folosire a lui "Future Continuous Tense" este cand se vrea sa se
sublinieze faptul ca in viitor doua sau mai multe actiuni vor avea loc simultan:

Tonight, they will be watching TV, discussing their vacation


plans, and having a good time.

(Deseara, ei se vor uita la TV, isi vor discuta planurile de vacanta si vor petrece o seara

minunata.)

2) In propozitiile de timp nu se foloseste viitorul !

Astfel, in propozitiile introduse

cu after,while, when, before, as soon as, by the time, if nu vom avea viitor !

I will be watching TV when she arrives tonight.


(Ma voi uita la TV cand ea va sosi deseara.)

Viitorul Perfect/ Future Perfect Tense


1. Se foloseste pentru actiuni viitoare care se termina inaintea altei actiuni/ altui eveniment viitor.

Cum se formeaza

will have + past participle

Cand se foloseste & Exemple

1. Se foloseste pentru actiuni viitoare care se termina inaintea altei actiuni/ altui eveniment viitor

Jerry will have worked for this company for 20


years when he retires.
(Jerry va fi lucrat 20 de ani pentru aceasta companie, in momentul cand se va pensiona.)

Comentarii

1) In propozitiile de timp nu se foloseste viitorul ! Astfel, in propozitiile


introduse cuafter,while, when, before, as soon as, by the time, if nu vom
avea viitor !

2) "Future Perfect Tense" e folosit in constructii de genul "By next January/ month/ week"

By next January, I will have received my reward.


(Pana in ianuarie viitor , imi voi fi primit premiul.)

Viitorul Perfect Continuu/ Future Perfect Continuous


1. Se foloseste pentru actiuni viitoare care incep si NU se termina inaintea altei actiuni/ altui eveniment
viitor

Cum se formeaza
will have been + present participle

Cand se foloseste & Exemple

1. Se foloseste pentru actiuni viitoare care incep si NU se termina inaintea altei actiuni/ altui
eveniment viitor

Jerry will have been working for this company for 20


years when she retires.
(Jerry va fi lucrat 20 de ani pentru aceasta companie ( si va continua sa lucreze) in momentul cand ea se
va pensiona.)

Cum se identifica verbele neregulate in engleza

Sunt verbe care nu formeaza trecutul simplu prin adaugarea lui "ed" la sfarsitul formei de infinitiv. Practic
aceste verbe neregulate trebuiesc invatate ca atare.

Lista principalelor verbe neregulate in engleza


Infinitiv
-forma 1to abide
to arise
to awake
to be
to bear
to beat
to become
to begin
to behold
to bend
to beseech
to bet

Trecut
-forma 2abode
arose
awoke
awaked
was, were
bore
beat
became
began
beheld
bent
besought
bet

Participiu trecut
-forma 3abode
arisen
awoken
awaked
been
born
beaten
become
begun
beheld
bent
besought
bet

Traducere
verb
a astepta, a sta, a locui
a se ridica
a se trezi
a fi
a se naste
a bate
a deveni
a icepe
a zari, a vedea
a indoi, a curba
a implora
a paria

to bid
to bind
to bite
to bleed
to bless
to blow
to break
to breed
to bring
to broadcast
to burn
to burst
to buy
can
to cast
to catch
to choose
to cleave
to cling
to come
to cost
to creep
to cut
to deal
to dig
to do
to draw
to dream
to drink
to drive
to dwell
to eat
to fall
to feed
to feel
to fight

bade
bound
bit
bled
blest
blew
broke
bred
brought
broadcast
burnt (burned)
burst
bought
could
cast
caught
chose
cleft
clung
came
cost
crept
cut
dealt
dug
did
drew
dreamt (dreamed)
drank
drove
dwelt
ate
fell
fed
felt
fought

bidden
bound
bitten
bled
blest
blown
broken
bred
brought
broadcast
burnt (burned)
burst
bought
been able to
cast
caught
chosen
cleft
clung
come
cost
crept
cut
dealt
dug
done
drawn
dreamt (dreamed)
drunk
driven
dwelt
eaten
fallen
fed
felt
fought

a oferi, a licita
a lega
a musca
a sangera
a binecuvanta
a sufla
a sparge
a creste
a aduce
a transmite prin radio
a arde
a izbucni
a cumpara
a putea
a arunca
a prinde
a alege
a despica
a se lipi
a veni
a costa
a se tara
a taia
a se ocupa, a trata afaceri
a sapa
a face
a desena
a visa
a bea
a conduce masina
a locui, a ramane, a insista
a manca
a cadea
a hrani
a simti
a lupta

to find
to fly
to forbid
to forecast
to foresee
to foretell
to forget
to forgive
to forgo

found
flew
forbade
forecast
foresaw
foretold
forgot
forgave
forwent

found
flown
forbidden
forecast
foreseen
foretold
forgotten
forgiven
forgone

forsake
to freeze
to get
to give
to go
to grind
to grow
to hang
to have
to hear
to hide
to hit
to hold
to hurt
to keep
to kneel
to knit
to know
to lay
to lead
to lean
to learn
to leave
to lend
to let
to lie
to light
to lose

forsook
froze
got
gave
went
ground
grew
hung (hanged)
had
heard
hid
hit
held
hurt
kept
knelt
knit
knew
laid
led
leant
learnt (learned)
left
lent
let
lay
lit
lost

forsaken
frozen
got
given
gone
ground
grown
hung (hanged)
had
heard
hidden
hit
held
hurt
kept
knelt
knit
known
laid
led
leant
learnt (learned)
left
lent
let
lain
lit
lost

a gasi
a zbura
a interzice
a prevedea
a prevedea
a prezice
a uita
a ierta
a renunta la,
a da uitarii
a parasi
a igheta
a primi
a da
a merge
a macina
a creste
a spanzura
a avea
a auzi
a ascunde
a lovi
a tine
a rani
a pastra
a igenunchia
a tricota
a sti, a cunoaste
a aseza
a conduce
a se sprijini de
a ivata
a parasi
a mprumuta (cuiva)
a permite
a fi culcat
a aprinde
a pierde

to make
to mean
to meet
to misgive
to mislead
to mistake
to outdo
to overcome
to overdo
to pay
to put
to read
to rend
to ride
to ring
to rise
to run
to say
to see
to seek
to sell
to send
to set
to sew
to shake
to shave
to shed
to shine
to shoe
to shoot
to show
to shrink
to shut
to sing
to sink
to sit
to slay

made
meant
met
misgave
misled
mistook
outdid
overcame
overdid
paid
put
read
rent
rode
rang
rose
ran
said
saw
sought
sold
sent
set
sewed
shook
shaved
shed
shone
shod
shot
showed
shrank
shut
sang
sank
sat
slew

made
meant
met
misgiven
misled
mistaken
outdone
overcome
overdone
paid
put
read
rent
ridden
rung
risen
run
said
seen
sought
sold
sent
set
sewn (sewed)
shaken
shaven
shed
shone
shod
shot
shown
shrunk
shut
sung
sunk
sat
slain

a face
a isemna
a intalni
a inspira neicredere
a induce in eroare
a intelege gresit
a intrece
a invinge
a face exces
a plati
a pune
a citi
a sfasia, a rupe
a calari
a suna
a se ridica
a alerga
a spune
a vedea
a cauta
a vinde
a trimite
a regla, a fixa
a coase
a scutura, a clatina
a se barbieri
a varsa (lacrimi)
a straluci
a icalta, a potcovi
a mpusca
a arata
a se strange
a inchide
a canta
a se scufunda
a sta (pe ceva)
a ucide

to sleep
to slide
to sling
to slit
to smell
to smite
to sow
to speak
to speed
to spell
to spend
to spill
to spin

slept
slid
slung
slit
smelt (smelled)
smote
sowed
spoke
sped
spelt (spelled)
spent
spilt
spun

slept
slid
slung
slit
smelt (smelled)
smitten
sown
spoken
sped
spelt (spelled)
spent
spilt
spun

to spit
to split
to spoil
to spread
to spring
to stand
to steal
to stick
to sting
to stink
to strike
to string

spat
split
spoilt
spread
sprang
stood
stole
stuck
stung
stank
struck
strung

spat
split
spoilt
spread
sprung
stood
stolen
stuck
stung
stunk
struck
strung

to strive
to swear
to sweep
to swim
to swing
to take
to teach
to tear
to tell
to think
to throw

strove
swore
swept
swam
swung
took
taught
tore
told
thought
threw

striven
sworn
swept
swum
swung
taken
taught
torn
told
thought
thrown

a dormi
a aluneca
a azvarli
a despica
a mirosi
a lovi
a semana
a vorbi
a accelera
a pronunta litera cu litera
a cheltui
a varsa
a toarce,
a se roti
a scuipa
a despica
a strica
a intinde
a sari, a tasni
a sta in picioare
a fura
a infige, a se lipi
a itepa
a mirosi urat
a lovi
a insira,
a incorda
a se stradui
a jura
a matura
a inota
a se legana
a lua
a invata, a preda
a rupe, a sfasia
a spune
a gandi, a crede
a arunca

to thrust
to tread
to underlie
to understand
to upset
to wake
to wear
to weave
to wet
to win
to wind
to wring

thrust
trod
underlay
understood
upset
woke
wore
wove
wet
won
wound
wrung

thrust
trodden
underlain
understood
upset
woken
worn
woven
wet
won
wound
wrung

to write

wrote

written

Viitorul in Trecut/ The Future-in-the-Past


1. exprima o actiune viitoare unei actiuni trecute

Cum se formeaza

would + VERB

or

was/ were going to + VERB

(pentru actiuni planificate)

a mbranci
a calca
a sustine
a intelge
a supara
a se trezi
a purta
a tese
a uda
a castiga
a se rasuci
a frange,
a smulge
a scrie

Exemple

1. exprima o actiune viitoare unei actiuni trecute

He promised me that we would go to Italy when he had time.


simultaneitatea)

(when arata

(El mi-a promis ca vom merge in Italia cand va avea timp.)

Tom said that he would go to England after he had learned English


a little bit.
(after arata anterioritatea)
(Tom a spus ca va merge in Anglia, dupa ce va invata putina engleza.)

Comentarii

Propozitiile (de timp) care incep cu before, when, while, after, as soon as, by the time,
if, unless nu au verbul la viitor.
MODUL CONDITIONAL

Conditional in Trecut (Real)

(Past Real Conditional)

Cum se formeaza

If / When ... Simple Past ..., ... Simple Past ...

Exemple

Tom helped me with my homework when he had time. (situatie general valabila in
trecut)

If the weather were nice, I walked to my office. (situatie general valabila in trecut)

When I had a day off from work, I often went to the beach. (situatie general valabila in
trecut)

Comentarii

"Past Real Conditional" face referire la un obicei trecut (nu mai e valabil in
prezent).
1)

2) If

e folosit in cazul actiunilor mai putin frecvente;

When e folosit in cazul actiunilor mai frecvente.

Conditional in Trecut (Ireal)

(Past Unreal Conditional)


Cum se identifica

If ... Past Perfect ..., ... would have + past participle ...

Exemple

Tom would have helped me with my homework if he had had time.


(situatie ipotetica in trecut)

If the weather had been nice, I would have walked to my office.


(situatie ipotetica in trecut)

If I had had a day off from work, I would have gone to the beach.
(situatie ipotetica in trecut)

Comentarii

1)

"Past Real Conditional" face referire la o situatie trecuta ipotetica.

2) Pentru situatiile imaginare (ireale) nu se foloseste "when" deoarece se considera ca


actiunea/ evenimentul nu a avut loc.

Conditional in Prezent (Real)

(Present Real Conditional)


Cum se formeaza
If / When ... Simple Present ..., ... Simple Present ...

Exemple

When I have a day off from work, I often go to the beach.


valabila in prezent)

(situatie general valabila: e

Tom helps me with my homework when he has time.


valabila in prezent)

(situatie general valabila: e

If the weather is nice, I walk to my office. (situatie general valabila: e valabila in prezent)

Where do you stay if you go to Bucharest?

(situatie general valabila: e valabila in prezent)

Comentarii

1) "Present Real Conditional" se foloseste pentru a vorbi despre situatii care apar in
mod normal in viata de zi cu zi; sint situatii generale si care se repeta frecvent sau sunt
sigure (sunt reale si nu fictive);

2) If

e folosit in cazul actiunilor mai putin frecvente;

When e folosit in cazul actiunilor mai frecvente


.

Conditional in Prezent (Ireal)

( Present Unreal Conditional )

Cum se formeaza
If ... Simple Past ..., ... would + verb ...

Exemple

What would you do if you won the lottery?


(situatie ipotetica ce vizeaza prezentul/ viitorul)

Where would you stay if you went to Bucharest?


(situatie ipotetica ce vizeaza prezentul/ viitorul; calatoria la Bucuresti in acest caz nu e reala)

If the weather were nice, I would walk to my office.


(situatie ipotetica ce vizeaza prezentul/ viitorul; vremea nu e frumoasa)

Tom would help me with my homework if he had time.


(situatie ipotetica ce vizeaza prezentul/ viitorul; Tom nu are timp deci nu ma ajuta, dar daca ar avea timp
m-ar ajuta)

Comentarii

1) "Present Unreal Conditional" se foloseste pentru a vorbi despre situatii ipotetice.

Conditional in Viitor (Real)

(Future Real Conditional)


Cum se formeaza

If / When ... Simple Present ..., ... Simple Future ...

Exemple

If the weather is nice, I will walk to my office. (valabila pentru o situatie particulara in
viitor)

Tom will help me with my homework when he has time.


particulara in viitor)

(valabila pentru o situatie

Comentarii

1) "Future Real Conditional" se foloseste pentru a spune ce se va face intr-o situatie


particulara viitoare.

If the weather is nice, I walk to my office. (situatie generala)

vezi "Present

Conditional"
If the weather is nice, I will walk to my office. (situatie particulara)

Diferenta dintre cele 2 mesaje e foarte mica, practic insesizabila in vorbirea curenta.

2) If

e folosit in cazul actiunilor mai putin frecvente;

When e folosit in cazul actiunilor mai frecvente.

Real

Conditional in Viitor (Ireal)

(Future Unreal Conditional)


Cum se formeaza

Forma 1
If ... were + present participle ..., ... would be + present participle ...
(Cu aceeasi semnificatie se poate folosi Present Unreal Conditional (Forma 2); aceasta forma e preferata
formei de Present Unreal Conditional)
Forma 3
If ... were going to + verb ..., ... would be + present participle ...
(Se traduce cu "Daca se va intampla sa/ ca sa ..." (se pune accentul pe predictie) ... dar stiu ca nu se va
intampla)

Exemple

Tom would be helping me with my homework if he were having time.


( Tom ma va ajuta cu lectiile, daca va avea timp.

(dar stiu ca nu va avea)

Tom would be helping me with my homework if he were going to have time.

Comentarii

1) "Future Unreal Conditional" face referinta la o situatie imaginara (nu e rela) in


viitor.

2) Pentru situatiile imaginare (ireale) nu se foloseste "when" deoarece se considera ca


actiunea/ evenimentul nu va avea loc.

3) Forma 2 e cea mai folosita (in aceasta situatie) in manualele de gramatica.

Subjonctivul

(The Subjunctive)

Cum se identifica
Subjonctivul se foloseste cand avem :
o actiune posibila in viitor
o actiune nerealizata (ireala) in trecut sau prezent
o recomandare, un sfat
Exemple

It is necessary that the work be done. (recomandare, sfat, deci AVEM subjonctiv)
He speaks as if he were not from Bucharest. (situatie ireala in prezent, deci AVEM
subjonctiv)
El vorbeste ca si cum nu ar fi din Bucuresti, dar e din Bucuresti.
He speaks as if he is not from Bucharest. (situatie reala in prezent, deci NU AVEM
subjonctiv)
El vorbeste ca si cum nu ar fi din Bucuresti, dar nici nu e din Bucuresti.
It's time you went to bed. (recomandare, sfat, deci AVEM subjonctiv)

Comentarii
Subjonctivul in engleza se formeaza cu :
a) infinitivul scurt al verbului
1) dupa constructii ca: It is necessary, It is advisable, It is recommendable, It is possible, It is
unsure, It is probable( ca si formularile de genul "He recommends", "He advices", "He requests" );

2) in propozitii de scop (so that ...); ex.: Come earlier so that you find him at
home. (forma americana)
Come earlier so that you can find him at
home. (forma britanica)
3) in propozitii concesive ( however ... ); ex.: I go there however difficult it be.
4) in exclamatii afective: ex.: Bless you !
5) In formulas (short infinitive):
Long live the queen. (Triasc regina!)
So be it. (Aa s fie.)
Come what may. (Fie ce o fi.)
Suffice it to say. (Este suficient de zis.)
Be that as it may. (Fie ce o fi.)
Say what you will. (Spune ce vrei.)
b) forma de "Past Tense" a verbului, pentru a exprima:
1) un regret prezent
I wish I knew her address. ( ... nu-i stiu adresa si regret);

If only he was faithful to me!


(Dac mi-ar fi fidel!)
If only I had known about her mischance!
(Dac a fi tiut de ghinionul ei!)
2) ceva ce e ireal in prezent (cu constructiile "as if", "as though");
3) preferinta (cind se folosesc constructiile "would rather/ sooner", "it is time", "had better",
"I'd prefer").

You had better go home.


(Mai bine ai merge acas.)
Id prefer if you didnt go.
(A prefera s nu mergi.)
c) forma de "Past Perfecte Tense" a verbului, pentru a exprima un regret vis-a-vis de o actiune
anterioara timpului din propozitia principala:
ex.: I wish(ed) you had written to him. (As dori/ As fi dorit ca tu sa-i fi scris
lui.)
d) alte forme de imperativ:
Somebody bring me a glass of water!

(Cineva s mi aduc un pahar cu ap!)


Come on everybody, leave the room!
(Haidei, toat lumea s prseasc ncperea!)
e) After verbs expressing a desire that someone should do something: ask, advise, desire,
intend, order, recommend, request, require, suggest, urge, want; after verbs expressing
plans: arrange, leave word, pland; after adjectives expressing feelings: anxious, willing, eager,
pleased, glad.

They demanded that the meeting be held in our new conference room.
(Au cerut ca ntlnirea s se in n sala nou de conferine.)
We planned that they should see the room beforehand.
(Am plnuit s vedem camera nainte.)
She was anxious that they should see her dancing.
(Era emoionat c o vor vedea dansnd.)
f) cu "may/might"
May you live long!
(S trieti mult!)
However tired might he be, he must come down.
(Orict de obosit ar fi, trebuie s vin jos.)

Alte comentarii:
i) Forma de "Past Tense" a lui "to be" este "were";
ii) in constructiile cu "for + subiect" se foloseste forma lunga a infinitivului:
It's time for you to go to bed.
iii) Pentru a vedea cum se formeaza subjonctivul in propozitiile conditionale dati click pe linkurile
de mai jos:
Conditional in Trecut (Ireal)
Conditional in Prezent (Ireal)
Conditional in Viitor (Ireal)
iv) In engleza americana, in propozitia subordonata introdusa de "that" cand propozitia
principala exprima o recomandare, decizie, cerere, speranta, intentie sau surprindere.

They recommended that he pay more attention to class.


(I-au recomandat s fie mai atent la lecie.)

They hoped that he be elected President.


(Au sperat s fie ales preedinte.)
They suggested that our flowers be put into a vase.
(Au sugerat ca florile noastre s fie puse n vaz.)
v) if need be inseamna if it is necessary
If need be she can always tell him the truth.
(La nevoie, i poate spune oricnd adevrul.)

Imperativul in engleza

Cum se identifica
Verbele din infinitiv se gasesc in propozitii exclamative ce reprezinta ordine, sfaturi
ce trebuiesc executate.

Exemple
Let him go !

( Lasa-l sa se duca ! )
Lock the door !

( Incuie usa ! )
Go there !

( Du-te acolo ! )
Let me know !

(Da-mi voie sa stiu !)


Don't worry be happy!

Nu te ingrijora, fii fericit!


Leave me alone !

Lasa-ma in pace!
Take it easy !

Usor !

Verbele modale in engleza: Can

1. exprima capacitatea fizica sau intelectuala

I can speak English.


I can swim very well.
2. pentru a exprima imposibilitatea sau neincrederea

Can Tom make such a mistake ?


3. pentru a exprima permisiunea in limbajul

neoficial

Can I borrow your book ?


Nota:
Aceasta forma de exprimare a permisiunii nu este foarte delicata si poate fi vazuta si ca o cerere
politicoasa.
4. pentru a exprima continuitatea verbelor de perceptie

I can see somebody near my car.

Comentarii
1. Pentru a exprima permisiunea in limbajul oficial/ politicos se foloseste "May";
2. Cererea cu "Could" este may politicoasa decat cea cu "Can"; de aceea de regula cererile se fac
cu "Could";
3. "Could" este folosit in unele cazuri drept trecutul lui "Can".

Verbele modale: May

Cand se foloseste & Exemple


1. cand se cere permisiunea in mod oficial, politicos

May I go home now ?


Nota: Permisiunea se poate cere si cu "Can" insa in mod neoficial, protocolar.
2. exprima posibilitatea

It may rain in the afternoon.


( Se poate sa ploua in dupa-amiaza )
Nota: Daca se foloseste "might" probabilitatea e mai mica decat "may", insa diferenta nu e foarte mare:

It might rain in the afternoon.


( S-ar putea sa ploua in dupa-amiaza )
3. exprima o dorinta

May all your wishes come true.


( Fie ca ... )

Comentarii
1. "May" in situatia in care exprima posibilitatea poate fi inlocuit cu "it is possible" fara ca
sensul sa se schimbe:

It is possible for Tom to do that thing.


Tom may do that thing.

Verbele modale: Must

Cand se foloseste & Exemple


1. cand se exprima o obligatie interna (subiectiva, personala)

I must go.
(Trebuie sa plec -> pentru ca asta e decizia mea)
Nota:
Daca obligatia e externa in loc de must se va folosi "to have to":

I have to go.

(Trebuie sa plec -> pentru ca cineva ma asteapta, pentru ca trebuie sa ajung


undeva; nu e o decizie subiectiva, ci una obiectiva)
2. pentru a exprima o deductie logica, o concluzie

John always at this hour is at home. Now must be at home as


well.
(logic John ar trebui sa fie acasa, dar poate nu e).

Comentarii
Daca nu suntem foarte siguri de deductia logica folosim verbul "may".

Verbele modale: Ought to


Cand se foloseste & Exemple1. "Ought to" se foloseste cu precadere pentru a
exprima o recomandare:

Margaret ought to exercise more.


Margaret trebuie sa exerseze mai mult; este o recomandare si nu are semnificatie
imperativa.

- Shall I go to this funeral ?


- Well, you ought to.
Este o recomandare si nu are semnificatie imperativa; insa e ceva ce trebuie facut
caci asa e bine din punct de vedere moral.
Nota:
Daca s-ar raspunde "Well you have
(obligatia e exterioara in acest caz)

to." semnificatia ar fi: "Trebuie sa te duci, nu ai de ales."

Comentarii
1) Pentru a exprima recomandari negative dispare "to" dupa "to have":

You ought not smoke so much.


We ought not be afraid of the these risks.
Totusi, sunt acceptate deasemenea si formele:

You ought not to smoke so much.


We ought not to be afraid of the these risks.

2) "Ought not" e folosit mai mult de englezi, Americanii folosesc mai mult "should not".

Verbele modale: Shall


Cand se foloseste & Exemple
1. pentru a exprima solicitarea unui sfat, o ofert sau o sugestie (Folosit cu persoana I, interogativ)
What shall I do?

(Ce sa fac?)

Shall I listen to you?


(S te ascult ?)
2. pentru a exprima o promisiune, o obligaie sau o ameninare care provin de la cel care
vorbete ( Folosit cu persoanele II i III)
You shall have a great surprise if you keep your promise to me.
Vei avea o mare surpriza daca iti tii promisiunea fata de mine.
He shall not see his children again if he treats them like that.
Nu isi va mai vedea copiii daca ii trateaza asa.
You shall hear from me again!
Vei mai auzi tu de mine!)
3. pentru a exprima o hotarare
The gates shall not open . (Usile nu se vor deschide.)
4. pentru a exprima o interdictie in acte oficiale

The candidates shall not have more than 5 paper sheets to write on, during the
examination.
Candidatii/Participantii nu vor avea mai mult de 5 foi in timpul examinarii.

Comentarii
1. Folosit cu persoana I, shall indic viitorul.
2. Folosit cu persoanele II si III, shall poate arata o promisiune, o obligatie sau o amenintare care provin
de la cel care vorbeste.

Verbele modale: Will


Cand se foloseste & Exemple1. pentru a exprima vointa, hotarare

I will climb this mountain even if its the last thing I do.
Voi urca acest munte, chiar daca va fi ultimul lucru pe care il fac.
2. pentru a exprima o promisiune
I will not let you down.
Nu te voi dezamagi .
3. pentru a exprima o posibilitate, presupunere
This boy looks very much like Tom. He will be his brother.
Acest baiat seamana foarte bine cu Tom. O fi fratele lui.
4. pentru a exprima ceva inevitabil
Polar bears will perish.
Ursii polari vor disparea.
5. pentru a inlocui prezentul simplu pentru o actiune obisnuita, repetata
I always drink coffee in the morning .
(= I will drink coffee in the morning).
Intotdeauna beau cafea dimineata. Voi bea cafea dimineata.
6. pentru a exprima o invitatie, cerere politicoasa

Will you sit down?

Vrei sa iei loc?

Comentarii
1. Will - are si intelesul de a voi. La casatorie se foloseste expresia I will.

Alte verbe modale: Dare, Need, Used to


Alte verbe modale: Dare, Need, Used to
NEED / NOT NEED - este folosit pentru a exprima necesitatea sau lipsa acesteia
You needn't come early to the meeting.
Nu trebuie sa vii devreme la sedinta.
She doesn't need to come.
Nu este necesar sa vina si ea.
You don't need to go there tomorrow.
Nu e necesar sa mergi maine acolo.

USED TO - este folosit doar la Past Tense, pentru a exprima:


1) o actiune repetata, un obicei trecut, care nu mai este precticat in prezent
I used to swim in the Olt river when I was a child, but I don't do this any longer.
Obisnuiam sa inot in Olt cand eram copil, dar acum nu mai inot.

2) o actiune repetata, un obicei trecut, care mai este practicat si in prezent


They used to spend their holidays in the mountains.
Obisnuiau sa isi petreaca vacantele la munte; poate ca inca si le mai petrec.

DARE - se foloseste cu sensul de "a indrazni", in special in propozitii interogative


si negative
The boy dared not tell his father what he had done.
Baiatul nu a indraznit sa ii spuna tatalui sau ce a facut.
They dared not speak to him ugly.
Ei nu au indraznit sa vorbeasca urat cu el.
How dare you contradict me ?
Cum indraznesti sa ma contrazici?

Comentarii
NEED poate fi folosit si ca verb principal:
He needs help.
Are nevoie de ajutor.
USED TO nu are forma de prezent. Pentru a exprima un obicei in prezent folositi prezentul simplu:
I (usually) spend my holidays in the mountains.
De obicei imi petrec vacantele la munte.
DARE ca verb modal este urmat de:
a) infinitivul fara to dupa forma invariabila dare (persoana a III-a singular sau Past Tense):
I wonder wheter he dare come.
Ma intreb daca va indrazni sa vina.
He felt that he daren't try.
Si-a dat seama ca n-are curajul sa incerce.

b) infinitivul cu to, dupa participial prezent sau dupa persoana a III-a singular:
Now he dares to attack me !
Acum indrazneste sa ma atace!
c) infinitivul cu sau fara to dupa forma de infinitiv a verbului, forma de Past Tense dared si participiul
trecut:
He wouldn't dare (to) tell me this.
N-ar indrazni sa imi spuna acest lucru.
He dared (to) write upon the subject.
A avut curajul sa scrie despre acea problema.
ATENTIE!
Verbul dare este urmat de infinitivul cu to cand este folosit ca verb principal:
He dared me to compete with him.
M-a provocat la intrecere.

Infinitive and Gerund


Folosirea infinitivului si a gerunziului & Exemple
Sunt verbe in limba engleza care cer infinitivul iar altele care cer gerunziul. Iata mai jos modul in care
verbele limbii engleze se folosesc fie cu gerunziul, fie cu infinitivul.

1) Verbs which may take either infinitive or gerund:


(Verbe care folosesc fie infinitivul fie gerunziul )
advise, agree, allow, begin, can/could bear, cease, continue, forget, hate, intend,
like, love, mean, need, permit, prefer, propose, recommend, regret, remember,
require, start, stop, try, used to
-

verbs taking infinitive or gerund without changing meaning:


(verbe care folosesc infinitivul sa gerunziul fara sa-si modifice intelesul)

begin, start, continue, cease

I began working./ I began to work. (Am nceput s lucrez.)


He continued living/ to live above the shop. (A continuat s locuiasc deasupra magazinului.)
o

cant bear

I cant bear waiting./ to wait. (Nu suport s atept.)


o

intend

I intend selling it./ to sell it. (Intenionez s l vnd.)


o

advise, allow, permit, recommend

They dont allow us parking here./ to park here. (Nu ni se permite s parcm aici.)

it needs/requires/wants

The grass needs cutting./ to be cut. (Iarba trebuie tuns.)

2) Verbs which take only gerund:


(Verbe care folosesc numai gerunziul )
o

regret, remember, forget (when the action expressed by the gerund is the earlier action)

I regret spending so much money. (mi pare ru c am cheltuit atia bani.)


I remember reading about the earthquake in the newspapers. (mi amintesc c am citit de cutremur n
ziare.)
Ill never forget waiting to find out the results. (Nu o s uit niciodat ateptarea rezultatelor.)
o

go on, stop

He went on to tell us about his new plans. (A continuat s ne spun despre planurile lui noi.)
I cant stop him talking to the press. (Nu pot s l opresc s nu vorbeasc cu presa.)
o admit, adore, appreciate, avoid, celebrate, commence, consider, contemplate, delay, deny, detest,
dislike, dread, endure, enjoy, face, fancy, finish, go, imagine, involve, keep, lie, loathe, mention, mind,
miss, practice, report. resent, resist, risk, postpone, stand, sit, suggest.

!!! when regret, remember, forget themselves express the earlier action, they are followed by an
infinitive:
I regret to say that you have failed your exam. (mi pare ru s te anun c ai picat examenul.)
I often forget to sign my cheques. (Adesea uit s semnez cecurile.)

3) Verbs which take only infinitive:


(Verbe care folosesc numai infinitivul)
o

agree (to), mean, propose, refuse (to)


Tom agreed to wait a week. (Tom a fost de acord s atepte o sptmn.)
I mean to get to the top by sunrise. (Vreau s ajung pn s rsr soarele.)
I propose to start tomorrow. (Mi-am propus s ncep mine.)

try, used to

They tried to put wire netting all round the garden. (Au ncercat s pun gard de srm n jurul
grdinii.)
I used to swim all the year around. (Obinuiam s not tot anul.)
o afford, aim, appear, arrange, ask, attempt, beg, care, choose, consent, dare, decide, demand,
deserve, expect, fail, fight, guarantee, happen, help, hesitate, hope, intend, learn, manage, neglect,
offer, pause, plan, prepare, pretend, promise, prove, swear, tend, threaten, undertake, volunteer, vow,
wait, want, refuse, seem , wish, yearn.

Verbe care nu au forma continua in engleza


1. Verbele de perceptie
to feel, to hear, to notice, to see, to smell, to taste
ex: I see a red car.
TOTUSI, daca actiunea e una voluntara, una constienta se poate folosi
aspectul continuu:
What are you seeing ? (se presupune ca persoana care vede ceva realizeaza o actiune voluntara;
de exemplu: se uita cu binoclu, s-a urcat pe ceva sa vada mai departe, etc)
DEASEMENEA, daca sensul verbului nu mai este cel de baza, iar se poate
folosi forma continua:
I am seeing my dentist on Wednesday. (sensul nu mai e de a vedea ci de a fi consultat, de a se
duce la)

2. Verbele care exprima activitati mentale


to agree, to believe, to distrust, to imagine, to doubt, to remember,
to understand, to suppose, to recognize, to forget, to think, to mean
NOTA: Daca se foloseste forma continua apare o modificare de sens:
I am thinking. (nu se spune si ce gandesc.)

3. Verbe care exprima dorinta


to wish, to want, to intend, to desire
ex: I wish to go there.

4. Verbe care exprima sentimente, atitudini, trairi


emotionale
to love, to like, to dislike, to detest, to prefer, to abhor, to adore, to
hate
ex.: I like it.

5. verbele modale
can, may, must, ought to
ex.: I can do it.

6. Verbe care exprima posesia


to posses, to owe, to belong to, to own, to keep, to hold
ex.: I keep it for me.

7. Alte verbe care nu pot avea forma continua


to expect, to suffice, to differ, to appear, to contain, to deserve
ex.: This movie appears to be interesting.