You are on page 1of 26

Chapter 1




Peltier crystal based vaccine fridge can be a low cost low maintenance system for
vaccination in remote areas due to its portable design. Before going to understand working
lets first understand the components and their specifications.
1.1 Thermo electric effect
The thermoelectric effect is the direct conversion of temperature differences to
electric voltage and vice versa. A thermoelectric device creates voltage when there is a
different temperature on each side. Conversely, when a voltage is applied to it, it creates a
temperature difference. At the atomic scale, an applied temperature gradient causes charge
carriers in the material to diffuse from the hot side to the cold side. This effect can be used
to generate electricity, measure temperature or change the temperature of objects. Because
the direction of heating and cooling is determined by the polarity of the applied voltage,
thermoelectric devices can be used as temperature controllers. The term "thermoelectric
effect" encompasses three separately identified effects: the Seebeck effect, Peltier effect,
and Thomson effect. Textbooks may refer to it as the PeltierSeebeck effect. This
separation derives from the independent discoveries of French physicist Jean Charles
Athanase Peltier and Baltic German physicist Thomas Johann Seebeck. Joule heating,
the heat that is generated whenever a current is passed through a resistive material is
related though it is not generally termed a thermoelectric effect. The PeltierSeebeck and
Thomson effects are thermodynamically reversible,[1] whereas Joule heating is not.

1.2 Seebeck effect

A thermoelectric circuit composed of materials of different Seebeck coefficient (pdoped and n-doped semiconductors), configured as a thermoelectric generator. If the load
resistor at the bottom is replaced with a voltmeter the circuit then functions as a
temperature-sensing thermocouple.
The Seebeck

effect is



of temperature differences


into electricity and is named after the Baltic German physicist Thomas Johann Seebeck,
who, in 1821, discovered that a compass needle would be deflected by a closed loop
formed by two different metals joined in two places, with a temperature difference
between the junctions. This was because the metals responded differently to the
temperature difference, creating a current loop and a magnetic field. Seebeck did not
recognize there was an electric current involved, so he called the phenomenon the thermo
magnetic effect. Danish physicist Hans Christian rsted rectified the mistake and coined
the term "thermoelectricity".
The Seebeck effect is a classic example of an electromotive force (emf) and leads to
measurable currents or voltages in the same way as any other emf. Electromotive forces
modify Ohm's law by generating currents even in the absence of voltage differences (or
vice versa); the local current density is given by


is the local voltage and is the local conductivity. In general the Seebeck effect

is described locally by the creation of an electromotive field

Eemf =S T

Where S is the Seebeck coefficient (also known as thermo power), a property of the local
material, and T

is the gradient in temperature T.

The Seebeck coefficients generally vary as function of temperature, and depend strongly
on the composition of the conductor. For ordinary materials at room temperature, the
Seebeck coefficient may range in value from 100 V/K to +1,000 V/K (see Seebeck
coefficient article for more information).
If the system reaches a steady state where

, then the voltage gradient is given simply

by the Emf V =S T . This simple relationship, which does not depend on

conductivity, is used in the thermocouple to measure a temperature difference; an absolute
temperature may be found by performing the voltage measurement at a known reference
temperature. A metal of unknown composition can be classified by its thermoelectric effect
if a metallic probe of known composition is kept at a constant temperature and held in
contact with the unknown sample that is locally heated to the probe temperature. It is used
commercially to identify metal alloys. Thermocouples in series form a thermopile.
Thermoelectric generators are used for creating power from heat differentials.

Fig 1.1 Seeback Effect


1.3 Thomson effect

In many materials, the Seebeck coefficient is not constant in temperature, and so a spatial
gradient in temperature can result in a gradient in the Seebeck coefficient. If a current is
driven through this gradient then a continuous version of the Peltier effect will occur.
This Thomson effect was predicted and subsequently observed by Lord Kelvin in 1851. It

describes the heating or cooling of a current-carrying conductor with a temperature

If a current density J is passed through a homogeneous conductor, the Thomson effect
predicts a heat production rate

per unit volume of:

q=KJ . T

Where T

the temperature gradient and K is the Thomson coefficient. The Thomson

coefficient is related to the Seebeck coefficient as


dT . This equation however

neglects Joule heating and ordinary thermal conductivity.

1.4 Peltier Effect

The Peltier effect is the presence of heating or cooling at an electrified junction of two
different conductors and is named for French physicist Jean Charles Athanase Peltier, who
discovered it in 1834. When a current is made to flow through a junction between two
conductors A and B, heat may be generated (or removed) at the junction. The Peltier heat

generated at the junction per unit time, Q , is equal to

A B)



are the Peltier coefficients of conductor A (B), and I is the electric

current (from A to B). Note that the total heat generated at the junction is not determined
by the Peltier effect alone, as it may also be influenced by Joule heating and thermal
gradient effects (see below).

The Peltier coefficients represent how much heat is carried per unit charge. Since charge
current must be continuous across a junction, the associated heat flow will develop a
discontinuity if


are different. The Peltier effect can be considered as the

back-action counterpart to the Seebeck effect (analogous to the back-emf in magnetic

induction) if a simple thermoelectric circuit is closed then the Seebeck effect will drive a
current, which in turn (via the Peltier effect) will always transfer heat from the hot to the
cold junction. The close relationship between Peltier and Seebeck effects can be seen in
the direct connection between their coefficients


A typical Peltier heat pump device involves multiple junctions in series, through which a
current is driven. Some of the junctions lose heat due to the Peltier effect, while others
gain heat. Thermoelectric heat pumps exploit this phenomenon, as do thermoelectric
cooling devices found in refrigerators.

Fig1.2 An inside view of a TEC (Peltier element).

The Peltier effect is one of the key phenomena (along with the Thompson effect)
determining the emf generated in a thermocouple used for temperature measurement.
For a thermocouple of materials A and B, with one junction at a constant temperature
and the other at (absolute) temperature T,




is the thermocouple emf generated at the junction of materials A and B.

This equation can be used to calculate the Peltier coefficient for the combination of
materials A and B.
The Peltier effect is used in thermoelectric (Peltier) refrigerators or heat pumps. Such
devices provide heat removal, sometimes addition, in an easily controlled and
reversible device without moving parts. They have been used in space vehicles as
well as in a number of small commercial devices for controlling temperature or
providing refrigeration, often using semiconductor materials as the thermoelectric
1.5 Thermoelectric cooling
Thermoelectric cooling uses the Peltier effect to create a heat flux between the junctions
of two different types of materials. A Peltier cooler, heater, or thermoelectric heat pump is
a solid-state active heat pump which transfers heat from one side of the device to the other,
with consumption of electrical energy, depending on the direction of the current. Such an
instrument is also called a Peltier device, Peltier heat pump, solid state refrigerator, or
thermoelectric cooler (TEC). They can be used either for heating or for cooling
(refrigeration), although in practice the main application is cooling. It can also be used as a
temperature controller that either heats or cools.
The method of thermoelectric cooling (using the Peltier effect) is useful because it can
cool an object without any moving pieces or other complex machinery that isolates the
cooler from its ambient surroundings. The devices that are constructed to take advantage
of this phenomenon are known as Peltier elements, or thermo-electric coolers (TECs).
The basic ideas from the simple Peltier elements can be connected in series to construct
far more complicated Peltier modules (also known as practical TECs), which have greater
cooling capabilities. However, the greatest temperature difference between the heat sink
and the cool region for a Peltier device is on the order of 50C.

This technology is far less commonly applied to refrigeration than vapour-compression

refrigeration is. The main advantages of a Peltier cooler (compared to a vapourcompression refrigerator) are its lack of moving parts or circulating liquid, near-infinite
life and invulnerability to potential leaks, and its small size and flexible shape (form
factor). Its main disadvantage is high cost and poor power efficiency. Many researchers
and companies are trying to develop Peltier coolers that are both cheap and efficient.
A Peltier cooler can also be used as a thermoelectric generator. When operated as a cooler,
a voltage is applied across the device, and as a result, a difference in temperature will
build up between the two sides.[3] When operated as a generator, one side of the device is
heated to a temperature greater than the other side, and as a result, a difference in voltage
will build up between the two sides (the Seebeck effect). However, a well-designed Peltier
cooler will be a mediocre thermoelectric generator and vice-versa, due to different design
and packaging requirements.

Fig1.3 Thermoelectric cooler

Common uses for Peltier elements include cooling computer components, especially the CPU.

The most common combination of materials in the thermocouples of Peltier elements

(TECs) is the two semiconductors Bismuth and Telluride. Generally, a TEC has an array
of cubes or pellets made of the semiconductors, each of which is in contact with the
radiators on the hot and cold side of the Peltier element. These cubes are "doped" -- that is
to say that extra impurities are added so that there are extra or fewer free electrons in each
cube. The semiconductor cubes with extra free electrons (and thus carry mainly negative
charge) are known as N-type semiconductors, while those with few free electrons (and
carry mainly positive charge) are P-type semiconductors.

The pairs of P and N

semiconductor cubes are set up and connected in an array so that the pairs have an
electrical series connection, but a thermal parallel connection. When a current is applied
to this system (the TEC), the way the current flows through the semiconductors induces a
temperature difference, and causes the heat-sink side of the Peltier element to heat up, and
the cold side to cool (or cooling whatever is in thermal contact with that side).

Fig1.4 Peltier element, with ceramic plates to partially insulate the inside from the outer

"Normal" Peltier elements are roughly a few centimetres thick and a few millimetres or
centimetres on a side. To obtain greater cooling abilities, the individual elements are
connected in stacks, or they can be connected in some combination of series and parallel
electrical connections.
The heat-sink side of the TEC gets very hot, so it is necessary to have a fan and/or some
sort of radiator to dissipate this heat. Otherwise, the entire TEC would begin to heat up,
and pieces would fuse together.

Fig 1.5 A Peltier module with a fan and radiator to dissipate heat from the heat sink.



Refrigeration means removal of heat from a substance or space in order to bring it to
a temperature lower than those of the natural surroundings. In this context, my topic,
Thermoelectric Refrigeration aims at providing cooling effect by using
thermoelectric effects rather than the more prevalent conventional methods like those
using the vapour compression cycle or the gas compression cycle.
There are 5 thermoelectric effects and these are observed when a current is passed
through a thermocouple whose junctions are at different temperatures. These
phenomenons are the Seeback effect, the Peltier effect, the Joulean effect, the
conduction effect, and the Thomson effect. Thermoelectric cooling, also called

"Peltier Effect", is a solid-state method of heat transfer through dissimilar

semiconductor materials. It is based on the thermoelectric effect known as Peltier
Effect according to which if current is passed through a thermocouple, then the heat
is absorbed at one junction of the thermocouple and liberated at the other junction. So
by using the cold junction of the thermocouple as the evaporator, a heat sink as the
condenser and a DC power source as the compressor of the refrigerator, cooling
effect can be provided. The coefficient of performance of compression refrigerators
decrease with the decrease of its capacity. Therefore, when it is necessary to design a
refrigerator for cooling a chamber of only a few litres capacity, thermoelectric
cooling is always preferable. Also for controlling the temperature of small units,
thermoelectric cooling has no competition from existing refrigerators of the
conventional types. The importance of thermoelectric cooling can be best understood
by examining other various advantages it offers over the conventional methods of
There is ease of interchanging the cooling and heating functions by reversing
the direction of current in the thermocouple
Thermoelectric systems are vibration less and have no moving parts. Hence
there is no problem of wear and noise.
There is no problem of containment and pollution because no refrigerant or
chemical is used.
Since there is no bulky equipment it provides ease of miniaturization for
small capacity systems.
The capacity can be controlled easily by varying the current and hence the
amount of heat absorbed or evolved at the junctions.
The system is highly reliable ( with a life of > 250,000 hours)
This system also has the capacity to operate under various values of gravity
(including zero gravity) and in any position.

Thus, thermoelectric cooling has a great relevance in todays time.

In vaccine fridge which is used to hold the polio vaccine various heat transfer are
taken into consideration and material of the vaccine box is selected in such a way that
these heat transfer minimizes. The heat transfer which are taking place generally are:
a. Conduction
On a microscopic scale, heat conduction occurs as hot, rapidly moving or vibrating
atoms and molecules interact with neighbouring atoms and molecules, transferring
some of their energy (heat) to these neighbouring particles. In other words, heat is
transferred by conduction when adjacent atoms vibrate against one another, or as
electrons move from one atom to another. Conduction is the most significant means
of heat transfer within a solid or between solid objects in thermal contact. Fluids
especially gasesare less conductive. Thermal contact conductance is the study of
heat conduction between solid bodies in contact.[9]
Steady state conduction (see Fourier's law) is a form of conduction that happens
when the temperature difference driving the conduction is constant, so that after an
equilibration time, the spatial distribution of temperatures in the conducting object
does not change any further.[10] In steady state conduction, the amount of heat
entering a section is equal to amount of heat coming out.[9]
Transient conduction (see Heat equation) occurs when the temperature within an
object changes as a function of time. Analysis of transient systems is more complex
and often calls for the application of approximation theories or numerical analysis by

b. Convection

The flow of fluid may be forced by external processes, or sometimes (in gravitational
fields) by buoyancy forces caused when thermal energy expands the fluid (for
example in a fire plume), thus influencing its own transfer. The latter process is often
called "natural convection". All convective processes also move heat partly by
diffusion, as well. Another form of convection is forced convection. In this case the
fluid is forced to flow by use of a pump, fan or other mechanical means.
Convective heat transfer, or convection, is the transfer of heat from one place to
another by the movement of fluids, a process that is essentially the transfer of heat
via mass transfer. Bulk motion of fluid enhances heat transfer in many physical
situations, such as (for example) between a solid surface and the fluid. [11] Convection
is usually the dominant form of heat transfer in liquids and gases. Although
sometimes discussed as a third method of heat transfer, convection is usually used to
describe the combined effects of heat conduction within the fluid (diffusion) and heat
transference by bulk fluid flow streaming.[12] The process of transport by fluid
streaming is known as advection, but pure advection is a term that is generally
associated only with mass transport in fluids, such as advection of pebbles in a river.
In the case of heat transfer in fluids, where transport by advection in a fluid is always
also accompanied by transport via heat diffusion (also known as heat conduction) the
process of heat convection is understood to refer to the sum of heat transport by
advection and diffusion/conduction.
Free, or natural, convection occurs when bulk fluid motions (steams and currents) are
caused by buoyancy forces that result from density variations due to variations of
temperature in the fluid. Forced convection is a term used when the streams and
currents in the fluid are induced by external meanssuch as fans, stirrers, and pumps
creating an artificially induced convection current.

c. Radiation


radiation occurs


a vacuum or

any transparent medium (solid or fluid). It is the transfer of energy by means

of photons in electromagnetic governed by the same laws.[14] Earth's radiation
balance depends on the incoming and the outgoing thermal radiation, Earth's energy
budget. Anthropogenic perturbations in the climate system are responsible for a
positive radiative forcing which reduces the net longwave radiation loss out to Space.
Thermal radiation is energy emitted by matter as electromagnetic waves, due to the
pool of thermal energy in all matter with a temperature above absolute zero. Thermal
radiation propagates without the presence of matter through the vacuum of space.[15]
Thermal radiation is a direct result of the random movements of atoms and molecules
in matter. Since these atoms and molecules are composed of charged particles
(protons and electrons), their movement results in the emission of electromagnetic
radiation, which carries energy away from the surface.
The Stefan-Boltzmann equation, which describes the rate of transfer of radiant
energy, is as follows for an object in a vacuum:
Q= T

For Radiative transfer between two objects, the equation is as follows:

Q= (T aT b )

Where Q is the rate of heat transfer, is the emissivity (unity for a black body), is
the Stefan-Boltzmann constant, and T is the absolute temperature (in Kelvin or
Rankine). Radiation is typically only important for very hot objects, or for objects
with a large temperature difference.

In the vaccine fridge the conduction and convection heat transfer of ice with the
surrounding is resisted but the problem is with the radiation heat transfer which occur
between the ice kept inside the vaccine fridge and the ambient atmosphere which is at
much higher temperature than the ice due to this temperature gradient heat transfer
occurs which increases the temperature of the vaccine fridge. So to avoid this heat
transfer radiation heat transfer need to be minimized. By the help of Pelteir crystal we
will try to maintain a temperature of 10 to 15 degree celcius in between the vaccine
box and decrease the radiation heat transfer.
The objective of this project is to make a vaccine fridge based on thermoelectric
cooling by the help of Pelteir crystal. This will reduce the radiation heat transfer from
the walls of the vaccine fridge and will increase the life of vaccine in the fridge by
Preserve the ice 3 or 4 times longer than ordinary vaccine fridge.

Chapter 2
2.1 Literature survey
[1] Friedemann Vlklein (1974) presents the modelling of a thermoelectric cooler,
which is designed by using micromachining and thin film technology. The cooler
fabrication is compatible with standard semiconductor technology. Therefore, it can
be integrated in microelectronic circuits. The most important parameters of the
device like cooling power, maximum temperature difference and optimum current
density are calculated. By using thermoelectric thin films with high efficiency and
very thin SiC/Si3N4-membranes, a cooling power of a few milliWatts or maximum
temperature difference of 3050 K can be achieved.
[2]T. C. Harman, J. H. Cahn and M. J. Logan(2004) used a special technique for the
accurate measurement of thermal conductivity . The method involves use of the
Peltier heat to maintain a temperature gradient along the specimen. Straightforward



the thermoelectricpower, thermal




conductivity, and electrical



resistivity. An

especially useful feature of the method is that the thermoelectric figure of merit is
given in terms of the ratio of two voltages. The theory is presented for the case in
which the radiative heat transfer is important. The method has been tested
experimentally at 300K only, but analysis suggests that accurate measurements of

conductivity can







low thermal

conductivity materials of small dimensions up to 1000K.

[3]Eduard Zwack (1988) used a cooling device which is realized by a Peltier element
and is assigned to a crystal oscillator and driven by a processor with the assistance of
a temperature sensor such that the crystal exhibits one of two selected temperatures
lying closest to the ambient temperature. A compensation value is stored in the
memory of the processor for each of the crystal temperatures selected from an

operating temperature range. This compensation value effects the compensation of

the frequency deviations of the crystal oscillator that are caused by temperature
[4] Catherine Hildbrand (2000) presented idea using adsorptive solar refrigerator. The
adsorption pair is silica gel + water. The machine does not contain any moving parts,
does not consume any mechanical energy except for experimental purposes and is
relatively easy to manufacture. Cylindrical tubes function as both the adsorber system
and the solar collector (flat-plate, 2 m2 double glazed); the condenser is air-cooled
(natural convection) and the evaporator contains 40 l of water that can freeze. This
ice functions as a cold storage for the cabinet (320 l).
2.2 Conclusion to Literature Review
From the above the literature survey we conclude that thermoelectric effect is an
effective cooling method which can be use in vaccine box to maintain low
temperature of ice for long period than the conventional one. Thermoelectric cooling
is economical and requires very less current to give cooling effect which makes it
suitable for solar operated. Also as thermoelectric cooler have very less movement of
mechanical component its life span is more than the other refrigeration system of
same size. So from all the point mention above we can give final conclusion that
thermoelectric cooler are most suitable for our Pelteir based vaccine fridge.

2.3 Problem formulation

In the vaccine fridge the conduction and convection heat transfer of ice with the
surrounding is resisted but the problem is with the radiation heat transfer which occur
between the ice kept inside the vaccine fridge and the ambient atmosphere which is at
much higher temperature than the ice due to this temperature gradient heat transfer
occurs which increases the temperature of the vaccine fridge As vaccine fridge is

made with a thermally insulated material so only radiation heat transfer can be the
only cause melting of ice inside the box. By the use of Pelteir crystal in vaccine
fridge the radiation heat transfer can be reduced by reducing the temperature

Chapter 3


Various steps involved in making vaccine fridge using Pelteir crystal

1. Vaccine box of material is made of dimension.

Outer box which will cover the vaccine box of dimension is made.
3. Pelteir crystal of dimension and made of?? Semiconductor is used for cooling

4. 2dc motors are used one for exhaust fan and other for the circulating fan of 3watt
5. To give power to this whole setup 2 solar plate of total 6watt capacity used.

3.2 material used for making vaccine fridge using Pelteir crystal
1. To make the body minimum density fibre board used (6mm*4mm).
2. Copper pipe (6mm*8mm).
3. 3 volt dc brushed motor (2).
4. Pelteir crystal (40mm*40mm).
5. Heat sink
6. Heat sensor(tungsten filament based heat sensor)
7. MPPT (Maximum power point tracking) circuit.
8. Lead acid dry battery.(4 volts ,1.5Amphere)
9. 555 timer
10.1M ohm potentiometer
11.Carbon film resistor (1k ohm,10k ohm,330 ohm)
12.Ceramic capacitor
13.Electrolytic capacitor

14.Copper wire used (3) for making circuit in PCB.

Description of some important parts of the vacuum fridge using Pelteir crystal
1. Solar Panel
A solar panel is a set of solar photovoltaic modules electrically connected and
mounted on a supporting structure. A photovoltaic module is a packaged, connected
assembly of solar cells. The solar panel can be used as a component of a larger
photovoltaic system to generate and supply electricity in commercial and residential
applications. Each module is rated by its DC output power under standard test
conditions (STC), and typically ranges from 100 to 320 watts. The efficiency of a
module determines the area of a module given the same rated output - an 8% efficient
230 watt module will have twice the area of a 16% efficient 230 watt module. A
single solar module can produce only a limited amount of power; most installations
contain multiple modules. A photovoltaic system typically includes a panel or an
array of solar modules, an inverter, and sometimes a battery and/solar tracker and
interconnection wiring.

2. Battery
A battery cell consists of two lead plates a positive plate covered with a paste of lead
dioxide and a negative made of sponge lead, with an insulating material (separator) in

between. The plates are enclosed in a plastic battery case and then submersed in an
electrolyte consisting of water and sulphuric acid.

3. 555 Timer Circuit

Many DC motor speed control circuits have been published here but this is the first
one using NE555 timer IC. In addition to controlling the motors speed its direction of
rotation can be also changed using this circuit.
4. MPPT Circuit
Controller's main function is to make solar power system is always in the vicinity of
the maximum power generation in order to obtain maximum efficiency. MPPT stands
for maximum power point tracker. Inside these controllers is a high efficiency, DC to
DC voltage converter that pulls the maximum load from a solar panel and then, using
a pre-programmed algorithm that accounts for temperature, charge state along with
power draw, pushes the power into the battery array.

3.2 Working

Here in the setup solar plate of 6watt capacity is been used for giving power to two
3v dc motor which are used for circulation of the cold air in the body and other is
used as exhaust fan for throwing out the hot air from the hot side of the crystal to the
atmosphere which is acting as a heat sink. Pelteir crystal is used to make the cold
atmosphere in setup .Pelteir crystal is powered by the battery which will be charged
by the solar panel. Also a timer circuit is installed which after certain interval of time
will turn on the current in the Pelteir crystal and maintain the temperature of the
When an electrical current is applied across the junction of two dissimilar metals,
heat is removed from one of the metals and transferred to the other. This is the basis
of thermoelectric refrigeration. Thermoelectric modules are constructed from a series
of tiny metal cubes of dissimilar exotic metals which are physically bonded together
and connected electrically. When electrical current passes through the cube junctions,
heat is transferred from one metal to the other. Solid-state thermoelectric modules are
capable of transferring large quantities of heat when connected to a heat absorbing
device on one side and a heat dissipating device on the other. The internal aluminium
cold plate fins absorb heat from the contents, polio vaccine , and the thermoelectric
modules transfer it to heat dissipating fins under the control panel. Here, a small fan
helps to disperse the heat into the air. The system is totally environmentally friendly
and contains no hazardous gases, nor pipes nor coils and no compressor. The only
moving part is the small 3-volt fan. Thermoelectric modules are too expensive for
normal domestic and commercial applications which run only on regular household
current. They are ideally suited to recreational applications because they are
lightweight, compact, and insensitive to motion or tilting, have no moving parts, and
can operate directly from 6-volt batteries.

Chapter 4
Result and Discussion
4.1 Result and discussion
The system is efficient enough to maintain approximately 10 to 15 degree less
temperature inside the box so that heat transmission through radiation could be
minimised. In the system we are using peltier crystal as a localized cooling agent
which maintains temperature as accordance with the voltage provided into it. To
control the system a simplest circuit is developed which contain a programmed
control or analogous control along with timer and related components.

4.1.1 Advantages of the system


Simplest circuitry
Portable and easy to carry
Totally non conventional energy operated
Due to lack of any coolant it is very cheap in maintenance
Easy to repair

6) Light weight and cooling remain last longer.

4.1.2 Limitations
It cannot act as a fridge without ice input, because it is used to maintain less
temperature so that the ice box remain chilled and the melting rate of ice could be
slowed down.

Chapter 5
Conclusion and future scope
5.1 Conclusion
By the use of Pelteir crystal we are able to reduce the radiation heat transfer between
the ice in the vaccine box and ambient atmosphere and from this vaccine fridge using
Pelteir crystal we can preserve polio vaccine for 4 to 6 hours more than the normal
vaccine fridge. This setup is Ecofriendly, Economical and can be easily make.

5.2 Future scopes

Polio is still a very big problem for us and to eliminate it we need vaccine .these
vaccine need some lower temperature otherwise they will expire. Present
conventional vaccine box can only preserve vaccine for 6 hours maximum. Due to

such type of constraint we cant provide vaccine to the village people where this
polio problem is fatal. So by the use of this new modified vaccine box we can
increase the life of vaccine and can easily provide vaccine to villages which are far
away from main city. Future scope of this project is very dynamic and real life based
and by implementing this project in large scale we can eliminate polio virus from all
rural areas of India completely.

Chapter 6
1. C. Alaoui, Z. Salameh, Solid State Heater Cooler: Design and Evaluation, Large
Engineering Systems Conference on Power Engineering (July 2001).
2. J. C. Reynaud, F. Martini, A new interface chamber for the study of mammalian
nervous tissue slices, Journal of Neuroscience Methods 58(1995) , pp. 203-208.
3. P. Ancey, M. Gshwind, New concept of integrated Peltier cooling device for the
preventive detection of water condensation, Sensors and Actuators B 26-27 (1995)
pp. 303-307.

4. H. Stachowiak, S. Lassue, A thermoelectric sensor for fluid flow measurement.

Principles, calibration and solution for self temperature compensation. Flow,
measurement and instrumentation 9 (1998) pp. 135-141.
5. E. D. Baetselier, W. Goedertier, A survey of the thermal stability of an active heat
sinks, Microelectron reliability, Vol 37. No. 12 (1997), pp. 1805-1812.
6. G. Selliger, J. Stephan and S. Lange, "Hydroadhesive gripping by using Peltier
effect", ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exposition
(IMECE), pp.3-8, Florida USA,November 2000.
7. J. P. Holman, Heat transfer, 7th ed., India: McGraw-Hill, (1998).
8. D. C. SPANNER, the Peltier Effect and its Use in the Measurement of Suction
Pressure International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, Volume 77, December 2013.
9. Abbott, J.M. Smith, H.C. Van Ness, M.M. (2005). Introduction to chemical
engineering thermodynamics (7th ed. ed.). Boston; Montreal: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 007-310445-0.
10."Thermal-FluidsPedia | Heat conduction".
11.^ engel, Yunus (2003). Heat Transfer: a practical approach. McGraw-Hill series in
mechanical engineering. (2nd ed.). Boston: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 978-0-07-2458930.OCLC 300472921. Retrieved 2009-04-20.
12.Tritt, T.; Bttner, H.; Chen, L. (2008). "Thermoelectrics: Direct Solar Thermal
Energy Conversion". MRS Bulletin 33 (4): 355372.
13.Scheer, Hermann (2002). The Solar Economy (Renewable Energy for a Sustainable
Global Future). Earthscan Publications Ltd. ISBN 1-84407-075-1.
14. Geankoplis, Christie John (2003). Transport processes and separation process
principles: (includes unit operations) (4th ed. ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice
Hall Professional Technical Reference. ISBN 0-13-101367-X.
15. "Thermal-FluidsPedia | Radiation"