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Elmod 6

Quick Start Manual

Dynatest International A/S


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Table of Contents
1. Introduction _______________________________________________________ 3
2. Compatibility ______________________________________________________ 3
3. Installation ________________________________________________________ 5
4. Registration Procedure ______________________________________________ 6
5. The Main Menu ____________________________________________________ 8
5.1 Menu Items ___________________________________________________________ 8
5.2 Navigating in the Menus _______________________________________________ 13

6. Settings __________________________________________________________ 14
7. Projects and Data Files _____________________________________________ 19
7.1 Creating a New Project ________________________________________________ 19
7.2 Importing FWD Data Files. ____________________________________________ 20
7.3 Opening Projects and Data Files ________________________________________ 23
7.4 Delete Options _______________________________________________________ 24

8. Viewing and Editing Data File _______________________________________ 25


9. Entering Structural Information _____________________________________ 26
10. Performing Backcalculation ________________________________________ 29
11. Performing Designs _______________________________________________ 31
11.1 Overlay Design _____________________________________________________ 31
11.2

New Design ________________________________________________________ 34

12. Viewing Results___________________________________________________ 37


12.1 Graphs and Tables ___________________________________________________ 37
12.2 Options ____________________________________________________________ 39
12.3 Sectioning __________________________________________________________ 40
12.4 Tools ______________________________________________________________ 41
12.5 Map _______________________________________________________________ 42
12.6 Editing Graph Layout ________________________________________________ 44

13. Parameter Setup __________________________________________________ 45


13.1 Seasons ____________________________________________________________ 46
13.2 Materials ___________________________________________________________ 47
13.3 Vehicles and Wheels _________________________________________________ 53

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1. Introduction
The purpose of this manual is to assist you getting started with the basics of
Elmod 6 FWD data analysis. It gives a brief overview through the menus and
procedures needed for importing files, doing backcalculations and designs. Only
issues regarding the functionalities of the Elmod 6 Basic module are covered. For
guides and information about the optional modules FEM/LET/MET, PCN and
LCCA please refer to the HELP file in Elmod.
The HELP file associated with Elmod6 gives more detailed information as well
as you will find general documentation, examples and references.

2. Compatibility
PC and Windows.
Elmod is designed to run on a PC under Microsoft Windows operating systems.
Elmod has been tested with Windows 2000, Windows XP and Windows Vista,
Window 7 and Windows 8, but is assumed to run also with Windows NT,
Window ME and earlier versions like Windows 98.
The required minimum screen resolution is 1024 x 768
To be able to generate reports, you will need to have an installation of Microsoft
Word for reports designed for printing, and Microsoft Excel for exports of tables
for further processing.
Earlier versions of Elmod
Elmod 6 can read and convert Elmod 5 databases. Since Elmod 6 has a changed
database format, it is necessary for Elmod 6 to create an Elmod 6 database from
the Elmod 5 project.
If you from Project Open select an Elmod 5 project database, you will get
the following message:

Click Yes to proceed, and you will be asked for location and name for the
Elmod 6 project database:

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As a default Elmod suggests the same folder, and name of the project database
with _E6 added to the name.
When you click Save the new database will be created and opened ready to be
used.
Databases and parameter files from Elmod versions 1 to 4 cannot be read
automatically by Elmod 6. Contact Dynatest in case you need assistance with
converting old data.

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3. Installation
From a CD:
Insert the CD and run the file Elmod6_Setup.exe.
From an FTP download:
Download the file Elmod6_<version>.zip to a directory, and unzip the files to a
temporary directory. Run the file Elmod6_Setup.exe from this directory.
SETUP procedure:
Depending on the Operating System you may first receive a Security Warning
window. If so click the appropriate button to continue.
On the Welcome window click Next to continue the installation. Next you will
have a Customer Information window. You dont have to fill in anything, just
click Next to continue.
You can now accept to install Elmod6 in the default directory: C:\Program
Files\Dynatest\Elmod6 or you can change the location using the Change
function. Continue the installation by clicking Next. On the following window
click Install to start the installation.
When installation procedure has finished, click Finish to exit. In some cases you
may be asked to restart the computer for changes to take effect.
It may happen that during the installation, you will be prompted because a file
could not be updated due to Windows protection of the file. In this case just click
OK to continue the installation.
The SETUP program creates a shortcut in the Windows Start menu, from
which you can start Elmod6:

Also an Elmod6 Shortcut is created on your desktop.

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4. Registration Procedure
Each installation on a new computer requires a request for a license file for the
specific computer. When starting the Elmod program, a registration form will
automatically pop up, if no license is present for the computer. This registration
form must be used when requesting the license from Dynatest.

If you do not wish to register at this point, you can press the Return to menu
button, and the program will continue to the main menu. The first 5 days you can
use the program with all facilities without a license file. Hereafter the program
will convert to a DEMO, where you are only allowed to open a demo file
located in the Elmod6 program folder.
If you would like to request the license file, then press the button Create Mail to
Dynatest. You will following be asked to enter the name of your company or
institution, and to identify your home country from a list.
Next you will have the window, as shown below, where you can accept or reject
the license conditions. Please use the scroll button at the right to see all text in the
license agreement.

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If you accept the agreement the program will start up your default e-mail service,
and prepare a new e-mail with certain information placed in the header lines. All
you have to do is to send the e-mail. Dynatest will mail back the license file,
normally within 24 hours. If you choose not to accept the agreement, then the
program will convert into a DEMO version.
If one of these situations occurs:
-

You dont have e-mail service on the computer.


The e-mail service does not start automatically.
The wrong e-mail service is starting.
The header line is empty.

Then please use the other button I dont have email facilities on this computer.
This procedure will save the necessary information to a text file
Mail_to_Dynatest.txt in the folder: C:\Dynatest\Elmod6. Next you can attach
this file to an email to Dynatest using your normal e-mail service.

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5. The Main Menu


Following you will have a brief overview of menu items and shortcuts available.
For details about the functionalities please follow the references.

5.1 Menu Items

Some of the menu items may be disabled, if they have no relevance at the current
stage, e.g. you cannot view a data file before you have opened one, and you
cannot do a design before you have done a backcalculation.

Project
This opens a submenu with access to handling projects and files:

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Select Database to manage project databases:

Open opens a browser to locate a previously created project database.


Create new opens a browser to allow selection of location and name for a new
project database
Quick Launch allows creating a database and importing a file automatically by
selecting an FWD file.
Compress database is a facility to compact and repair existing databases. It is
only enabled if no project database has been opened.
Select Datafile to manage files in the project database:

Open from database is used when an existing file in the project database should
be the current file to process.
Import FWD file to database opens a file browser to locate FWD files to import.
Import from several directories can be used to locate FWD files to import if they
are located in different folders.
Merge files is a facility to combine two imported files into one.
Rename file allows you to give the currently opened file a new name.
Select Batch to run backcalculation for a range of files in one operation. All
selected files must be present in the current database.
Select Delete Options for access to various possibilities to delete analysis results
and files:

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Select Recent Files for fast access to previously opened files.

These can be accessed even if no project is open and even if they belong to
another project than the current one. The accessed files project database will
automatically become the current one.
(See 7. Projects and Files for details.)

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Review Data
Clicking Review Data gives access to view and edit information from an opened
data file. Temperature curves can be viewed and edited, and it is possible to split
files. (For more information see the Help function accessible from the Elmod
Main Menu).

Structure
Click Structure to enter pavement thicknesses and materials, and to define
subsections. Further it gives access to define GPR thickness data, and to input
information for joint calculations.
(See 9. Entering Structural Information).

Moduli
Click Moduli to get access to start a backcalculation of layer moduli. You have
access to Radius of curvature method, to Deflection Basin Fit method, and to the
optional module FEM/LET/MET.
(See 10. Performing Backcalculations)

Plot
Click Plot to access the facilities for presentation of deflections data and results
of calculations. There are facilities for graphics, printed reports and export to
various file types.
(See 12. Viewing Results).

Parameters
Click Parameters to view and edit a parameter setup for designs. If no project is
open you have access to the default parameter setups, otherwise you have access
to the parameter setups stored in the current project database, and the possibility
of saving edited setups both as default and as project specific.
(See 13. Parameter Setup)
Design
Click Design to perform either overlay design or new design:

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Overlay design is used to calculate required overlay thickness on existing layers.


PCN calculations are also available from here, if this module is licensed.
New design is used to calculate completely new structures, not using any
backcalculation results.
To carry out a design you have to select a parameter setup and to enter
information about layer material types and traffic
(See 11. Performing Designs).

LCCA
Click LCCA to get access to the optional module LCCA (Life Cycle Cost
Analysis). This is only available if you have license for this module.
(For more information see the Help function accessible from the Elmod Main
Menu).

Options
Clicking Options brings up this submenu:

Edit Aircraft Database is used to add, delete and modify information in this
database delivered as a part of the Elmod software package. The database
contains information about aircraft details, and is used in connection with setting
up load configurations for aircrafts in Parameters, and as the source for ACN
values, when using the PCN facility.
Click Edit Geophone Setup to get access to select/deselect geophones used for
input to the backcalculation.
Click Edit Temperature Table to make changes to the defined asphalt modulus /
temperature relations defined as tables.

Settings
Click Settings to access some overall settings for Elmod6, like language and unit
system. Correct settings must be entered before creating a new project database.
(See 6. Settings).

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Help
Clicking Help brings up this submenu:

Help File brings up this Help system.


Registration gives access to apply for license file.
(See 4. Registration Procedure)
About gives information about program version and licenses.

5.2 Navigating in the Menus


With the Mouse
When moving the mouse cursor over a menu item (label or related icon), you will
automatically see the submenu if there is one, and you can continue to move the
mouse to the submenu item you want to go to. Submenu items can have a new
submenu level. In this manner you can reach any menu item or submenu item
without clicking the mouse. First when you have highlighted the desired item,
you need to click to activate the item.
The advantages are that you can move fast around in the menus and save a lot of
mouse clicks. The drawback is that you need to be a bit more careful with the
mouse movements, because a selected submenu window will disappear if you
move the cursor outside the submenu window. This drawback is reduced a bit by
making the submenu items larger, which also allows more space for the related
icons.
From the keyboard
The whole menu system can be controlled without using the mouse. Instead the
key with the first letter of the menu label can be pressed (not case sensitive).
To open a database you would then press: pdo and <Enter>
(p for Project, d for Database, o for Open and <Enter> to activate)
You will see that the mouse cursor is following your choices, so its easy at any
time in the process to let the mouse take over.

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6. Settings
Select Settings from the main menu to access this facility.
This allows setting a number of general parameters in Elmod, and it must be
checked that the settings are correct before creating a new database.
General

Settings on this tab are defaults for any new database that is created Changes will
be reflected for both new and existing databases, except Printer Setup which
needed to be checked for each run, as it may be changed by the use of other
applications.
Language contains a selection of languages which can be used in the user
interface. Elmod is delivered with English as standard, and prepared for
translation into other languages if feasible. In the current list of languages only
few of the choices are active, and they may not be updated in the current release,
as this will only happen in cooperation with clients demanding translations.
Units. Elmod can work with either the SI Metric system or with the US
Customary system. Switching between the two systems of units can only be done
when no project database is open. Once a project database is created with the
defined unit system, it cannot be changed within the project database.

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Weather Report Site indicates a link to a website where temperature


information is available. In the Estimate Moduli window, there is an option to
click the Link button, when using Bells equation for correcting surface
temperature to mid-depth asphalt temperature. Clicking this button will open the
website to allow searching for temperature information for the specific area and
period.
Tooltips activated. Elmod6 comes with a comprehensive tooltips functionality,
giving information boxes when moving the mouse pointer over menus, buttons
and text fields. This is useful for new users of Elmod6, but after a while when
getting experienced with the functionalities you may wish to switch it off, as they
can be annoying if you dont need them.
Printer Setup. This allows changing the default printer as all reports now goes
into Microsoft Word or Microsoft Excel you can just as well set the default
printer in these applications. The only exception is the print graph facility in the
PLOT program, where the graphics are sent directly to the printer.

Technical

If a data file is open the settings on this tab will always be saved to the current
project. By checking Save also as permanent the changes will also be save for
use with new projects created. If no data file is open changes will be saved as
permanent changes.

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Sort data by chainage. This is used when importing FWD files. Usually it is
most convenient to have the data sorted by chainage because pavement structure
data are entered by chainage and some plotting features like sectioning and XY
graphs only works if stationing is in increasing order. One possible reason to
keep the original order of the test points is if the file contains measurements in
both directions of a road, and the two directions have to be analyzed separately.
In this case the sorting can be unchecked and the Review data facilities can be
used to split the file into two more easily than if the data were sorted.
Automatic insertion of seed values. In the Structural data window where you
define the pavement structure, Elmod will use this setting to determine if seed
moduli should be inserted automatically when selecting materials. If it is switch
on, Elmod will insert the materials reference moduli as defined in the Parameter
setup. The seed moduli are used as start values in the iteration procedures for
calculating the layer moduli.
Use moduli restriction. In the Parameter setup you can set a minimum and
maximum allowable modulus for each material. If you switch on the restriction
Elmod6 will use these values in the backcalculation of moduli, and not allow the
modulus to exceed these values.
Distress reduction factors. These values relate to a project database, and can
only be set when a project database is open. They can be relevant to use if FWD
tests have been performed on cracked surfaces, and the FWD operator during the
tests have indicated this in the data file using the facility in the Field program
where he can indicate moderate cracking or severe cracking. When the surface is
cracked it may be impossible or irrelevant to try to backcalculate the modulus of
the top layer. Instead the modulus of the top layer can be fixed to an estimated
value, and Elmod will then reduce this fixed value with the factors entered for
moderate and severe cracking.
Load transfer. When joints have been tested in relation to jointed concrete
pavements, the load transfer can be calculated. The load transfer efficiency can
be calculated according to two different methods. Both methods make use of the
deflections from the two geophones positioned at each side of the joint, and a
bending factor from the mid-slab test using the deflections from the same
geophones. Westergaards equation provides the actual load transfer between the
two slabs, whereas the FHWA equation is the deflection ratio.

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D refers to deflection, J and M to joint and mid-slab and 1 and 2 to first and
second geophone chosen for the joint calculation.
Em factor. This factors default value is 1. The Em factor is a design factor. The
measured Em corresponds to the dynamic FWD load. If the subgrade design
criterion was based on a static plate loading test, and you know that the dynamic
modulus is 1.3 times the static modulus, for example, then you would enter this
factor, and the design part of the program will use the static Em. Similarly if you
have been using results of a triaxial test, and you know that they give 0.3 times
the dynamic FWD value (as claimed by AASHTO) then you would enter a
factor of 1/0.3 = 3.33.
k factor.
A similar factor can be applied to the k value, used with Westergaards
equations, and also used for reporting the subgrade category with PCN for rigid
pavements. Notice the dynamic k-value is considered to be less than the
static derived k-value, in which case the entered factor must be less than 1.
Subgrade categories
Subgrade categories gives access to modify the relation between CBR values and
subgrade elastic modulus. This is required to report the subgrade category
according to ICAOs definition for reporting PCN values.
This is a table which simply translates the CBR limit values into E-values
Colors

Changes on this tab will be valid for both current project and for new created
projects.

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You can select colors for various objects in the windows. For window
background color you can specify a graduation by setting different top and
bottom color. Level 1 refers to the Main menu window, and Level 2 refer to
windows that open on top of the main window, likewise Level 3 refers to
windows that opens on top of Level 2 windows. Click in the boxes to change the
colors. Click the Change to factory settings button to reset colors to the default
settings as they came with the installation.

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7. Projects and Data Files


A Project is defined as a collection of data files. The project name refers to the
name of a single Microsoft Access database where to which the data files have
been imported. Elmod6 can only work with data files that are imported into a
project database.
A Data File is a collection of test points measured with the FWD/HWD, and
stored in one file named by the operator during the field testing.
When a new set of data files have been brought in from the field, the first step
will be to create a new project database for later import of the data files. The idea
is that you can keep all data files belonging to a specific project in a single
project database. This may be a collection of files from an airfield, from a single
road, or from multiple roads belonging to the same contract. A reasonable
number of files in one project database would be from 1 to 50 or 100, but there is
no upper limit, except that the size of the database could grow to an
unmanageable size or the program performance would slow down at some stage.
The second step is to import the data files. Even if only one data file has to be
analysed it must be imported into a project database. Once this has happened you
will not need the FWD data file any longer. (Except for backup purposes).
Analysis can now be performed by opening the proper file from the project
database, and all results will go into the project database.
If you are going to analyse or view results from an earlier created project, the
procedure is to open the project, and next to open the data file from the project.
Alternatively you might find the file in the list of recent files in the Project menu.
This will automatically open both the project database and the data file.

7.1 Creating a New Project


From the main menu select: Project Database Create new
The browser window as shown below will open and you can select where to
create your project database, and which name you want to assign to the database.
The file extension must be .mde, which Elmod will recognise as an Elmod
Project Database.

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When you click Save, Elmod will create the project database, and the default
Parameter setups will be copied to the new database. This project database will
become the current database.
The Main Windows title bar will always display the currently opened project:

Alternatively you can use Project Database Quick Launch (or hotkey Q)
which allows to select an FWD file. Hereafter the database creation and import of
the file will happen automatically. As default the database will be located in same
folder as the data file and be given the same name, but you will have options to
change both.

7.2 Importing FWD Data Files.


To import a FWD data file, or multiple data files located in same directory, select
from the Main menu: Project Datafile Import FWD File to Database
Elmod 5 can open all standard FWD files stored by a Dynatest FWD or HWD
regardless of field program version or file format. A standard dialog box enables
choice of directory and subdirectory location. By default, all files having
extensions as FWD, F10, F20, F25 and MDB are shown. If another extension has

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been selected by the user e.g. DAT, these can be displayed in the file dialog
boxes by selecting "All files" in the File Type Box.
The File Open Dialog will be shown as seen below:

Files with standard extensions will be displayed from the selected directory.
Notice that the new MDB format from the Dynatest Field Program can also be
imported.
You can now select a single file or a range of files to be imported. To select a
range of files use the standard Windows functionality <Shift> or <Control>.

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If you select a single file, you will have the opportunity to store the file under a
different name, when you have clicked the OK button:

The last file in the import will automatically become the currently opened file, as
you will see in the Windows Title bar:

If you select Project Datafile Import From Several directories you will
have a more convenient way of importing files one by one located when they are
located in different directories. You also have the possibility to change the
filename for each file.

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7.3 Opening Projects and Data Files


To open an existing project select: Project Database Open
You will then get the usual File Open Dialog Box, from which you can browse to
the location of the database. Only files with extension .mde will be listed.
When you have clicked OK to open a database, you can open an data file from
the database by selecting: Project Datafile Import
If the project database only contains one file, this file will be opened
automatically. If there are more files you will get the list of files for selection.

Click the data file you want to work with, and click OK.
If the specific data file is among the list of recent files in the Project menu, you
can also click the file name there, and both Project and data file will open
automatically.

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7.4 Delete Options


The Delete Options gives you following possibilities:

Deleting complete project database will delete the project MDE file from the hard
disk with all imported files.
Deleting a file from the project will remove all information including any results
about the specific file, which is currently opened.
Deleting all results from the file will delete the results of all calculations that
have been made for the currently opened file.
Deleting designs from file will delete all design calculations for the currently
opened file, while the results of backcalculations will remain.
For all choices you will be asked to confirm the process.

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8. Viewing and Editing Data File


To view and edit various information from the currently opened data file select
Review Data from the Main menu.

What you see is the file information stored in the project database. Any editing to
this information will not affect the original FWD data file, which was used
during import.
In the table with test points and deflections you can edit values in the white
coloured cells. To edit, click the cell and make the correction. Press <Enter> or
click another cell to accept changes. Nothing will be stored to the database until
you press the button Save New Data. To reject your changes, just click Cancel.
The columns T,asp and T,surf in the data grid refer to the recorded asphalt
temperature and surface temperature during testing.
The columns JointID and PosID are identifiers used for recognising the position
of the FWD during measurements of jointed pavements, where tests at corners
and edges are used to calculate joint conditions.
The button View Geophone Positions will open a window, with a drawing of
how the geophones have been positioned during testing. This is useful when
measuring with a Rear Extension Bar or a Star Bar.

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9. Entering Structural Information


When a data file is open, you can enter layer thicknesses by selecting Structure
from the Main menu. The following window will open:

In the example above you will see a 3 layer structure (including subgrade)
defined as 200 mm of wearing course layer on 300 mm of base layer. For a 3
layer system this is all that is required to perform a backcalculation. Information
about material types will not be required before design suggestions have to be
calculated.
You can divide the data file into subsections with different layer information
using the Add Section button, and set the chainage of each subsection in the
From and To data fields.
Click OK to save the changes and return to the main menu.

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In the figure below you see an example where additional information has been
entered:

The file has been divided into 3 subsections, and material types have been
defined, by first selection a parameter setup and following material type for each
layer can be selected by clicking in the material input fields.
If you click the button View Structure you can get graphics reflection the defined
sections and input values:

PCC is layer No.


This is used to indicate layer number for a PCC layer, counted as 1 from the top.
This is relevant if PCN is to be used or in case of jointed pavements with joint
tests.
Use PCC Joint ID Numbers
Check this option, if the joint calculations have to be included in the analysis.
This is only possible, if the tests have been made on PCC slabs, with
measurements on both slab centre and slab joints using the rear extension bar.

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The joint ID numbers identify the position of the measurement on the slab, and
are given by the operator during testing.
Use GPR Data
An alternative to enter layer thickness for each section is to use this facility to use
point related data for layer structure (like results from GPR testing). In this case
check the option and click Import/Edit to get an input table for the data. It is
possible to import the data from a text file or from an Excel spreadsheet.
In the analysis, Elmod will for each FWD test point, search among the GPR data
to find the closest point with thickness information.
(For more details about the options in this window see the Help function
accessible from the Elmod Main Menu).

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10. Performing Backcalculation


Start the backcalculation module by clicking Moduli from the Main menu, and
you will see the window below:

Select Drops
If you have more than 1 drop for each test point in the file, you can specify the
drop(s) for the analysis. One or more drops may be used at a time
Select Sections
If you have divided the file into more subsections, you can specify the section(s)
for the analysis.
Temperature Status
This gives an overview of which temperatures that are available in the data file,
and the minimum and maximum recorded temperatures. From the Review Data
window have access to see graphics of the recorded temperatures.

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Asphalt Temperature
Here you decide which should be used as the asphalt temperature in the
calculations, making it possible to correct the asphalt modulus for temperature to
be used with design. If manually recorded mid-depth asphalt temperatures are
present in the file, select the Use as recorded option. In the Temperature Status
frame you can see if asphalt temperatures are present. If only surface
temperatures are recorded you can select either to use them directly as the asphalt
temperature (not recommended), or you can use them as input to Bells equation
for calculating the asphalt temperature as a function of surface temperature and
previous day average air temperature. In the latter case you must enter this
average temperature in the temperature field. Clicking the Link button opens a
website with worldwide temperature measurements. Which website to open is
defined in Settings. You can select the Not required option if there is no
temperature sensitive materials in the pavement structure, or if the
backcalculation results are not going to be used for design.
Fix depth to Rock
Checking this option will regard the input from the Structures window as the
exact depth to bedrock, consequently Elmod will not calculate a depth within the
maximum range given.
The Radius of Curvature method is based on the Odemark-Boussinesq method
of equivalent thicknesses (MET) using the outer geophone readings to determine
non-linear characteristics of subgrade, and the inner geophones to determine the
upper pavement layer moduli. The stiffness of remaining layers is then calculated
based on the overall pavement response to the applied load.
The Deflection Basin Fit method still utilizes Odemark-Boussinesq methods, but
an additional iteration process will utilize the convergence criteria based on
degree of fit between the overall measured and calculated deflection basins.
Various options can be set to control the iteration process. The grid is used to
display results from the iterations during the backcalculation.
Click the Calculate button to start the backcalculations.
When finished, you can select Plot from the Main menu to view results. (See 12.
Viewing Results).
(For more details about backcalculations and settings see the Help function
accessible from the Elmod Main menu).

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11. Performing Designs

Overlay design requires that you have performed backcalculation generating


elastic moduli for the pavement layers. You can design based on the whole
structure or part of the structure by removing top layers.
New design does not make use of FWD results or backcalculation. You can
define a structure and calculate the design thickness of the top layer.

11.1 Overlay Design

Sections with backcalculation results are listed in the grid. In the column Chosen
you can mark sections to be included in the design by clicking in the field.

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If parameter file and material types were already entered in the Structural input,
then this information is shown in the grid, and the name of parameter file used. If
the fields with the layers material type are empty, you have first to select which
parameter file to use, and then by clicking in the fields identify the material type
for each layer from the popup list.
If you have multiple sections, you can enter the material type for the first section,
and following click the button Copy first structure to copy this to the other
sections.
Base design on
Here you select if any existing layers should be removed before design of new
overlay. When you select an option, you will see in the grid which layers are
removed indicated by a greyed font color.
If you select Existing pavement then you have an option to mill a part of the top
layer, by entering a value in the frame Milled from layer 1. The value entered
must be smaller than the thickness of the top layer.
If you select Existing unbound layers then you can in the same way have a part
of the first granular layer removed.
If you select Existing subgrade then you can specify an improvement to the
subgrade moduli determined from the backcalculation by entering a percentual
increase. Entering a value of 25 means the existing moduli will be multiplied
with a factor of 1.25
Add new layers
Here you define which layer(s) to add on the top. In the usual case where you
design for an overlay of the existing pavement, you will enter one bound layer
type. Click in the combo box to specify the design layers material type. The
reference modulus for this material will automatically be inserted in the Modulus
column, and you have following possibility to change this value.
In the case where you wish to do a reconstruction based on the existing subgrade
you would normally also add new granular layers on the top. Elmod will only
calculate design values for the top layer, so you will have to enter both thickness
and modulus of the other new layers added, like shown in this example:

The new construction must not have more than 6 layers, with maximum 2 bound
layers included.

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Traffic
Traffic must be entered as the total passages of all vehicles per year. The number
of passages for each vehicle is then entered in the fields below as percentages of
this value.
These are the values directly used in the deterioration functions defined in the
parameter file. Issues regarding multilane roads, equivalence factors, traffic
growth etc. must be considered before entering the value. Facilities are available
for this through the buttons in the upper right corner of the Traffic frame. For
help on this see details in the Elmod 6 Help file.
If multiple vehicles have been defined in the parameter file, only the Forecasting
facility is available.
With the Import Traffic button you can select an earlier defined traffic
distribution from the same project. The processed files will be listed, and you can
select from which one you will use the traffic information. The aircraft mix
defined must be the same. The button is only enabled when you have multiple
vehicles defined
For airfields you have usually defined a fleet mix of the most critical aircrafts
using the facility, as illustrated in this example:

If the Pass to coverage option is selected in the parameter setup, the yearly
traffic for each aircraft will be divided with the factor as defined in the parameter
setup for each aircraft type.
If Normal Distribution has been selected following input options are shown for
defining the lines of calculation and the lines of traffic in the distribution:

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No. of lines defines for how many positions across the facility a design
calculation should be performed.
Offset first line defines the position of the first line relative to the center line.
Spacing defines the distance between the lines.
Traffic lines refers to how many positions inside the normal distribution of
traffic should be included in the analysis. The higher number the higher precision
of the representation of the normal distribution.
In the example the analysis will include calculation of responses and damages in
35 lines across the facility, starting with the center line and last line in the
distance of (35 - 1) * 300 mm = 10200 mm from the center line. For each line
influence from 50 different positions of loading will be calculated and the
damages added together. The normal distribution is centered around half of the
tread value as set in the parameter setup for each aircraft type. From the standard
deviation also defined in the parameter setup, the distance to each of the traffic
lines is calculated. During the process damages are saved to the database for each
load type and for each line, which allow viewing these in the PLOT features as a
damage profile across the facility. Hereafter the most critical line, having the
highest damages, will be selected for the overlay design calculation.
If the structure has been defined with jointed concrete as top layer, k-values are
calculated for both center and joints during the backcalculation. In the design
window you will have an option for improving k-values at joints before
overlaying:

If you select Subsealing the design calculation will assume the k-values at joints
are improved to be the same as the values under slab center.
Click the OK button to commence the design calculation.
Earlier created designs will not be overwritten, meaning you can view design
results in the Plot feature for various traffic input or other changes.
The button View Plot is a shortcut to the plot of the design results.

11.2 New Design


With this facility you can design a new pavement structure, and get the
required thickness of the top layer calculated. No results from the
FWD testing or backcalculations are used, so the facility is available
even you have no file opened. You still have to create a database as
usual.

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Select parameter setup


Select the parameter file that is valid for your design calculation. You
have to select your parameter file, before you can enter material types
in the pavement structure. For setting up parameters, see 13.
Parameter Setup
Add Layers
Here you enter your pavement structure from bottom to top. Only the
thickness of the top layer can be calculated. First layer to add is the
subgrade material. The materials reference modulus is automatically
inserted, and if desired you can change this value. Next you can add
the pavement layers with their respective thicknesses (remember to
enter the thickness to the right of the layer name), and at last the top
layer for which the thickness is to be calculated.
Use Monte Carlo Simulation
Check this to base the design on a Monte Carlo Simulation. You will
have the following input window next to the Add Layers window:

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This will simulate a variation in the layer moduli according to a


logarithmic normal distribution. Each simulation will generate a set of
moduli randomly but with probabilities that follow the distribution
given by the standard deviation factors. The standard deviation factor
is 10 raised to the standard deviation of the logarithms, also called the
geometric standard deviation. The number of runs in the simulation,
and the standard deviation factor for each layer must be entered. The
result for each simulation can be viewed from the Plot facility, and the
average and standard deviation will be reported in the Results frame.
Select Method
Responses under the design loads can be calculated either according to
MET (Method of Equivalent Thicknesses) or LET (Linear Elastic
Theory).
Traffic
Please refer to description of input in previous chapter 11.1 Overlay
Design.
Results
When you have clicked Start Design the calculation will be carried
out, and the results can be viewed in the Results frame:

If a Monte Carlo simulation has been used, the thickness is given as


the average over the number of simulations and with the corresponding
standard deviation.

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12. Viewing Results


Use the Plot function from the Main menu to get access to any type of results and
other data belonging to the currently opened data file. This function allows you to
create printed reports, and export data to various file types.
The Plot Menu is shown below:

The menu items Backcalculation and Design may be disabled if there are no are
no results in the database. Graph Options and Sectioning will be enabled when
a graph is displayed.
You can, at any time, when you have a data file opened, go to Plots and view any
results or deflection data from the database

12.1 Graphs and Tables


With the menu items Raw Data, Backcalculation and Design you can select
among a collection of graphs. The possibilities are:

When you select graphs for Backcalculation and Design, then the most recent
calculation will be displayed immediately. If there are previous calculations or
calculations for other sections, you can click Graph Options from the menu and
select to view others.
No matter which graph is displayed, you can click Graph Options and do various
selections and settings for the graph.
You can select Tools from the menu to provide choices for printing and exporting
graph data.
Below you see an example of the measured deflections plotted for the section.

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In the graph each color refers to a geophone, so the upper blue line is all the
center deflections for the section. The black line indicates the measured stress
level used during testing and refers to the Y- axis on the right hand side.
Underneath the graph you have a data table with all the values displayed. In this
table you can highlight a selection using the mouse, and following press <Ctrl> +
C to copy the selection to the clipboard, from which you can paste it into other
applications.
In the lower right corner you have a window giving statistic for the data. N is
number of points included. For Elastic moduli and residual life the statistics are
based on a lognormal distribution.

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12.2 Options
For any displayed graphics you can click Graph Options. The choices you have
in Graph Options will depend of the selected graphics. In the example below,
you see the options for the graph Pavement Response.

Graph Type refers to how points are plotted along the X-axis. In an X-Y
graph the points will be plotted according to the correct distances between the
points, while the Line option plots the points with constant interval between the
points. If data are not sorted according to chainage, only Line graph can be
selected.
Data sorted by chainage. If points have not been measured in increasing order,
you have the option of viewing the points either sorted or unsorted.
Interface. Defines for which layer interface results should be viewed. 1/2
means the responses at bottom of layer 1 and top of layer 2.
Design Load and Season. If multiple loads have been chosen for the design, you
can select which one to view. The same goes for seasons, which is not displayed
in the example because all seasons, for one load has been selected, in the
Selection option.
Designs gives an overview of all designs carried out for the file, and in the
Check column you can select which one to view.
Show all sections
This means that for a file subdivided into sections, you can check this and see the
graphics for the complete file. Otherwise you will only have one section at a
time.

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12.3 Sectioning
Select Sectioning Start to subdivide the existing section into subsections.
The purpose of this is usually to create homogeneous sections, based on the
results or the layer structure. With the mouse you can drag the separator lines, by
left click on the yellow stationing box, move the mouse and release the left
button where you want the line to be positioned. While moving the line you will
see the stationing change, reflecting the current position. The Station box will
always show the first station to the right of the line, which will be the first station
for the section defined. In following example you will see 5 subsections defined,
based on the calculated Elastic moduli.

In the Statistics window at the bottom right corner, you will now see 5 tabs with
information for each of the 5 defined subsections. These statistics can be printed
clicking Reports or just saved and printed later together with other values.
If you want to make the current subdivision permanent you now have to select
Sectioning Save new sections. This will change all section data in the
database for this file including all existing results, to reflect the new sectioning.
If you instead select Sectioning Stop nothing will be changed and you are
back to normal.

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12.4 Tools
Tools provides a range of options for exporting and printing results. Some
options may be disabled for some graph types.
Most of the options in the menu refer to the currently displayed graph.
Export to Excel
This opens a window with settings to the export:

Check the data types you want to have exported and click Export.
All selected data for the current section will now be transferred to Excel, which
will automatically open and organize the data into the sheets Raw data,
Backcalculation and Life and Overlay.
Notice if you only need data relating to one graph, you can copy the data from
the table below the graph. It may be necessary to first open the application to
which you want to paste the data from the Clipboard
Create Report
This will create a report in Microsoft Word based on the data for the current
graph. The report may in some case include more data than listed with the graph.
The report will automatically open Word, from where it can be printed.
Following is an example of a report of calculated E-moduli:

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To print the report, click the printer symbol. To export data click the envelope
symbol, which will bring up a window with choices for format of the file.
Print Graph
This will immediately send the currently displayed graph to the default printer.
The graph will be fitted to the printed page.
Graph to Clipboard
This will copy the current Graph to the Clipboard, from where it can be pasted
into other applications like Microsoft Word or Excel. It may be necessary to first
open the application to which you want to paste the data from the Clipboard
Report parameters
This gives the possibility to create a report based on the parameter files used for
the current project. A Word document will open with values used for Seasons,
Materials and Loads.

12.5 Map
Elmod can display various results as themes on an internet based map.
For this facility to work, GPS data must be collected during testing, and the MDB
format files used for import to Elmod. Further the PC must have internet access,
and if protected by firewalls these must allow Elmod and the DLL DTMap to
access the internet.

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The following is an example of level of deflections illustrated by colors.

Color settings are defined in the Map facility Settings:

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Map can display results for multiple files from the same database in the same
view.
For more help about Map click the View Manual button in the Map facility.

12.6 Editing Graph Layout


In the Graphics windows you have a range of icons for accessing layout tools for
the graph:

No matter which icon you click, you will have the same layout menu, but with
different tabs highlighted:

This facility has its own Help file. If you select the tab System you will have
access to save layouts, and you will also find possibilities to export the graphics
to a picture file (BMP, JPF, WMF) or to the clipboard for insertion into other
applications. It is also possible to print the graphics from here.

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13. Parameter Setup


A parameter setup contains information that defines the local environmental
conditions, traffic characteristics, and material performance characteristics. It is
used by the remaining life and overlay design function of Elmod 6. Elmod 6
allows the user to create and tailor parameter files to just about any conditions. It
is customary to create a parameter file that is relevant to a specific job, area,
environment, set of materials, or network of pavements. These parameter setups
can be saved and/or altered to meet specific project requirements, as necessary.
The information contained in the parameter file is extremely important and is
basically the heart of the design process. Problems with overlay design
calculations can often be attributed to the presence of unrealistic or inaccurate
information in this file.
A list of parameter setups is presented by clicking on the Parameters menu item.
A new parameter file can be created by changing parameters in an existing file
and saving it under a new name. The new parameter file may be saved for the
specific project only and/or as a permanent file made available to all future
projects. NOTE: If the changed parameters are saved under the original file
name, the original file is overwritten.
You can edit all input fields on all tabs before saving. All changes will stay in
memory until you press the Save, Delete or Cancel buttons.
Save setup will overwrite your existing loaded setup.
Save as new Setup will ask for a name for the new setup, and then add this to the
list of available setups.
Save as permanent Setup will ask for a name of the name setup and add this to
the list of available setups for all new created databases. The default setups
coming with the installation can not be overwritten or deleted.
Delete will permanently remove the loaded setup from the list of available
setups.
Cancel will return to menu without saving any changes you have made.
Export gives the possibility to export the setup to another project database. A
Browser will open to allow you to identify which project database to export to.

If a project file is not yet opened, you will select among the list of permanent
parameter files. If a project is open, you will select among the parameter setups
present in the project database. When you create a new database all the

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permanent parameter setups will be copied to the project database. In this way
you can select if you want to modify parameter setups only for the current
project, or if you want to make permanent changes.
When you have selected which parameter setup to work with all data for the
specified setup is loaded into 4 tabs: Seasons , Material Types , Vehicles , and
Wheels From the materials option Design Criterias can be setup for each
defines material type. When finished, the user can store the parameters under a
new filename, or overwrite the existing file.

13.1 Seasons
For design purposes, the year may be divided into seasons, with a maximum of
12 seasons. The program calculates moduli corresponding to each season, with
respect to seasonal temperature for the asphalt layer and the time elapsed since
spring thaw or wet period for the unbound materials (including the subgrade).
The remaining life and associated overlay design is then based on the cumulative
amount of damage occurring during each season for all design loads using
Miner's law.

The user subdivides the year into seasons. For each season the length in weeks is
entered, as well as the week to be considered characteristic of that season. The
week number is counted from the beginning of the year. The characteristic week
is the week in which all the loads of the season would result in the same damage
as when the loads are spread out over the season. By subdividing a season Elmod
6 may be used, through a trial and error process, to accurately determine which
week is characteristic. Total number of weeks must add up to 52.

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The first season will start 1st of January, which means that you would need to
divide a season into two seasons if it overlaps this date.
If loads are evenly distributed over the year you can click the Even distribution
button and Elmod will calculate the accurate percentage values to put into the
load per season fields.
When you modify seasonal temperatures or factors on the Material Types tab,
you have graphics available to see the effect of the settings for each season. From
this graphics you also have the possibility of adjusting the characteristic week
inside each season.

13.2 Materials
When selecting the Material Types tab you get the possibility to see and edit all
information in the setup that relates to each of the defined materials.

In the list box to the left you have the current list of materials, and the
information on the tab relates to the highlighted item in the list. You can click in
the list to view the other materials properties.
Create new material button adds a new material to the list. You will be asked to
assign a name for the material (must be unique for the setup), and the new
material will be added with properties which are a copy of the currently selected
material. You can proceed by changing any values for the new material. Nothing
will be saved before you click one of the save buttons on the right hand side, but
all changes will be stored in memory even if you select other material types to
view and edit.
Delete current material removes the material from the list.

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Material Name replicates the highlighted name from the list box. It is not
possible to change the name due to reference conflicts. Alternatively you can
create a new material with the desired name, and delete the existing material.
Material Type can be selected from the dropdown box. The information is used
in the design procedures to determine the number of bound layers.
Ref. Modulus. The reference modulus of the material is used as the design value
in case the material is chosen as the design material. The value is also used to
optionally be inserted as seed value in Structures window.
Temperature dependant. This defines whether the material modulus is sensitive
to temperatures. If it is checked the tab Temperature dependency will be
enabled for definition of the modulus/ temperature relationship. The title of the
last tab will be Seasonal temperatures for defining temperature variation over
the year. If Temperature dependant is not checked the last tab will show
Seasonal factors for defining modulus variation over the seasons due to other
reasons, like frost/thaw periods or rainy seasons affecting the condition of the
unbound materials.
Fatigue Cracking and Permanent Deformation. This defines which criteria
should be used for determining the residual life of the material. The details for
selecting the criteria are on the related tabs below. Usually you operate with
fatigue cracking for bound materials and permanent deformation for unbound
materials. It is possible to have them both switched off, in case it is not desirable
to have these materials properties influencing the design calculations.
Hatch. Select a pattern to be associated with this material. Click on the pattern to
open a window for the possible selections.
Min. and Max Modulus. This input can be used to force the backcalculation to
produce moduli results within the given range. Be aware that this will influence
the moduli calculated for the remaining layers as well.

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Fatigue Cracking and Permanent Deformation

These two tabs are enabled depending on the choice for using Fatigue Cracking
relations or Permanent Deformation relations in the checkboxes above the tabs.
In the relation N is the traffic and E the modulus of the material. The constants
A, B, C and Eo can following be modified in the fields below the equation
If the constants reflect a known criteria, then name of the criteria is shown below
the constants. If desired another criteria can be selected from this dropdown box,
which is prefilled with various criterias developed and used in various regions.
The list of items in the dropdown box depends on the choice for using fatigue
relations or permanent deformations and the choice for using strain or stress
dependency.
It is possible (but not necessary) to assign a name to a user specified criteria.
Enter the desired constants in the input fields, and the name will change to
Unknown criteria. Write the name of the criteria in the drop down field and
press Add to list.
The list is global, and does not belong to the specific parameter setup. This
means changes in the standard list of criterias will be accessible from all projects
and parameter setups. Changing the contents of the lists will not affect any design
results or parameter setups. Only the values in the white input fields are saved
with the setup.
On the Fatigue Cracking tab you can select if Longitudinal or Transversal
responses should be used in the criteria. The longitudinal responses are the most
critical.
Define the materials Design life. The design life together with the yearly amount
of traffic determines the number of axle passages in the criteria functions. Notice
that the required design life with respect to different types of deterioration (as
well as for different types of materials) may be different.
By clicking View the relation will be shown graphically.

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Temperature dependency
This tab is enabled if the checkbox Temperature dependent is checked.

Temperature dependency is usually used with bitumen bound materials, and


allows the asphalt modulus to be corrected to a reference temperature. This is
important to do before any design because the temperature usually vary a lot over
the day and over the year, and because the stiffness of the bitumen is very
sensitive to the temperature.
The design procedure first converts the asphalt modulus from asphalt temperature
recorded during testing to the modulus at the reference temperature as entered in
the Ref. Temperature input field. Next this modulus at reference temperature is
used to calculate the seasonal moduli, according to the temperature given for
each season .
On this tab you can choose between 3 methods for temperature correction:
Factors
This will refer to a table created, which assigns a factor to each temperature in
the temperature range. In the dropdown box you can select which table should
apply to the current material. To create and edit these tables see the Elmod 6
built-in help.
Semilogarithmic
If the dependency can be fitted to a logarithmic relation, you have possibility to
define the equation:

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Notice that the range for which the equations is valid must be positive. When
temperatures exceed the range Elmod will use the from or to value to calculate
the correction factor.
Exponential
If the dependency can be fitted to an exponential relation, you have possibility to
define the equation:

When temperatures exceed the range Elmod will use the from or to value to
calculate the correction factor.
View. Clicking this button brings up a window with a graphic presentation of the
temperature-modulus correction.
Seasonal Temperatures or Seasonal Factors.
If the material has been defined to be temperature dependant you can set the
seasonal temperatures:

The purpose is to define each seasons design temperature. The seasonal design
temperature should be fitted to a value that will result in a damage representing
the average over the season.
The seasonal temperatures can either be set manually or calculated by a
sinusoidal relationship between time over year and asphalt temperature.
If the material has not been defined to be temperature dependant you can set the
seasonal factors:

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For materials that are not temperature sensitive the Elmod 6 user has the
opportunity to consider the (probable) springtime or wet season weakening of
any, or all, of the unbound layers in the pavement section.
The purpose of the facility is then to determine the factor used for each season. A
factor of 1 will be the reference condition, and the seasonal modulus of each
season is then calculated as the seasonal factor multiplied with the modulus at the
reference condition. The modulus at reference condition is calculated first as the
backcalculated modulus divided by the factor belonging to the week where the
FWD measurement took place. Interpolation between the factors entered for the
seasons and the characteristic weeks will determine the factor belonging to the
week of FWD testing.
As an alternative to enter the factors manually, they can be set according to either
a sinusoidal or an exponential relation
View. Clicking this button brings up a window with a graphic presentation of the
temperature-modulus correction.

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13.3 Vehicles and Wheels


The design traffic and load characteristics are defined on the tabs Vehicles and
Wheels.
In the design procedures Elmod will include all defined vehicles, and for each
vehicle Elmod will include the wheels specified on the Vehicle tab. It is possible
to define a traffic mix of up to 24 vehicle types including a total of up 100 wheel
types.
Often ESALs is used to characterize the design traffic. In this case only 1 vehicle
including 1 standard wheel is going to be used. However, it is preferable to use
the best approximation to the real traffic mix of loads, as the derivation of the
equivalent standard loads depends on the design criteria (transfer functions), and
may be different for different layers.

In the list to the left, you will see those vehicles that are included. You can add a
new vehicle by clicking Create new vehicle. If the option Copy current is
chosen you will be asked for a name of the new vehicle, and this will be created
with a copy of the data for the current one. Creating a new vehicle this way will
not influence the choices for selecting wheels. The list of available wheels will be
the same, and if you need to attach a wheel which is not in the list of wheels on
the Wheel tab, you will have to shift to this tab and add a new wheel.
If you define a new aircraft, you have the possibility to retrieve all necessary
information from the aircraft database. Select the option Aircraft list and click
Create new vehicle. This opens a window for selecting the aircraft. Select one
and click OK. Elmod will now load the information required in both the Vehicle
tab and the Wheel tab.

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Click Delete current vehicle to remove this from the list of vehicles. No changes
will happen to the list of wheels on the Wheel tab.
The example above shows input value for operating with an ESAL as design
load.
Pass to coverage or normal distribution defines which method should be used to
reduce the traffic numbers due to the lateral distribution of loads. For roads the
reduction is usually not considered, meaning all wheels loads are in the same
line. In this case select Pass to coverage and on the Wheels tab, set the factors to
1.
For evaluation of Airport pavements the lateral distribution of the aircraft loads
will be important. This may be considered by entering Pass to coverage ratios
for rigid and flexible pavements, or by using a normal distribution of the
aircraft loads. In this case the imported wheel base is used, whereas the user must
provide a value for the standard deviation of the lateral position of the particular
aircraft at the facility to be evaluated. A default value is provided by the program,
but the actual lateral wander will vary considerably, for example between a
runway and a taxiway. When a normal distribution is used for the overlay design,
the stresses and strains will be calculated at one line, given by the offset from the
centerline (input in the Overlay Design screen) with the wheel at 10 points of the
normal distribution, each with a probability of occurrence relating to normal
distribution of the traffic. The damage at the offset line is summed using Miners
law.
Vehicle name. This replicates the highlighted name from the list box. It is not
possible to change the name due to reference conflicts. Alternatively you can
create a new vehicle with the desired name, and delete the existing vehicle.
Total weight is the complete mass to be distributed over the axles and wheels. In
case of ESALs it should be the weight corresponding to the definition of the
ESAL.
Dynamic Ratio defines a factor to be multiplied on the load. A factor of 1.2
means the load will be increased by 20 % for design purposes.
Standard deviation relates to the lateral normal distribution of traffic as
described above.
Wheel name. Here you enter each axle or wheel belonging to the vehicle, and for
which responses should be calculated in the design procedure. Clicking in the
input fields brings up the selection of defined wheels from the Wheels tab. This
means the selection of wheels must be defined on the Wheels tab before you can
connect them to a vehicle.
% of load indicates how big part of the total weight applies to the wheel (or set
of wheels). Usually you have a set of wheels on the axles symmetrical positioned
to the center line of the vehicle. The percentage of load should then apply to the

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total load of both sets of wheels. On the Wheels tab you can see exactly how
many wheels are included in the definition. Load on each tire if further calculated
to the right of the input field, to avoid any misunderstandings.

In the list to the left you can see the defined wheels. Only wheels that are referred
to from the Vehicle tab are included in the design.
Select the wheel in the list for which you want to see or to edit properties. You
can create a new wheel as a copy of the current by clicking Create new wheel.
You will be asked for a name of the wheel, which must be unique for the setup.
Click Delete current wheel to remove a wheel from list. You cannot delete a
wheel if it is referred to from the Vehicle tab.
Wheel name. This replicates the highlighted name from the list box. It is not
possible to change the name due to reference conflicts. Alternatively you can
create a new wheel with the desired name, and delete the existing wheel.
Pass to coverage defines the factors to be used for respectively flexible and rigid
pavements. For aircraft setups where data from the aircraft database are included,
it is recommended to use the normal distribution option (see above). If you use
the Pass to coverage values in this case be aware of that these only apply to the
critical gear, for the other gears which may be defined the fields should be left
blank.
Centerline wheel. Check the field if there is no symmetrical positioned wheel
(like the nose wheel for an aircraft). You will see on the graphics exactly how it
is defined.
Wheel Configuration. You can select between 6 configurations of tires making
up the complete wheel or gear. The graphics will show the outline of each.

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Tire pressure. Enter the tire pressure for the wheel.


Wheel distance. Enter the distance between the centerlines of dual wheel
configurations.
Axle distance. Enter the distance between the axles for tandem and tridem wheel
configurations.
Tread. This defines the distance between the wheel sets positioned
symmetrically to the center line. This is used together with Offset to calculate the
distance between the each line of traffic from the normal distribution and to the
line for which responses are calculated. Se more about using Normal
distribution above and the offset value entered in the Overlay Design window.
Below is shown input example for a setup with a fleet mix of four aircrafts:

And on top of next page, the related Wheel tab information:

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