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CHAPMAN
Senior Workshop
W.
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A. J.
Calculations
Third Edition
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SI Units
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Senior workshop calculations
l\1
Senior workshop
calculations
Dr.
W. A.
J.
Chapman
<D
EDWARD ARNOLD
W.A.J. Chapman
1972
London
WIX 8LL
ISBN
7131 3260 4
Ltd
This book
is
industrial practice.
is
have received
the
work of
am
sure that
it
engaged in engineering.
During the revision it was decided to separate out the text dealing
with practice calculations as a first priority. The text includes most of
the material required by students and practitioners in workshop and
production engineering practice and should provide a useful textbook
for National Certificates and Diplomas, and for City & Guilds courses
in Mechanical and Production Engineering subjects.
In the work of revision I have received considerable advice and help
from Mr M. G. Page, BSc(Eng), FIMechE, FIProdE, and I should like
here to acknowledge my warm appreciation of his generous and kind
assistance.
I
hope that
it
Hatfield, 1972
in its present
interests of students
my
desire to foster.
W. A.
J.
C.
Contents
1 Introduction:
 Representation of
Gauging large
rollers
13
4 Calculations
for gears
56
and gearcutting
84
113
6 Mechanical principles
 Application of vectors forces on a cutting tool Balancing of faceplates  Vector velocity diagrams for
mechanisms  Moment of a force  Parallel forces
vectors
148
7 Mechanical principles II
8 Mechanical principles
176
III
 Acceleration  Equations of motion  Force Energy; kinetic and potential  Circular motion  Accelerating
torque  Energy of flywheels  Temperature  Heat  Amount
of heat  Heat energy
Velocity
and
Appendices
Appendices
III
II:
ISO
198
2256
2267
2289
230
23
Answers
235
Index
242
Introduction
British
Commonwealth and
scientific
INTRODUCTION
advice that can be given for achieving rapid progress in coping with the
change is to become familiar with the new measures and to learn, as soon
as possible to think in terms of them,
and not to
persist in
making mental
ment of 25
millimetres,
involved.
Basic SI units
SI system
The
is
based on
six
Table
1.
Basic SI units
Unit
Symbol
Metre
Kilogramme
Second
Mass
Time
Electric current
Ampere
Temperature
Kelvin
A
K
Luminous
Candela
cd
Quantity
Length
Intensity
We
ventions
is
PD
pressure in
kg
s
5686.
in reference to millibars
of atmospheric
UNITS
SI
2.
Quantity
Symbol
Unit
Area
m
m
Square metre
Cubic metre
Volume
Density
Velocity
2
3
kg/m 3
m/s
m/s 2
Acceleration
Force
Newton
Newton metre
Newton per square metre
N(kgm/s 2 )
Joule
J(Nm)
Watt
Radian
rad
Temperature
(Everyday use)
Degree Celsius*
Moment
of force
Pressure, stress
Work, energy
Heat quantity
Power
Plane angle
Nm
N/m
degree Celsius
Electric tension
*It
is
(J/s)
J/kgC
Electromotive force
Volt
will remain,
is
divided into
and inches and multiplied into the furlong and mile, the pound multiplied into the cwt and ton and divided into the ounce, so it is necessary to
feet
make
is
because of its decimal (10) character. We will give, again, a selection of the
chief factors likely to be required by the reader leaving him to study the
BSI literature if he wishes to pursue the remainder.
4
It will be noticed that multiples and divisions involving 10
10 5 and
certain higher powers are not included in the system. This has been done
in order to rationalise the procedure by using, after 10 2 and 10~ 2 only
,
powers which are multiples of 3, and the full list of such factors extends
from 10 12 at the higher end to 10~ 18 at the lower.
INTRODUCTION
Table
3.
Factor by which
unit
is
multiplied
One million = 10
One thousand = 10
One hundred = 10 2
Symbol
Prefix
mega
kilo
k
h
da
d
kilometre (km)
centi
centimetre (cm)
milli
millilitre (ml)
micro
/"
microvolt (juV)
hecto
Ten =
deca
10
tenth = 10'
One
One hundredth = 10 ~ 2
One thousandth = 10 ~ 3
One millionth = 10 6
Example
deci
megawatt
(MW)
hectare (ha)
decagram (dag)
decimetre (dm)
is
as follows:
The
(ii)
(iii)
Symbols
for areas
Table
4.
Recommended
m rad
Length
km
Multiple or
in
submultiple
likely to persist
degree
minute' second"
cm*
mm
Area
/urn
micron (i4mm)
km 2
hectare (ha)(104
cm
are (a)(10 2
mm
dm
Volume
cm
cm
litre (/)(100
millilitre (ml)
mm
Ms
Time
ks
ms
/US
km/h
Velocity
Mg
Mass
tonne
(OR
metric carat (2
mg
kg/ dm 3
Density
or kg/1
g/cm 3
MN
Force
g/1
kN
mN
kgf (weight of
pti
kg mass)
Moment
MNm:kNm:,uNm
N/mm N/cm kN/mm
mN/m :/xN/m
of force
Pressure
bar
kgf
= 9806N
= 10N/cm
hectobar (hbar)
10 3 N/cm 2
Stress
be expressed
in units
shown
opposite)
Work and
MJ:kJ:mJ
energy
Kilowatt hour
(kWh =
Specific heat capacity
*
36
MJ)
MW:kW:mW:/iW
Power
The cm
not
is
kJ/kgC
recommended
and
it
is
hoped that
it
will eventually
disappear.
cm
are
It
still
is,
permissible.
INTRODUCTION
(b)
Numerical values
(i)
When
a quantity
is
less
As
of
far as possible
10,
in terms of a power
row of 0's. (362 x 10
of 00015) and preferably
(hi)
instead of 36 200;
x 10~ 3 instead
use powers of 10 which are multiples of 3.
Separate a row of digits into groups of three by a space, instead
of using a comma. (71 562 instead of 71,562, or 0006 13 instead
of 0006, 1 3) But a group of four digits may be left without separation (e.g. 6713 or 00036 without separation).
15
Dimensioning (drawings)
It is customary, when dimensioning drawings, to dimension all sizes
in millimetres, and not to write the unit (mm) after the dimension. An
instruction may be given to the effect that all sizes are in millimetres
but this is not always done. All the diagrams in this book are dimensioned
according to this rule so that the reader will now recognise that <^^ >
means 65 mm.
Mass, weight and force
that kg
is
is
as the unit of
of a body
is,
is
the
have seen the fascinating television pictures of the interior of the capsule,
still having their mass, but without weight.
The definition of a newton (N) of force is that force which acting on one
kilogramme of mass will propel it along with an acceleration of one metre
per second per second (i.e. it gains 1 m per second every second). Put
into symbols this becomes:
with objects floating about,
IN = lkgm/s 2
(kgf)
The
exert a
1
newtons of force
lkg weight
is:
(kgf)
added to
cut off or
981
N)
N)
14715
is
it),
means
the same
England
as
dif
kg of mass
in
will
its
to
lists
and
specifications.
use
of force units:
Example
1.
standing on
support
round
its
mm diameter,
metre long
is
placed
its
uniformly spread over the whole end face of the bar calculate
the intensity of pressure over the area of contact. Take the density of
is
steel as 783
g/cm
3
.
=jX
=
10 2
x 100 x
783
07854 x 10 4 x 783.
__
grams (Working
kg
615 kg
in
cm)
INTRODUCTION
Intensity of pressure
=
Example
2.
force
603
area
7854
N/cm 2
768
Resistance to motion
equivalent to an average
is
force of 320
min from
2000
= ^
N=
100
rest.
and since
force (F)
"
Speed
after
220
All
,2
llm/s2
=2000
V=
min
=
=
Example
the
3.
66
X 60
m/s
kg.
When
hammer
further in.
(accel)(time)
011
is
from
15
m/s to
rest:
=  =
075
m/s
001
~=j
Hence:
duration of the blow
(t)
00133
speed
and time
and from v
15
= 15 m/s:
= 00133
(u)
(t)
u + at
00133a
final
(see p. 10)
it
speed
(v)
EQUATIONS OF MOTION
from which
The average
force of the
F=
blow
(retardation)
found from:
is
(mass)(accel)
1127
= 1127N
The equations of motion
The reader, no doubt, will have already realised that the SI system is
more orderly and coherent than the British system and this might be
pursued by considering its application to the equations of motion.
If s
then s
The
space travelled, v
=
or
vt
is
and
time
(1)
t,
Naturally,
a road speed
we should probably
Thus:
km/h
hour
to convert
kilometre
km
i.e.
=
=
1000
3600
1000 metres
3600 seconds
_
~
18
to m/s multiply by
_
~
m/S
18
j~.
Acceleration
Acceleration
is
i.e.
If
acceleration
= change
in velocity
v
=
t
v after
time
t,
and
KJ
INTRODUCTION
If,
=  to give
we
of u. Then,
time
f
so
t is s,
5
is
get v
at.
initial
velocity
t:
at
(2)
This slowing
down
The above
shown at Fig.
is
at
termed a retardation.
may be illustrated graphically and
relationships
Fig.
Example
4.
this
is
drop stamp
and
Takeg =
981
m/s 2
it
ACCELERATION
fall is
shown
at Fig. 2
and
if v is
the final
t:
Vel.
t
5>
\ArM\
s^. 5m\
"
Time
Fig. 2
We get:
,
5 vt
C
5
A
and
10
(1)
Hence, equating
rest
where a = g =
at
981
m/s 2
this to (1):
10
and
981
10
t *=
101 s
981
we
have:
10
101
99
m/s
INTRODUCTION
12
This problem
is
is
represented in Fig.
3.
Time
Fig. 3
The ram
accelerates
from
to A,
its
The area
360
OAB
A to
mm (0.36m).
m = KOB)(AC), and
036m = (l5s)(AC)
= 2 x 036
Hence
036
AC =
For half the stroke
l5s
at
048
Hence a =  = T^^m/s = 064m/ s
v
and
B.
since
OB =
048 m/s
l5s
is
Measurement
and gauging
When
parts which must fit together are being made under conditions
which do not permit of each fitting pair to be mated up individually, it
becomes necessary to arrange the working dimensions so that if each
component is made to them, the required type of fit will be assured. To
achieve this, a system of limits and fits is adopted. The definitions used
in connection with limit systems will be gathered from the following
and Fig. 4.
jTolerance
r
I
'^///(//s
~i
__
'
oo
"^ so
>
">
ra
S
"^ *
S9
On .c
^ .o> fN
J ** a: K)
J 00 c os
.2>^
K>
a:
'.
1
'
w/z/Jm
it
Sha n
The low
519 80
319 68
limit is the
1>
Holt!
32
31
15
A
85?
Fig. 4
The component
is
size,
and
acceptable
The
tolerance
14
Limit systems
depend on:
fit
3150mm. At
first
with
its
its
tolerance grade
H7
is
fit
and
accuracy given by the letter and numeral concerned. A fit involving these
two elements is written H7e8 or H7/e8
SELECTED
Type of
FITS
(HOLE BASIS)
Fit
Clearance
(Slack,
Running
etc.)
Transition
(Push, Slide etc.)
Interference
(force, Driveetc.)
250mm
LIMIT SYSTEMS
15
For average workshop use the H hole associated with the accuracy
11 (H7 to Hll) are recommended as being satisfactory and
grades 7 to
shown
in the table
on
250mm are
p. 226.
140
120
100
ill
80
60
40
20
E
E
S
o
20
60
v.
80
"o
100
120
140
160
180
200
220
240 Clearance
Fig. 5
basis).
Fits.
Transition Interfere/! ce
Hole and
18mm 30mm.)
fits
(hole
16
From
tion of those
recommended
as likely to be the
most useful
in
coping with
curacy
it is
fits
many
possible to choose
tion above should be sufficient to help the reader in his study of the
subject. Fig. 5 illustrates the hole
of the
H7
fits
and
to
Hll
holes as
recommended
in the
Specification.
which the
details apply.
Exercises 2a
Write down for problems Nos.
mum
1.
75mm
2.
35
to 4 the hole
and shaft
limits,
3.
20mm
4.
57
5.
BSI
H7
centre distance
is
s7 shaft.
to be checked by a
mm
002
mm centres. Their
at Fig. 6. If the
"go" ends
Fig. 6
To
hole,
is
mm
made
diameter of
7.
this
mm
limit caliper
mm
mm
to
H8
limits.
Compare
the
fit
mm block
SLIP
GAUGES
17
made
to h7 limits. (Assume the width of the blocks put together to be equal to the sum
of their individual thicknesses.)
9. A number of limit plug gauges are available, made for the former Newall fin.
Class
and,
B hole
if so,
10.
in).
what
alteration
A BS 40mm
19mm
H8
hole
least
to suit a
BSI
would be necessary?
b9 shaft
is
placed in an
H8
hole.
clearance possible between the shaft and the sides of the hole.
Slip gauges
set of slip
is
The number of blocks in a set will depend upon the range of sizes that
made up, and a mediumsized set of such gauges contains
required to be
sizes.
18
Range
1005
101109
1=119
24
4
mm.
Steps
001
01
124
10
250
47 Total
3.
Choose blocks
mm
(a)
we may
101
13
1000
2500
3731
use
Dimension
(b)
may be
obtained
as follows:
1005
108
16
800
5000
61685
The above example should indicate to the reader how to proceed for
any other size, the method being to start at the figure on the extreme right
of the dimension required, choosing gauges to accommodate each
figure in turn.
English sizes
For routine English work, slip gauges made to inch dimensions may be
obtained but it is possible, by calculating the metric equivalent, to use
gauges from a metric set.
Example
2
1758 in.
4.
Make up
THE
The metric
254 and
The
is
equivalent of 22758 in
19
given above,
Gauges
is
SPIRIT LEVEL
to
is
55265 which
make up
is
000032
set
of gauges
1005
106
12
50
55265
Exercises 2b
From
the
list
make up
given on p. 18
sets
1,1111
2.
4.
mm
6878 mm
5.
mm
7570 mm
7.
9.52mm
8.
44.45mm
10.
dimension given as
34925
,4
of
slip
2364
q
mm
is
6.
mm
11 536 mm
9.
80.99mm
3.
to be checked.
sizes:
35635
Make up two
separate sets of
Make up
sets
of
slip
30mm BSI
f7 shaft.
12.
Two
in the bores.
is
is
The
vex upwards, as shown in Fig. 8. In some instruments the inside of the vial
is ground barrelshaped as shown, whilst in others the glass tube which
Fig. 8
20
forms the vial is bent to a radius. The vial contains spirit with sufficient air
space to leave a bubble, and is cemented into the frame and accurately
located so that when the base of the frame is level the bubble rests at the
centre of the scale.
The relations governing the movement of the bubble and the angle of
tilt of the level will be followed from Fig. 9 and the following:
faitt
Bj_J
""77777777777777777777777777^77777777777^1^
Fig. 9
Arc
of
its
CAD represents the upper inner surface of the vial and O the centre
radius.
OB
perpendicular to
OA.
If
OB
in
now tilted to
bring
OB
is
horizontal and
to B,, point
A on the
swing to A, but the bubble will remain vertically above O and will
travel along the vial to A.
vial will
If
If
is
BB,
the angle of
is
tilt,
then 6
(radian)
= A,A
the length of the arc through which one end of the level (length
BB,
= jr
BB,
AA,
and BB, =
L.
AA,
Actually, the height h that one end of the level is above the other is the
dimension we require, but when dealing with angles as small as those con
THE
is
SPIRIT LEVEL
21
so small as to be
negligible.
angle of
tilt is
(radian)
= Movement
(degree)
of bubble
573
(Movement of bubble)
Example
is
raised
vial.
5.
level
002 mm above
h
y=
We uhave that
, 17
002
300
Example
6.
30 m. Find
moves
150
mm along the
vial.
Movement of bubble
=
_ 15
~ R
R =
From which
it is
^p^'
The base of
or 22 5m
mm
is 450
long and the radius of the vial is
of one end above the other, and (b) the angle of
level
500mm
22
tilt,
_ Movement
T=
*
of bubble
_ L (movement
of bubble)
R
450 x
....
0
30 x 1000
Angle of tilt
in
degree
?
3q
^qq^
045mm
0005 73
206 second
22
12
ends and a
(i)
(ii)
roller is
The
is
mm
dimensioned as 200
centres, but sine bars are available in 100, 250 and
300
centres as well.
(iii) The centre line AB of the plugs must be absolutely parallel with
the edge of the bar used for measuring (generally the bottom). It is desirable for the two edges of the bar to be parallel, with AB parallel with
mm
both.
Fig. 10.
When
in use, the
bar shown at
(a)
angle plate, whilst that at (b) can be rested on two piles of Johannson
gauges to give
it
In Fig. 11,
is
set.
23
Fig. 11
Then
QR
and
i.e.
= C sin a
= (centre
Example
7.
distance)
(sine of angle).
of 36 38'.
We
have
tljat sin
36 38'
05967
200 X 05967
set 11 934
119.34
Example
then in triangle
is
assumed to pe
ABC,
16
AC =
16,
BC =
4,
and
ta
Fig. 12(a)
BAC =
44 =
=o 03125

3i
16 units long,
24
=
6 =
=
sin
From which
and
Now
and since the
setting
is
for a
250
1 47'
30"
3 35'
sin 3 35'
00625
mm sine bar:
250 X 00625
15 625
mm
Fig. 12(b)
The
setup
shown
at Fig. 12(b),
between two plane surfaces (e.g. the surfaces of an angle plate) the bar
must be set accurately at right angles to the slope of the face being
measured. The following example will illustrate how an error may be introduced if this is not done.
Example
9.
to an error in setting,
surface.
The conditions
are
in Fig.
13.
The readings should have been taken on the line of greatest slope AB,
AC.
CH is a perpendicular drawn from C on to AB, and from the conditions
CH = 6 mm.
AC = 100 mm, E, F and G are points
A meet verticals through B, C and H.
of the problem,
AB
==
through
where horizontal
lines
25
Fig. 13
In triangle
ACH:
AH = AC  CH
2
100 2
62
= 9964
AH = \/9964 =
9982
CAE:
AC =
.'.CE
Then
Sine
HAG
99 82
=
=
mm,
HG =
_.
100,
and
CAE =
59 30'
100 x 08616
= 8616mm
HAG
86 16 mm and HAG
CE = HG;
since
HA
in triangle
is
59 40'
i.e.
an error of
Gauging large
From some
10'
radii
classes of work
26
centre
ABC
and radius R.
r^'i
Fig. 14
is
For
half angle
its
we can measure
is
BE, so that the problem becomes one of finding a suitR in terms of this length and the angle of the vee.
Now BE = BO  EO
and
BO =
But
OD
EO = OD = R
90
secant
.\BO=ODsec
= R
since sec ( 90
Hence
!)
cosec
cosec
 l)
(90 
Npte:
secant
cos
BE = i?cosecyR
R =
7T
iacosecy
From which
)
BE
cosec
lj
cosecant
r
sin
27
constant and
1 is
can be calculated and stamped on the gauge. All that is then necessary is
to measure BE, and divide it by this number to give R.
Example
of 120
is
10.
BE
R=
Here
cosec
2125
cosec 60
dia.
of tube
11547
13736
01547
and
2125
2125
mm
13736
27472
mm
The main difficulty in the use of a gauge of this type is the accurate
measurement of the distance BE. This may be overcome by constructing
the gauge and incorporating a depth gauge or micrometer head on the
centre line at B. An alternative construction is to make the gauge with a
fiat portion as shown at Fig. 15, using slip gauges to check the distance
between the work and the flat.
It will be an interesting example to plan such a gauge as
this.
Example
Fig. 15
28
We
will
portion
make
FG
filling in
mm
a 250
circle placed in the vee, as shown in Fig. 15 The length of the
gauge must be sufficient to accomodate a 750mm circle.
The length must exceed twice the distance from E to line AB, i.e. > 2AE
sin 30 = > 2 x 375 x h say, 400mm.
If flat
circle
then
CB = CD
sec 30
125 x 11547
= 144.34mm
and from the vee corner B to FG the distance is 14434  125 = 1934 mm.
It now remains to find the relation between the radius of any circle
placed in the vee, and the distance from its circumference to line FG.
From Fig. 14 we have that from B to the circumference of a circle radius
R,
= R
cosec
We have to
subtract 1934
d =
and transposing to give
60.
mm from this,
01547/?
so that
1934
mm
results in
RD =
d+
1934
01547
mm
An
byw.
is
is
indicated
29
Fig. 16(a)
6(b)
hole being gauged, and the dotted circle (centre A) is that which the end of
the point gauge would describe if it made a full sweep Actually, the end of
.
Fig. 16(6)
is
as follows:
30
If
BC
is
and
circle,
joined, angle
in triangle
AC =
AB = L
D;
Hence we may
it is
and
CB
is
D = L + w
D=L+8
2
say:
But
approximately.
+ S) 2 = L 2 + w 2
L + 2LS + S 2 = L 2 + w 2
(L
Now S will be
Hence
we may
ignore
mm so that
it.
+ 2LS = L 2 + w 2
2LS = w 2
S
= 2L
far the
is
line.
Example
12. If a
375
w
and
^
2
The
difference (S)
if the total
32
'
*
The
X 375
750
Exercises 2c
is 25 m. When
2^m
mm
= 375012mm
a machine
6 mm,
is
0012mm
1.
movement
3mm
this
is
Position of Level
Reading
(Division)
+ LH end high
 RH end high
is
from
its
central position.
1*
(continued on
p. 31)
10
Position of Level
+ LH end high
 RH end high
Reading
(Division)
1
11
31
12
1
a scale diagram showing the dip in the bed to an enlarged scale, and calculate
Make
250mm
sine bar to
check a taper of
mm of move
in 6
on the
diameter.
5.
100
mm
sine bar
drawing as 2636'
What
6.
is
4'.
is
The
template shown at Fig. 17, the template is secured to the sine square and line AB is
The square is then tilted and set to the correct
first marked parallel to two of the plugs
1
CD
BC,
the lengths x and v.
and
AD.
Fig. 17
mm
mm
mm
reading.
8.
at
one end.
When
it
is
mm
long,
when
amount of 12 mm
movement is
24 mm. Calculate the mean diameter of the bore and the out of roundness.
9. A vee of 120 with a 12mm flat at its bottom is placed on a cylinder and the distance
from the flat to the curved surface of the cylinder is 240 mm. Calculate the diameter of
the cylinder.
32
10. In Fig. 18
setting pin
be 050 mm.
(A and B are true half spheres.)
shall
50
Fig. 18
mm
long
if
the bore
is
to
mm
The
When
Two
examples:
Example
13.
is
shown
in Fig. 19 (a).
Find
(a)
XX
between
and AB, both dimensions as measured
on the sloping surface.
In dealing with problems of this type it is well to cultivate the sense of
visualizing lengths in 3 perpendicular directions, and also of being able
to make a rough pictorial sketch of the data. The sketch is generally
very useful in helping to show up how the problem should be treated.
(b) the angle
In Fig. 19
(b),
A and B
through
33
(b)
(a)
Fig. 19
Then
ACD:
in triangle
CD =
AC
The
centre distance
26 mm,
D=
90 and
CD
26
cos 35
08192
AB
is
C =
35
= 3174mm
ABC.
AB =
2
AB =
The angle made by
26 2
3174 2
n/1684
4104
1684
mm
26
4T04
06335
/\
3918
Example
14. Fig. 20 (a) shows the plan and elevation of a block in which
a hole has to be drilled, entering at the point A, and leaving at B.
34
Fig. 20(a)
The
Fig. 20(b)
of the job
is
lettered
is
B being underneath
shown
at Fig.
20
(b),
and BC a horizontal line. For drilling the hole, the base of the block must
be set at an angle of 9, and the face containing A must be set at a, both
angles being with the vertical.
In triangle
CDB:
CD =
29 mm,
CB =
29 2
DB =
19 2
19
mm and D
90
1202
CB = ^1202 = 3467 mm
tan
AC
CB
15
03317
3467
1821'
tan
a =
DB
a =
33 14'
19
29
ft
,_
 6552
If
is joined to C, triangle ABC is formed and
equal to the line DE, shown on the end of the bar.
AC
is
on the line
parallel
and
DE =
and
OEsec
in triangle
45
= OE x
1414
Hence,
bar
26 x 1414
3676
mm
ABC:
BC
A
AC = tanA =
from which
35
A=
if lines
52
36^76
,,
=M146
,
54 45'.
DE
and
EC
are
will
marked on the
with
bar,
break through
at
A.
Fig. 21
36
Fig. 22
In triangle
ABD:
AB =
2
AB =
also
13
+ 16 2  2 x 13 x 16
+ 256  208 = 217
169
13
sin 60
sin
B =
B =
4951'
A =
180
sin
Hence
Since
DBC =
rjss
BAC =
07644
1473
+ 49 51')
(60
/\
90;
/\
also
= ._,..
13 sin 60
/\
In triangle
= 1473 mm
v^217
AB
90
ABC; AB =
ABC =

709'
1473.
90
B =
709'
4951
409'
1951'
409'
A=
1951'
37
also
and
sin
also in the
The
same
577
mm
sin
triangle:
AC
1473
sin 409'
sin 120
whence
AC =
1097
mm
upwards
dimension a
dimension b
=
=
399
333
+
+
10
10
=
=
1399
1
333
mm
mm
Exercises 2d
1.
straightedge
is
is set
at
an angle of
15 to the line of greatest slope. Calculate the inclination of the straightedge to the
horizontal.
2. In Fig. 23 a hole is to be drilled, starting in the centre of the sloping face, and
breaking out at the corner B. Calculate the angle between the vertical plane containing
centre line
AB
^*^*^
civ?
,/
(
For
l~
of the block.
D_^t^>^
V/
3.
BCD
Jf
51
at
Fig. 23
38
4. In Fig.
24
sions a
and
b,
and
(iii)
Find
distance
(i)
angle line
line
AB
is
dimen
(ii)
AB.
Fig. 24
5.
through on a 130
and the next.
mm
circle.
mm
6. In Fig. 26 find the distance a and the angle a for a hole whose centre
be tangential to the 60mm circle.
7. Calculate
the
line
and B
AB shall
in
Fig.
27.
8.
In Fig. 28 a hole
AB
starts at
H, and be
drilled in
first (i.e.
it
must
c tan
(1)
39
Fig. 26
165
Fig. 25
P.C.Crs.
36"
4 Holes
equally
spaced
105
Vertical height
from base
Fig. 27
Fig. 28
40
and the difference between the dimensions taken over the top and bottom
When the taper is dimensioned as 1 in a certain
length (say 1 in /) on the diameter,
pairs of rollers will be 2h.
then
 =
2/
and A
(2)
27
Fig. 29 {a).
taper given in
mm/ unit
length
may be
converted to
in
by
divi
sion.
In some cases
of the taper, and
it
may be
if this
BEF:
BF =
BE
BF =
and since
COS 2'
dia of roller
=2
yop =
BE
2
The
radius
EL
of the taper
.
GK (EG
cosy
is
centre line).
,
T T
=
EL
D  _,
a
D
= EG tan _
_
=
H.,,tan ya
C (centre
distance of rollers)
(d _ + D__//,
2 (BE
tan
In practice, C,
rrc
41
+ EL)
a\
\
(3)
so
D.
This gives that
=
H tan Ta2
is
Then
and
dimensioned as
tan
or
cos
(4)
/:
27
/
(Fig. 29(A)).
COS^r
2
in
D
= =
z
2
a =
a
cosy
D = C+ 2#tan
and
If the taper
vTTT
D then becomes
H
D  C+
/fv/T+72
*
(5)
Fig.
29
(6).
it is helpful to have
a fixture of some kind which will support the taper and provide supporting
and gauging arrangements for the rollers.
42
Example
17.
of rollers 12
shown
as
A taper of
in 10
on a
circle 14
bottom
is
Fig. 30.
mm
mm
shown
= ^[where
=
52
~?j
i *n
260
105
52
+ 12
C
93,
H=
8,
d=
12,
52 and
93
10]
roller will
998
be
mm
of AB we have from
H
and
12
mm
10
dV L
4 I 2
(5)
above that
43
So that
D ~
=
93
938
12VT+100
To
10
12012
81 788
mm
For
this
it is
Fig. 31
r,
and h
in Fig. 31
BC
Then
in triangle
ABC:
AB
so that
cy
C =
AC
AC
AB
r (since
CE =
r),
sin
which enables us to
and B
90,
j
=
.a
Sin fr
(6)
a of the
taper.
44
If the taper
dimensioned as
is
in /
Fig. 29 (b),
R 
sin^2
^TTT
vTTT
vJTT =
2
Square both
2(R
 rY
sides:
4{R
from which
4(i?
and
'
r)
 J c2 ~(R 
c2
r)
c*
,/
 Vc2 ~ (R ~
2{R  r)
r) 2
(7)
of the hole
we must
FGH
and
==
2(AF + GH)
= 2^AE
= 26?
For a taper of
sec
and
becomes
Example
in
j=
sec
sec
j + FG tan y J [since E = G =
y+
Atan
90]
(8)
f)
on the diameter
*
+ F and
tan
?V ' +
=
/2
+ Al
[Fig. 29 (6)]
(9)
R =
15 mm, r
mm,
125
374
mm and h
73
45
mm.
that sin
15
~
This gives
y=
3 50'
and a
125
y=
= 00668
374
7 40'.
D = 2(rscc^ +
/itan^J
sec^= 10022
tan
D =
j=
2(15
00670
x 10022 + 73 x 00670) =
3 104
mm
Exercises 2e
1.
shown in
Fig. 32.
Fig. 33
Fig. 32
2.
(See
in Fig.
46
3. Calculate,
are
all
4.
20
shown
dimensions
A and
B.
(The
rollers
mm dia.)
of the
Total.
1
in
in Fig.
rollers.
35,
Find
make up an
H when D
expression connecting
with
77 mm.
Taper
20
'777777777777?77777777)(7777777777777777777
58
A
<p
Two 20 Rollers
Fig. 34
5.
hole
an expression
fit
of diameter
in
terms of
Fig. 35
for the
diameter
d,
Find d when
D=
80 mm.
Fig. 36
6.
fit
into
it.
Fig. 37
Obtain
will just
47
Fig. 38
(a)
(*)
if
diameters:
(b),
AD
AB
cosec
y =
cosec
=
H DE cot y = f cot 7
CD =
h
\H = 4
AD  CD =
cot
cosec
j  j cot
x
48
= DE +
2h
= de +
2 r cosec
= DE +
2r(\
= DE +
d\l
2r
we
will
2r
+cosec^cot
+ cosec
Having established
thread,
f ~ f cot y) +
2)~J cot f
wnere d =
determine
its
dia.
of wires)
thread forms.
(a)
ISO
DE = D 
Here
a =
cosec
y=
Z)
= D 
2(0325/>)
60
coty =
1732
+ d (1 +
cosec
065p
W{over wires)
COt
y J
p
<
6l
'^fr^Vv
6
'
Fig. 39
unified
Fig.
40
Whitworth
(b)
49
a =
Also since
= DE +
fF(over wires)
=
=
Example
19.
Z)
^=
d(l
064/?
55
cosecy
cot
DE = D 
so that
is 064/7,
21657
1921
cosec
064/?
31657rf
y]
y cot y
</(31657)
L 1921
l60/>
cases:
(a)
Af30 x
(b)
(a)
M30 x
ISO metric
35
in dia.
10
t.p.i.
using wires 2
3.5
30, d=
..
W=
=
(b)
in dia.
10
t.p.i.
in dia.
2mm wires.
W=D
D=
mm dia.
+ 3d 
1516/?
2 and/)
35
30+
30694
1516
35
mm
W= D
D=
\,d
W=
=
= 01
x 0062 
0062 and/)
1
31657
160
01
1036 in.
by means of two
balls.
50
Examples
in
many and
varied that
it is
possible
similar type.
Fig. 41
If
AC =
50
r;
CB =
triangle
125
r,
ABC
AB =
is
considered,
625 and
we
have:
A = 25 (r = radofC)
ABC
CB 2 = AC 2 + AB 2  2AC.AB
cos A"
a)
(50
r)
(625)
2(50
r)(62.5)(09063)
51
eliminate r
25r
= 2500 +
from both
25r
lOOr
sides
lOOr
and
collect terms
2500
3829r
=
=
5857
1329 r
+ 3906  5664 
1529
3829
giving a circle of 2
1529
mm
= 3058mmdia
Example
21.
radius
cut as
is
1563
5857
shown
in Fig. 42.
Fig. 42
AC
AB =
If
and
59,
also
BC
are joined as
shown
in the figure,
AC = 40 and BC = 50
AC = AB + BC  2AB.BC
2
cos D
B
cos
(cosine rule)
59 + 5 4 2
,.
= AB + ^BC AC =
(working
2 AB.BC
2x59x5
2
4381
07425
59
A = 423'
B
If
CD is 1
r to
AB, then
DB = CB
21 875
mm
in
cm)
52
Example
22.
required as a check.
is
Fig. 43
HN
is
be able to determine
h.
it.
EF and
In the diagram,
pendicular to
a horizonatl
CK
In triangle
JCG:
line,
26 x tan 32
JCG =
and
if
we can
1625
find
GN we shall
mm
= 693mm
GP = BF
PM =
cos 24
2181 cos 24
GH
cos
/\
GM
= p^Y
HGM
Grl
/\
/\
PGN =
1201
1Zr
W1
205
HG
HGN
cos
Distance h
125
mm
1201
205
mm
mm
/\
05858 and
HGM = 548'
/\
+24 =
90
2001
HGM
.HGN =
GN
GM = 2001
114
114
54
8'
59 52'
1029
mm
Example
23.
may
be
20mm
shown.
as
Fig.
The
radius
53
44
mm
to
AB.
Then we have
GF = GH
that
GF + FE
+ CB = AB = 51 mm.
= (AH  AG) cot 20 = (AH  CE)
cot 20
CB = VDB 2  DC 2 = V(R +
20)
and
this
0166/?
0342/?
to
+ V(R +
(/?
AB =
20)
10)
51
(/?
10)
reduces to
V(R +
Square both
20)
(/?
10)
2627
0176/?
sides:
(/?
20)
(/?
10)
(2627
0176/?) 2
51
cot 20 c
54
i.e.
R 2 + 40R +
 R 2  20R 
400
100
This
is
6901
25R + 003LR 2
=*
method.
R=
2925
V2925 2  4 x
0031
3901
2 x 0031
root,
or 1355
R=
1355
is
R =
we
require
mm
Exercises 2f
1.
Calculate the diameter over wires for the following screw threads:
M20 x
M36 x
(a)
(b)
(c)
2.
fin
25
over 8
n pitch
J.
7&4
\Lj2
Fig. 45
3.
wedge
wedge
is level,
rests
in Fig. 46.
of the
when
is
mm.
MISCELLANEOUS PROBELMS
5. In
Example
3,
if
the
H to
its
40,
IN
and
MEASUREMENT
is tilted
through an
higher corner.
Calculate the distance from the centre of the circle (O) to the centre of the 20
slot
shown
55
mm
in Fig. 47.
Fig. 48
From
Fig. 49
8.
From
The reader
will,
are determined. In the case of spindle speeds, the highest and lowest
speeds in the range are generally related to the extremes of size for which
the machine is designed. For example: a lathe might be designed to take a
rr.nge of
10
N=
XT
mm to 250 mm diameter.
would
1000 x 22 x 7
77j
22 x 10
1000 x 22
n x T7
10
10mm
Allowing for a
_
700
rev/min
diameter work.
N=
XT
These
will
1000 x 22
X 250
1000 x 22 x 7
22 x 250
28 rev/min
in the range,
is
in
8 speeds
and 7
interval
28
_

672
_

_,
*&
intervals,
each
57
be:
28 rev/mm, 2nd 28
3rd 124
96
+ 96 =
124 rev/min
220 rev/min
and so on.
700 
If these
and the
4
5
6
Speed Number
Fig. 50
50,
series
way
between the speeds at the lower end (28 rev/min, 124 rev/min, 220 rev/min)
are too great, whilst at the upper end of the range (700, 604, 508 rev/min,
etc.) a larger interval value could be tolerated without inconvenience.
To overcome these objections and provide a convenient range of
speeds, they are generally arranged in Geometric Progression. When
arranged in this way, instead of each speed being a constant amount
greater than the one below it, the speed is a constant multiple of the one
below it. The calculation for determining speeds arranged in geometric
progression is as follows:
Considering the case we have taken, where the extremes are 28 and
700 rev/min with 8 speeds.
will
1 st,
3rd will be the same constant multiplied by the 2nd, and so on.
Let this constant be denoted by K.
Then
1st
speed
2nd speed
3rd speed
4th speed
= 28
= 28 X K = 28AT
= 28*: x K = 2SK 2
= 2SK 2 x K = 2SK
will
be 2%K\
and the
58
Now the
8th speed
is
2SK = 700
1
ZD
K
Hence we have

v/25
st
speed
28
No
1584
25
Log.
7)1397 9(01997)
28 rev/min
and
their
in
44 x 1584
top which
is
Speed
Arithmetic
Geometric
Progression
Progression
rev/min
rev/min
28
28
124
44
220
70
316
111
412
176
508
279
604
442
700
700
700
4
5
6
Speed Number
at the
Fig. 51
We
in general
follows:
Let
A = 1st term
A 2 = 2nd term
x
A n = nth term
K = constant multiplier
n = number of terms
symbolic form as
=
=
=
=
1 st term
2nd term
3rd term
nth term
(i.e. if n
A2 = A K
A = A K = A,K 2
A n = A K"
= 8, then the index of K is 8  1 = 7).
Hence
A n =A,Kn ~
if
* = d* and
1
In an example, A,
would enable
Example
if
59
= J45
K to be
series calculated.
is
is
to be from 25
to be given.
mm to 10 mm drills and
each speed.
We have that N =
IQO0S
3 where jV
S =
d =
For the top speed
(25
1000 X 22
*X2.5 =
Drill diameter.
1000 x 22 x 7
22 x 25
0Qnn
= 2800rev/min
.xlO =
fa
1000 x 22 x 7
22 x 10
_
= 70
rev/mm
.
72800
Log.
5)0.6021(01204
Antilog 01204
1319
= 700 rev/min
2nd speed = 700 x 1319 = 924 rev/min
3rd speed = 924 x 1319 = 1220 rev/min
1st
drill)
1000 x 22
AT (the multiplier)
mm drill)
speed
K.
60
4th speed
5th speed
6th speed
=
=
=
1220
1610
x
x
= 1610rev/min
= 2120rev/min
= 2800rev/min
1319
1319
2120 x 1319
The relationship between the speeds and the drill sizes they will accommodate may now be calculated:
mm
Nearest 025
1st
speed,
mm drill
10mm
700
924rev/min suitable for 10 x q~j
2nd speed,
drill
diameter (mm)
425
mm
700
700
2120
mm drill
is
mm
1610
diameter table
575
700
drill
mm
1220
75
mm
2 5 mm
325
shown below.
700
924
1220
1610
2120
2800
100
75
575
425
325
25
Feeds
The
1.
lathe
is
Exercises 3a
work varying from 25 mm
operating on a range of
to
250mm diameter.
Allowing for a cutting speed of 22m/min, calculate the highest and lowest speeds
necessary. If there are 8 speeds in the complete range, find the range of speeds if they
are in geometric progression. Make out a table showing the most suitable diameter to
be turned on each speed.
2.
drill
if
drills
mm
165m/min.
to 6
make
mm
drill
diameter.
diameter
For Ques.
3.
p.
61
vertical,
horizontal.
On
4.
400mm
stroke singlepulley,
were found to be as
allgeared
stroke of the
ram
follows:
1st
speed, 27 turns
a
*u
Assuming
the
ratio
3rd speed,
8 turns
4th speed,
4 turns
Cutting time
=
^.
Return time
to
be
125
The
find the
llm/min
for
some 3 mm
on the carriage, and driven in the opposite direction to the spindle. At what speed
must the drilling spindle be driven to give a cutting speed of 66 m/min?
suitable cutting speed for drilling
Cutting tool
As
life
arrives
when
it
to allow the tool to last longer than the best economic time, then it is
cutting below an efficient rate and is doing less work then it might. On
to
if its
become blunted
pense and
lost
resetting necessary.
From
VT =
where
C,
life
have been
62
12
>
J_
10
for
roughing cuts
in steel
~ :j ^ ;,
carbide
tools.
compound,
Example
life
as
etc.
life
C=
Hence
20 x 1801
Taking logs
No.
T
LogC=log20+
,
log 180
180
180r
8~
20
15829
log
8)22553
^02819
13010
15829
Antilog 15829
Hence we may
write:
3827
C.
VT* = 3827
V=
307^
30
3827
Tk = 2*Z =
T=
T=
=
(12757)
1.2757
8
antilog 08456
7008, say 7 min.
No.
Log
12757
01057
8_
08456
Example
grinds
probable
ing,
3.
when
and
life
fo
gave a
life
of
finishing
63
steel.
Here we have
for roughing:
= C
15233 = 3338
20 x 60i
C =
antilog
No.
log
60
8)l7782(
60i
02223
20
13010
15233
n ^
3
T =
n=
(1669)
3338
1669
10
No.
log
1669
02225
(1669)
T=
antilog 2225
10
2225
The
principal angles
these are
shown
its
in Fig. 52.
Side Rake
Front (Top)
Rake
Front
Clearance
Side
Clearance
Fig. 52
64
Workshop Technology.
When
a tool
is
it is
is
operating relative to
work to the
cutting point.
OA.
Thus
is
Top Rake
Top Rake (r)
i_
^Clearance
Clearance(c)
Fig. 53(a).
Fig. 53(6).
The
line
we have
that sin
is
=
/5
altogether and the tool will rub instead of cut. If the tool
is
it
will vanish
placed below
the centre the effects are opposite, the rake being decreased and the
clearance increased.
a numerical example.
mm
4. A bar of material 60
diameter is being turned with a tool
having 20 top rake and 6 front clearance. Calculate (a) the cutting
Example
angles
tool
when
the tool
is
25
mm
(b) the
become
amount the
zero.
The
conditions are as
(a) sin
^^^J^
From which a =
shown
65
at Fig. 53 (b).
00833.
4 47'.
a =
01045
is
a must be
6.
01045
*j
= 30 x 01045
= 314mm
Exercise 3b
certain tool
when
cutting at
grinding.
4. If the relationship for highspeed steel tools
tools
VT = Q, and
5
assuming that
at
is
VT* = C and
life
was
3 hours in
T in
V and
T when V =
25m/min.
and a clearance of 7 Calculate the modified
below centre on a bar 44 mm diameter.
values of these angles when the tool is cutting 3
7. When turning a bar 50 mm diameter, how much above centre may a tool with a
clearance of 6 be set before the clearance vanishes? When the tool is in this position, what
is the effective value of the top rake, if the rake on the tool is 15?
8. A boring tool 10mm deep is required to bore out holes to 40mm diameter. If the
body of the tool is horizontal, how much clearance will be necessary if the bottom corner
Express
6.
terms of
find
mm
of the tool
is
to clear?
66
the angles
a and
is
made
/5
Fig. 54
10.
The
tool
50
mm
is
12mm
is
concentric with a 72
mm hole which
is
being bored.
square and passes through the centre of the bar. Calculate the tool angles
necessary so that the cutting rake shall be 10, and the clearance 6.
Taper turning
When a tapered
face
is
or formed surface
is
of the work. The conditions in the case of taper work are shown in
Fig. 55 (a) If the tool is set on the centre, and its movement controlled so
.
AB,
it
starts at
A, and when
it
End View
Fig. 55
If,
same
it
CD
is
a distance h below
will travel
*
TAPER TURNING
move
67
AB will therefore not reach the point D, and conA and C are on the same circle, the top diameter of the taper
the distance
sequently
if
be
will
less
point better
faintly
hollow in form.
diagram (Fig. 55
The
(6)).
tool starts at
OF = R
If it
OB = R
r,
True taper = *
An attempt to reduce R
'
Example
move
the
5.
In turning a taper of
in 6
work
is
32
is
4mm
tool
is
set to
below centre. If
obtained.
if
16
long, then
mm
R = 21mm
h
The
tool, starting at
where
OC =
4mm
16 mm, will
move out
CF = 21mm.
But
FC =
..
(FC + CG) 2 +
and
OG
OF =
2
(5
OG
+ CG) 2 + 4 2
to
F where
68
CG = CO  OG
2
But
CG =
Hence
v/240~ =
16 2
42
240
1549
OF =
2
(5 + 1549) + 4
= 2049 + 4 = 4358
OF = \/43T8~= 2088
2
is
Actual taper
H
This gives a taper of
32
mm and length 60 mm
4176
60
32
= 4176 instead
= 9^6
60
in 615.
Form tools
For turning forms from the crossslides of turret and automatic lathes and
sometimes from centre lathes as well, a tool is used which gives the
correct form on the work. If the tool is set on centre as shown in Fig. 56,
it must have the correct form in plane OAB. Since, however, the tool
must have clearance as shown, lengths such as BC, taken perpendicular
to the front clearance face will be less than lengths such as AB taken
on the horizontal, and the form of the tool on a plane parallel to BC will
be different from its form on AB When the tool is being made, the shaping
and other machining operations are carried out parallel to the clearance
face, so that for the purpose of making the tool it may be necessary to
determine its form when taken on a plane such as BC, perpendicular to
.
^Clearance
Fig. 56
FORM TOOLS
69
or two examples:
Example
6.
tool
is
is
10,
15
10
72
15
7;i
10
^
/
i.
V
r
55 
55
11
(a)
e)
IF2>
Fig. 57
/\
ABC
is
cos 10
gp =
AB
=
BC
jtt
in Fig. 56,
and since
09848
A = ^ =
10154.
From which
A=
mm and
45 26'
1103
Hence the
face will be as
When
becomes
but not the width converts the circular form into a portion of an
ellipse.
70
tool
shown
in Fig. 58 (a)
We thus have
cos 12
i.e.
x 09763 =
x 09763 =
128
8
ratio
of the
09763.
mm
mm
1250
781
X 09763 = 14.64mm
15
so that
Q976 3
0364
03728
125
116
88
30
profile
28 8
shown
tan 20 27'
at Fig. 58 (b)
^C20
is
iM
(a)
75
125 116
30
_8_8
Elliptical
Form
Fig. 58
The finishing of the elliptical form given to the circular portion is apt to
be troublesome, but such a shape can be produced on a grinding wheel
by trimming it with a radius forming attachment set off centre. This is
shown
in Fig. 58 (c),
and
if
is set
with the
71
rotating in plane
it
mm
FD.DH = CD.DG
Then
But
FD =
1464,
Hence
and
DH
= 400 
1464
DG =
(1464) (38536)
= 15.DG
14 64 x 38536
, mm
= 3761
CG =
3761 +
h2
42
15
= 3911
^ =
3911
= R  CE =
2
15
rr
CE = CG =
But
from which h
= 38536 and CD =
19555
200 2
19555 2
1760
mm
15
Form
rake"
put on the cutting face of a form tool the cutting effect of
the tool is rather curious, because for the purpose of obtaining an accurate
relative reproduction of the tool form on the work, the tool, at the finish
of the cut, must have its top face lying on a radial line. This is shown at
tools with "top
If back slope
Fig. 59 (a),
is
where the tool is shown at the completion of its cut, and its
on the radial line OA. The reader will notice that at this
When
(b),
and
is
is
will
perpendicular to
be seen that
if
is
cutting relative to
OA.
a on the
tool
is
at
made large
72
of/3
= a  S.
As the
tool feeds in, this rake will gradually get less until, as we have seen
above, there is zero rake at the final position. The reader will notice that
a tool of this type must be set below the centre by the amount h, where
h
 =
The
a and
a tool should be
that the angle
In Fig. 59
The
sin
made
(c),
on
is
a must be taken
tool finishes
are put
is
into account.
its
parallel to
Hence a length AB on the top of the tool will correspond to CB, perpendicular to the clearance face.
In triangle
ABC: C =
90 and
CB = AB
Hence depths
in the
A^Sb = a +
cos (a
c).
in the ratio
of cos (a
+ c).
Fig. 60
Circular
Form
73
Tool.
means of a
sin
a =
AO Tool radius
and h = r sin a
(r)
Fig. 61
74
Gashing the tool in this way results in a variation between the form
it and the form it imparts to the work, because a radial depth
DB on the tool will turn a depth AB on the work. Widths on the form are
unaffected, and corrections for depths may be calculated as follows,
where d = a depth on the tool and / = corresponding depth on work.
turned on
From
DB.BF = ABBE.
d; BF = 2r  d; AB  /
=
BE AE / = 2r cos a I
d(2r  d) = l{2r cos a  I)
DB =
But
and
Hence
d2 in
which
The
all
2rd
in
l(2r cos
are
as follows:
a 
I)
known.
Example
m
75r^
(b)
425Fig. 62
Here r
=
To
50
mm and a
50 sin 10
= 10, so that
50 x 01736 = 868
mm.
steps
on the face
175
,325 = __
=
75 mm, and
125
,.
10
mm
AB
(0
75, r
50, cos
d2 from which d
()
10, r
738
50,
982
10
09848
7.5(100.09848
75)
10)
mm
d1 from which d
a = cos
lOOtf
75
and cos a
lOOrf
09848
10(100.09848
mm
The angle on the tool to give an included angle of 1 20 on the work must
now be
corrected
325
Its
width
is
125
tan 30
and
10 tan 30
5774
mm
is
found
to be 30 28'.
The turned
is
shown
at Fig.
62
(b).
Exercises 3c
1.
lathe centre
is
being ground up by a 70
mm
on the compound slide. If the centre of the wheel is set 10mm below
of the lathe centre, and the compound slide fed at 30, find the angle to which
toolpost grinder
the axis
What
lathe
is
is 5 mm below (jentre?
form tool is straight, and set at an angle of 15 with the axis of the work (i.e. to
form an included angle of 30 on the work) If the tool is set to the above angle, but 5
below centre, calculate the actual angle produced on ajob 50 mm top diameter and 40 mm long
the tool
3.
mm
&.
?7Z7
Fig. 63
4. A form tool having 8 clearance and 15 back slope is required to turn the diameters
shown at Fig. 63. Calculate (a) the depth AB on the clearance face of the tool, (b) the
amount the tool should be below centre, (c) the top cutting rake at the commencement of
cutting. (Top diameter ofwork = 10mm).
76
What
long.
mm
mm in the length
of the work?
depths and the angle on a form tool
Tool has no top rake and 10 clearance.
6. Calculate the
Fig. 64.
for
in
Fig. 64
7.
At
Fig. 65
is
is
to be finished
Calculate the angle, depth and bottom land as measured from the clearance face of a
tool having
524
Fig. 65
8.
circular
form tool
55mm
diameter
is
depth
AB
on the
amount
tool.
9. Calculate the
shown
is
60mm diameter
375^
77
\876
Fig. 66
to be
made 2%
on a core
of the lathe
is set
the thread
(a)
(b)
(c)
is
for a diecasting
is
Sometimes a case may arise where an odd thread must be cut, the exact
pitch of which cannot be obtained with the standard machine changewheels. Also, if a lathe is not supplied with the special 127T wheel, and a
metric pitch is required, some alternative way of getting a suitable pitch
becomes necessary.
The method of continued fractions will often provide a very near ratio
to that required, and enable a pitch to be cut which is near enough for the
purpose.
In Appendix VII
will
78
Example
with a 5
9.
mm
The
2 18
Drivers
p^
ratio of gears:
6
will
be
218 mm
5 mm
E
109
,
irkn
^~r, and since 109
.
is
250
prime number, the exact ratio could not be obtained without a gear of
Driven
this size.
Converting
this to a
have:
The continued
109)250(2
218
fraction
is:
2+1
32)109(3
96
2+1
13)32(2
26_
6)13(2
11
1)6(6
we take
are: 1st
\,
2nd =
f,
3rd
we may
&
5th = $.
&, 4th =
obtain a gear ratio as
follows:
x
6 x
_
n
37 ~
To
65
_
~
20 x 85 Drivers
60 x 65 Driven
is less
decimal gives
pitch of
2
Example
a 6
85
t.p.i.
18
2
i.e.
$ X
mm.
2Jmm
24
*
254
9x6
4x254
nn
254 mm)
27
270
508
508
The continued
fraction
79
is
270)508(1
270
238)270(1
1
1
7+1
2+1
238
32)238(7
224
&; 4th
14)32(2
28
4)14(3
11
2)4(2
1st
2nd =
};
3rd
#; 5th
ft;
2io
508
is
gives:
17
32
=
~
2 x 85
4x8
will
is
20 x 85 Drivers
40 x 80 Driven
be
is
254
work pressure
across the lathe, (3) horizontal feeding pressure along the lathe.
The first of these is of greatest importance from the aspect of the
at right angles: (1) vertical chip pressure, (2) horizontal
power absorbed. The other two, although absorbing some power, are of
small effect when compared with the vertical pressure and are generally
neglected.
From numerous experiments that have been made it has been established that the cutting force on a single point tool is connected in an
expression of the form
F = Cd afb
where F = force; d = depth of cut;/ = feed, and C
a and b depend on the metal being cut and other factors.
a constant.
80
For most
is
If
S~
gives results
good enough.
Power =
Hence
Approximate values
for
60 qqQ
K are as
Kilowatts
follows:
Metal
Steel
Steel
Steel
Steel
being
100150
150200
200300
300400
cut
Brinell
Brinell
Brinell
Brinell
1200
1600
2400
3000
f^T
Brass
Bronze
2\
*~
900
1250
1750
700
K
(N/mm2 )
[From the form of the expression, the reader will observe that K is the
on the tool per square millimetre of cut area.]
When the power required to do the cutting has been calculated, the
total power to run the cut and overcome friction in the machine may be
found by adding on about 30%.
force
Example
1 1
mm
mm
140rev/min.
.
Cutting speed
n X 50 x 140
22 x 50 x 140
7 x 1000
1000
K as
1200
1200 x
D
Power =
Adding 30%
198 +
198
3 x 15 X 22
= 198kW
60000
Xi=
198
= 22m/min
0594
machine we have
2574 say,
Power
for drilling
When
drill is
cutting
81
it
metal and
the Turning Moment or Torque on the drill The units for torque are those
unit. The
of a force multiplied by a length and the most usual is the
turning effect of a force, or a pair of forces, acting at a certain radius,
is found by multiplying the force by the radius, or for two forces the
a twisting effort
Nm
turning effect
is
the
force by
its
radius.
Thus
mm
SON
Resistance at
each corner
Fig. 67
drill
Thus
if
T=
torque in
Nm and N =
found by multiplying it by
is
speed in rev/min,
In NT
Nm
2nNT
kw
and the power =
,
it
^^
82
drilled.
"
1'
C=
where
/=
D =
When
feed
(mm/ rev)
as
shown
above.
The
A
.,,
Example
steel at
12.
Soft
Cast
Steel
brass
iron
(mild)
tool steel
011
0084
007
036
04
05
C,
as 036
0.36/ 75 Z) 1
mm
we have
Nm
/ =05
log
D=
20
T=
036
05
18
(05) 75 (20) 18
log 20
250rev/min
27r.250.47
60 000
hole in mild
a 20
Find also the volume of
drill
mm/ rev.
.,
Carbon
Alu
minium
_ 1ZJKW
~
83
=j x
Energy consumption
20 2 x 05 x 250
mow =
39 275
mm
319mm3 /watt
minute.
= 053mm 3 /joule
Exercises 3d
1.
Calculate the nearest change wheels for cutting a sparkingplug thread (lmm pitch)
lathe with a 4 t.p.i. leadscrew and a set of wheels ranging from 20T to 120T in steps
of 5T. For the ratio you select, find the actual pitch of thread obtained.
leadscrew. Taking
2. A worm having a lead of Timm is to be cut on a lathe with a 5
on a
mm
express the ratio required as a continued fraction, and find the nearest
convergent that can be used with a set of wheels specified for the last example. What was
as 31416,
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
on 25 mm bars of 250 Brinell material, at 240 rev/min and the same feed as before.
[Take values of K from the table on p. 80.]
6. Taking the value of K from the table on page 80, estimate what cut could betaken
on a lathe turning bronze b ars at 06 mm feed and 20 m/min, if 5 kW were available, and 30%
of the power were lost in friction.
7. For the lathe in Question 4, estimate the power cost per 8hour day, with power at
2p per kWh and the efficiency of the motor is 80%.
8. Calculate the
speed
is
(b) the
9.
drill
mm
torque required to
25
mm
drill is drilling
30% of the
10.
cutting power.
For the
drill in
Question
is
8,
data as in Question
drill
7.
mm deep.
For various
practical
commonly used
for gearing
is
will
be
at
it
itself.
Involute
If a
cord
is
wrapped
tightly
round a
circular
the same time being kept tight, the end of the cord will trace out an
involute. This
is
shown
at the
unwound and
CB
is
the portion of
Involute
Straight
edge
Involute
Fig. 68
when
common
to
all
involutes.
are interesting from the aspect qf the involute as a tooth form, are as
follows:
(1)
involute at
(2)
85
is
CB
is
it is
formed. In
perpendicular to CB.
is
Tooth form
O, and 2 are the centres of a pinion and gear of which the pitch circles are
shown tangential at P, which is called the pitch point
AB is a line through P perpendicular to line C^Cv CD also passes
through P and is included at the angle
to AB. CD is called the line
of action and $ the pressure angle. The name "line of action" is given
to CD because it is on, and along that line, that the pressure between
.
if>
one time
(j>
14
circular pitch
Fig. 69
86
the form of an involute to this circle; the portion of the tooth below this
circle (FG) is radial (i.e. on a line joining the end of the involute to the
gear centre). This is all shown in Fig. 69, where for the sake of clearness
the construction has only been carried out on the lower gear. The con
struction also only shows one side of a tooth; the other side is merely the
same shape reversed, and spaced away, a distance equal to the tooth
thickness.
(AB, Fig.
infinite
70).
diameter so that
base circle of
^
to the line of action
its
infinite
diameter tangential
CD
will
Fig. 70
be a straight
CD. The
involute to this will be the straight line EP, and the radial continuation
will
be PF. Hence the side of the rack tooth is straight, and inclined at
The complete tooth will have a total angle equal to
No.ofteethingear
... Tor
Diametral pitch
Circular pitch
Pressure angle
Module
Addendum of tooth
Dendendum
Dord
R or r
irrespective
to
it
or
is
(ji
Add.
Ded.
to quote the
addendum and
D = mT
refer
87
The module
for
m. Until the use of the metric module becomes the preferred usage
The diametral
pitch
is
simply the
it is
necessary to be par
diametral pitch of 8
or diametral pitch of 02
In any case, conversion to a module
ship that the
module
is
(mm series).
simply effected from the relation
circular pitch p
The tooth
is
(inch series)
= n x module m
vernier
The geartooth
vernier
thickness of a tooth.
It
of the tooth, and the depth (h) from the top of the tooth, at which w occurs
(Fig. 71).
Fig. 71
at the centre
Fig. 71).
90
,360
= iof^=^=.
in
88
m> = w = AO
AB
y *ri
90
~y =
sin
z>
sin
90
=
number of teeth
a
and
D = module x
D = 2R = mT
mT
Rn = j
Hence
mT
^
A
and
90
T
w = wisin=r
To
find
fc
Add.
90
= z sm =
OC 
OB.
=^ + m
90
W7,
90
OB = R cos = = = cos ~.
A
and
TT
90
i? sin =
we have that h = CB =
OC = R +
But
Z>
mT
Hence /* = y +
r
mT
90
= cos ^ = m
/w
mrf,, ....
^
1
!
T[
90l
TJ
CQ8
cos ^
\.
(2)
1
Calculate the gear tooth vernier settings to measure a gear
of 33 T, 25 metric module
Example
w =
._
90
= 25
mT^ smjr
,,
=
=
25
=
=
25
90
X 33 sin^825
X 00474
mm
391
mT..
+ 2~(1 2 5
'
2545
90,
cos yr)
33
(1
cos243')
41.25(00011)
mm
One drawback
89
Fig. 72
In Fig. 72
is
rack.
O is the pitch point, and as we have seen above, the gear tooth will contact
with the straightsided rack tooth at the points
line of action.
Then
B and D,
lying
on the
DB = w will thus be constant for all teeth of the same pitch and
pressure angle.
Since
of the rack
nm
EA = j circular pitch = \p = y
and
In triangle
and
OAB:
in triangle
OA = !EA =
A
A
B = 90 and O =
:. OB = OA cos
OCB: C =
90 and
.\CB= OB
Hence CB =
OA cos
iji
cos
ijt
i/j,
B = ^
cos
OA
DB = 2CB = w =
and
<f>
ij).
cos 2
i/j
Hence
OC = OA
and h =
nm
j cos
(j>
sin
iff
sin
= m\f~
1
(3)
(/)
But
(/t
iff
7tm
j cos 2
h = Add.  OC = m  OC.
OG = OB sin ip and OB  OA
cos
nm
r cos 2
cos
iff.
j
cos $ sin
(4)
,1
ty
remain constant
(4)
if module
90
Example
for a
2.
sin 20
cos 20
= x cos
h>
m(l
6(1
j
6 X 3142
20
cos
ij)
=
=
0342
09397
mm
x 07476 = 449 mm
(09397)
832
sin f)
07854 x 09397
0342)
The tooth
Fig. 73
Fig. 73
in
space, the curved sides of the gear teeth touching the straight rack tooth
at the points
we
and B on the
lines of action.
outline, a
circle
it
with centre at
fit
tooth). Since the rack touches the gear at these points, the
(shown dotted)
have
on the pitch
its
centre
In triangle
OBD: OB =
circle.
above
circle
OD
circular pitch
B =
91
Tim
O =
90
OB = OD
cos
if/
ijf.
7im
j cos
(jf
nm
is
(5)
iji
the diameter of a plug which will rest in the tooth space and have
centre on the pitch circle. Notice that the plug size remains the same
its
spaces, it is a
simple matter to verify the gear pitch diameter. The accuracy of the
spacing over any number of teeth may be found as shown in chordal
calculations.
Example
3.
Calculate for a
(a)
Dia of plug =
Tim
^ cos
^S7T
= ~
cos 20
=
=
mT =
x 36
7854
738
x 09397
mm
 180mm
mm
(c)
Fig. 74
92
'lf{\
AB = OA
sin 50
10
~y
100 In triangle
90 x 0766
x AB =
738
2 x 6894
14526
OAB:
6894
137 88
mm
mm
Base pitch
The base
pitch
is
Fig. 75
CD
EC = GH = FD
If there are
T teeth
in the gear,
FD
If
ij)
is
then
FD =
2ttR b
iTlRt
H0
and
ij>
cos
tjt.
BASE PITCH
FD =
Hence
2nR
n
But,
base pitch
TtD
~y~ = ~f =
Hence
This
is
7tm
base pitch
93
D= \
m)
(
(since =
= nm
cos
(6)
<ji
on an enlarged
Exercises 4a
Determine the diameter of a plug which will rest in the tooth space of a 4mm module
20 rack, and touch the teeth at the pitch line. Calculate (a) the distance over two such
1.
teeth.
2. Calculate the
(a)
3.
6mm module;
37T,
A 5 mm
and found to be
mm
wide. If the tooth spacing and angle are correct, what error has been
in the cutting of the teeth? (Pressure angle = 20.)
799
4.
on
is
mm
one of
module
is
made
turned to the correct module dimensions, and the cutter sunk in to the depth marked
it, what will be the error in the tooth?
mm
(a) 8
mm
plugs spaced in opposite spaces, (b) distance over two plugs spaced 12 spaces apart
(u
= 20).
Two
the gear
is
mm circular pitch,
30T, 25
9.
Two
teeth of a
ij>
*=
30T gear of
gears: (a)
125
mm
base pitch,
(b)
(d)
mm
module,
ij>
20;
(c)
30T
20.
mm
94
Stub teeth
particularly
when
is
apt to be
For this type of tooth the size is indicated by a fraction. The numerator
of the fraction expresses the module to which the circumferential proportions of the tooth conform, and the denominator determines the
radial proportions of the tooth. Thus a stub tooth means one in which
module, and the
the pitch diameter is worked out on a basis of 5
tooth height on the proportions of 4
mm
mm module. Since 5 mm module gives
is
10
8
125
10
'
and
15
125
sizes in diametral
pitches, but in this case the ratio produces a "proper vulgar fraction",
i.e.
tooth
denominator, the reader should appreciate that the sizes quoted refer to
diametral pitches and not modules, and it will be necessary to state
whether the diametral pitch is "millimetre series" or "inch series".
Example
f
stub tooth.
Here: the pitch diameter will be
heights
on
Pitch dia
Addendum = m
Top dia of gear
Cutting depth
Backlash
5mm module.
= mT = 6 X
= 5 mm
= 270 + 2(5)
= 280 mm
= 225 X 5
= ll25mm
45
= 270mm
in gearing
MEASUREMENT OF BACKLASH
95
space would be equal. For freedom of action the above conditions would
be unsuitable, and it is usual to allow a little play between the thickness
of the tooth and the width of the space into which it fits. This play is
called "backlash," and it is the backlash which allows one gear to be
turned a fraction before the drive is taken up by the mating gear.
The amount of backlash to be allowed depends on the tooth size, and
Module (mm)
Backlash
[in
10
25
15
04
04
04
03
02
015
015
01
01
mm
clearance between
face of mating teeth]
Measurement of backlash
suitable methods of measuring backlash are (a) by means of feeler
gauges between the teeth, (b) by measuring the distance that the centres
of the gears may be moved nearer together from the standard distance
Two
The first of the above methods is straightforward and needs no mathematical manipulation. For the second method it will be helpful for us to
obtain an expression giving the backlash in terms of the amount the gears
are capable of being moved together.
Fig. 76
moved
line,
triangle abc
is
then
may be
96
Let
and
B=
backlash
D=
lab
=
ac
Then
sin
ib
sin
ij)
ac
B_
D =
B = 2D
sin
(b
D =
or
and
2 sin
(Ji
and
straight
far
i.e.
one
helical gears the teeth are not straight, but are cut
may, of course, be
RH
or LH.
may
it
will
either be taken round the rim of the gear, or it may be taken perpendi
first
case
it is
and
sides
in the
A
AC and AB of triangle ABC. In this triangle C =
angle a
90 and
A=
A
helix
Hence
Pc
=
AB
cos a,
p n = Pc cos a
i.e.
or
pc
rc
Pn
r
cosct
= rn
pn
(7)
sec
if a section is taken through the teeth on a plane conhave the true shape of the tooth as it is cut. Hence the
normal pitch (p n ), which is the one measured parallel to AC, is the pitch
which governs the cutter to be used to cut the gear Referring again to Fig
It will
taining
be seen that
AC, we
shall
[Measured
97
orn
[Pitch Circle]
\
Fig. 77.
be the ratio
helix angle
<r,
the greater
As
i.e.
Pn
= *n
(8)
= Pn
COS<7
then
mT
andD =
cos a
mc =
m
cos a
cos a
(9)
98
Addendum
of the tooth
(10)
In
modern
addendum +
clearance
m+
clearance.
025
been
addendum)
==225/m
(11)
The
the helix angle of a thread is the complement of that for a wheel tooth (Fig.
78(a) [complement of an angle = 90  the angle] (b) the development is
;
' Helix
^^"
Fig. 78
Development of
Helix.
based on the assumption that the helix makes one complete turn round the
cylinder upon which it is cut. In a screw thread this is true, but the tooth
of a gear only completes a small proportion of a complete turn. [The
student may imagine a helical gear to be a short length of a very coarse
thread having as
many
99
On
the
tan a
nD
= pL
Pitch circum
=
j
Lead
_
nD
nmT sec a
=
L =
or lead
.,,.
(12)
tan a
tan a
When
cutter
is
(cos a) 3
Example
5.
The
is
30 and
is
to be approximately
it is
this.
cos 30
T=
and
=
The nearest
to this
is
dia.
Cutting depth
v
From
4
30 x 0866
26x4
^r =
cos 30
cost?
Top
120 cos 30
2598
267
Dn = mT
and
30.
4T
120
(9)
225m
mom a fur
(12) Lead of helix =
900
7lD
^r
tan 30
1oni
1201
0866
2 Add
1201
104
=
=
1201
1281
mm
2(4)
mm
mm
= 3142x1201
=
ttt^
0577
'
,..
654 mm.
mm
100
Thus the nearest gear has the following particulars: 26T. Pitch
mm, Helix angle 30, Lead of helix, 654mm.
dia.
1201
96
The
would be
,_
40,
i.e.
(UoOOJ
would be used
Example
40T
for a
4mm module,
6.
120
spur gear.
wheels
mine
is
1:2.
module
is
suitable wheels.
Since the shafts are parallel, the helix angles of the two wheels will
be the
sarnie,
RH
helix,
D=
Hence
f
from
160 and
d=
80, also
= D cos a =
Dn = mT T
m
cos a
(9)
m=
160
is
to be
2: 1
let
LH
=1:2
= 80
25
09397
X
=
==
6013
25
new
value for a.
Then
for the
D
T=
wheel from
cos a
cos a
m
mT
=
25
~
=
hence a
To
X 60
160
150
160
09375
2022'
we have
for the
wheel:
and from
(19)
=
Lead =
160tt
5027
5027
tan 2Qo22
Oo
mm
^^ = 1354mm
5027
'y =
677
mm
HELICAL GEARS
The
101
Add =
2 5
Pinion.
60
160
mm
Top
mm
dia = 165
Cutting depth = 225
=
Helix angle
LH
Helix lead
helix.
354m
(093W
677
30
.,
cutter as
helix
mm
60
cutter as for
dia
mm
2022'.
Cuttertouse =
5625
RH
Helix lead
_
= 80 mm
= 85 mm
Cutting depth = 5625 mm
Helix angle = 2022'.
Pitch dia
mm
Top
No. of teeth = 30
T053tSJ>
for 36T spur
wheel.
73T spur
wheel.
at
The reader will observe that the solution to these problems is arrived
by a compromise after a system of trial and error. With wheels of this
Exercises 4b
Calculate the pitch diameter, top diameter and cutting depth for a
1.
J
stub teeth.
Find the geartooth caliper settings for checking the tooth of a 32T,
2.
stubtooth
gear.
A pair of gears are required to connect two shafts at 160 mm centres. Ifthe speed ratio
3.
and the gears are to have stub teeth, find their leading particulars.
27T and 63T gears of 4mm module, 20 pressure angle.
the backlash allowance is 02 mm, what should be the centre distance between the two
required
4.
If
gears
is 3:5,
when
of gears consists of the following: 30T driving 48T driving 48T driving 7 5T.
module and the backlash allowance on all the teeth is 01 5 mm. If all
the backlash is taken up in one direction, through what angle must the 30T gear be turned
before the drive is taken up by the 75T wheel?
normal module,
6. Calculate the following particulars for a 52T spiral gear of 4
20 spiral angle: (a) pitch diameter, (b) top diameter, (c) cutting depth, (d) lead of spiral,
5.
The
train
teeth are 4
mm
mm
7.
A helical gear is to have a helix angle of30(RH), and the normal module is 4 mm. The
pitch diameter must be as near as possible to 125 mm. Calculate (a) the
(b) the pitch,
(c)
number of teeth,
102
8.
75mm.
spiral gear
diameter., lead
9.
a gear
Calculate the nearest normal metric module. Find also the pitch diameter, top
rat io
of 3
2.
Worm gearing
A worn
drive
is
are at rightangles
and a
fair
distance apart.
Lead(L)
Start
Af?7
Start
N92
Starts
N. s
2&3
Lead 'Angle
Fig. 79
(/{.)
The
Fig. 80
for 14 Pressure
Angle.
WORM WHEEL
103
most commonly used is the circular pitch (p) Fig 79 shows the pitch, lead
and lead angle for a worm, and Fig. 80 gives the proportions for the thread
on a section through the axis for a tooth of 14 pressure angle.
The relationships between the pitch, lead and lead angle are the same as
.
for a
screw thread.
pitch diameter of a
worm may
Worms with
mum at about 45
20
the
it
worms, interference
dif
occur in cutting and operation, and when the lead angle exceeds
is
(i.e.
made
30
iji
Normal
pitch
Worm wheel
For the best
the form
as
shown
shown
in Fig. 81 (a).
at 81 (b) will
104
mm
Wheel Axis
Fig. 81
(CL)
toms should be cut with a hob or a fly cutter; that at 81 (c) is really a helical
gear and may be cut as such. The shape of the teeth of worm wheels is the
same as for involute gears of the same pressure angle.
Worm wheel
dimensions
be based on the circular pitch and for large worm lead angles
the tooth proportions will be in terms of the normal pitch. In reading the
following, Fig. 81 (a) should be referred to:
These
will
Pitch circum.
IE
71
Throat dia
Centre distance (C)
Pitch dia
Throat rad (R t )
Whole
Width
dia
(w) approx
2 add
_D
~
 D +
063/)
pitch rad
worm
d
2
= C  \ throat dia
= 2(C OA)
= 2[C*,cos(i0)]
= 2BC
= 2 (Top rad of worm)
= (d + 0636/?) sin (i/J)
[sin
(/J)]
Speed
ratio with
worm
WORM GEARING
105
gearing
wheel has
in the
wheel and n
starts
Speed
on the worm:
ratio
= Rev
of
worm
Rev of wheel
Example
mm
At
If
10mm
we make
161
the
Pitch dia
wormwheel =
71
=
=
Throat rad =
Whole dia =
=
Pitch rad worm =
=
and pitch dia =
Top dia worm =
Throat dia
worm, we
use a 4start
ratio required.
(d
2597
+ 0636
2037
mm
71
2037
~ =
10185
mm
+ 0636/)
+ 0636(10) = 21006 mm
 K2 1006) = 1497 mm
2037
2037
120
2tl20
2 [120
x 07949 = 21624 mm
rad wheel
 10185 = 1815
2 x 1815 = 3630 mm
3630 + 0636/? = 3630 + 636 =
centre distance
120
sin 37
4266 sin 37
4266
4266
(h>)
06088
mm (say 26 mm)
tan of worm lead angle
r
Ttd
=
7i
=
^t^k
3630
X = 19 20'
Whole depth of tooth = 06866/> = 6.87 mm
Width of threading tool at end = 031/? = 3 10 mm
03508
mm
106
This gives us all the data necessary for the worm and wheel.
As an exercise, the reader should make a fullsize drawing of the pair.
Helical (spiral) gears to mesh with
worms
Normal
=
=
Normal module =
10 cos 1920'
10(09436)
9436
9436
mm
3003
71
mm
mm
module
cutter
would
Bevel gears
Bevel gears are used to connect two shafts whose axes meet, and which
are in the same plane. We saw in connection with spur gears that the
motion of two gears was equivalent to that of two thin cylinders or discs
of the discs being the same as the pitch
diameters of the gears. In the case of bevel gearing the fundamental
conception of the motion is that of two cones rolling together.
rolling together, the diameters
Fig. 82
In Fig. 82,
at
O.
COD
107
and
as their axes.
line
OD, and
if
one
is turned it
of a narrow
frustrum of the cones and are shown thickened. Metal is added at the
back, as shown, to strengthen up the teeth in that region.
The two elemental cones are called the pitch cones and become the
imaginary pitch surfaces of the gears. The angle 6 P is the pitch angle of the
pinion,
number of teeth
diameters CD and DE.
the pitch
Hence
Note
if
is
in
each gear
6P
that
N=
DE
CD
+ W
will
When
teeth are
be proportional to
rev/min of pinion
sin
sine,
=Z
/\
In Fig. 83:
AOB =
AC =
/\
DOA
is
pitch dia
= a
(/)).
is
is
S\
AOF =
/5
/\
EOB =
+ a
is
/\
FOB = p = 6 is the
C is the cone distance.
ji
is
root angle
~
The back
AO, and
DAF
face
is always made perpendicular to the pitch surface
the size and shape of the teeth as developed round that face
in the
gear
108
Add m
Fig. 83
(e.g. if
mm module,
DF (as shown developed round line CH) would be the correct size for that
pitch). In travelling down the tooth from face DF towards O, every line
on the tooth converges to O
From
Fig. 83:
= 
C=
and
Add
pr =
tan a
tan
sin 6
Ded _
C ~
Whole diameter
AD
But
C=
,
8.
speed ratio
Two
is
2 sin 6
^ (where
m=
j
x
module)
i
l25m
(over corners
= Add =
Whole
Examples
^.
DE) =
pitch dia
+ 2AD
dia
= D + 2m
cos
shafts at 90 are to
to be 3:2
D =
120
cos 6
= 180mm
T=
36 and
24
109
Fig. 84
6p
33 41' and B
w
Then tan
Add = m =
mm
(Fig 8 3).
.
Ded
and
=% = \
90
125/n
OA =
33 41'
625
V90 2 + 60 2 =
5
108 10
00463
00578
1081
625
56 19'
mm
mm
a =
/$
2 39'
3 18'
1081
Face
Face
Root
Root
Whole
Whole
angle wheel
dia (wheel)
dia (pinion)
<j>
= D + 2m cos W = 180 +
= d + 2m cos P = 120 +
Face width
/=
<t>
angle pinion
(if
made
}C)
'2 sin
120
20
6 x 05155
05155
is
shown
10(05155)
10(08056)
at Fig.
=
84
3880
mm
= 185 16 mm
= 12806 mm
110
When
the shafts are inclined at angles other than 90 the calculation for
is slightly more difficult. The following example
method of evaluating such cases.
Example
9.
will
shafts at 70.
ratio 4: 5.
From
we have
d = 80 mm
D =
80 X
 = 100mm
4
Z,
In triangles
Also
Hence
70
OA
50
OA
sin 6 W
Sin
and
85),
~r
OA
AC =
sin 6 P
50 and
AB =
sin (70
40
^=sin(70<
(1)
K)
(2)
3*39'
Fig. 85
Divide
(2)
by
sin (70 c
40
=
^
50
(1)
>
1 1
K)
sin u
sui
9w
W
 ms
cos
70 ens
ow
cos ft
sin
70 sin
ft
sin e w
09397 cos o w
0342 sin
sin o w
sin
0937
tan
0342
0937
^5 +
0342
and
70
 Ow =
70
30 22'
39 22'
AB
nA
OA
=
sin 30 38'
30 38'
0^095 =
1QAQ
7848mm
Add = module = 4 mm
Ded = 4 x 125 = 5 mm
4
=
^^
/o4o
005107
a =
2 55'
^^ =
00638
/J
3 39'
22'
38'
+
+
2 55'
2 55'
=
=
42
17'
33 33'.
Exercises 4c
1.
Calculate the top diameter, root diameter and helix angle for a 2start
10mm
pitch and
2. If the
worm
in
Question
A worm
starts
in
is
worm
of
full
1 drives
is
17 to
1,
calculate
worm wheel.
20mm
may be approximately
30,
and
number of
lead angle. Calculate the normal thickness of the thread on the pitch line.
4.
A worm
a circular pitch of
and wheel
5.
Two
10mm
mm
worm
and a
about
50mm
is
15 to
1.
Taking
worm
shafts at 90
if
the module
is
25
mm, and
60mm.
12
6.
Two
shafts at 90 are to
mm
4mm
the top diameter and included angle of a taper pin, which will rest in a tooth space
with
its
its
its
Two
whole length.
(ij>
and
20).
its
Milling
milling
and the
machine
Milling Cutters
in
connection
with milling cutters, we may divide them into three general types: (a) those
with fluted teeth, (b) machine relieved,
these are
shown
(c)
in Fig. 86.
Blade
Cutter
(c) Inserted
(b)Machine Relieved
Cutter
Fig. 86
Number
of teeth
and
determining the
it is
difficult
a cutter.
For
fluted
275
teeth,
VD  58 gives a
D = Diameter of
cutter]
The formula N =
pr
diameter.
Take a 100 mm
AT
2.75\/lOO
formula
58
22 teeth
N = }W
gives:
16teeth
mm
114
No of blades =
Rake on
mm apart, we have
Circumference of cutter
30
200;*
30
= approx20
cutter teeth
cutter axis as
shown
however, the end view of the tooth is as shown in Fig. 87(6) the front
is the angle a, since the tooth cuts relative to a radial line OA from
the centre to its tip. Side rake is put on the tooth by milling it on a helix
as shown at Fig. 87(c). The side rake is then equal to the helix angle /3.
When teeth are of this form the relation between the hand of the helix and
the direction of rotation of the cutter is important, in order that the end
thrust introduced may be accommodated efficiently.
If,
rake
(CL)
No Top Rake
No Side Rake
(c) Side
The
is
Rake
Fig. 87.
milling.
it
shown in Fig.
on the centre line it is
offset as
angle required
Rakes up to
we
Then ifR =
see that
sin
a and x = R
sin
115
the rake
Blank
being Fluted
Fig. 88
Example
mm diameter.
of a cutter 80
In this case
R =
40 and since
x = 40
The
Fig. 89
sin 10
=
=
sin 10
01736
40 x 01736
6944 (say 7 mm)
is
shown
in Fig. 89,
where ifR =
x =
sin
as before.
For milling the flutes in cutters the problem arises of determining the
a of the fluting cutter to give the required depth (d) of the flute
angle
(Fig. 90).
'
116
Fig.
assumed
is
is
90
neglected,
assumed
A being
as a sharp corner,
if
there
cutter edges
AD
and since
Now
But
is
CB
/\
AO sin AOC
= AD sin rr [where N
=
in cutter]
AO = rad of cutter, R,
AD = R sin 360
#
tan
AD
AD
=
DB ~ CB  CD "
AD
d  CD
CD = CO  DO = R  AO
_
_
R R
cos
R
Hence
= No. of teeth
tan
360
fi
= RJ.
II
1
360
sin
a=
</*(.
cos
cos**)
360
R
"
sin
J1
"
~ d
360
cos
360
360\
fi
AT
CD
CUTTER CLEARANCE
Example
6
2.
117
360
sin
a =
360
360
16
22^
40 sin 22^
6
40(1
1531
3044
From which a
The
cos 22i)
1531
518
2956
796'
cutter.
Clearance
The cutting clearance is put on the teeth at the time they are sharpened.
The cutting edges may be ground either on the periphery of a disc wheel
as shown at Fig. 91(a) or on the face of a cup wheel as at (b).
When
is
set
(a),
Grinding
Wheel
Fig. 91
118
angle obtained
is
shown
and
as C,
in triangle
OBA:
AB =
SmC
OB
OB = radius of wheel (R)
AB = offset (h c
.
But
and
Hence
^
hc
=R
sin
sin
Using the face of a cup wheel as at (b), the position of the cutter centre
wheel is immaterial, but the tooth is set below the cutter
centre by the distance h t and in triangle OED:
relative to the
ED =
ED =
t^ft
OD
and
h,
t ;
sin
OD =
_
rad of cutter
ht
C or =
sin
r sin
(/)
mm
Example
spiral
3. Calculate the settings for grinding the teeth of an 80
Using the periphery of a 200mm disc wheel and (b) using the face
of a cup wheel. (Clearance required = 6.)
mill, (a)
The
first
condition
and
hc
=R
R =
:.h c
is
as
shown
at Fig. 91(a)
sin 6
rad of wheel
100 sin 6
= 100mm
100 x 01045
r sin 6
1045
mm
in Fig. 91 (b)
40 x 01045
= 418mm
When
above cutter
In Fig. 92
AK
axis), so that
/$
setting
is
is
is
is
modified as follows:
its
/\
19
Fig. 92
G and H
y\
Hence
EDH
dicular to
The
its
is
the clearance on the tooth referred to a plane perpenCall this normal clearance (C).
front.
axial clearance
(Ca )
is
is
that put
when
the cutter
is
in action. It
we require a relation
between Ca and Cn This may be obtained by considering triangles EHD,
and FGD, which are rightangled at H, H and G respectively.
required normal clearance, and for this purpose
.
HDG
But
tan C
= FG ~ EH
DG DG
DH
DG
cos
/J
C,
and
DG
(since
DH
cos/J
EH
EH
EH
DG
DH_=DH
cos
fl
'
COS/}
EH = FG)
120
But
Hence
tan
Ca =
tan C cos
/},
we can
Cn
tan
/$
for the
Ca
for the
grinding setting.
Example
and the
4. If in the last
cutter
had a
for setting.
tan
=
=
Ca =
Ca =
fl
tan
From which
Cn
cos
/$
01051
0866
0091
5 12'
For small helix angles the correction is not important, but it should
be carried out on cutters with steep angles.
With the machine relieved cutter the clearance is put on at the time
the tooth is form relieved and the tooth is sharpened by grinding its front
with a saucershaped wheel. When this is carried out care should be
exercised to ensure that if the front of the tooth was originally radial (on
the centre), this position
is
preserved for
it.
If this is
be
lost.
Exercises 5a
1.
mm
6mm
mm
3. The flutes of a 25
end mill are cut LH helix 500mm lead. Assuming the flutes to
be 4
deep, calculate the helix angle, based on the mean diameter of the flutes. If the
end teeth follow this angle, is the rake on them positive or negative?
mm
4.
If
spiral cutter is
60mm
an apparent clearance of 8
ground on these
flutes,
what
is
300mm lead.
SPEEDS
with 12
6.
flutes,
6mm
What depth
mm
121
diameter cutter
deep.
mm cutter with an
80 fluting cutter?
The
mm
TtDN
10005
= T006 andAr = ^zJ,
..
Cutting speeds should be as high as possible consistent with an economic cutter life before it needs regrinding, and the speeds given for
turning form a reasonable basis upon which to set the speed of a milling
cutter.
The
rate at
is
sometimes
the cutter.
The most
equitable
method of
number of teeth in
is
in
millimetres per tooth, since this gives an indication of the work each tooth
is
doing.
From
Cutter
Face
End
Saw
mill
and
shell
end
mill
mill
Slotting cutter
Form
cutters
Example
mm
01
005
to 025
01
to 05
01
to 025
005
005
005
to 01
mm
to 02
to
01
to 02
spiral mill
122
For roughing cuts we may take a moderately slow speed with a heavy
feed.
mm per tooth.
Assume
a speed of
1000 x 22 x 7
__
10005
=
NA = nD~
= 87 5rev / min
80x22
of 02 mm per tooth gives 02 x 18 = 36 mm
20m/min and a
feed of 02
'
feed
36
875
315
per rev.
mm/min.
not
all
J/mm
*For face
Cast
19
milling the
^ ^ ^
Hard
Mild
40 to 70
27
160
Alumin
mm
090
Using the values given in the table, the energy being absorbed is found
by multiplying the tabulated energy by the volume of metal being removed per minute. This is found by multiplying the depth of cut, the
width of cut and the feed length.
Thus
if
and
/=
and
Volume = d.w.f.,
Power = energy per second
To
cut,
feed
(watts)
30%
Example
6.
120mm
of
power required
80mm
Here the
= 4 mm
= 80 mm
feed = 120mm/min = 2mm/s
removed per second = 4 x 80 + 2 = 640
Volume of metal
From
taking a cut 4
is
123
the table
we have l9J/mm
mm
1216
= lS8kW
jjjjj
Exercises 5b
mm
diameter spiral cutter has 18 teeth. Calculate the speed in rev/min and
the feed in mm/min for this cutter to be operating at a cutting speed of 22m/min and
1.
100
a feed of 0 1 5
2. If
80mm
mm deep,
volume of metal removed per minute, and estimate the power input to the
the material being cut is cast iron and frictional losses are equivalent to
calculate the
machine
if
30% of the
cutting power.
machine is equipped with a 4kW motor, estimate the deepest cut that
be taken on hard steel, when the work is 100 mm wide and the feed = 150 mm
per min. (Take cutting power as 75% of motor rating.)
diameter and has 28 teeth. If this is operating at a
4. A face milling cutter is 300
cutting speed of 33m/ min, and a feed of 0.2mm per tooth, how long will it take to travel over
3. If a milling
may
safely
mm
a cut 400
mm long?
mill.
Each
mm
Take power
at
is
Fig. 93 is used
purpose of obtaining divisions of the
shown diagrammatically'in
for the
124
40
T.
Worm
wheel
End for
attachmem
of work
Taper
hole
Single start
worm
Plunger for locking
index plate
Crank
Fig. 93
so that
its
divided
off.
is
Plate
Plate
No.
No.
work attached
to
2:
3:
49 holes.
circles:
46, 47, 49, 51, 53, 54, 57, 58, 59, 62, 66 holes.
SIMPLE INDEXING
125
all
Simple indexing
The majority of divisions required can be obtained without difficulty
by indexing in one of the sets of hole circles supplied. Straightforward
working
in this
way
is
if
Example
7.
less
40
we
circum
its
It will
help the
divisions: (a) 6, (b) 10, (c) 15, (d) 22, (e) 28, (J) 37, (g) 48, (h) 62.
(a) 6 divisions.
Indexing
6 whole turns
f = 6 = 6f = 6# or 6JJ
14 holes in a 21 circle
or 16 holes in a 24 circle
or any combination giving
(b)
10 divisions.
(c)
15 divisions
Indexing
fg
2 whole turns
of a turn
4 complete turns
= $ =
Indexing
(d)
2f&
2f
of a turn [see
(a)
above]
22 divisions.
Indexing
ljf
lft
in
lfi or Iff
a 33 circle
or 54 holes in a 66 circle
(e)
require
28 divisions.
Indexing
ff
ltf
If
= 1
or
lf
a 21 circle
or 18 holes in a 42 circle
in
126
if) 37 divisions.
= $ = 1
Indexing
=
(g)
whole turn +
48 divisions.
Indexing
lllUCAUlg
=
(h)
3 holes in a 37 circle
iQ
48
i
6
il
lg
20
24
62 divisions.
Indexing
= 40
Compound
When
indexing
a division
hole circles, a
index plate, together with the crank, is indexed a further hole with the
locking plunger registering in a 15hole circle.
If both movements have been made in the same direction the total
indexing will have been
to
rV
= & + & = m on
the
worm.
6020
15
60
60
If the plate
'
in this
a large
If n
is
the
number of
divisions required
must give
n
40
either
when added
40
is
movements
method.
COMPOUND INDEXING
Example
127
(a)
11 divisions.
line,
77
40
the 40 below
11
it,
and
factorise
them.
2x2x2x5
= 44 X 7= 2 x 2 x
3
40=2x2x2x5
21
33
=
=
1
x 3x 44
pective
tu
Then
(7
Putting on a
21
X 3)
40
77
33
(3
11)
(11
common denominator
11a
lb =
x 40
7x3x11
i.e.
11a
lb =
120
7)
the res
128
120.
3 holes
91 divisions:
40
39
49
= 44 X ^
= 4 x 2= 2 x 2 x
= 44 x 3
= 7 x 2
2
we
have:
5
39
(13
Putting on a
(7X7)
3)
13
49a 39b
By
trial
and
(13
7)
common denominator
49a 39b
i.e.
40
91
49
x 7 x
40 X 21
7
840.
error:
If
Hence 6 holes
in
6 and b
49 X 6
294
= 14:
+ 39 x 14
+ 456 = 840.
indexing required.
Differential indexing
is
really
causes the index plate to turn backwards or forwards, and the net result
is
the same as
compound
if
indexing.
DIFFERENTIAL INDEXING
129
Index p/ate
'unlocked
Gear fixed to
index p/ate
Worm shaft
turned by crank
Gear fixed to
bevel wheel
Driver
Fig. 94
any given
number of divisions on the work, and we will explain the method by working out a few examples:
Example
the work.
times,
i.e.
the
If
we
i\
is
complete
circle as
it
should.
an approximately near
^ required.
x 8_
~~
21
416
21
40^
we
obtain
5)
130
But we have seen that the crank must make 40 turns only, during the
we must therefore subtract jf of a turn. This is done
by gearing up the plate, so that whilst the spindle makes 1 turn, the plate
107 indexings, and
,,
Drivers
=^
spindle
to plate:
^
^
ratio
from
16
^rr
Driven
21
For the Brown and Sharpe dividing head, the gears supplied are as
follows:
We may
make up
and 100
teeth.
In the above case the gears must be arranged so that the index plate
Example
Exact indexing
Now
127
$;
moves of 5 holes
&=W=
39f^ turns
of the crank.
But
this is
Hence
same
in
Gear
Drivers
ratio: t=^
Driven
5
=
= tz
16
5
o
8x2
*>
40
24
= Ta
x 7q
64
48
16 circle, the 127 divisions
Angular indexing
divisions,
an angle must be
indexed
Since
turn ofthe crank rotates the spindle^ turn, the angle at the
360
is
^ =
9 so that
work
ANGULAR INDEXING
rx,
= Angle
Example
131
required
~
11. Calculate the indexing for the following angles: (a) 41, (b)
in
a 54
15 30'.
(b)
=^=
Indexing
circle.
Indexing
!
1*
ift
3 holes in
an 18
circle
or 39 holes in an 54 circle
id)
29
Indexing
20'.
th.
iL
= 3^ = 3
7 holes in a 27 circle
or 14 holes in a 54 circle
Exercises 5c
1.
Calculate suitable indexing to obtain the following divisions on the Brown and Sharpe
head:
(a) 12, (b) 15, (c) 22, (d) 34, {e) 41,
3.
(/")
(</)
82 divisions.
Find suitable indexing for the following angles on the Brown and Sharpe head:
4.
50
mm
is 1
125
shaft,
are radial,
it
with a cutter 6
(^
74
15', (e)
136 30'.
diameter,
is
mm
at
wide
it.
The
sides of the
groove
is
the slot sides with the same cutter setting. Calculate the indexing and set over.
6.
7.
The crank of a
&
S. plates:
189 divisions.
dividing head
is
indexed
N holes
circle.
divisions obtained.
8.
by
differential
indexing:
(a) 97, (b) 53, (c) 101, (d) 131 divisions.
,..,.,..
The index plate of a dividing head
.
9.
is
j (rotation
circle,
[Use B.
.
&
S. plates
.
,,
and
,
gears.]
.
turns of spindle
15 holes in a 20
132
10.
A round
angles between
AB, BC,
CD
and
DA
and D, indexing
in
it
Use of continued
When
is
an angle
seconds,
it will be possible. It is
by turning the ratio into a continued fraction, to
obtain an indexing which is very near to the exact one. The method is
illustrated by the following examples:
it is
possible, however,
Example
(a)
f
The indexing
will
be
= 1^
g
169
101)169(1
101
68)101(1
68
33)68(2
66
2)33(16
32
1)2(2
The
fraction
is
+1
1
16
We now convert
ANGULAR INDEXING
The convergents
1st
f;
2nd
are as follows:
3rd
133
is
f;
4th
f;
5th
we
= $;
6th
are able to
69
\
270
15
10 flr
16 Ul 24
is
10 holes in
a 16 circle or 15
holes in a 24 circle.
The
9
(b)
If
The indexing
14f
be
21 19' 35"
s
= 2%$ =
3 19' 35'
479
2^T296"
fraction
479)1296(2
958
338)479(1
338
141)338(2
282
56)141(2
112
29)56(1
29
27)29(1
27
2)27(13
26
02(2
The
fraction
is
2+ J
1
2+
1+J
1
13
and con
134
and
6th
Ulll
its
46
625
\\
2nd =
\\
3rd
f;
4th
^; 5th
$;
If a 46hole circle
is
If a 46hole circle
dexed and
this will
x2ff=
21}
in
25").
Spiral milling
Index plate
unlocked^*.
Driven
Shaft
marked 'C 'J
In Fig. 94 1>J
r
Idler
F.g. 95
to
Leadscrew
SPIRAL MILLING
When
the machine
is
set
up
worm
135
spindle of the
is
The first calculation necessary for spiral milling is the gear ratio between the leadscrew and the dividing head wormshaft to give the required
lead of helix.
In order to do this we must first ascertain the "lead of the machine."
The reader will recollect that the lead of a screw is the distance the screw
advances along the cylinder whilst it makes one complete turn round it
(Fig 78a) The lead of the machine is the lead of the helix it would cut if the
.
table leadscrew
worm by
gear
ratio.
When
this
is
the case
we know that to
head spindle
(and the work) through 1 revolution requires 40 turns of the worm. If the
gear ratio to the table leadscrew is f the leadscrew will have made 40 turns
also, and the table will have advanced 40 (pitch of leadscrew). This
distance will be the lead of the machine. On the majority of milling
machines having metric leadscrews the pitch is 5 mm, hence the lead of
(on machines manufactured to inch dimensions
is 200
the leadscrew pitch is 025 in, hence the lead of these machines is 10
mm
these machines
inches).
is
of the machine
is
Ratio
Lead of machine
Lead of helix to be cut
Drivers
Driven
helix (whether
Example
ing leads
256mm
on a machine with a
lead, (c)
480mm,
on
As the leadscrew
200 mm.
is
(d)
mm
720mm
mm
lead, (b)
from the B.
&
S.
p. 130.]
x 40 =
136
(a)
120
mm
Drivers
Ratio j^t
The
train
= ff =
256mm
and
_ 200 _
~ 256 ~
Drivers
100 x 2
64 x 4
100 x 24
64 x 48
lead
Drivers
Driven
(d) 720
as follows:
64 Drivers
X 8 _ 40
~ 4 X 6 ~ 32 X 48 Driven
5
Driven
480mm
by a 40 T driving a 24 T.
lead.
.
(c)
this is given
may be compounded
40
24
(b)
fi
200
480
_
~
40
48
_5_
10
40
32
X
48
64
mm lead
Ratio
_200_5_40_40
~
~ X
7 20
80
72
32
64
Helix angle
it is
fol
lowed by the path of the curve. If this were not done a great deal of interference would take place and the shape of the groove would be nothing
like the shape of the cutter working to produce it. Even with the cutter
set into the helix angle some interference generally takes place and the
shape of the groove varies from the profile of the cutter.
The helix angle is the angle a on Fig. 78 (b), and if the helix is developed
out into a triangle as shown, we see that
circumference of cylinder
lead of helix
When the helix angle has been determined, the cutter head or the
machine table must be swung round so that the plane of the cutter lies at
this angle, relative to the work. Care should be exercised to swing in the
correct direction for
RH
or
LH
helix.
than that of the cylinder in which they are being cut. This means that if
is based on the outside diameter of
the work, the inclination of the cutter will be correct at the top, but not
the calculation for the helix angle
at the
will
be the case
if the
bottom
HELIX ANGLE
is
137
above expression.
in doubt about which diameter to take for the calculation the
reader is advised to take the mean between top and bottom of grooves.
It may be that for grooves of certain shapes the top, or the bottom, might
form the more suitable basis for the calculation, but only trial and experience can decide on the best compromise.
in the
When
Example 14. Calculate the gears and setting for milling LH spiral flutes in
a reamer 40mm diameter. Lead of helix = 800mm. Machine leadscrew
5mm pitch.
Reamer
flutes
8mm deep.
Lead of machine = 40 x
Gear
To
head:
ratio, table to
r
Driven
of the
40
flutes, i.e.
= ^r^ =
800
200
mm
t=o
4
2
t
2
x ZT
7o
48
64
32 mm.
From which a =
As
the helix
7 10'
is
Example
5.
it.
In this case we have to determine the lead of the helix in order to be able
to solve the problem.
The
pitch circum
Also tan a
..
Gear
ratio,
lead
80 n = 25 13
circum
mm
lead
circum
tan a
j
=
j
2513
2513
~7^05774
tan 30 =rrznHA
i.
200
tttj
A~
4352
1000
yyfz
mm
125
972
138
As
this is
an awkward fraction
we
will
convert
it
to a continued frac
tion
125)272(2
250
22)125(5
110
15)22(1
11
7)15(2
]4
1)7(7
7
The convergents
are given by
\
1
1
and
1st
fc
Taking the 3rd convergent and finding a suitable gear ratio we have
Drivers
Driven
The
13
65
_
I ~
J_
30
65
40
40
^ x 200 mm
mm instead of the required 4352 mm
Cam
30
milliing
4333
spindle.
rotates,
end
mill
at the
DIVIDING
HEAD
139
head
swung over
^Vertical
Shaft
marked
in Fig.
94
Gear connection
similar to that
for spiral milling
(Fig.9S)
Table
lead screw
Fig. 96
Setup for
Cam
Milling.
cam
mill
140
The expressions
for calculating
as follows:
=
Gear
=
ratio
=p
at a)
worm
lead of
/ ==
cam
to be milled
Then, for
turn
revolution)
worm will
R times and the dividing head spindle, because of the 401 reduction,
D
will turn
2^ times
Hence, since
in
turn of
its
pmm we
have:
R_
Turns of work
Movement of table
40
40/)
From which
Turns of work
For
r~
(movement of table)
Tpj
(movement of table)
and
turn of work)
Now
has
because of the inclination of the head and work, when the table
moved the distance cb (Fig. 97) the centre of the end mill has approach
[^Movement
of Tafa/e>
Fig. 97
Hence
if
work, ac
ac
r
sin
a or
cb
of
cam
cut
movement
Table movement
Hence
movement
for
I
t.
table
DIVIDING
sin
sin
HEAD
141
turn of the
triangle:
above we
have:
= =/,
Table movement
40p
^
R =
and
lip
mm,
as
is
i.e.:
sin
sin
=r
200
R =
sin
for
Example 16. Calculate a suitable setting for milling a cam, the profile of
which falls 12 mm in 100 of its angle. Leadscrew of machine has a pitch of
5mm.
Here p =
12
tqtt
5 mm,
its
lead will be
= 432mm
R =
,,
Then
40o
sin
=i
3
Drivers
be suitable.
a =
200
sin
432
x 432
0648
This gives
sin
40 24'
142
Exercises 5d
1.
Calculate the nearest indexing for the following angles, using the standard Cincinnati
plate,
Use hole
circles available
mm
200 mm.
4. Calculate suitable gear ratios to cut the following leads
(c)
450 mm,
(d)
on a B.
&
S.
machine:
(a)
640 mm.
A gear has a pitch diameter of 100mm and the lead of the spiral is 420mm. Determine
a suitable gear ratio and find the helix angle for setting.
6. Calculate the gear ratio
on a worm of
7.
it
100mm
and angular
mm pitch,
pitch diameter.
80mm
is
of their lead
diameter and
in the length
120mm
mm
suitable setting
and
setting to mill
it.
Example 17. Calculate the true angle between the sloping faces of the
block shown in Fig. 98.
If we project a section
bottom
oJ
the diagram.
The
true angle
we
ADB.
143
Fig. 98
Now
and since triangle
DE = CE cos 30
ABC is right angled at C and has 45
In triangle
AE =
ADE (sectional view): ^^
5
From which
/\
/\
tan
ADE
^N
tan
ADE =
ADE =
49
7'
433
1155
/\
/\
which we require
Example
A andB
CE = AB = 5.
DE=5cos30 =433 mm
Hence
ADB
angles at
is
twice
ADE =
2 x 49
7'
98 14'
the block
AB
is
FC
is
perpendicular to
(BC being a
line
parallel
144
Fig. 99
Then
BDC:
in triangle
10
BD = FE =
/\
BDC =
AC
Buto^
BC = BD
45 so that
/\
==
10
tan 60
sin 45
AC
tan
10
ABC =
(a)
(b)
(c)
The
The
The
x 07071 = 4083
2453
4083
ABC =
Example
5774
10
/\
.\
5774
1732
67 49
shown
in Fig. 100.
AB
and the
line
AC
AB
true angle between the top cutting face and the front clear
ance face.
Lines
FE on the
cutting face
and
AB.
FA
FH
is
pendicular to
(a)
If
AC.
we
call this
EM
Now ^rr =
EL
angle a,
AB
and
AC
EL
then ry =
cos 25 and
EL =
tan
EM
^rcos 25
is
per
Fig. 100
AL =
Also
EM
and
Projected
EM
AM
AL
and
Projected length
AL
AM
tan 30
EM
tan 30
EM
Hence
EL
tana =
AL
cos 25
EM
EM
cos 25
tan 30
EM
tan 30
Hence
tan 30
05774
cos 25
09063
a =
06371
32 30
AB
145
146
E and L
F,
FAL = FEA =
are
all in
cos 25
cos 25
Hence
FF
FE
The
21
==
c^25^
a = ~^Si2P
21 cos 32 30'
C0S
vertical distance of F
==
= 21x08434
09063
,__.
19
54mm
below E = ES
Distance of F below
A
Distance of E below
PR  LM
= PQ tan 25  EL sin 25 =21 tan 25  EL sin 25
== 21 x 04663  EL sin 25 = 979  EL sin 25
EL = EA sin a and EA = FE tan a
=
But
EL = FE tan a
.'.
Hence EL sin
a = 32 30'
25
= FE tan a
=
PR  LM =
The
AB =
sin 25
which, since
FE =
1954
979
sin
sin
283
696
1954,
and
283
ES.
Angle EFS
/\
FS
=
H
FE
and
sin
EFS =
y\
EFS =
From which
6.06
^1954
03563
20 52'
(c)
This will be
FES 90
face.
20 52'
90
28 52'
61
8'
Exercises 5e
Determine the angle, when measured perpendicular to the clearance face, of a tool for
cutting acme threads (29 on its top face). Clearance angle on tool = 15.
2. The angle of the vee in the block at Fig. 101 is to measure 60 on the front face as
shown Calculate the angle of the vee when measured along its slope (i.e the angle to which
it would be milled)
1.
Fig. 102
Fig. 101
3.
147
Find the true angle a between the sloping face and the base of the block shown in Fig.
102.
4.
at
square pyramid
is
40mm high
30mm
the apex between two opposite faces, (b) the angle between two adjoining faces as mea
240mm x 120mm
is
fit
shown dotted.
Fig. 103
6. In Fig.
Fig. 104
AB
block, and (b) the angle between the two sloping faces as measured perpendicular to
AB.
Mechanical
principles
Vectorial representation
We
and with
being represented, and whose direction indicates which way the quantity
is acting. Thus in Fig. 105, ab represent a vector 3j units long directed in an
Fig. 105
upward direction
at
left
to right.
may
sum
or difference,
When
be.
Adding
To add two
or
more
vectors,
draw the
first in
first,
ning of the
first
vectors
is
149
vector must be in the same general direction as those on the vectors being
added. This will be understood from the vectors shown added in Fig. 106.
Draw ab equal and parallel to vector A on the end b drawee equal and
parallel to B and from c draw cd equal and parallel to C. The sum of A,
;
C is
and
its
arrow
is
as
shown.
Fig. 106
The
chief mistake
made
in
adding vectors
is
vector to the beginning instead of to the end of the previous one. This can
be avoided if the reader observes the following rule: When adding vectors,
do not remove the pencilfrom the paper until the end ofthe last one is reached.
Subtracting
We know that A 
as
B from
This
if
represent
The
>
is
is
a positive
<
c will
A.
Example
4 units directed
downwards.
The vectors
are
shown
A
+ C
is
MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES
150
A=5
C=6'<
+c ,r
Fig. 107
It does not matter in which order we deal with the vectors, providing we
observe the rules for their addition or subtraction.
In this case we have to reverse the arrow of A and then add them all
together. This
is
shown
at (b)
and the
result
is
To
The
result is the
same
for
in length
and direction.
Exercises 6a
[Where an angle is specified, it refers to the angle made with the horizontal or vertical
line drawn to the beginning end of the vector.]
1
Draw
vectors to represent the following: (a) 7 units, vertically upwards; (b) 85 units
horizontal
to R;
of vertical;
(c) 3
units
upwards
to
at 30 to
at 30
above horizontal;
horizontal.
2.
Add
to R.
(if)
(<?)
(/?)
(<)
APPLICATIONS OF VECTORS
downwards, to
151
to R, 30
above
No 2, subtract the second vector from the first in (a), (b), (c) and (d).
No 2, (e) and if), subtract the third vector specified from the sum
of the
to R, to 5 units vert,
8 units
horiz.
3. In Ex.
4. In Ex.
first
5.
two.
A horizontal
and
6.
90. If ac
is
to R, 40
cb.
vectors (ac
cb).
Vector ac
is
8 units long,
downwards, 30 to
R of the vertical.
Find the
value of vector cb
A vector ab,
vectors, ac
is
Applications of vectors
We
will
now
consider
in practice,
Forces
In order to specify a force completely we must know its amount, its line
of action and its direction. Force may be represented vectorially since the
are acting at a point, the solution can be arrived at vectorially, since this
method takes into account the angular effect as well as the magnitude of
the forces.
a pin
is
in Fig. 108 (a). We know from experience that if F were large enough it
would eventually drive the pin home, although it would not do so as well
as if it were acting vertically. We also know that if F were sloping too far
over towards the horizontal, it would bend the pin We may say, therefore,
that F is equivalent to the combination of a vertical force and a horizontal
one, and Fig. 108(6) shows the forces acting on the pin: Q is the pressure
of the side of the hole and R is the resistance tending to prevent the pin
from entering the hole. By drawing a vector diagram we may find Q and F
.
MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES
152
Fig. 108
ofF.
The reader will observe that here the arrows follow round the diagram,
whereas when we were discussing the addition of vectors they did not.
Here we are dealing with vectors representing a set of forces which are in
balance amongst themselves, whilst before we were finding a vector which
represented the resultant of a number of others. If F were representing the
resultant, or the net effect of Q and R, its arrow would point upwards, but
as it represents a force which balances the other two, then its direction
must be reversed. The only difference between the resultant of a number
of forces and the single force that will balance them is that the balancing
force
is
Example 2
of
100N
is
on the
sides of the
block.
APPLICATIONS OF VECTORS
153
100N
Fig. 109
may be drawn
In this case the weight of the bar (100N) acting vertically downwards is
being balanced by the forces R andR 2 exerted on the bar by the vee block.
As the vee block is symmetrical about the centre line, the forces R andi? 2
will be equal. The bar, of course, exerts equal and opposite forces, R and
t
2,
on the block
(Fig. 109a).
first
be seen that in the vector triangle abc, since each side of the
vee block slopes at 45, the angles abc are each 45
It will
Hence
Example
be
3.
=
=
=
ab
sin 45
ac
0707 x
slung by chains as
shown
a between
the chains
=R
= 0707 ab
100 = 707 N
/?,
is
in Fig.
10(a).
if
the tension in
MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES
154
1000
(*)
Fig. 110
(a) The forces acting at the ring where the chains meet are
(1) lifting
chain pulling upwards, (2) sling chains pulling in their directions. These
forces are shown by the arrows.
set
may be drawn
tional diagram.
and
this is
shown in Fig.
10(b).
the vertical vector for the upward pull of the lifting chain, whilst ac
and be are drawn parallel to the sling chains.
is
will
be as
same
move
155
2. A fitter holds a chisel at an angle of 40 to the horizontal, and strikes it a 50N blow
with a hammer. Find the force tending to drive the chisel horizontally, and that tending
to drive
3.
it
force of
300N,
rests symmetrically
on a pair Of 90 veeblocks.
(a) Determine the reaction between the bar and the block at an area of contact
(b) If contact takes place on an area of size 50 mm x 008 mm, what is the contact
N/mm ?
60mm diameter,
pressure in
4.
wheel,
rolls
along a
fiat
speed and direction of a point on its circumference, and level with its centre.
5. A bar of steel 2m long and 31 kgf (304 N) weight, is lifted by a chain attached to
ends.
The
is
25 m.
its
in the
chain.
A casting weighing 20 kgf (196 N) is suspended by a chain and is being pulled to one
by another chain attached to it. If, when the first chain is inclined at 30 to the
vertical, the angle between the chains is 105, find the tension in the chains.
7. A casting of weight equivalent to 2000N is raised by driving 4 wedges under it. If
the angle of each wedge is 25 and the weight is equally distributed between them, find
6.
side
As we
shall
later,
we
(b).
It is
direction
being applied can be picked out easily, as can the directions of at least two
In this connexion
(a)
(b)
drawn
MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES
156
and
is
1 ),
Of
the direction
If lines representing
(1)
147 NT
Fig. Ill
Draw
parallel to
From
on wall
AD.
the diagram
(ca)
we find that
= 40N.
Example 5. A bell crank lever ABC is pivoted at B and the forces acting at
A and C are as shown in Fig. 1 12(a). Find the force on the pivot B.
If the lines
157
on the
lever
must pass
through D. Since the lever is supported at B, this force must also pass
through B, so that the forces acting on the lever are as shown by the
arrows.
>A
200N
60
()
120
100Nrr
Fig. 112
at Fig.
12(c)
= 224N
Forces acting on a cutting tool
We have noticed previously that when a lathe tool is cutting there are three
it. These are shown diagrammatically in
vertical
where
Cis
the
cutting force, Fthe feeding force, and//
1 13(a),
the horizontal pressure of the work. By means of vector diagrams we may
MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES
158
Fig. 113
the vertical as
shown
at (a).
Combining these
in a
we
obtain the final resultant force on the tool (R) as shown at (c).R lies in a
plane sloping at 6 to the vertical and its line of action is inclined at a to
the line of
is
H A diagrammatic
.
shown at (d).
The reader will observe that we might solve this problem by calculation
(c)R 2
In
= R
all
and tan a
F2 + C = R
2
2
,
f
C
and^ = tan
6;
and from
=^H
it
is
H=
400N
[Fig. 113(a)]
C=
Rfc = F2 + C =
2
tan0
a7
TOOO
from which 6 =
R* =
R FC +
*
tan a
resultant
R.
400 2
1220
400
from which a
is
35.
1220 2
R = V1220 +
Hence the
700 2 + 1000 2
159
=
=
+ 400 2
= 1285N
305
71 51'
113(fi0
We
in length to the
product mr.
Fig.
14
160
MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES
Example
radii
80
7.
mm
120.
Wrfor pl}~**
<t
of Balance
Weight
Fig. 115
radii are
X 80
20 x 100
15
is
now drawn
= 1200
= 2000
and 2000, the directions of the vectors being parallel to radii joining the c entre O to each respective weight This is shown at abc in Fig .115
(b) and ca is the vector representing the product mr for the balancing mass.
From the diagram the length of ca is 1700 units, and since for the balance
to 1200
m=
1700
= 77 mm.
22
The position of the balance weight relative to the other two is found by
drawing a line through O parallel to ca This is shown dotted on Fig 1 1 5(a)
Hence to balance the masses given, the 22 kg mass must be fixed at 77
weight
22 kg, r
mm
centre of gravity
may be determined
is all
if the
casting
APPLICATIONS OF VECTORS
161
Exercises 6c
1. The forces acting on a lathe tool are 1200N vertical, 800N along the axis of the work
and 500N outwards, perpendicular to the axis of the work. Find the amount and direction of
is
20mm
The
its
deep,
how
far
back from
its
base?
850N,
is
is
find the
20.
When
the tangential
The arms of a
bell
inclined at 45 to the
upwards
60mm
upwards force
by a horizontal force of 180N at the end of the short arm. Find the force acting on the
lever pivot.
5.
and the
bar of
floor
steel
and
rests
is
It is
attached to the outer end, the rope making an angle of 90 with the bar. Find the tension in
the rope and the force where the bar rests in the corner.
6.
countershaft
is
down
side of the
down
belt
makes an angle of
When the tension in each side of the driving belt is 200N and in each
belt
120N
on the
shaft.
350 N
rmXJ
r
\Z50N
Fig. 116
7. Fig.
the
8.
A
A
is
a diagrammatic sketch of a gear drive, and forces of 350 N act on the teeth of
gear as shown. Find the resultant thrust on the bearings of this gear.
toggle press
250N and
9.
16
100mm
the angle
casting
is
mechanism
CA D
2
is
bolted to
is
as
shown
in Fig. 121.
force at
C is
ram.
162
MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES
200mm
masses of 50kg
at
11.
large
40mm
drawn
to
[Density CI
360mm
75g/cm 3 lead
,
radius.
ll3g/cm 3 ],
Fig. 117
(1)
When
an object
is
rotating in a circle
speed and r
is
is
its
upon which
is cor.
it lies.
If co rad/s
is
is
the
radius in millimetres. For general purposes the most convenient unit for
velocity
is
N=
and
speed in rev/min
= 60000 = 60000
radius in millimetres
2nrN
,,
then
if
7idN
metres/ second
163
Whatever may be the motion of a rigid rod, the only velocity that
one end may have relative to the other is perpendicular to the rod. (The
"relative" motion of one body to another is the motion the first would
(2)
at the
second one.)
Fig. 118
In Fig.
at
fixed length.
(3)
to the slides.
We will
is
two pro
lettering adopted.
Example
8.
Speed of B =
27irN
60000
x 22 x 60 x 500
7 x 60000
3142m/s
500
rev/min
Fig.
19
164
MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES
From
(1)
the diagram
is
we know
the following:
moving perpendicular to
(2) Relative to B,
(3) Relative to A,
C
C
306
The
velocity diagram
shown
Fig. 120
at Fig.
construction
is
is
as follows:
and c must
lie
somewhere on
lie
Example
to scale.
When the frame (the fixed element) appears in more than one place it
should be given the same letter with small figures. In this case A, and
A 2 are Iboth fixed frame points and are lettered accordingly.
The vector
velocity diagram
..
+
ofe
Velocity
D =
B
is
shown
InrN
^^ =
= 0.314m/s
X 22 X 60 X 50
7x60000
165
260
Fig. 121
to A,
pendicular to
From
draw a
(velocity of
line perpendicular to
c.
gives point d.
Thus
Example 10. The mechanism for a slottedlink shaping machine quickreturn motion is shown drawn to scale in Fig. 122 (a). Determine the
speed of the ram for the position shown.
The crank A,B rotates, and the block B moves up and down in the
slotted lever
2 2,
AD
2
This lever
link
is
thus
made
DE drives the
to oscillate about
its
pivot
MECHANICAL
166
When
P.
mechanism
dealing with a
on another
lever
which
in
itself
vi
D
Velocity off B
x 22 x 80 x 40
x 600oo
.,__
^
5
^
.
Ram
'in
andBJock)
C( Point on Lever
/ajd;
Fig. 122
draw a
AD
2
relative to
line parallel to
(or
AD
2
(since relative to A,
to A.
movements
The
ac
ad
to C)
is
relative to
A. Now the
2 D. From b
is
c.
The
line ac
now
velocity of
2
FORCES ACTING
IN
A MECHANISM
167
The vector
v
or, since
we know FA
_ Output _ FE vE
~ Input ~ FA vA
and
E,
FE _
?(
Fa va)
VE
100
=
=
of the crank
torque
Here we have
Hence
that vB
(Force)(radius),
and
60
mm
006
100
j^^
= 1670N
UUo
efficiencv
emciency
03 14 m/s, vD
FpVp

'
From which FD =
Fd x
06 =
uo
im
'
FB =
 52
x Q314
314
= 6000 N
670
MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES
168
Exercises 6d
mechanism similar to Fig. 119 the crank AB is 60mm long
and the connectingrod BC is 220 mm. Find the speed of C when AB is rotating at
lOOOrev/min and (a) the angle BAC is 45, (b) angle BAC = 120.
2. For the problem in Question 1, find the velocity of the midpoint of BC, when
In a slidercrank engine
1.
angle
ABC =
3. Fig
90.
123 shows a quick return shaping machine drive in which cutting takes place
when C moves
to the
left.
Find
(a)
The
ratio
cuttl "g
timc
return time
if
is
when
at the
b\ The speed of
in rev/ min
Fig. 123
and forwards.
AB
When AB
is
Fig. 125
Fig. 126
APPLICATIONS OF VECTORS
6. In Fig. 126
the speed of
crank
AB
E when AB
7. In a toggle press
A C = CD =
2
is
CDE
shown and
is
a solid
bell
at 20 to the vertical.
mechanism
160mm. The
A, is 120mm below
When B is rotating at
rotates as
169
280mm
CA D
2
is
speed of D.
problem if the torque on A,B is 100 Nm, find the load at D if the
overall efficiency is 60%.
moving
9. In the press mechanism shown in Fig. 127, find the speed of E when D is
upwards at 0.02m/s (A,E is horizontal). If in this position the load at D is 4000N,
what force can E exert if the overall efficiency is 50%? [CA,E is a solid lever.]
8. In
the
last
Path of
A,B
= 170
~i^
A2 C = 120
EC
10. In the
slides
= 300
Fig. 128
CD.
CD
Time of outer
Find
(a)
^>
Fig. 127
A, and
is
pivoted at
stroke,
for E,
the ratio
Time of
2
,
and
in Fig. 128,
rotates about
w.
(b) the
jnu
ad*
E when A,B
speed of
is
at
inner stroke
45 as shown.
11. In Fig. 129 AB is a door hinged at A. CD is a springloaded arm for closing the
door and hinged at C. If B is moving at 036 m/s, find the speed at which D is sliding along
the door when the door has opened 45
Fig. 129
MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES
170
distance)
To
F,_y.
calculate turning
on occasions a unit
converting and reconverting units of length).
Fig. 131
Fig. 130
When two
constitute
what
couple
is
Total
moment of forces P = Fr + Fr
= 2Fr = F(2r)
= F(perp
moment
171
The reader
will
or contra clockwise.
The condition for a body to be in equilibrium isthat the sum of the clockmoments about any point must be equal to the sum ofthe contraclockwise
wise
When
moments.
this condition
is
be no unbalanced
Example
12.
shaft
is
pulleys spaced at 2 m, 3
75
75m
Fig. 132
Since the loading on the shaft by the pulleys is downwards the forces
exerted on the shaft by the bearings will be upwards. Call these R A
andi? B
We thus
since
it is
(1)
(2)
Clockwise moments
If
we
take
moments about
it
will
we can neglect
moment about that point.
the bearing A,
have no
the force
172
MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES
A
= 300 x 2 + 250 x 3 + 350 x 6
= 600 + 750 + 2100 = 3450Nm
= R B X 75Nm
Also, since
RB =
3450 and
3450
RB =
460
= downward forces:
300 + 250 + 350 = 900N
*a + *b
=
R A 900 R,
900  460 = 440
upward
forces
Example 13. A system of levers is shown in Fig. 133. Calculate what load
hung at
may be balanced by a force of ION at A. [Neglect friction
and the weight of the levers.]
H20 h
T
240
^ir?
R\
"10N
J$2
kip
a
^
Wu
200
Fig. 133
\15
in the
Clockwise
Hence
This
Now
10
will pull
ION
down on
20 F and
contra clockwise
= 20F
F = 120N
Clockwise
Contraclockwise
moments about C.
= F x 215
= W x 15
F=
120
x 215 =
12 * 215
120
W=
The
173
\5W
= 1720N
levers
20 x
F=
10
x 240 +
= 2400 +
F = 175N
10
1100
x 110
= 2500
Fx
175
215
x 215
15
W
yJg2580N
mm we have
Clockwise
moment =
(vert force at
B)240
and
MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES
174
1000N
Headstock
Fig. 134
(a).
Contraclockwise
moment =1000 x
Hence
B =
Vert force at
A =
In the
forces of 300
The 700 N
at
that the
B and 100N
at
longitudinal thrust
180
(b).
180 000
180 000
180 000
240
1000
750 N
750
400N
force
= 250N
is
balanced by horizontal
A.
is
to A.
We thus have forces acting on the two centres as shown by Fig. 134(b),
and as an additional exercise the reader should combine these vectorially
to find the resultants.
Exercises 6e
1.
bell
is
pivoted with
one arm
vertically
lever?
2.
480mm
20
mm
long.
hand reamer
The hole
is
is
20mm
be applied
3.
bar
at
is
240mm
480mm
80N
per
is
is
mm
wrench.
mm
When
the tool
is
vertical force
90mm
to this.
4.
piece of material
is
place overhangs from the centre of the front bearing by 125 mm. If the vertical pressure
is
1200N, and the bearings are 360 mm apart, estimate the force on each
bearing.
5.
down
belt
175
The
450N at 240 mm from the LH hanger and the vertical force due to the
400N at 720mm from the LH hanger. Find the load on each bearing.
is
is
120mm
clamp
If the bolt
is
is
45
mm
Blade
P"otl
F/xech
Pivot
40
Work'to
he sheared
8.
Fig. 135
strength of steel
10mm x
25
mm?
Mechanical
principles
II
Friction
connected with
it
are worthy of
some
consideration. If
to right.
left
comes
into action
the block
is
just
at this point is
about to
slide
diagram
is
shown drawn
in Fig.
The vector
136 at abc.
F=f
that when
Fig. 136
CLAMPING FRICTION
This angle ^
is
The
_
~
Angle and
it
will
be noticed that
Frictional force
F_
W~
ratio
177
is
usually denoted
by fi.
*=W
Thus
if
F =
Tp
tan
<j>
and also
/u
tnen
ju
as
would
tan
<j> .
R between the
and is directed in such a
to oppose motion, if he considers where and in which direction it
[The reader
surfaces
way
moves round
to
some angular
position,
act in the event of a definite step being raised in front of the block.]
Approximate Values
Nature of surfaces
in contact
,T
(Coefficient).
015
on cast iron
(dry)
Steel on brass
(dry)
Cast iron on oak
(dry)
Steel on leather
(dry)
Steel on leather
(greasy)
Oak on oak
(dry)
Leather on oak
(dry)
Ferodo bonded asbestos on steel
020
Steel
[Values of /u depend to
speed of
some
extent
015
049
056
023
040
033
03 04
sliding.]
Clamping of work
Almost all methods of clamping in the shop depend for their hold upon
the frictional resistance between the two surfaces being clamped. This
applies to work clamped to machine tables, in lathe chucks, work held
in vices, and so on.
178
MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES
100
40
rffe
10>
.15*
w:
Q
A\
w:
7vft
Work
Fig. 137
W/////////////7///////////////
t<
1
A casting is clamped to a shaping machine table by 4 clamps
arranged as shown in Fig. 137. If the cutting pressure at the tool causes
Example
4500N
30
015
WA and WB =
000N
= 7500N
W
W
W
We will assume that A and B act at the centre of the length being
clamped as shown. Then from
A to the centre of the bolt will be
40  75 = 325 mm and from B 60mm  5mm = 55mm.
Taking moments about B and working in units of N and mm, we have
= T X 55
moment = WA (55 +
Clockwise moment
Contraclock
But
WA
325)
875
WA
and
equating the
Example
2.
arbor and
is
55T =
875
T =
875
milling cutter
is
X 7500
X 7500  12 000N
55
itself
and the
collars. If the
FRICTION
79
Fig. 138
collars are
20
70rev/min [Coeff of
If
T newton
metres
friction
is
015.]
also
N=
Now
cfw
so that
(o
we have
Ta> Watts
70 rev/min
=
70 x
Z7r
OU
2tt
_ Power =
T=
oi
22
,.
^ rad/s
J
3300 x 3
22
CAXT
= 450Nm
.
This torque must be transmitted by the friction between the collars and
slip when it takes place, must occur at two faces:
450
= y= 225Nm
face
will
Hence
Mean
radius
= 15mm = 00 5m
=
T =Fr,F =
Now if W =
N =
m
2 5
_
A1 5
g
001
15
F
7p=
W=
p>
l5
 e 
000
15
w
=
100
_
' 15
= A1
000N
000N
MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES
180
II
Exercises 7a
1.
The
slides is 0122.
the
What
amount and
2.
it.
A disc 240 mm diameter has a ring of ferodo 240 mm outside diameter and 20 mm wide
riveted to
one
face. This
moment
turning
is
made
to be transmitted
planing machine
is
fi
is
Nm
33
for ferodo
on
steel as 04.]
7400N and
The
the job
is
as 015.1
Machines and
efficiency
mach ine
verting
Most
it
is
more
energy
it
movement of the ram and part into the various other movements required
to transverse the tool across the
work.
is
its
is
converts
it
to rotational energy at
its
driving pulley.
181
and
the
The
is
Load
is
the resistance
ratio p~.
is
overcome
Distance
output end.
moved by Effort
moved by Load
Distance
4+u~
the ratio
at the
machine and
x,
is
The
Efficiency
will
in the
same
E (Distance
W =
But
Mechanical Advantage
moved by W
moved by E
Distance
and
Distance
Hence
moved)
Efficiency
Velocity Ratio
Mechanical Advantage
Velocity Ratio
If the efficiency
same
were
due to
frictional losses,
One turn of
= 60N
Mech Advantage =
,.
60
98
981
= 5886N
MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES
182
Velocity Ratio
II
mm
When
Mech.Adv.
Efficlency
mm
Vel. Ratio
98
660
Example
machine
load in
turn
4.
n*Ao
'' 48
M 8/
1^00/
'
of40N. With the mechanism engaged, a torque of 035Nm at the traversing wheel is required to
move it. One turn of the wheel moves the table a distance of 10mm. Find
the efficiency of the traversing mechanism.
The load on the mechanism = resistance of the table = 40N
work done on the
If 1 turn of the handwheel moves the table 10
mm
Nm in
Nm
Work done
by a torque of 035
= In X 035
Efficacy
The
turn
= 22Nm =
input
inclined plane
We have seen in previous work (Fig. 78a) that a screw thread is an inclined
plane wrapped round a cylinder. In order to study the mechanics of the
screw, therefore, we must give some attention to the inclined plane. We
find that in doing this friction plays
be allowed
its
effects
must
for.
Tightening up
When a nut is being tightened up under a load W, the conditions are equiup an inclined plane sloping at the helix
valent to pushing a weight
is the tangential force
angle of the screw. The force F which is pushing
at the
tion.
mean
This
Now
if
is
shown
in Figs. 139
there were
no
is
and 140.
between the block and the plane the
friction
183
Load on
Nut(W)
Angle of Incline*
Helix Angle of Screw
Effort
(F)
vector diagram for the forces acting on the block would be as abc; ab =
weight of block acting downwards, be = F, the force to pushing it up the
plane and ca = the reaction between the plane and the block. We have
seen, however, that when friction is present, the reaction R is no longer
perpendicular to the surfaces, but is rotated round through the friction
angle
in the direction to oppose motion. Hence the vector for R will
<j>
Lead of
Thread
j? c
Now
/\
bd
= tan bad =
ab
tan (or
tan(ar
Fig. 140
<j>)
^)
and
F = Wtan(a +
^)
(1)
MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES
184
II
AC
and
raised to distance
is
The
efficiency
{rj)
output
fF.BC
r ^
F.AC
.
input
F=
t]
W tan a
77
W tan (a
w.
tan a
rv
p tan
F
+
since
L"
(f)
and
if
Wtana
Wtan(a +
we
BC
AC
tan or
F we
0)
tana
tan (a
a = Helix
angle of screw,
<j>
This
is
in
i.e.
tana =
Friction Angle
(2)
(j>)
Lead
Mean circum
= /u
Tan
Loosening
When
is
necessary to stop
its
own
accord.
(1)
greater than
As motion
line
is
now
(Fig. 141).
d ]? b
Fig. 141
bF
diagram
is
a position to the
left
Force required
at
<j>
185
Fig. 142
is
greater than a,
ad swings lfound to
oiab.
mean
= F=
=
db
ab tan had
W tan
(</>
a)
(3)
(2)
screwing.
F=
bd = ab tan(a
f)
= Wtan(a 
</>)
(4)
Vee threads
is the normal load
The above reasoning for screw threads assumes that
on the thread surfaces. Whilst this is true for a square thread [Fig. 143 (a)]
when a vertical load W is applied to a vee thread the force is resolved into
components as shown by the vector diagram abc shown at (b).
(b)
Fig. 143
MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES
186
II
now the
is
face
ac
W sec 6
cos 6
instead of taking
/u
we take
(/u).
for
it
may use
is
60, hence 6
30 and sec#
1155.
Hence
In addition to the friction at the threads, friction at the nut face must be
allowed
for.
W=
Let
load on nut
= coefficient of friction
r = mean radius of nut.
Then frictional force at nut face = fxW.
Torque necessary to overcome this = (force) (radius) =
Hi
Example
50mm
5.
dia
the threads
of
200N
is
fiWr
effort
screw.
Since tan ^
/u;
tan
<j>
01
and the
the thread
,t(50
=
25)
543'
475 n
mm
is
tana =
The mean
2375
mm so that a force of
200N
at
mm radius
= 1684N.
This
is
the force
F = Wtan( +
Now
=
=
F up
at 2375
^)(Fig. 140)
fTtan(l55'
W tan738'
w  orao
a force
187
543')
WX
= 515? =
01340
i^ON
2start
coefficient of friction
slide, {b) to
32
lower
is
it.
is
carried
on a thrust
collar,
a =
g
a = rnrz = 00670
a =
Since the thread half angle
of friction = 01 2 sec 14}
3 50'
14^
we have to
F = Wt&n(a +
The torque
= F x
0019m = 915Nm
To
this
Frictional force
Frictional torque
300 x ^y5B.
91
= 300N x
5Nm
66
0022
Nm
= 66Nm
= 1575Nm
188
MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES
To lower
II
the load
F=
we have
+ 66 Nm = 948Nm.
Nm
mitted, then
T = Fr and F =
~
r
The
F/jl
+ Wfi=
IFfx (since
F=
member
W).
Fig. 144
if
W r=
F,{2r) [since
Hence F, =
^,
F =
is
189
fitted so that
given by
T= Fr+
x
W,].
which
is
= F
/u
/u
= 2F
u,
1(
Exercises 7b
hand crane a 20T gear attached to the handle drives an 85T gear on the rope
drum. The radius of the drum to the centre of the rope is 35 mm. If the handle is 300mm
long, calculate the velocity ratio. If the efficiency is 75%, what force must be applied to
the handle to raise a load of 250 kg on the rope?
2. A chain conveyor carries goods up an incline of 28 at a speed of 02m/s. If the average
mass of the articles carried is 20 kg, and they are spaced at 300 mm centres, calculate the
power necessary to drive the loaded conveyor if its efficiency is 75%, the incline carries
60 articles, and 04 kW is necessary to overcome friction.
3. The saddle of a lathe is equivalent to a weight of 1600N and 1 turn of the traversing
wheel moves it 100mm along the bed. If the efficiency of the traversing gear is 07 and
1.
In a
the coefficient of friction at the slides 010, calculate the force necessary at the rim
of a
4.
140mm
50mm
is
weight of the screw and top arm, what force must be applied at the end of and perpendicular to the level of
5.
280mm
mm
by a nut
if
120N
is
is
2500N on
the ram?
squarethreaded screw of 5
0080.
mm
pitch 2 start
if
mm
face.]
6.
face
The
is
a 240
and nut
efficiency of a screw
01. If
mm wrench
to pull
is
is
2mm
15mm.]
7.
30
"sn
The
20
x Z?"
spindle of a lathe
is
is
^ e l ead screw
mm
and a point on the rim of an 160 mm chuck screwed on the spindle. If the overall efficiency
of the arrangement is 10%, calculate the force necessary at the rim of the chuck to turn
the lathe and traverse the carriage against a resistance of 200N.
of a M24 thread when the coefficient of friction at the
M24 thread take the mean diameter as 22 mm and the pitch 3 mm.]
threads
is
9. Calculate the
sloping at 30,
if
work done
in
pushing a
applied horizontally.
What
is
horizontal effort
slide
MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES
190
10.
wheel
slides
is
is
45mm
H =
is
015.
same amount
is
example were
fitted
member along
the shaft,
i/n
when an
axial force
of 60
= 01 5.]
Bearings
function of a bearing is to hold and line up the shaft it carries
and support the load to which the shaft is subjected. Bearings are generally
designed on the basis of the load carried per unit of projected area, and
if the length and diameter of a bearing are / and d respectively, the
projected area will be / x d (Fig. 145).
The main
Fig. 145
If the
Load
Area
W
P= ld
The pressure to which bearings may be subjected in practice depends
upon various factors, including the speed, method of lubrication, duration of full load operation, materials in contact, and so on.
191
The
Type of Bearing
N/mm
07 10
10 20
20 40
Crank pins
Main bearings
Crank pins
Punching and shearing machines (low speed
Gas
35 50
engines:
10
125
15
30
intermittent
loading)
03 05
Horizontal turbines
in the
whole of engineering
is
mm
the large diameter of the countersink. Since the angle of the countersink
is 60 the projected area will be
i
0866
108
mm
and the bearing pressure when the tool is cutting close to this centre will be
4000N
r^r
108
mm r
2
370
N/mm
2
,
Example
be
7.
If
of a good
2
.
Example
mm
failing stress
N/mm
The
If
if
L =
^
2\d,
< .
Hence
= 460 N
= Area of bearing.
L x d = 2W x d =
2\d2
<P
2\d 2
Load
=,
Pressure
460
= 77r= nm
llSOmnr
,
04
=1150
= il^ = 460mm
MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES
192
d = \/460 = 215 mm
2\ x 215 = 538 mm
L =
Bearing
When
friction
a bearing
in contact
lubricant
itself. It
friction in a bearing
speed
P =
where
=
=
p =
K=
/u
Work
The
is
KV\
coeff. of friction
bearing pressure in
a Constant
lost in
N/mm
(i.e.
MN/m
oils.
bearing friction
at the
this resistance F,
The work
lost
we have F =
lost
Fv watts
Fig. 146
AND STRAIN
STRESS
Example
8.
A 50mm
193
(c)
0032Vv
w
that a =
We uhave *u
P
v
J^L =
22
60 000
Bearing pressure (p)
= ^
8000
r^r
0032 x
^~
50
><
><
525
1.375m/s
x 60 000
N/mm
16
W375 ~
0032
1172
00234
16
16
Tangential frictional
resistance
Power
=
=
00234 x 8000
187
lost in
friction
= 187 N x
= 257W
m/s
1378
material
is
is
when a load
F
Load actingp
r:
r = r, when
A
Area subjected to load
.
The
area,
SI unit of stress
i.e.
is
upon
it,
and the
F=
acts
given by
(N/m 2 ). This
unit
is
very small
(MN/m 2 ).
This unit
is
lMN/m = lN/mm 2
2
MN/m
it is
45
N/mm =
2
45
N/mm
MN/m
2
.
2
,
e.g.
MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES
194
It is
II
possible that the unit adopted for fluid pressure will be the bar,
unit inherited
more convenient
unit since
1
As
it
utilises the
bar
10
N/cm 2
is
atm =
1013
N/cm 2
weight
As we
that the
= mass x
= mass x
discussed in Chapter
mass of
a.
cm 2
this is
kilogramme
is
effect of
life,
In our
work
in its
When
and stretches 01
mm,
the strain
is
mm long
is
subjected
expressed as j^
0001.
Within certain limits the materials with which we have to deal behave in
an elastic manner, i.e. the deformation caused by a load vanishes
when the load is removed. If, however, the load on a bar is gradually
increased, a point is reached beyond which the material will not return
to its original shape when the load is removed. This point is called
the Elastic Limit ofthe material. For most materials it has been found that
within the elastic limit the change in length is proportional to the load
producing it: e.g. if 1000 N causes an elongation of 005 mm, 2000 will
cause
so on.
Hence we may
limit:
Stretch
is
proportional to
Load
STRESS
same
bar, strain
AND STRAIN
195
is
load:
Strain
proportional to Stress.
is
= a constant quantity
Stress
This
is
000N/mm
N/mm
The
signifies.
2
.
way of considering
following
= 200 000
might help the
reader:
Stress
t=
means
Strain
were doubled.
(Original length
If,
Stretch
Strain
f)
Example
9.
20
H
the U
bolt
Stress in *U
if
E =
L ad =
20 000
Area
ti
r
20000
,
ji^'Z
,_ rw?2
1 XT/
637
N/mm
4"(20)
Strain
160
Stress
=.
E =
200 000
Extension
Strain
637
x 160
Ext
Ext
T60
637
Stress 637
637
x 160 _
005
lmm
200 000
Example
long,
Ext
E =
200000
Extension
Orig. length
10.
MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES
196
II
put on and the nut tightened up until the brass sleeve has shortened by
005
mm.
for steel
N/mm
200 000
for brass
^ = 00005
Strain in sleeve
and since
E ===^:
Stress
^(Strain)
80 000
N/mm
80 000 X 00005
40
N/mm
= 40N/mm 2
Strain
Stress in sleeve
=
Hence compressive load
(32
22 x 448
24 2 )
mm
a
352
by sleeve =
carried
40 x 352
14
==(1024
576)
(Stress) (Area)
080N
Hence
stress in bolt
AA OXT/
448
N/mm
p*y
E =
But
and
Stress
=
Ci
Strain
strain
'
Ext
Extension of bolt
Extension
Orig Length
1^L_~
448
Stress
Strain
200 000
Ext
100
448
100
200 000
100 x 448
200 000
00224
~
nM
0224mm
A
mm
Exercises 7c
1.
If
the length of the bearing is to be made equal to twice its diameter determine its dimensions
2. A 50mm diameter shaft runs in two bearings spaced at 25 m centres, the bearings
each being 80mm long. Loads of 700N, 800N and 750N act on the shaft at 05m, l25m
and 1 8 m respectively, from the LH bearing Determine the load and bearing pressure at each
.
bearing.
3.
bearing
50mm
diameter,
80mm
rotating at 210 rev/min estimate the coefficient of friction from the expression
/u
is
0032Vv
.
P
i.e.
joules of
work
lost in friction
per second,
STRESS
4.
The end
shaft. If the
thrust
AND STRAIN
197
maximum thrust
[M6
fracture.
8.
the
Calculate
1 mm]
800mm long, is pulled up to a
2
bolt, and if E = 200 000 N/mm
drawbolt
20mm
stress
in
dia,
the
tension of 16
,
000N.
extension.
9.
An
air cylinder is
and nuts.
140
at the root
up to an
air
initial
is
held on by six
M 12 studs
diameter of the
10.
steel
and shrunk on
to a shaft
150mm
diameter. If
E = 200000N/mm
2
,
is
heated up
Mechanical
principles
III
space travelled,
It is
vt
time,
(1)
Acceleration
starts
from
is
rest
velocity at the
end of
This gives us
at
(2)
velocity:
v
This slowing
down
is
at
ACCELERATION
199
Fig. 147
OABC = OADC
But
=
=
This gives us
If u
= O
+
+
ut
ut
hat
and
hat
The reader
ADB
\tat
2
(3)
is
is
by the time
Finally,
eliminate
space travelled
we
we
get s
ut
hat
as before.
v,
and
t.
In equation (2)
we have
and
u
t
at
in
equation
ut
hat
uv
u2
^r
(3)
we have
/v
*\
2uv
u2\
a, so
we must
MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES
200
Putting on the
III
common denominator 2a
2uv 2u 2 + v
s =
2
2uv
u1
2a
u2
s
2a
u2
2as
(4)
then
rest)
las.
In problems dealing with the motion of bodies falling under the action
of gravity then,
a
This
is
acceleration
generally signified by
due to gravity =
981
m/s 2
all
units.
Example
Find
its
drop stamp
Here
and
moment
velocity at the
it
is
is
repre
ACCELERATED MOTION
Hence
..
acceleration
Note
=
=
anda = 08m/s 2
a. \
08
speed of ram
max
seconds
at
06
Hence
201
m/s 2
06 m/s
ram =
03
m/s
Vel.
Fig. 149
Fig. 148
Example
3.
from
rest, accelerates
mm
mm
Find (a) the average speed, (b) the maximum speed, (c) the acceleration.
A graph showing the motion is shown at Fig. 149. Let the maximum
retardation
velocity be v and the times of acceleration, uniform speed and
as shown.
f,, t 2 and
tj,
(a)
will
be
09
distance
~~
time
Since the
first
acceleration
For the
and
last
m =
0225 m/s
4s
(a).
first
las
03a (since s
015 m)
(1)
MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES
202
first
and
last
III
at,
and
at,
t,
t,
and
for the
second
s2
t2
vt 2
= 600 mm =
(since s 2
06
.,,,,,
+t + = +
+  =
a
a
v
..t
From
ti
equation
2v
06
+
a
,v
(2)
4 seconds)
# =
(1):
2v
(2):
06
03
V2
+ =4
06
06
03
ii=4
i.
4v=
and
(1)
Since from
06 m)
03
12, v
03
03m/s2
03
Exercises 8a
from rest and with uniform acceleration attains a speed of 300 rev/min
in half a minute. Sketch the graph of velocitytime, and calculate (a) the acceleration in
rev/min 2 (b) the number of revolutions made by the shaft during the period.
2. A drop stamp falls freely under the action of gravity from a height of 8 m. Calculate
(a) the time of fall, and (b) the velocity at the instant it strikes the bottom block.
3. Starting from rest, a shaping machine ram, with uniform acceleration, reaches a
speed of 24 m/min during 240mm of travel. Find the acceleration and the time taken.
4. A cam rotates at 180 rev/min. During 90 of its revolution it causes a plunger to
rise a distance of 25 mm. Half the rise is made with uniform acceleration and the remainder
with an equal retardation. Calculate the acceleration of the plunger and sketch the graph of
1.
shaft starts
velocitytime for
5.
The
it.
uniformly for
\\
21
is
m.
Starting
from
rest,
during 1 seconds. Calculate the acceleration, and the speed during the middle interval.
Sketch the graph of velocitytime.
6.
off,
machine
slide
is
uniform finds
its
down
rest.
How
from
rest
8.
01
m/s 2
how long
will
it
203
slide starts
maximum
speed attained,
{b)
acts.
we can
amount of material
Mass and
in the
body.
weight
Every object is made up of a mass of material (iron, wood, stone or whatever it might be), and this mass is constant and invariable, so long as we
do not cut away from or add material to it. Due to the gravitational
pull of the earth acting
on
and a constant quantity, and the weight, being the downward force
caused by the gravitational pull acting on the mass.
We may now define the quantity of motion of a body as being (mass)
(velocity), and for the given velocity this will not vary since mass is a
in
it,
MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES
204
we may
III
say
The
is
F (newtons) = m
Let us
i.e.
now
to Science this
is
called the
m kilogrammes,
Using
F = ma
and
F mg
=g
as 981
m/s 2
Force to overcome
(mg)fi
Force to accelerate
= ma
= 400 X
=
force to
=
(b)
After 75
travel.
= (W)/u
= 400 x 981 x
friction
Total force
its
03
01
= 3924N
= 120N
friction + force
+ 120N = 5124N
overcome
3924
mm of movement,
speed of table
to accelerate
1
03
m/s
= (force) (speed)
= 5124 x 03 = 15375W
Power = 154W = 0154kW
We might add that during the middle portion of the stroke no acceleration
is
taking place and the table has merely to be kept moving against friction
Here we have:
frictional resistance
3924
= 06 m/s
= 23544 W =
Speed
Power = 3924 x
06
0235
205
kW
To
hammer we may
Here
u2
v (final velocity
(initial velocity)
u2
a
Force
Example
6.
= ma =
=
=
=
=
=
las
2 m/s
5
mm
0005
las
I2
= 400 m/s
x 0005
X 400 = 400 N
1
second to come to rest after the power is shut off. Calculate the average
Motional resistance assumed as a force acting against the slide.
To find the retardation of the slide we may use the formula
1
Here
= 04 +
a(l)
= =
0:
04 m/s:
is
at
500 x
second
because retardation)
denoted by
F = ma =
04 = 200N
Exercises 8b
of mass 100kg starts from rest and accelerates uniformly to a speed of
12m/min in 2 seconds. Neglecting friction, calculate the force necessary to produce the
1.
slide
acceleration.
2.
is
MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES
206
III
speed will
3.
it
have attained
4.
is
If the
during the
80N
after 2 seconds?
first
were
portion of
008,
its
travel?
l2m/s
at
is
brought to
rest
hammer
Taking the mass of the cam plunger in Ex. 8a, No. 4, to be 12 kg, calculate the
by the plunger on the cam face during the portion of the lift that
the plunger is accelerating. [The plunger moves upward on a vertical centre line.]
6. A shaping machine ram has a mass of 150kg and on its return stroke it starts from
rest and moves through a distance of 360
in 075 s with uniform acceleration. Neglecting
5.
mm
move
it
ram has
at that instant.
drop stamp of mass 100kg falls freely from a height of 6m. Calculate its final
brought to rest by compressing the metal on the bottom block through a
distance of 10mm. Determine the retardation of the stamp and the average force ofthe
blow delivered
7.
speed.
8.
It is
machine
slide
of mass 50 kg
frictional resistance to
its
motion
is
is
moving
at
how
is
far will
it
travel
Energy
There are various forms of energy (e.g. heat energy, chemical energy,
electrical energy, etc) and the origin of all of them may be traced back
to energy derived from the heat ofthe sun. The Law ofthe Conservation
of Energy states that energy cannot be destroyed: one form may be
changed into another, but we can neither create new energy nor destroy
that which is in the universe. At the moment we are interested in the
energy of mechanical movements, and in this connexion we may define
the energy of a body as the power of overcoming resistance or ofdoing work.
A body may possess energy by virtue of its position, e.g. a weight on
a cord wound round a shaft may rotate the shaft and do work as it descends
to the floor. A woundup clockspring possesses energy. Energy of this
kind
is
When
a body
Kinetic Energy.
is
moving,
it
some datum
When
body
will possess
ENERGY
207
mgh units of potential energy, since this amount of work must be expended
to lift it there. If now the body be allowed to fall, it will lose its potential
energy, and gain an equal
KE = PE = mgh
las.
and
:.v 2 = 2gh
0; a
and
because
g,
h.
2g
Hence
mgx
KE = mgh
v2
Tg
2
= mv
(6)
~T
m
and v.
expression for kinetic energy in terms of
metre,
i.e. the joule (J).
newton
is
the
energy
of
of
all
forms
unit
The SI
The reader is reminded that energy and work are interchangeable: to
An
m
1
F = \mg
v\\
1
Datum
LL.UPS1
Fig. 150
Example
7.
uniformly from
and
AB
mm
208
MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES
III
= Area OAB =
i(v
!)
360
036
036
5" =036,
and
mm
=
096 m/s
To
we have
096 =
Force
Example
8.
128
stopped
slide is
in
Hence 40
do
is
04
04
04
(velocity) (time)
J of energy
it
Average speed
space
92 16 J
04 m/s
= 9216 J, as before,
mv 2 _ 500 X
= 256 N
256 x 036
200 x ' 962
= ma = 200 x
at 096 m/s
v
=
at or a
(force) (distance)
The
ne
28m/S
0T75
Work done =
~
02 m/s
=02x1=
02
m and
if
is
it
40
Work =
= F x 02
=
(force) (distance)
F=
200
40
s
02
as before.
before
250 kg drop stamp falls through a height of 4
in a
brought
to
rest
and
is
metal
compresses
the
striking the work. If it
blow.
force
of
the
average
the
25
mm,
estimate
distance of
Example
9.
is
striking
work
250 x 981 x 4
98 10 J
mm = 0025 m
Work = (force) (distance)
9810 = F x 0025
7om
aQ25
392 huui>
400N
j?x
CIRCULAR MOTION
209
Circular motion
Many
movement.
is
better,
radius.
Fig. 152
We have
seen that
if
we
consider an angle
arc
AB =
space
body having
moved
(s),
if
AB
circular
then 
or
v
is
in m/s,
and
r in
m, then
the arc
6 in radians.
motion about
angle
centre:
(radians), or
(v)
velocity
O as
Or
 = angular
If v
is
Again,
AB =
radius, then
the
is
AOB, where AB
r,
(&>)
cor
to will
then
(7)
be
in radian
per second.
same way the relation between the linear acceleration a and the
angular acceleration a of a body moving in a circle is that
In the
= a
r
or a
ar
210
MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES
III
The equations
when
angular notation
s
Since
=
=
space in radians;
may be used
for
that:
velocity in rad/s
acceleration in rad/s 2
revolution
remembered
it is
In radian we
may
N=
rev/minJ
(o
Example
10.
(rad/s)
tk^ 71
oU
taken
We may
retardation
obtain the time very simply without using radians, for if the
is uniform, the velocitytime graph is a straight line and the
average velocity
The
= = =
10 rev/min
pulley therefore
rev/min,
i.e.
in
fYfc
cv 2
oj x
11.
to accelerate
mean speed of 1 10
at
pfTMi
a. 27.
oU
220
2n
 ~zr X ^pt
Ol) X 2/
a =
Example
at a
_,
' 853
,.
rad/s 2
its
constant acceleration.)
We may
obtain the
number of
Using s
vt
= = =
we have s =
250
^
oU
250 rev/min
X 20 =
833 revolutions.
ACCELERATING TORQUE
To
we may use
Zrr2 71
500
211
a> l
at
on
a.20
ol)
500 X 2.T
60 x 20
2
263 rad/s
Exercises 8c
Convert a speed of 175rev/min to rad/s, and llOrad/s to rev/min.
A pulley has an acceleration of 4 rad/s 2 How long will it take to reach a speed of
1.
2.
250 rev/min?
3.
shaft retards
2
tion in rad/s
rest in 3
second. Calculate
its
retarda
Calculate the kinetic energy of a car of mass 1400 kg and travelling at 54km/h.
is brought to rest by the brakes in 30m, find the average force of resistance exerted.
4.
If this
5.
6.
What
7.
force applied to
it
will bring
it
to rest in
600mm?
its
kinetic energy.
(Neglect friction.)
Find the energy stored in a 4kg hammerhead moving at 2m/s. If this hammer is
rest by compressing the metal under it through a distance of 25 mm, determine
brought to
Accelerating torque
When
it
radius r and
Then
F=
let
let
the force
ma, where a
But torque
T=
Fr,
F act on
=
at
it.
linear acceleration of
m.
, i.e. a
ar.
its
own
particular radius.
The sum of
Mk
this radius
is
called
MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES
212
= Mk 2 a
(8)
If 60*0
S/
I
l
160N
s
\
/
Fig. 153
Example
12.
Fig. 154
wheel
is
radial force of
is
160N.
The
x
550mm
and
is
respectively.
tangential force at
how
make
When this
025, calculate
mm
the wheel
25
40N
come
to rest
doing so.
the rim of the wheel tending to stop
it
will
in
it
is
fx.
160 x 025
mm
= 40N
ACCELERATING TORQUE
22
T = Mk a we
2
the equation
co 2
w,
213
have
22
5Q
= 016rad/s
01 6
and a =
(retardation)
= ^2* 016*
Hence
In 016?
i.e.
60
= tr
60 x
n
7
X
%* = 68
016
x n
'
8 seconds
will
make
525
X pk~
6U
is
Example
thick. It
13.
is
j DH X
Mass of pulley =
= 2 x
density
52
08 x 7280 kg
= 1144 kg
X 025 = 01 72 m
The applied torque is
0707
lONm
T = Mk 2 a,
0172 2
H44 x nmi
<x
co
= 2l0rev/min =
ttta
44
~ S3
157
seconds
1144
0172 2
28rad/s 2
44rad/s
X a
214
MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES
III
causes
it
cam
makes
= rapprox(L =
at
the centre
as
7840 kg/m 3
The problem
shown
is
in Fig. 155.
Fig. 155
radius,
180 rev/min,
at
i.e.
rev at 3 rev/s
= X j = 27 second
= <ot + \at 2 = \at 2 when
Since
..
\at\ and a
If)
=g
Hence applying
mm
= ^jkr =
co
pr
192 rad/s 2
=
yy
m=
188 kg.
T = mk 2 a =
188
(0025) 2
X 192 = 0225Nm
end of the
applied to
215
is,
at radius
will
be
v
o) k, if
is
mv 2
it
will
be
newton metres
KE =
Hence
in metres.
=
joules
Rotating flywheels are used on presses and other machines for the
purpose of storing a reserve of energy, so that when a sudden large output of work is required the machine will not stall, or undergo an undue
slowing up in speed.
Example
500
mm dia by 80 mm thick,
when
on a
press,
what
will
be
o>
its
180
^r x
In =
6;rrad/s
oil
mk (o
KE =   =
Energy stored
at
1144
180 rev/min
01 72 2
6015 J
(6tt)
MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES
216
III
100 000
0005
mm,
the
work done
500J
be 6015
If oj
is
500
its
energy afterwards
1015 J
mk*a>*

rev/m
rnk 2
= ^60 =
(jo
1144
203
X 0172 2
775 rad/s
775
=
= x =
In
In
=
775 X 60
=
2325
_,
74 rev/min
71
2.71
Example
2 x 1015
2
1
'
60
co
rev/s
u>
Example
12
74 rev/min
done.
in the flywheel
11
= Energy =
11
=
The tangential
8320 J
8320
of energy this must travel tpt
Revs of wheel
for 208
208
m on its circumference
208
208
Circum
n x
A rev, as before
602
,
11
Hence time
Example
balls
17.
spaced
to stop
py^
X 60 min =
688 s
flypress has
at the
mm
217
Fig. 156
2
if
the punch
is
to be just capable of
mass of a
= volume x
ball
=
Energy stored
in 2 balls at
n * ai53
a speed of
pM
129
05
density
x 7280= 12.9kg
co rad/s.
mk2(o2
05
<o
3.225a; 2
at the
mm
=
=
Hence 3225w 2 =
20 000 x 00025
50J
50,
50
155,
3225
Vl55
394 rad/s
394
^P = 0627 rev/s
punch,
i.e.
MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES
218
1.
CI flywheel rim
is
.1
2. If the flywheel in
HI
Exercises 8d
08m inside diameter and
outside,
mean
315rev/min [Density of CI
01m
= 7280 kg/m3 ].
Ex. No.
1 is
the speed of the wheel to drop to 2625 rev/min, calculate the energy absorbed by the
operation.
3.
at 105
CI flywheel, rim
14m
outside diameter,
lm
inside,
and
01m
wide
rev/min when two brake pads are pressed against opposite sides of
is
its
revolving
rim. If the
coefficient of friction at the brakes is 04, with what force must they be pressed against the
rim to bring the wheel to rest in 30 revolutions?
4. A motor develops a constant torque of 32Nm. It drives a shafting and pulleys of
mass 400 kg, and having a radius of gyration = 200 mm. Calculate the time taken for
motor
5.
flywheel
is
in the
to friction at the bearings, calculate the tangential frictional force at the surface of the
50mm
shaft
A press has
is
mounted.
8.
250 mm,
cylindrical
is
40mm x 20mm,
for
when 20 kg of material
momentary reduction
in
is
tipped into
itself at
mean
it.
If the material
is
its
"hotness level."
There are two scales of temperature used in this country; the Celsius
and the Kelvin. (The Celsius scale is a more modern* name for the Centigrade scale, but the latter name is likely to persist for some time after the
adoption of the SI conventions.) The freezingboiling point limits of water
are
shown
in Fig. 157.
AMOUNT OF HEAT
373
100"
219
Boiling
Freezing
273
Fig. 157
Celsius
Kelvin
It will
ship exists,
i.e.
temperature in Kelvin
temperature
in
20C = 273 + 20
and 353 K = 353  273
(The reader
Celsius
273.
For example
= 293K
= 80C
word "degree"
is
not used
when
referring
Amount of heat
Heat is a form of energy, and hence the unit for a quantity of heat is the
same unit as for a quantity of energy, i.e. the joule. For large quantities
we occasionally refer to kilojoules and megajoules.The amount of energy
mass of a substance a unit increase of temperature
is called the specific heat capacity of that substance. As an example,
the specific heat capacity of water is about 4200J/kgC. Water has the
needed to
raise unit
all
other sub
MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES
220
III
Substance
in J/kg
Water
1300
2140
2000
400
540
900
1300
480
oil
Petroleum
Turpentine
Copper
Cast iron
Aluminium
Lead
Steel
Brass
395
2400
880
1000
Oak
Stone generally
Air
constant pressure)
(at
When
4200
2930
Alcohol (absolute)
Olive
Heat
Capacity
a substance
is
it
will
be
given by
(Mass of substance)(Rise
= mc (T  T,)
[m = mass;c = sp.ht. capacity; T and T = Temp limits.]
2
Heat
Due
calculations
10% of the
When
and
if
heat
is lost,
no heat were
is
it
HEAT CALCULATIONS
As
90%
it is,
221
the steel
Let
7 be
Heat
lost
The mass of
in
a tank
04 m
by
steel
=
=
X 480(700  7)
square
when
04
the depth
04
= 1000 kg,
is
025
x 1000 = 40kg
025
(2)
168000(7
15)
0007
168
From which
Example
20.
placed in 2
we
4 032 000
t
T=
4Q32Q0Q
170160
X 480(700 
7)]
(3)
have:
2 520 000
piece of steel
litres
U5
170 1607
h
and
kg
512 000
1607
^ 7 or
= 2H1C
in
mass
is
the
minimum
of heat escapes. If the initial temperature of the water was 20C and the
final steady temperature of steel and water 52 C, estimate the temperature
of the
steel
If we
Let
7=
Mass of 2
lost
by
steel.
furnace temperature
litres
of water
2 kg
= 2 X 4200(52  20)
= 8400 x 32 = 268800 J
Heat lost by steel = (mass)(sp. ht. cap.)(7 52)
= x 480(7  52) *= 480T Equating: 4807 24 960 = 268 800
4807 = 293760
Heat gained by water
293760
21480
estimate
a
low
would be
24 960
Actually this
as
lost.
MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES
222
III
Exercises 8e
The dimensions of a workshop
40m x 16m x
is
air in
the shop
is
the water
when
are
125
If the
is lost,
480J/kg C.]
Water flows through a gasheated boiler at the rate of 12 litres per minute, and
is raised from 20C to 70C by the boiler. If the efficiency of the boiler
70% and the gas used yields 18MJ/m 3 when burned, calculate the gas consumption of
3.
its
is
temperature
4.
is
and the
final steady
The
An
5.
80C, and
it
be necessary
oil
the furnace.
which the
is
if it
= 2000 J/kg
enters at 18C
down
and leaves
its
on
their exterior.
oil
The
entering temperature
is
28C.
[l
litre oil
of
C.]
6. In a certain locality the cost of gas for industrial heating was 4p per cubic metre,
and the cost of coal 1200 per tonne (= 1000kg). The heating value of the gas was
18MJ/m 3 and of the coal 25MJ/kg. Assuming an efficiency of application of 90% for the
gas and 60% for the coal, compare the relative costs of heating by gas and coal.
Heat energy
Heat is a form of energy, and when mechanical work is dissipated by fricconverted into heat. Most of our mechanical energy is derived
from heat by converting it through some form of heat engine The relation
between heat and mechanical energy was at one time called Joule's Equivalent, after the famous scientist Joule. The use of Joule's Equivalent is
tion
it is
not required
when
Example
21. If
2 =
We have that Input
Efficiency
r^.
100
HEAT ENERGY
Output
= lOOkW,
Input
^
= lOOkW x
Mass required =
Example
22.
ine
223
= lOOOkW
= 1000 000 J/s = 10 6 J/s
= 10 6 X 3600 J
= 25MJ = 25 X 10 6 J
=
144 kg
kW
generated
is
is
Assuming
we
all
09 kg].
have:
= lOkW
(60
x 3000) temp
09
_
Temp nse =

Example
23.
The
rise
= 480 000 J
480 000
60 x 09 x 3000
Q or
=!&
is
1200m/min. The
of 40mm
of friction
is
per second
= 40N x
.*.
12
Work
04
04
= 800Nm = 800 J.
dissipated in 15 s
12
000
\ x 12 000 J
= 6000 J
MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES
224
III
Taking the density of steel as 7840 kg/m 3 the layer of metal to which
this heat is assumed to be confined = volume x density.
,
=
=
Heat given =
6000 =
Temp
rise
004
004
x 00025 x 7840
0031 36 kg
(mass)(sp. ht. capacity)(temp rise)
(0031 36)(480)(temp
480 x 0031 36
rise)
^C
Exercises 8f
1.
cutting operation
is
absorbing
2kW
litres
temperature,
rise in
litre oil
[l
is
being cooled by
if
90% of the
heat
is
it
is
oil
oil,
being
flowing at
calculate
its
2500J/kgC.]
developing 12 kW with a
thermal efficiency of 20%. Take the heat value of the gas used
the answer in cubic metres of gas per hour.
at
210rev/min, when
mm
is
rotating at
it
is
brought to
grinding operation
is
temperature
is
rest
absorbing
if all
5kW
at the
its
d +
J3
^
oo V,
CM CO
CO
CO Ov
Vl Vl
<N
ON 0O
ON
VI
CM O0 ro
r r OS
Q
^
ON CM
ON
00
O
rO
vi co
ON
CM CO v> vi
CM
CM CO
vO
0O
N
<N
CO
Vi
V)
OO
so
ON
r
O
CM
co
CM
CM
CO
en
ro
ON
co
v>
CM
Vi
CM
CM
CM
co
co
CM vi
oo
CM
Vl
CM
00
CM
CO
co
On
vO
Ov
CM
CM
VI
CM
ON
CM
o o o o
*
r
CM
v>
CM
On
CM
CO
ON
CO
CM
ro
d +
/l
>*
CM
OS VI
cm co
CM
^
V)
CM Vi
r~
g +
o\
co oo
<N CM
d +
CM
ro
ON
v
VO
d +
ON
VO
VO
1
8
1
CM
E
o
,v
.a
r
~
j
'
.a
a
t>
CO
g
c
S
S
S n o
J
60
CZ2
CO
'
i1
<
v>
vo
ON
CM
Tt
VI
OO
CM
 o
^
VI
CO Tf
r~
co
00
NO
On
o
ro
VO
CO
CO
Vi
ON
Vl
V)
00
Vi
CO
r
r
vo
CM
v>
CM
CM
VI
CM
O O
VI
O
vo
CM
00
ON
ON
O
O
CM *
OO
CM
o
vO
CM
CM
O
CM
CO
J
i
CM
On
U
1
O
1
1
O
vi
t O
O
00
VI
CO
Vi
Vi
CO
V)
2;
ViOOOOQOQQOOOO O
O
r TfoooNCOTfONOVivooocovi r~
i
ViOOOQOOOQOOQQ O
So ON^CMO^vir^oooHcn^vo oo
13
a
3
Vi
vo
Vl
00
ca
"g
73
OOOOOVOQOQOOOV.
CO
5 X ^HpriTjVlvOOOQCM^tVOOOOCM
o
v>
CM CM
CM
00OvoviQOOO
X Jo^VivOOOOCMtJVOOO
vi
cm
tm
C
6.
u
>
pvo
5
O
225
Appendix
II
ISO Standard
= 0001 mm)
(Unit
Nominal
Up
Over
H7
Sizes
H9
H8
Hll
to
and
UL
UL
LL
LL
UL
LL
UL
LL
includ
ing
mm
mm
10
15
22
36
90
10
18
18
27
43
110
18
30
21
33
52
130
30
50
25
39
62
160
50
80
30
46
74
190
80
120
35
54
87
220
120
180
100
250
250
40
46
63
180
72
115
290
UL =
Upper Limit
LL = Lower
Appendix
Limit
III
H Hole
over the Range 6mm to 180mm
British Standard
[Limits for
H6
to
Hll
Nominal
Size
over
to
High Limit
(unit
H6
H7
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H10
Low
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10
15
22
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58
90
10
18
11
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27
43
70
110
18
30
13
21
33
52
84
130
30
50
16
25
39
62
100
160
50
80
19
30
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120
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180
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*** cc
*
CM
CO
CO
6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6
*
Hs
P
in
r^
CO
Z " %
3
2p
cn
CO
cn
r.
r>
00
cm
co
CO
o
o
o
in
en
co
in
in
CN
CO
Tt
cn
*^
H
%
229
? nC
in
cm
CO
in
in
oo
CO
en
(O
lO
*
CO
CO
r
oo
CM
xt
CO
in
in
CM
h
co
CO
CO
in
t
in
OOO
in
O
en
in
CM
CD
in
el
CM
^
CM
CM
r
oo
CD
CO
Tt
in
in
CM
tCO
m
N
N CO
cn
in
in
6 6 6 6
# * X
*p
=B
Appendix VI
The Trigonometrical Addition Formulae
sometimes necessary to express the trigonometrical ratios of the sum
It is
shown
in Fig.
The condi
trigonometrical textbook.
(a)
(b)
Fig. 158
In Fig. 158
sin
(a),
(A + B) =
cos (A
B)
tan (A
B)
sin
cos
In Fig. 158(6),
sin
(A
cos (A
,
tan (A
v
B) =
B) =
_,.
B)
sin
cos
t
+ tanA tanB
A in (A + B) we get:
sin 2 A =2 sin A cos A
cos 2 A = cos A sin A = 2 cos A
cos A + sin A = 1)
2 tanA
tan 2 A
 tan A
By
writing
B =
230
2 sin 2
A (since
Appendix VII
Continued Fractions
A continued fraction is a series of fractions derived from a single complicated fraction, each fraction in the series approaching more nearly to the
value of the fraction from which the series was derived.
If during the course of our work we required to obtain a gear ratio
131
(e.g. for cutting
we could
only do
by having gears containing 131, and 353 teeth, because neither of the
numbers has any factors. To cut such gears for the job would be out of the
question, as in the first place they would be too large to fit on to the
machine, and the cost of making them, if they were only required once,
would be prohibitive.
By applying the method of continued fractions to such a problem, it
would probably be possible to obtain a ratio in a usable form, and having
a value so close to the original, that under the circumstances it would be
it
acceptable.
will
Example
18.
numerator
into the
sum
denominator
131)353(2
262
91)131(1
into the
original divisor
9J_
40)91(2
80
last divisor
11)40(3
33
7)11(1
7
4)7(1
4
3)4(1
3
1)3(3
3
231
APPENDIX
232
The
VII
1,2,3,
2,
1, 1, 1
as the
and
3.
as follows:
A
C
1
1
1
1
1
1
We now have to find what are called the "convergents" of this fraction.
In simpler terms, the convergents are approximations to the actual value
of the fraction. They are, in value, alternately too large and too small,
but each time they approach nearer to the actual value (hence the term
convergent).
1st
convergent
[Down
to line
line
CD]
AB] = y
1
2+1
2+1
2+
"2 +
GH]
2+1
2+1
1
j_
2
J_
CONTINUED FRACTIONS
2+1
2+
ft
K
^
+f
10
27
+ ^
233
2+1
\
1
+ 1
1
2+1
1+1
J_
+ &
I
H
u
9
LM]
2+
2+
1
1
1
.
1
1
16
23
16
16
z 23
62
_23
62
23
able to check
= "
 353
The
following table.
234
APPENDIX
VII
Original Fraction
Mi
03711
Error
Decimal
Convergent
No.
Equiv.
Value.
or .
05000
+ 01289
03333
00378
03750
+ 00039
03704
03710
00007
+00003
00001
037113
rG.00003
03714
00000
03711
somewhat
<#)
+
V.
O
u
\
1
A^
3
Xi^
^_
5
Convergent number
1
Fig. 159
6
"
Answers
to exercises
Exercises 2a
Hole
Clearance
Shaft
75120
74940
(mm)
0226
max
75000
74894
min
35062
35018
max
0060
35000
35002
min
0018
3. 20021
19980
max
0062
20000
19959
min
0020
57046
57083
max
57000
57053
min
0007
0083
(mm)
(mm)
1.
2.
0060
(interference).
4.
(interference).
5.
6. 400062
7.
8.
diameter 12079
mm
mm diameter
of
0017mm
with pair of
9. Yes.
10.
Exercises 2b
108
110
160
1005
103
900
100
2000
160
1600
700
5000
101
2.
104
3.
4.
170
2500
106
7. 102
8. 105
24.00
130
150
140
50.00
1300
700
1700
170
6.
10000
109
10.(a)
1005
(b)
105
11.
"Go"
190
102
190
300
190
1200
1005
117
7500
600
2000
180
600
2500
2000
12. 108
400
1000
235
end.
2500
"Not go" end.
105
190
900
800
1000
236
ANSWERS TO EXERCISES
Exercises 2c
1.
mm
030
5. 0 6'
too steep
1031
6.
BC =
AD
7.
9.
True angle
7579mm.
3.
37 43'; error 0
3590mm;>>
4140
mm higher
mm
29 15
= 1310mm;x = 2693
mm; 0 108 mm
8. 50009
1'
1016mm
10.
One end
4.
CD =
3925 mm;
11.
1486mm
Exercises 2d
1.35
3. 47 4'
2. 22 20'
18'
5. 25 50'
6. a
8.
AB =
1.
4623 mm,
1035mm; 29 32'; 34
4. (i) 3946';
a =
30 18'
(ii)a
A=
7.
152 19
12'
Exercises 2e
 H) 2 =
4. (25
2.
225
ll67mm
D)
102
3.
A=
5.
d = j; 2667mm
77508mm; B = 76008mm
1546mm
6. 9 12'
Exercises 2f
2053mm;
Normal to axis,
1009mm
3643mm;
1. (a)
(b)
2.
589
3.
7. 1416
4.
mm
(c)0767in
8. 6405
5.
154mm
6.
52804mm
mm
Exercises 3a
28
39
54
250
877
180
130
1260
104
145
202
280
94
68
49
35
25
2630
1820
237mm,
4. 41 3 rev/min;
75
mm
7. 261
500
 20
mm;
10.
Rake
1.
5728'
3551
3.252m/min
h
73
27;
6.
Rake
8. 15
21
5.
4.
9.
Exercises 3c
4. (a)
155 mm;
(6)
3. 29
in 6128;
065 mm;
(c)
5500 rev/min
Tu " g C arb
g .0
g
rl .o
28
r approx
/5
2.
Dia
Dia
60mm
119 mm,
Exercises 3b
3228;
mm
rev/min
7 32'
a =
7 18';
22 13'
ANSWERS TO EXERCISES
5.
805mm;
7.
Angle 41
Depth
18':
695
707mm; 247mm; 70
6.
mm Land 281 mm
8. 478
237
38'
mm; l66mm
9. 2564
10. (a)
Exercises 3d
1.
x 6*
i.5009mm
*J = jjp
50 x 110
55
3. 4433
mm;
4. (a) 193
Error
+ 00012mm
39
nearest 4432 with rj ratio; 6647 mm/min
44
kW;
5.312mm;
(6)0778mm 3 /J
8.
7. 384/7
9.
mm;
35
2796
Nm
20
49
(a)08786kW;
10.
40 x 25
35
6.10mm
Pitch
2041
(b) 2238
J/mm
533 m; 195/?
mm
?()
Exercises 4a
1.
2. (a)
w =
9435 mm; h
3. Cutting 006
4. Cutting
mm
(6) 049
mm
= 61 mm;
(6)
w = 1000mm;
637
mm
mm too shallow.
017mm
012mm
thin;
5. (a)
6.
8.
9.
1.
2.
3.
Exercises 4b
= 210mm; T.D. = 218mm; Depth = 9mm
w = 7808 mm; h = 40768 mm
T = 40T; P.D. = 200mm; T.D. = 208mm; t = 24f;
p.d. = 120mm; t.d. = 128mm; Depth = 9mm
P.D.
4. 1797
6. (a)
mm
5. 0215
22135mm;
(b)
22935mm;
(c)
9mm;
(rf)
1910mm;
(e) 63.
P.D. 12471 mm, T.D. 13271 mm; (c) 678mm; (</) 42.
8. 2; P.D. = 7071 mm; T.D. = 7471 mm; lead = 222mm; 45
T.D. Helix angle, 20 22'; lead, 1016mm
9. Gear: 45T, 120mmP.D.; 125
Pinion: 30T, 80mm P.D., 85mm T.D.; Helix angle, 20 22', lead, 677mm
7. (a) 27;
(b)
mm
mm
Exercises 4c
1.
2.
3. 6;
4.
A =
32 29'
862
mm
Wheel: 75T;
rad. 2745
mm. Worm:
5start;
ANSWERS TO EXERCISES
238
5.
T =
6.
7. 59
8.
mm;
5 58'.
12277 mm;
= 90mm;
18T; P.D.
Pinion:
dia., 9693
73 54'; Add.,434';Ded.,543';Wholedia,
P =
Angles:
Whole
mm.
Exercises 5a
2. 25 to
(c)488mm
(6)6944mm;
(a) 15;
1.
= 120mm; Angles: P =
Cone dist., 6245 mm.
3. 731'; negative.
4. 926'.
3119mm.
6. 482mm.
30;
5. 82j
Exercises 5b
1.
189mm/min
70rev/min,
4. 204 min
5. Spiral mill.
2.
60480mm
6.
18
kW,
294
25
kW
3.
3mm.
min, 015p.
Exercises 5c
and 5d, whole numbers refer to complete turns of the
crank, numerators of fractions to holes, and denominators to hole circles. When the
fraction is a simple one (e.g. \) it has been left in that form. Numerators of gear ratios
are drivers, and denominators are driven gears.]
[in the answers to Exercises 5c
1. (a)
3i;
2. (a)
3;
(b) 2f;
(b) 2tf;
(c)
Iff;
(d)
(c)
ljf;
(d)
(b) 2{f;
(c)
3f;
(b)
(c)
3ff;
5.
If; 3
6. (a)
3&;
(e) ?
A;
(e) ft;
(d) 5{f;
3. (a) If;
4. (a)
Iff;
lfc
f;
(g) f?;
ff;
fe)fc
(h)
(h) j?
7&.
()
(J) 8i;
(J)
CO
15
(<?)
mm
^+
^+
(6)
tf ;
(c)
if;
(<*)*
A;
40C.c
cN  C
8 holes; 20 circle; Gears,
8. (a)
(b)
20
If
20 holes; 27
circle;
ft;
[Note.
9.
circle;
Gears,
^;
plate to turn
Gears,
ff
fj}
ft;
?f;
direction as crank,
(d)
and
(d).]
Exercises 5d
1. (a)
2.
,
3
If.
4
,
7*
fl^
is
41 24';
(c)
8^; 75 45'
...
(b) 4f;
{a)
100 x 32
:48x56
...
(6)
100
x 24
W4T
, ,
;
32
(C)
72
(rf)
as crank.
(c)
8 holes;
direction as crank.
1652'
same
same
same direction
plate to turn in
plate turn
40 x 24
64lT48
ANSWERS TO EXERCISES
40X
32
5.
a =
239
3648'
48 x 56
6. ft
7.
9.
10.
11.
24
if;
1'
8. Nearest =
720mm lead; tf ratio; 19 14'
72 mm; gear ratio f; a = 4603'
Gear ratio f; a = 22 1'; lead = 25 mm
Lead = 60 mm; gear ratio = f a = 30
ft
Jg
(based on
245mm
lead)
UVofe.
9,
10 and 11.]
Exercises 5e
5. 554
3. 496'
2. 6723'
1. 2958'
mm;
4. (a) 416';
6. (a) 5046';
(6)
(b)
972'
10428'
Exercises 6a
[in the solutions to Ex. 6a the angle given
2. (a) 721
(b)
1085
(c)
1094
(d)
31
(e)
if)
upwards; 34 to
(c)
22
(d)
134
R of vert
145
upwards; 50 to
downwards;
66; cb
L to
6. 5 units
=
=
of vert
above horiz
upwards; 21 to R of vert
R to L; 32 above horiz
(/) 93
7. ac
vertical or horizontal
downwards; 4 to R of vert
L; 44 below horiz
34 downwards; 13 to L of vert
12 L to R; 5 below horiz
1085 upwards; 41
5. ac
to L; 41 below horiz
(b)
(<?)
that
R to
3. (a) 72
4.
downwards
is
vector.]
21;
cZ>
87
12 to
of vert
of vert
76 vert
downwards.
to R; 30 above horiz; be
8.
ab
1.
R to L (outwards);
3.
212N;
6.
downwards; 30 to
of vert
Exercises 6b
53N/mm
100N
2.
5.
2663N
233N; 552N
7.
321
Exercises 6c
1.
530N
in
2.
11mm
5.
130N; 200N
8.
2860N
11.
6.
520N; 26 to
9.
274mm
horiz.
rad; 100
from 50 kg mass
7.
10.
1635N horiz. L. to R.
5550N
ANSWERS TO EXERCISES
240
Exercises 6d
4.
0775mm
l3m/s,
7. 0088
10. (a)
m/s
2. 084 m/s
017m/s; 23 to
6. 08 m/s
8.
856N
9. 00051 m/s;
(b) 168
3. (a) 114;
OA
rpm.
7840
(6)
f;
5.
536 m/s,;
1. (a)
Exercises 6e
8N
1.
170N
4.
2.
5.
Right 357N;
7.
177N
1.
256N; 254N
4.
270N
3.
340N
80N
6.
left,
8.
tailstock 531N
417N downwards.
1600N, 600N
Headstock 319N;
Exercises 7a
2. 750N
5. 01184kW
at 6 57' to horiz.
3. 12
300N
kW
6. 0792
Exercise 7b
1. 364;
5.
939N
685%; 18
2.
060N
6.
3857N
9. 2340J,
10.
l97kW
121N
1200N
3.
519N
53N
7. 377;
11.
4.
118N
8.
351%
lONm
Exercises 7c
1.
2.
3.
894mm
d = 447mm; L =
RH load =
LH load =
1080N; B. press
1170N; B. press
n = 00158,
300N
522 J
4. 862
6. 50
9. 231
1.
N/mm
=
=
4. 144 m/s 2
2. 128
5.
5.
= 200N/mm 2
lm;5s
1.
ION
2.
lm/s
5.
173N
6.
l28m/s 2
fi
0032,
114kW
509N/mm 2 0204mm
tension = 40 000N
8.
;
Exercises 8a
s, 125 m/s
04m/s 2 06m/s
7.
7. 108m/s;
mm
10. Stress
10rev/min 2 75 revs
N/mm
N/mm
7950N 632N
7.
027
029
3.
0333 m/s 2 ;
6.
180rev/min 2
12 s
;
min
8. 05m/s; 15s
Exercises 8b
3. 355N
192N; 096m/s; 01849kW
5890m/s 2 589kN
8.
4.
72N
320mm
Exercises 8c
1.
1831; 1050.
4. 157
2
3. 149rad/s
2. 655 s
500 J; 5250N
6. 1875J;
3125N
7. 8 J; 320
Exercises 8d
1.
22 700 J
2.
6940
3. 101
5.
131N
6.
165rev/min
7.
6320N
4. 165 s
8.
136rev/min
ANSWERS TO EXERCISES
Exercises 8e
1.
4.
1664 MJ
785C
2.
59C
5. 3861itres/min
3.
12m
6.
Cost gas
Cost coal
309
1
Exercises 8f
1.
120kJ; 48C
4. 9680J;
224C
2.
12m /h
3
3.
241
Index
Acceleration, 198
due to
gravity,
Drilling power, 8
200
evaluation
of,
142
Energy, 206
heat, 218, 222
of rotating bodies, 2 1
velocity
and
acceleration, 209
Arithmetical progression, 57
Backlash, 95
Faceplate, balancing of
Feeds for
Bar (pressure),
Bearing
work
115
friction, 192
Force, 203
pressure, 191
of
hammer
blow, 205
in a
mechanism, 167
vectorial representation,
Cam
on, 159
milling, 121
Form tools,
milling, 138
Friction, 176
threads), 77
at a
68
bearing 192
coefficient, 177
in
Cosecant, 92
when clamping,
Cotangent, 92
Cutters (milling), clearance, 117
slip,
grinding, 117
number of teeth,
113
rack, 86
Cutting power, 79
17
Gearing, backlash, 95
speed range, 58
base pitch, 92
tool angles, 63
bevel, 106
helical,
96
61
242
57
INDEX
stub,
Moment of a force,
Momentum, 203
94
worm, 102
Geometric speed range, 58
Graph of motion,
Hammer
10, 199
blow, force
of,
205
Motion
in a circle,
equations
Newton
of,
170
209
198
(force), 3
Heat, 218
Pitch (base) of gears, 92
of work, 222
specific capacity,
219
Helical gearing, 96
and
Helix, lead
angle, 98
Power
57
Rack
Radian, 209
compound, 126
(gear),
Rake on
86
14
differential, 128
Screw
simple, 125
odd
threads, 77
Involute, 84
measurement by
wires, 47
Secant, 92
Johannson gauges, 17
Sine bar, 22
SI units, 3
Kelvin, 219
Slip gauges, 17
Kilogramme, 6
(spirit),
19
Limit, 13
Spirit level, 19
systems, 14
Strain, 193
Stress, 193
Mass,
Stub teeth, 94
Taper, measurement with balls and
6,
203
of large
radii,
25
rollers,
turning, 66
Temperature, 218
Tolerance, 13
Tool
life
38
sine bar, 23
angles, 63
calculations, 61
Tools, form, 68
acceleration, 211
cutters, 113,
Torque to cause
feeds, 121
power, 220
spiral,
Units SI metric, 3
134
Modulus of
Elasticity, 195
243
244
INDEX
Vectors, 148
Whitworth thread, 48
Wire measurement of screw threads, 47
Work, 206
Worm gearing,
102
'This is a
new edition with a new format, and completely revised to present its
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easy to see the reason for the appeal, for this edition is neat
is not overcompressed. We can expect to see it
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Marine Engineers Review
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