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CHAPMAN
Senior Workshop

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A. J.

Calculations
Third Edition
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SI Units

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Senior workshop calculations

l\1

Senior workshop
calculations

Dr.

W. A.

J.

Chapman

MSc(Eng), FIMechE, HonFIProdE

<D
EDWARD ARNOLD

W.A.J. Chapman

1972

First published 1941

by Edward Arnold (Publishers) Limited


25 Hill Street

London

WIX 8LL

Reprinted 1944, 1947, 1949, 1952

Second edition 1954


Reprinted 1957, 1959, 1961, 1962, 1965
Third edition 1972

Reprinted 1973, 1978

ISBN

7131 3260 4

All Rights Reserved.

No part of this publication may be reproduced,

stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any

means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherEdward Arnold (Publishers)

wise, without the prior permission of

Ltd

Photoset and printed in Malta by Interprint (Malta) Ltd

This book

is

a revision of the workshop practice material in Senior

Workshop Calculations This revision was made necessary by the advent


of the SI System and of developments in some aspects of teaching and
.

industrial practice.

is

Senior Workshop Calculations has enjoyed a vogue of thirty years and


used in many parts of the world. From the various expressions I

have received
the

work of

am

sure that

it

has rendered a useful contribution to

countless students as well as to that of mature workers

engaged in engineering.
During the revision it was decided to separate out the text dealing
with practice calculations as a first priority. The text includes most of
the material required by students and practitioners in workshop and
production engineering practice and should provide a useful textbook
for National Certificates and Diplomas, and for City & Guilds courses
in Mechanical and Production Engineering subjects.
In the work of revision I have received considerable advice and help
from Mr M. G. Page, BSc(Eng), FIMechE, FIProdE, and I should like
here to acknowledge my warm appreciation of his generous and kind
assistance.
I

hope that

it

has always been

Hatfield, 1972

form the book will continue to serve the


and other workers in those aspects of engineering

in its present

interests of students

my

desire to foster.

W. A.

J.

C.

Contents

The SI system of units and conventions


Basic SI units - Supplementary and derived units -

1 Introduction:

Multiples and sub-divisions of the unit

- Representation of

and quantities - Dimensioning - Mass,


weight and force - The kilogramme weight - Equations of
motion - Acceleration
unit symbols

2 Measurements and gauging


Limits and tolerances - Limit systems - Calculations of
limits - Slip gauges - The spirit level - The sine bar radii and holes - Location of points on
angular surfaces - Measurement of tapers with balls and

Gauging large
rollers

- 3-wire measurement of screw threads -

Miscellaneous measurement problems

13

3 Calculations for cutting, turning and boring


Speeds and feeds - Arithmetic and geometric progression Cutting tool life - Tool angles - Effect of tool height Taper turning - True shape of form tools, flat and circular Approximate change wheels by continued fractions Cutting power for turning and drilling

4 Calculations

for gears

56

and gearcutting

- The tooth Vernier - Constant chord


measurement Module pitch - Plug Method of checking
gear teeth - Base pitch - Stub teeth - Backlash - Helical
(spiral) gear calculations - Worm gearing - Bevel gearing
Involute gear teeth

84

5 Milling and the milling machine


Milling cutters - Cutter teeth -

Rake - Clearance - Tooth


- Tooth grinding - Helical teeth - Speeds and feeds
for milling cutters - Milling power calculations - The
dividing head - Simple, compound, differential, angular
indexing - Spiral milling - Cam milling - Solid angles
angle

113

6 Mechanical principles

Vectorial representation - Addition and subtraction of

- Application of vectors- forces on a cutting tool Balancing of faceplates - Vector velocity diagrams for
mechanisms - Moment of a force - Parallel forces
vectors

148

7 Mechanical principles II

- Machines and efficiency - The inclined plane


and screw - Bearings - Bearing pressure - Bearing friction
- Stress and strain
Friction

8 Mechanical principles

176

III

- Acceleration - Equations of motion - Force Energy; kinetic and potential - Circular motion - Accelerating
torque - Energy of flywheels - Temperature - Heat - Amount
of heat - Heat energy

Velocity

and

Appendices

Appendices

III

II:

ISO

standard holes and shafts

and IV: BSI standard holes and shafts

Appendix V: Conversion table

198

225-6
226-7

228-9

Appendix VI: The trigonometrical addition formulae

230

Appendix VII Continued fractions

23

Answers

235

Index

242

Introduction

The SI system of units and conventions


The initials SI are an abbreviation for Systeme International d'Unites
(International System of Units), the modern form of the metric system,
finally agreed upon at an international conference in 1960. It is now
being adopted widely throughout the world and is likely to become the
primary world system for units and measurement. As we shall discuss
below, the system rationalises the main metric units of measurement and
standardises their names and symbolic representation. It also rationalises
certain mechanical principles and conventions.
The British system of weights and measures is many centuries old, and
the derivation of its units with their multiples and sub-divisions is often
obscure. The system has been refurbished from time to time but the yard
and the pound with their multiples (e.g. mile) and sub-divisions (e.g.
ounce) have persisted; so have such ridiculous measures as 5| yards = 1
= 1 acre or 141b = 1 stone remained with us to
try the mental agility of generations of students, not to mention the more
mature, and less mentally agile population.
The metric system was founded during the French Revolution and has
been adopted for use by most countries with the notable exceptions of the
rod, pole or perch, 4 roods

British

Commonwealth and

the U.S.A., but even in these countries it is


measurements.
The basic units of the SI metric system are the metre and the kilogramme and it is exclusively decimal, so that all multiples and subdivisions of the standard are found by applying factors of 10 (1 kilometre =
1000 metres; 1 kilogramme = 1000 grammes; 1 hectare (area) = 100 x 100
square metres, and so on) In the English system, of course, there is no such
orderly pattern and indeed, the foreigner might well question our sanity
when he hears us refer to 1 12 pounds as a hundredweight.
However, we have, at last, been caught up with the progress of the times
and as a nation we have decided to change over to the metric system. The
entire text of this book conforms with the SI system and the object of this
introductory chapter is to provide help and reference for the reader as he
finds his way into what may seem, at first, to be a complexity. The best

used for precise

scientific

INTRODUCTION

advice that can be given for achieving rapid progress in coping with the
change is to become familiar with the new measures and to learn, as soon
as possible to think in terms of them,

and not to

persist in

making mental

conversions back to the old units. This process can be speeded up by


acquiring, as soon as possible, a mental appreciation of a range of lengths,

Some of these could be

(say) the mental judgekilogramme, the amount


of fluid comprising 1 litre (1000 cm 3 ) and the pressure corresponding to
1 bar (approx 1 atmosphere)*
In this way it will soon be possible to think
of these measures in their own right and not grope around converting
them to their English equivalents (1kg = 2-21b; 1 litre = about If pints
and so on). A similar process is concerned in the learning of a foreign
language where fluency will never be achieved until a student thinks in
terms of the language concerned and abandons all attempts to interpret
mentally from, and into, English. It is well known that another language
is quickest learned by living amongst those who speak nothing else. If the
reader can approach this new mathematical and scientific language in
this frame of mind he will find that the former system will rapidly recede, so increasing the ease with which he can cope with the problems

weights, capacities, etc.

ment of 25

millimetres,

metre, the weight of

involved.

Basic SI units
SI system

The

is

based on

six

primary units as follows:

Table

1.

Basic SI units

Unit

Symbol

Metre
Kilogramme
Second

Mass
Time
Electric current

Ampere

Temperature

Kelvin

A
K

Luminous

Candela

cd

Quantity

Length

Intensity

In addition to these there are a


units.

We

number of supplementary and derived

give below a selection of those which are most likely to be

required by students using this book.

ventions

is

given in BSI publication

A full list of the SI Units and con-

PD

*The reader has probably heard of the bar


Met Office forecasts.

pressure in

kg
s

5686.

in reference to millibars

of atmospheric

SUPPLEMENTARY AND DERIVED

UNITS

SI

Supplementary and derived units


Table

2.

Selected supplementary and derived SI units

Quantity

Symbol

Unit

Area

m
m

Square metre
Cubic metre

Volume

Kilogramme per cubic metre


Metre per second

Density
Velocity

2
3

kg/m 3
m/s
m/s 2

Acceleration

Metre per second squared

Force

Newton
Newton metre
Newton per square metre

N(kgm/s 2 )

Joule

J(Nm)

Watt

Radian

rad

Temperature
(Everyday use)

Degree Celsius*

Specific heat capacity

Joule per kilogramme

Moment

of force

Pressure, stress

Work, energy
Heat quantity
Power
Plane angle

Nm
N/m

degree Celsius
Electric tension

*It

is

(J/s)

J/kgC

Potential difference >

Electromotive force

Volt

probable that the word "centigrade"

will remain,

but SI recommends the use of

Celsius to prevent confusion with another unit.

Multiples and sub-divisions of the unit


In the same way, that in the British system where the yard

is

divided into

and inches and multiplied into the furlong and mile, the pound multiplied into the cwt and ton and divided into the ounce, so it is necessary to
feet

make

similar provisions in the SI system.

system for this purpose

is

One of the advantages of the

the simplicity of its multiples and sub-multiples

because of its decimal (10) character. We will give, again, a selection of the
chief factors likely to be required by the reader leaving him to study the
BSI literature if he wishes to pursue the remainder.
4
It will be noticed that multiples and divisions involving 10
10 5 and
certain higher powers are not included in the system. This has been done
in order to rationalise the procedure by using, after 10 2 and 10~ 2 only
,

powers which are multiples of 3, and the full list of such factors extends
from 10 12 at the higher end to 10~ 18 at the lower.

INTRODUCTION

Table

SI multiples and sub- multiples

3.

Factor by which
unit

is

multiplied

One million = 10
One thousand = 10
One hundred = 10 2

Symbol

Prefix

mega

kilo

k
h
da
d

kilometre (km)

centi

centimetre (cm)

milli

millilitre (ml)

micro

/"

microvolt (juV)

hecto

Ten =

deca

10
tenth = 10-'

One
One hundredth = 10 ~ 2
One thousandth = 10 ~ 3
One millionth = 10 -6

Example

deci

megawatt

(MW)

hectare (ha)

decagram (dag)
decimetre (dm)

Having now considered the quantitative manipulation of the basic


we may now go on to consider the facilities available for alternative
smaller divisions, or larger multiples of the main units, and of certain
additional variations allowable in the system. By this means it is possible
to employ a unit of suitable proportions for any particular set of circumunits

stances. (Table 4).

Representation of unit symbols and quantities


It often happens that when we move into a new house, or office, or
take on something which changes our way of life we take the opportunity
of overhauling our methods. So it is with the changeover to this new

system where the adoption of SI

is

accompanied by various conventions

regarding the presentation of information.

These are summarised


(a)

as follows:

Writing the unit symbols


(i)

The

full stop, usually placed after an abbreviated word, is never


used after an abbreviated symbol except at the end of a sentence.
Thus, 50kg, 10m, 8 kg, 30s, 5N/mm2 all without a full stop, but:
"the vehicle had a mass of 1100 kg." end of sentence, full stop.
The plural
is not used. (50cm not 50 cms)
The proposition "per" is replaced by the oblique / (rev/min
not rev per min)
,

(ii)
(iii)

Symbols

and volumes are qualified by the index, (cm 2


not sq cm and cm not cu cm)
(Note that when converting quantities denoted by indices: lm 3 =
(100cm)3 = lOCFcm3 = 106 cm3 ) (continued on p. 6).
(iv)

for areas

REPRESENTATION OF UNIT SYMBOLS AND QUANTITIES

Table

4.

Recommended

multiples and sub-divisions of the basic SI units

Other units acceptable


Quantity
Plane angle

m rad

Length

km

the system and

Multiple or

in

sub-multiple

likely to persist

degree

minute' second"

cm*

mm
Area

/urn

micron (i4mm)

km 2

hectare (ha)(104

cm

are (a)(10 2

mm
dm

Volume

cm

cm

litre (/)(100

millilitre (ml)

mm

Ms

Time

year, month, week.


day (d) hour (h)
minute (min)

ks

ms
/US

km/h

Velocity

Mg

Mass

tonne

(OR

metric ton) (t)


x 10 4 kg)

metric carat (2

mg
kg/ dm 3

Density

or kg/1

g/cm 3

MN

Force

g/1

kN

mN

kgf (weight of

pti

kg mass)

(not included in SI system

but likely to be used)


1

Moment

MNm:kNm:,uNm
N/mm N/cm kN/mm
mN/m :/xN/m

of force

Pressure

bar

kgf

= 9-806N

= 10N/cm

hectobar (hbar)

10 3 N/cm 2

(Will probably be used for

kN/mm 2 kN/cm 2 N/mm


N/cm 2 :kN/m 2

Stress

pneumatic pressures. High


pressures and stresses will

be expressed

in units

shown

opposite)

Work and

MJ:kJ:mJ

energy

Kilowatt hour

(kWh =
Specific heat capacity
*

3-6

MJ)

MW:kW:mW:/iW

Power

The cm

not

is

kJ/kgC

recommended

for general use

and

it

is

hoped that

it

will eventually

however, a very convenient unit for certain purposes as will be seen


from the uses of it later in our text. It will be observed, however, that the cm 2 and

disappear.

cm

are

It

still

is,

permissible.

INTRODUCTION

(b)

Numerical values
(i)

When

a quantity

is

less

than unity ( 1 ) always place zero (0) before

the decimal point. (0-625:0.0031, etc.)


(ii)

As
of

far as possible
10,

always express a quantity

in terms of a power
row of 0's. (36-2 x 10
of 0-0015) and preferably

so using the index of 10 instead of a

(hi)

instead of 36 200;
x 10~ 3 instead
use powers of 10 which are multiples of 3.
Separate a row of digits into groups of three by a space, instead
of using a comma. (71 562 instead of 71,562, or 0-006 13 instead
of 0-006, 1 3) But a group of four digits may be left without separation (e.g. 6713 or 0-0036 without separation).
1-5

Dimensioning (drawings)
It is customary, when dimensioning drawings, to dimension all sizes
in millimetres, and not to write the unit (mm) after the dimension. An
instruction may be given to the effect that all sizes are in millimetres
but this is not always done. All the diagrams in this book are dimensioned
according to this rule so that the reader will now recognise that <^^ >

means 65 mm.
Mass, weight and force

The reader will observe

that kg

is

the SI unit for MASS and that a unit for

however, the Newton (N)


amount of matter (or
material) of which it is composed and the kilogramme unit is equal to
the mass of the international prototype kilogramme which is in the
custody of the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures at Sevres near
weight

is

not mentioned in the scheme. There

as the unit of

FORCE. The mass

of a body

is,

is

the

Paris. The only means of measuring and comparing masses is by weighing


them so that the weight of an object is proportional to its mass and
indeed, the weight of a body is the downward force its mass exerts under

the influence of the earth's gravitational pull.

We have seen this concept

very effectively illustrated since astronauts have been penetrating beyond


the influence of the gravitational pull of the earth and most readers will

have seen the fascinating television pictures of the interior of the capsule,
still having their mass, but without weight.
The definition of a newton (N) of force is that force which acting on one
kilogramme of mass will propel it along with an acceleration of one metre
per second per second (i.e. it gains 1 m per second every second). Put
into symbols this becomes:
with objects floating about,

IN = lkgm/s 2

THE KILOGRAMME WEIGHT

(kgf)

The kilogramme weight (kgf)


gravitational pull where we are (England) is such that it imparts an
acceleration of about 9-807 metres per second per second (9-807 m/s 2 )
on a freely falling body and this pull, acting on a mass of 1 kg causes it to

The

downwards force (its weight) of 9-807 Newton of force (since


Newton = 1 kgm/s 2 ). Thus the weight of a mass of 1 kg expressed in

exert a
1

newtons of force
lkg weight

is:

(kgf)

9-807 newtons (usually approximated to 9-81

The weight of a body having a mass of 150 kg = 150 x


The mass of a body
is

added to

cut off or

9-81

N)
N)

1471-5

a quantity which never changes (unless a piece

is
it),

but the force of gravity varies slightly on

means
the same

ferent parts of the earth. This

that the weight of

England

as

dif-

kg of mass

in

weight at the equator. The


variation is very small (about 0-5%) over the surface of the earth so that for
all but the very accurate scientific work there is a justification for using
the kgf unit of weight in everyday life. The reader will find kg loosely
not be quite

will

its

referred to as the "weight" of an article, when what is really meant is


the gravitational pull on a kg of mass. However, for some problems, such
as those involving weights and costs of materials, it will be convenient

work in kgf rather than newtons, since suppliers of materials will


always quote kg or tonne, and not newtons as the weight in their price

to

lists

and

specifications.

The following examples

will illustrate the

use

of force units:

Example

1.

standing on

support

round

its

steel bar, 100

mm diameter,

metre long

is

placed

end. If the contact between the end of the bar and

its

uniformly spread over the whole end face of the bar calculate
the intensity of pressure over the area of contact. Take the density of
is

steel as 7-83

g/cm

3
.

Mass of bar = (Volume)(density)

=jX
=

10 2

x 100 x

7-83

0-7854 x 10 4 x 7-83.
__

grams (Working

kg

61-5 kg

Downward force (weight) exerted by bar


= (mass) (gravity) 61-5 X 9-807 = 603 N
Area of bar end = 0-7854 x 10 2 cm 2
= 78-54 cm 2
===

in

cm)

INTRODUCTION

Intensity of pressure

=
Example

2.

force

603

area

78-54

N/cm 2

7-68

vehicle having a mass (m) of 2000 kg has a fractional

resistance to motion of m/20. If the drive

Resistance to motion

equivalent to an average

is

N find the speed attained after

force of 320

min from

2000
= -^
N=

100

rest.

= 320N - 100N = 220N


= mass (m) x accel (a)
220N = 2000 a

Effective driving force

and since

force (F)

"

Speed

after

220
All
,2
llm/s2
=2000

V=

min

=
=
Example
the

3.

6-6

X 60

m/s

A pin is being driven home by a hammer of mass

kg.

When

moving at 1-5 m/s it strikes the pin and drives it 10 mm


Assuming the hammer is brought to rest at constant decelera-

hammer

further in.

(accel)(time)
0-11

is

tion estimate the average force of the blow.


If the
rate

hammer travels 10mm (0-01 m)

from

1-5

m/s to

whilst decelerating at a constant

rest:

Average speed over the stopping period

= - =

0-75

m/s

and the space moved

0-01

~-=j

Hence:
duration of the blow

(t)

0-0133

We then have for the movement of the hammer after


initial

speed

and time
and from v

1-5

= 1-5 m/s:
= 0-0133

(u)

(t)

u + at

0-0133a

final

(see p. 10)

it

speed

strikes the pin:

(v)

EQUATIONS OF MOTION

from which

The average

nnn o = 112-7 m/s

force of the

F=

blow

(retardation)

found from:

is

(mass)(accel)

112-7

= 112-7N
The equations of motion
The reader, no doubt, will have already realised that the SI system is
more orderly and coherent than the British system and this might be
pursued by considering its application to the equations of motion.
If s

then s

The

space travelled, v

=-

or

vt

basic unit for s

is

velocity (or speed)

and

time

(1)

the metre (m) and for

t,

the second. This gives us

= - = m/s (metres per second).

the secondary basic unit for velocity as v

it is not always desirable, or possible, to work in metres and


seconds but alternative units of larger or smaller dimension are available to suit the conditions or aspects of any particular situation, (e.g. for

Naturally,

a road speed

we should probably

Thus:

km/h

hour

to convert

kilometre

km

i.e.

=
=

1000

use kilometres and hours)

3600

1000 metres
3600 seconds

_
~

18

to m/s multiply by

_
~

m/S

18

-j-~.

Acceleration

Acceleration

is

the rate of change of velocity


,

i.e.

If

acceleration

= change

in velocity

time taken for the change

a body starts from rest and acquires a velocity of

using the symbol a for acceleration

v
=
t

v after

time

t,

and

KJ

INTRODUCTION

Since the basic derived unit for v

If,

= - to give

we

instead of starting from rest, the

of u. Then,

final velocity after

time
f

so

t is s,

(metres per second squared).

5-

the basic unit for acceleration is

Transposing the above a

m/s, and the basic unit for

is

get v

at.

body already had an

initial

velocity

t:

at

(2)

Instead of accelerating a body may be slowing down or decelerating. Then


the acceleration will be a minus quantity and

This slowing

down

The above
shown at Fig.

is

at

termed a retardation.
may be illustrated graphically and

relationships

Fig.

Example

4.

this

is

drop stamp

falls freely for 5

and

gravity. Find: (a) the time of fall

strikes the tup.

Takeg =

9-81

m/s 2

metres under the action of

(b) its velocity at the instant

it

ACCELERATION

The graph representing the


velocity after time

fall is

shown

at Fig. 2

and

if v is

the final

t:

Vel.
t

5>

\ArM\
s^. 5m\

"

Time

Fig. 2

We get:
,

5 vt

C
5

A
and

10

(1)

But for accelerated motion from


v

Hence, equating

rest

where a = g =

at

9-81

m/s 2

this to (1):

10

and

9-81

10

t *=

1-01 s

9-81

Substituting in (1) for

we

have:

10
1-01

9-9

m/s

Example 5. A machine ram is operating on a stroke of 360 mm. It starts


from rest, accelerates at a uniform rate until the centre of the stroke and
then retards at a uniform rate to a standstill at the end of the stroke. If
the stroke occupies 1-5 seconds find the acceleration and the maximum
speed attained.

INTRODUCTION

12

This problem
is

is

best solved with the help of a graph

represented in Fig.

and the motion

3.

Time
Fig. 3

The ram

accelerates

from

to A,

its

the reverse process takes place from

The area
360

OAB

velocity increasing uniformly,

A to

represents the space travelled which, in this case,

mm (0.36m).
m = KOB)(AC), and
0-36m = |(l-5s)(AC)
= 2 x 0-36

Hence

0-36

AC =
For half the stroke

l-5s
at

048
Hence a = - = T^^m/s = 0-64m/ s
v

and

B.

since

OB =

0-48 m/s

l-5s

is

Measurement
and gauging

Limits and tolerances

When

parts which must fit together are being made under conditions
which do not permit of each fitting pair to be mated up individually, it
becomes necessary to arrange the working dimensions so that if each
component is made to them, the required type of fit will be assured. To
achieve this, a system of limits and fits is adopted. The definitions used
in connection with limit systems will be gathered from the following
and Fig. 4.

jTolerance

r
I

'^///(//s

~i

__

'

oo
"^ so
>

">

ra

-S

"^ *
S9
On .c
^- .o> fN
-J ** a: K)

-J 00 -c os

.2>^
K>

a:

'.

1
'

w/z/Jm
it
Sha n

The low

519 80
31-9 68

limit is the

1>

Holt!

32
31

15
A
85?

Fig. 4

dimension of the smallest permissible

the high limit the largest permissible size.

The component

is

size,

and

acceptable

anywhere between the two.


is the difference between the two limiting dimensions.
[The tolerance on the above shaft is 31-980 - 31-968 = 0.012mm.]
The allowance is the variation between the sizes of the hole and shaft
necessary to give the type of fit required. For a running fit the shaft must
be smaller than the hole (clearance fit), whilst for a driving or force fit,
the shaft must be larger than the hole (interference fit). Between the
extremes of clearance and interference there is a range of fits such as
push fit, slide fit, etc., in which there is only a small variation between
the hole and shaft sizes (transition fit).
if its size lies

The

tolerance

MEASUREMENT AND GAUGING

14

Limit systems

The numerical value of

the limits for any related hole and shaft will

depend on:

The nominal size (i.e. whether 25mm, 50mm, 100mm, etc.)


The class of fit (e,g. running fit, push fit, force fit, etc.)
(c) The grade of workmanship desired.
The ISO system, set out in BS Specification No. 4500 (1969), allows for
(a)
(b)

and 18 grades of tolerance over a size range of zero to


sight this seems an enormous provision, but the fits
and grades of workmanship covered allow for everything from fine gauge
work to the roughest form of production, and even for some classes of
raw materials. Average workshop requirements may be met from a
limited part of the specification and for this purpose suitable recommendations are given. In the system the 27 possible holes are designated
by capital letters A B C D etc., and the shafts by small letters covering
the same range. The 18 accuracy grades are denoted by the numbers 01,
0, 1, 2, ... 16. The nomenclature adopted for specifying any particular
27 types of

fit

3150mm. At

first

hole or shaft with

with

its

its

tolerance grade

grade number: thus

H7

is

to write the hole or shaft letter

for a hole, or e8 for a shaft of the

fit

and

accuracy given by the letter and numeral concerned. A fit involving these
two elements is written H7-e8 or H7/e8

SELECTED
Type of

FITS

(HOLE BASIS)

Fit

Clearance
(Slack,

Running

etc.)

Transition
(Push, Slide etc.)

Interference
(force, Driveetc.)

(Details of the limits for the

250mm

above shafts over a diameter range 6 mm to


1, page 225.)

are given in Appendix

LIMIT SYSTEMS

15

For average workshop use the H hole associated with the accuracy
11 (H7 to Hll) are recommended as being satisfactory and

grades 7 to

details of the limits of these for a

shown

in the table

on

diameter range of 6mm to

250mm are

p. 226.

140

120
100

ill
80
60
40

20
E
E

S
o

20

60

v.

80

"o

100
120
140

160

180

200
220
240 Clearance

Fig. 5
basis).

ISO System of Limits and

Fits.

Transition Interfere/! ce

Hole and

shaft relationships for selected

(Tolerance scale applies to the diameter range:

18mm 30mm.)

fits

(hole

MEASUREMENT AND GAUGING

16

From

the shafts included in the specification the table gives a selec-

tion of those

recommended

as likely to be the

the needs of the average workshop.

most useful

in

coping with

The holes with which they should be

associated as well as the approximate type of fit are also given.

Naturally from a selection of 27

curacy

it is

associated with 18 grades of accombinations, but the small selec-

fits

many

possible to choose

tion above should be sufficient to help the reader in his study of the
subject. Fig. 5 illustrates the hole

of the

H7

associated with the

fits

and
to

shaft relationship for a selection

Hll

holes as

recommended

in the

From the diagram the reader will be able to trace the


maximum and minimum metal conditions for the range of diameters to
BS

Specification.

which the

details apply.

Exercises 2a
Write down for problems Nos.

mum

and minimum clearance or

1.

75mm

2.

35

to 4 the hole

BSI H10 hole and e8

and shaft

limits,

and calculate the maxi-

interference. (See tables in appendices)


shaft.

mm BSI H9 hole and k6 shaft.

3.

20mm

4.

57

5.

Two 32mm BSI H8

BSI

H7

hole and f7 shaft.

mm BSI H8 hole and

centre distance

is

s7 shaft.

holes are bored in a plate at 105

to be checked by a

mm

gauge of the type shown

0-02

mm centres. Their

at Fig. 6. If the

"go" ends

Fig. 6

of the checking plugs are 12


centre distance.
6.

To

hole,

is

mm

diameter calculate their "Not go" diameters and their

"Go" end of a limit plug gauge, made for a 40 mm BSI H9


minimum hole size by 10% of the tolerance. Calculate the

allow for gauge wear the

made

larger than the

end of the gauge.


BSI f7 shaft is to be ground out to suit a
gauge made for a 50
k7 shaft. Determine the alteration necessary.
slot is made
8. Two blocks each 25
wide are made to BSI h7 limits and a 50

diameter of
7.

this

mm

limit caliper

mm

mm

to

H8

limits.

Compare

the

fit

of these blocks put together with that of a single 50

mm block

SLIP

GAUGES

17

made

to h7 limits. (Assume the width of the blocks put together to be equal to the sum
of their individual thicknesses.)
9. A number of limit plug gauges are available, made for the former Newall fin.

Class

and,

B hole

if so,

10.

in).

what

alteration

A BS 40mm

19mm

H8

hole

Determine the greatest and

least

Could these be ground down

to suit a

BSI

would be necessary?

b9 shaft

is

placed in an

H8

hole.

clearance possible between the shaft and the sides of the hole.

Slip gauges

For the purpose of checking the accuracy of micrometers, verniers and


it is necessary to have available some means of building
up any required length. In most workshops this is achieved by the use of
slip gauges. These consist of blocks of different thicknesses, which
are made to such a fine degree of accuracy and flatness on their measuring
faces, that they may be "wrung" together and the overall length of any
number of blocks so joined is the sum of their individual lengths. These
gauges are often called Johannsen gauges after their originator. (Fig. 7)
other gauges,

The Coventry Gauge and Tool Co. Ltd.


Fig. 7

set of slip

gauges (107 pieces).

{Lid of box not shown)

is

The number of blocks in a set will depend upon the range of sizes that
made up, and a medium-sized set of such gauges contains

required to be

47 pieces of the following

sizes.

18

MEASUREMENT AND GAUGING

Metric dimensions: widths of bloeks in


Pieces
9

Range
1005
101-109

1=1-1-9

24
4

mm.
Steps

0-01

01

1-24

1-0

25 50, 75, 100

25-0

47 Total

From such a selection it is possible to choose blocks to build up almost


any dimension that can be named within the capacity of the set. It will
be seen that there will be alternative methods of making up a size, but
the one should be chosen which employs the smallest number of pieces.
Example

3.

Choose blocks

to assemble the following sizes: (a) 37.31

mm

0)6 1-685 mm.


To assemble

(a)

we may

the following blocks:

101
1-3

1000
2500
37-31

use

Dimension

(b)

may be

obtained

as follows:

1005
108
1-6

8-00

50-00

61-685

The above example should indicate to the reader how to proceed for
any other size, the method being to start at the figure on the extreme right
of the dimension required, choosing gauges to accommodate each
figure in turn.

English sizes

For routine English work, slip gauges made to inch dimensions may be
obtained but it is possible, by calculating the metric equivalent, to use
gauges from a metric set.

Example
2-

1758 in.

4.

Make up

a set of slip gauges to check a gauge measuring

THE

The metric
25-4 and

The

is

equivalent of 2-2758 in

19

found by multiplying 2-1758 by

equal to 55-26532 mm.

may be assembled from the

nearest size to this, that

given above,

Gauges

is

SPIRIT LEVEL

to

is

55-265 which

make up

is

0-00032

set

of gauges

mm or 0-000012in. too small.

to 55-265 are as follows:

1005
106
1-2

50
55-265

Exercises 2b

From

the

list

make up

given on p. 18

sets

1,11-11

2.

4.

mm
68-78 mm

5.

mm
75-70 mm

7.

9.52mm

8.

44.45mm

10.

dimension given as

34-925
,4

of

slip

gauges to give the following

23-64

q-

mm

is

6.

mm
11 5-36 mm

9.

80.99mm

3.

to be checked.

sizes:

35-635

Make up two

separate sets of

blocks, one to measure each limit.


11.

Make up

sets

of

slip

gauges to check the jaws of a limit gap gauge for a

30mm BSI

f7 shaft.
12.

Two

holes, 0-875 inch diameter

and 10625 inch diameter, are bored in the face of a


mm, and make up a set of slip gauges to test

casting at 1-5625 inch centres. Convert to

between the insides of test plugs placed

The spirit level


The spirit level

in the bores.

consists essentially of a glass vial fixed into a frame.

inside top surface of the vial

is

not straight but

is

The

formed to a radius, con-

vex upwards, as shown in Fig. 8. In some instruments the inside of the vial
is ground barrel-shaped as shown, whilst in others the glass tube which

Fig. 8

MEASUREMENT AND GAUGING

20

forms the vial is bent to a radius. The vial contains spirit with sufficient air
space to leave a bubble, and is cemented into the frame and accurately
located so that when the base of the frame is level the bubble rests at the
centre of the scale.
The relations governing the movement of the bubble and the angle of
tilt of the level will be followed from Fig. 9 and the following:

faitt

Bj_J
""77777777777777777777777777^77777777777^1^
Fig. 9

Arc
of

its

CAD represents the upper inner surface of the vial and O the centre
radius.

OB

perpendicular to

represents the base of the level.

OA.

If

OB

in

now tilted to

bring

OB

is

horizontal and

to B,, point

A on the

swing to A, but the bubble will remain vertically above O and will
travel along the vial to A.
vial will

If
If

is

BB,

the angle of
is

tilt,

then 6

(radian)

= A,A

the length of the arc through which one end of the level (length

L) swings, then 9 (radian)

BB,
= jr

BB,

AA,

and BB, =

L.

AA,

Actually, the height h that one end of the level is above the other is the
dimension we require, but when dealing with angles as small as those con-

THE

cerned here, the difference between BBj and h

is

SPIRIT LEVEL

21

so small as to be

negligible.

Thus we can say that h = ^-(distance bubble moves)


If the

angle of

tilt is

required in degrees, then since

(radian)

= Movement

(degree)

of bubble

57-3

(Movement of bubble)

Unfortunately, not many makers of levels mark them with particulars as

may be determined experimentally by


by a known amount and after noting the movement of the bubble, calculating the radius from the above expressions.

to the radius (R) of the vial, but this


tilting

one end of the

Example
is

raised

vial.

5.

level

A spirit level is 300 mm long, and

002 mm above

Calculate the radius of the

h
y=

We uhave that
, 17

0-02

300

Example

6.

30 m. Find

found that when one end

moves

1-50

mm along the

vial.

Movement of bubble
=

_ 1-5
~ R

R =

From which

it is

the other, the bubble

^p^'

The base of

or 22- 5m

mm

is 450
long and the radius of the vial is
of one end above the other, and (b) the angle of

level

(a) the height

500mm

22

corresponding to a bubble movement of 3 mm.

tilt,

_ Movement

T=
*

of bubble

_ L (movement

of bubble)

R
450 x

....
0-

30 x 1000

Angle of tilt

in

degree

?
3q

^qq^

045mm
0-005 73

20-6 second

MEASUREMENT AND GAUGING

22

The sine bar


For accurate work

in connection with angles the sine bar possesses


advantages over the usual forms of protractor. Sine bars differ in form,
but the considerations affecting their setting are the same in every case.
Two common types of sine bar are shown in Fig. 10.
The bar shown at (a) has two plugs which are let in and project about

mm from the front face. At (b)

is shown a bar which is stepped at the


secured into each step, being pulled in by a screw so as
to contact with each of the faces of the step. Both at (a) and (b) the following points are important if the sine bar is to be of any use:

12

ends and a

(i)
(ii)

roller is

The

rollers or plugs should both be of the same diameter.


Their centre distance must be absolutely correct. (The diagram

is

mm

dimensioned as 200
centres, but sine bars are available in 100, 250 and
300
centres as well.
(iii) The centre line AB of the plugs must be absolutely parallel with
the edge of the bar used for measuring (generally the bottom). It is desirable for the two edges of the bar to be parallel, with AB parallel with

mm

both.

Fig. 10.

When

in use, the

bar shown at

(a)

lends itself to clamping against an

angle plate, whilst that at (b) can be rested on two piles of Johannson

gauges to give

it

the correct inclination.

Calculation for sine bar setting

In Fig. 11,

C is the centre distance of the plugs, h is the height of one plug

above the other and a

is

the angle to which the bar must be

set.

CALCULATION FOR SINE BAR SETTING

23

Fig. 11

Then

QR
and
i.e.

= C sin a
= (centre

difference in height of plugs

Example

7.

Calculate the setting of a 200

distance)

(sine of angle).

mm sine bar to measure an angle

of 36 38'.

We

have

tljat sin

36 38'

Hence one plug mut be

0-5967

200 X 0-5967
set 11 9-34

119.34

mm above the other.


mm sine bar to check the angle

Example

8. Calculate the setting of a 250


of g taper of 1 in 16, ^n tjie diameter.
The taper is shown in pig. 12(a) and, if it

then in triangle

is

assumed to pe

ABC,

16

AC =

16,

BC =

4,

and
ta

Fig. 12(a)

BAC =

4-4 =

=o 03125
-

3i

16 units long,

MEASUREMENT AND GAUGING

24

|=
6 =
=
sin

From which
and

Now
and since the

setting

is

for a

250

1 47'

30"

3 35'
sin 3 35'

0-0625

mm sine bar:

250 X 0-0625

15- 625

mm

Fig. 12(b)

The

set-up

shown

at Fig. 12(b),

A and B being two sets of block gauges

assembled to give the setting calculated above.


Precaution when checking plane surfaces with the sine bar
The reader should observe that when using the sine bar to check the angle

between two plane surfaces (e.g. the surfaces of an angle plate) the bar
must be set accurately at right angles to the slope of the face being
measured. The following example will illustrate how an error may be introduced if this is not done.

Example

9.

A surface was being checked by a 100 mm sine bar which, due

was placed 6 mm out of square with the slope of the


The angle obtained from the sine bar readings was 59 30'. Find

to an error in setting,
surface.

the true angle of the surface being measured.

The conditions

are

shown diagrammatically, and exaggerated,

in Fig.

13.

The readings should have been taken on the line of greatest slope AB,
AC.
CH is a perpendicular drawn from C on to AB, and from the conditions

but were actually taken on

CH = 6 mm.
AC = 100 mm, E, F and G are points
A meet verticals through B, C and H.

of the problem,

AB

==

through

where horizontal

lines

GAUGING LARGE RADII

25

Fig. 13

In triangle

ACH:

AH = AC - CH
2

100 2

62

= 9964

AH = \/9964 =

99-82

Now since CH is parallel to the slope, C and H


CE = HG
In triangle

CAE:

AC =
.'.CE

Then

Sine

HAG

99- 82

=
=

mm,

QQ

HG =
_.

100,

and

CAE =

59 30'

100 sin 59 30'

100 x 0-8616

= 8616mm

HAG
86- 16 mm and HAG

CE = HG;

since

HA

are the same height and

in triangle

is

the true angle of the plate

= 0-8631 from which, HAG, the true angle of the plate

59 40'

i.e.

an error of

Gauging large

From some

10'

radii

classes of work

it is necessary to measure the radii of circles


which are too large to be straddled by calipers or a micrometer. Where the
complete circle is available its circumference may be measured by a tape
and the diameter obtained by dividing by n. This method, however, is by
no means perfect, and is not at all convenient when the radius to be
measured is not part of a complete circle.
An alternative method is to determine the radius by reference to the
distance of its surface from the corner of a vee block resting on it.

26

MEASUREMENT AND GAUGING


In Fig. 14

centre

ABC

represents the faces of a vee block resting on a circle,

and radius R.

r^'-i
Fig. 14

ABO will be = as shown.


The circle and the block contact at D, and in triangle BOD, since D is a
right angle, angle BOD = 90 ^
If 6

is

For

the included angle of ABC,

half angle

its

different-sized circles placed in the vee, the variable length that

we can measure

is

BE, so that the problem becomes one of finding a suitR in terms of this length and the angle of the vee.

able expression for

Now BE = BO - EO

and

BO =

But

OD

EO = OD = R
90

secant

.\BO=ODsec
= R
since sec ( 90

Hence

-!)-

cosec

cosec

- l)

(90 -

Npte:

secant

cos

BE = i?cosecy--R

R =

-7T

iacosecy

From which

|)

BE
cosec

lj

cosecant

-r
sin

GAUGING LARGE RADII

For any given angle of vee, the quantity cosec ^

27

constant and

1 is

can be calculated and stamped on the gauge. All that is then necessary is
to measure BE, and divide it by this number to give R.

Example
of 120

is

A gauge of the type shown in Fig. 14 having an included angle


placed on a tube and the length BE measures 2 1-25 mm. Find the

10.

diameter of the tube.

BE

R=

Here

cosec

21-25

cosec 60

dia.

of tube

1-1547

137-36

0-1547

and

21-25

21-25

mm
137-36

274-72

mm

The main difficulty in the use of a gauge of this type is the accurate
measurement of the distance BE. This may be overcome by constructing
the gauge and incorporating a depth gauge or micrometer head on the
centre line at B. An alternative construction is to make the gauge with a
fiat portion as shown at Fig. 15, using slip gauges to check the distance
between the work and the flat.
It will be an interesting example to plan such a gauge as

this.

Plan out a vee gauge to measure round work, to cover a


1 1
range of diameters varying from 250mm to 750mm.

Example

Fig. 15

MEASUREMENT AND GAUGING

28

We

will

portion

make

FG

the gauge with an included angle of 120, and the flat


the corner of the vee such that it just contacts with

filling in

mm

a 250
circle placed in the vee, as shown in Fig. 15 The length of the
gauge must be sufficient to accomodate a 750mm circle.
The length must exceed twice the distance from E to line AB, i.e. > 2AE
sin 30 = > 2 x 375 x h say, 400mm.
If flat

FG just touches a 250 mm

circle

placed in the vee,

then

CB = CD

sec 30

125 x 1-1547

= 144.34mm

and from the vee corner B to FG the distance is 144-34 - 125 = 19-34 mm.
It now remains to find the relation between the radius of any circle
placed in the vee, and the distance from its circumference to line FG.
From Fig. 14 we have that from B to the circumference of a circle radius
R,

= R

cosec

which becomes 0-1547/? when j

We have to

subtract 19-34

d =
and transposing to give

60.

mm from this,

0-1547/?

so that

19-34

mm

results in

RD =

d+

19-34

0-1547

mm

The distance d can be measured with slip gauges, or a micrometer depth


gauge incorporated in the construction as before. By marking the above
formula on the gauge, the checking of sizes becomes a routine job.
The measurement of large bores
interesting example of the measurement of a large diameter is available to us in the gauging of large holes with a point gauge This is shown in
Fig. 16(a), where a hole of diameter D is being gauged by a point gauge
of length L. In practice, L is a very small amount less than D, and when
the gauge is held at one end, a small amount of rocking movement on

An

either side of the centre line

byw.

is

possible at the other end. This

is

indicated

THE MEASUREMENT OF LARGE BORES

29

Fig. 16(a)

The conditions are shown exaggerated at Fig

6(b)

The full circle is the

hole being gauged, and the dotted circle (centre A) is that which the end of
the point gauge would describe if it made a full sweep Actually, the end of
.

moves over the arc BHF.The amount by which this guage


smaller than D is shown by CH. Let this be S.

the gauge only


is

Fig. 16(6)

An approximate solution to the problem which will be accurate enough


for

most practical purposes

is

as follows:

MEASUREMENT AND GAUGING

30

If

BC

is

and

circle,

B is a right angle, since


ABC: AC 2 = CB 2 + AB 2

joined, angle
in triangle

AC =

AB = L

D;

Hence we may

it is

the angle in a semi-

and

CB

very nearly equal to w.

is

D = L + w
D=L+8
2

say:

But

approximately.

+ S) 2 = L 2 + w 2
L + 2LS + S 2 = L 2 + w 2
(L

Now S will be

a very small quantity, probably less than 0-02

S 2 will be so small that

Hence

we may

ignore

mm so that

it.

+ 2LS = L 2 + w 2
2LS = w 2
S

= 2L

This enables us to find the amount the gauge

when we know how

far the

is

smaller than the hole

end may be rocked on either side of the centre

line.

Example

12. If a

375

mm point gauge rocked 6 mm at one end, calculate

the diameter of the hole being gauged.

w
and
^
2

The

difference (S)

if the total

32
'
*

Hence, Hole diameter

The

X 375

750

Exercises 2c
is 25 m. When

2^m

mm

= 375-012mm

radius of the vial of a spirit level

a machine

6 mm,

is

0-012mm

1.

movement

3mm

this

is

placed on the bed of

What is the end to


end error in the machine?
2. A machine bed is 1-8 m long and is tested by a level 150mm long. One division on
the level corresponds to an inclination of 0-06 mm per m. The level is transversed in
steps of its length, from the LH to the RH end of the bed, with the following results:
long, the bubble

Position of Level

Reading
(Division)

+ LH end high
- RH end high

is

from

its

central position.

1*

(continued on

p. 31)

THE MEASUREMENT OF ANGLES AND LARGE RADII

10

Position of Level

+ LH end high
- RH end high

Reading
(Division)

-1

11

31

12

-1

a scale diagram showing the dip in the bed to an enlarged scale, and calculate

Make

the total error.


3. If a level is to be sensitive enough to indicate 1 minute of angle by
ment of the bubble, what must be the radius of the vial?
4.

250mm

Calculate the setting of a

sine bar to

check a taper of

mm of move-

in 6

on the

diameter.
5.

100

mm

sine bar

drawing as 2636'

What
6.

is

4'.

is

used to check the inclination of a surface which is given on the


height of one plug above the other is found to be 45-03 mm.

The

the error in the angle of the surface?


sine square has 4 plugs spaced at the corners of a 125

mm square. To mark out the

template shown at Fig. 17, the template is secured to the sine square and line AB is
The square is then tilted and set to the correct
first marked parallel to two of the plugs
1

CD

BC,
the lengths x and v.

angles for marking


also

and

AD.

Calculate the settings for marking these lines and

Fig. 17

mm

mm

sine bar, the reading obtained is 122-30


an angular surface with a 200
out of alignment with the line
bar is 6
the
other.
If
the
above
one
plug
height
of
for the
of maximum slope, calculate the true angle of the surface and state the error in the
7. In testing

mm

reading.
8.

at

point gauge 500

one end.

When

it

is

mm

long,

when

tried in a bore, rocks a total

amount of 12 mm
movement is

tried in a position at 90 to the first position, the

24 mm. Calculate the mean diameter of the bore and the out of roundness.
9. A vee of 120 with a 12mm flat at its bottom is placed on a cylinder and the distance
from the flat to the curved surface of the cylinder is 2-40 mm. Calculate the diameter of
the cylinder.

MEASUREMENT AND GAUGING

32

10. In Fig. 18

and B are two spherical seating pins 14 mm diameter.


so that the distance between the circle and the

Calculate the height

setting pin

be 0-50 mm.
(A and B are true half spheres.)

shall

50

Fig. 18

11. How much rock must be allowed on a point gauge 460


be finished to 460-06
diameter?

mm

long

if

the bore

is

to

mm

The

location of points on angular surfaces

When

a component having an angular surface is shown in orthographic


projection on a drawing, only the projected view is given, and unless a
true auxiliary view is added to give particulars of points located on
the surface, some means must be found to calculate their position.

Two

or three problems of this type will be illustrated in the following

examples:

Example

13.

The plan and

elevation of a block with two holes

is

shown

in Fig. 19 (a).

Find

(a)

the centre distance of the holes,

XX

between
and AB, both dimensions as measured
on the sloping surface.
In dealing with problems of this type it is well to cultivate the sense of
visualizing lengths in 3 perpendicular directions, and also of being able
to make a rough pictorial sketch of the data. The sketch is generally
very useful in helping to show up how the problem should be treated.
(b) the angle

In Fig. 19

(b),

A and B

are the hole centres,

surface where the centre lines intersect, and

through

meets a horizontal through C.

C is a point on the sloping

D is the point where a vertical

THE LOCATION OF POINTS ON ANGULAR SURFACES

33

(b)

(a)

Fig. 19

Then

ACD:

in triangle

CD =
AC
The

centre distance

26 mm,

D=

90 and

CD

26

cos 35

0-8192

AB

is

C =

35

= 31-74mm

the hypotenuse of the right-angled triangle

ABC.

AB =
2

AB =
The angle made by

26 2

31-74 2

n/1684

41-04

1684

mm

AB with the side of the block is the angle ABE and


AE =
ABC =
Sm ABE
AB

26

4T04

0-6335

/\

From which ABE =

3918

Example

14. Fig. 20 (a) shows the plan and elevation of a block in which
a hole has to be drilled, entering at the point A, and leaving at B.

Calculate the angular settings of the block for drilling.

34

MEASUREMENT AND GAUGING

Fig. 20(a)

The

Fig. 20(b)

centre line of the hole

the plan, point

of the job

is

XY in the elevation, and X,Y, in


A pictorial view
and in that diagram AC is a vertical

lettered

is

B being underneath

shown

at Fig.

20

(b),

the block as drawn.

and BC a horizontal line. For drilling the hole, the base of the block must
be set at an angle of 9, and the face containing A must be set at a, both
angles being with the vertical.
In triangle

CDB:

CD =

29 mm,

CB =

29 2

DB =

19 2

19

mm and D

90

1202

CB = ^1202 = 3467 mm
tan

AC

CB

1-5

-0-3317

34-67

1821'

tan

a =

DB

a =

33 14'

19

29

Example 15. Calculate the angular


AB shown in Fig. 21

ft

,_

- 6552

settings for drilling a hole

If
is joined to C, triangle ABC is formed and
equal to the line DE, shown on the end of the bar.

AC

is

on the line

parallel

and

THE LOCATION OF POINTS ON ANGULAR SURFACES

DE =
and

OEsec

in triangle

45

= OE x

1-414

Hence,
bar

26 x 1-414

36-76

mm

ABC:

BC
A
AC = tanA =
from which

35

A=

if lines

52
36^76

,,
=M146
,

54 45'.

DE

and

EC

are

set at 54 45' to the horizontal

slope, a hole started at

will

marked on the
with

bar,

and the end of the

DE parallel to the line of greatest

break through

at

A.

Fig. 21

Example 16. In the drawing of the component shown at Fig. 22 (x)the


two sloping holes starting at A and B must meet at a point 10 mm from
the base of the block. Find the starting heights a and b of the angular
holes.

diagrammatic view of the base of the block is shown at Fig. 22 (y)


which the lines AB, BC and AC are assumed to be horizontal ones (i.e.
the projections of lines joining the points A, B and C).
in

36

MEASUREMENT AND GAUGING

Fig. 22

In triangle

ABD:

AB =
2

AB =
also

13

+ 16 2 - 2 x 13 x 16
+ 256 - 208 = 217

169

13

sin 60

sin

B =

B =

4951'

A =

180

sin

Hence
Since

DBC =

r-j-ss

BAC =

0-7644

14-73

+ 49 51')

(60

/\

90;

/\

also

= ._,..

13 sin 60

/\

In triangle

= 1473 mm

v^217

AB

cos 60 (cosine rule)

90

ABC; AB =

ABC =
-

709'

14-73.

90

B =

709'

4951

409'

1951'

409'

A=

1951'

THE LOCATION OF POINTS ON ANGULAR SURFACES

C = 180 - (1951' + 409') = 120


14-73
- BC
= -: r^rr
from which BC =
irtog1
1951'
120

37

also

and

sin

also in the

The

same

5-77

mm

sin

triangle:

AC

14-73

sin 409'

sin 120

whence

centre lines of the holes of which


at 20 and 30 respectively.

AC =

10-97

mm

AC and BC are projections, slope

upwards

Hence, height of A above C = AC tan 20 = 1097 x 0-364 = 399 mm


and height of B above C = BC tan 30 = 577 x 05774 = 3-33 mm.
This completes the solution of the problem and gives us the following
data:

dimension a
dimension b

=
=

3-99
3-33

+
+

10
10

=
=

13-99
1

3-33

mm
mm

Exercises 2d
1.

straight-edge

is

placed on a surface sloping at 36 45' and

is set

at

an angle of

15 to the line of greatest slope. Calculate the inclination of the straight-edge to the

horizontal.
2. In Fig. 23 a hole is to be drilled, starting in the centre of the sloping face, and
breaking out at the corner B. Calculate the angle between the vertical plane containing

centre line

AB

^*^*^

civ?

,/
(

For

l~

of the block.

D_^t^>^

V/

3.

BCD

of the hole, and the face

Jf

51

between the centre line of the hole and the base


and breaking out in the centre of the base.

Fig. 23, calculate the angle

of the block, for a hole starting

at

Fig. 23

38

MEASUREMENT AND GAUGING

4. In Fig.

24

and B are two points on the sloping surface shown, and

parallel to the sloping edge.

sions a

and

b,

and

(iii)

Find

distance

(i)

angle line

AB makes with the horizontal,

line

AB

is

dimen-

(ii)

AB.

Fig. 24

5.

In Fig. 25, 6 holes are equally spaced, start on an 80

through on a 130
and the next.

mm

circle.

mm

pitch circle and break

Calculate the angle between the centre lines of one hole

6. In Fig. 26 find the distance a and the angle a for a hole whose centre
be tangential to the 60mm circle.

7. Calculate

height from the base to the centres of holes

the

line

and B

AB shall
in

Fig.

27.
8.

In Fig. 28 a hole

AB

A and leaves the bottom of the block at B. Find the


makes with the base of the block. Another hole is to
a plane parallel to the plane CDEF. The second hole must

starts at

length of this hole and the angle


start at

H, and be

run into the


line

drilled in

first (i.e.

it

their centre lines

must

intersect). Calculate the angle that the centre

of the second hole must make with the base.

Measurement of tapers by means of balls and rollers


Male taper with rollers (Fig. 29 (a)). If two similar rollers are placed in
contact with the taper on opposite sides as shown, then for rollers of
diameter d and centers c:
h

c tan

(1)

MEASUREMENT OF TAPERS BY MEANS OF BALLS AND ROLLERS

39

Fig. 26

165
Fig. 25

P.C.Crs.

36"

4 Holes
equally

spaced

105
Vertical height

from base

Fig. 27

Fig. 28

MEASUREMENT AND GAUGING

40

and the difference between the dimensions taken over the top and bottom
When the taper is dimensioned as 1 in a certain
length (say 1 in /) on the diameter,
pairs of rollers will be 2h.

then

- =

2/

and A

(2)

27

Fig. 29 {a).

taper given in

mm/ unit

length

may be

converted to

in

by

divi-

sion.

In some cases
of the taper, and

it

may be

if this

necessary to have a check on the diameter D


diameter is situated at a distance
from the centre

of the top pair of rollers:


In triangle

BEF:

BF =
BE
BF =

and since

COS 2'

dia of roller

=2

yop =

cos y, from which

BE
2

The

radius

EL

of the taper

-.-

GK (EG

cosy

is

parallel to the taper

centre line).
-,

T T
=
EL

D - _,
a
D
= EG tan _-

-_-

-=-

H.,,tan ya

MEASUREMENT OF TAPERS BY MEANS OF BALLS AND ROLLERS

C (centre

distance of rollers)

(d _ + D__//,

2 (BE

tan

In practice, C,

rrc

41

+ EL)

a\

\
(3)

d and H would be known,

so

we require to transpose for

D.
This gives that

-=

H tan Ta2

is

Then

and

dimensioned as
tan

or

cos

(4)

/:

27
/

(Fig. 29(A)).

COS^r
2

in

D
= -=-

z
2

a =

a
cosy

D = C+ 2#tan

and

If the taper

vTTT

D then becomes

H
D - C+-

/fv/T+72
*

(5)

Fig.

29

(6).

In practice, for the measurement of tapers in this way,

it is helpful to have
a fixture of some kind which will support the taper and provide supporting
and gauging arrangements for the rollers.

MEASUREMENT AND GAUGING

42

Example

17.

of rollers 12

shown

as

A taper of

in 10

in Fig. 30. If the reading

culate (a) the reading for the

on a

on the diameter is 80 mm long. Two pairs


it, and the spacing of the rollers is

mm dia. are used to check

circle 14

bottom

over the top rollers


rollers, (b)

is

105 mm, cal-

the diameter of the taper

mm from the top.

Fig. 30.

mm

If the top rollers are situated at 58


from the face on which the
taper and bottom rollers are resting, the roller centres will be 52
as

mm

shown

Centre distance of top rollers


formula to find h we have
h

= ^[where
=

52
~?j

i *n
2-60

105

5-2

For calculating the diameter

+ 12

C-

93,

H=

8,

d=

12,

52 and

93

mm and applying the

10]

roller will

99-8

be

mm

of AB we have from

H
and

12

mm

Hence the reading over the bottom


93

10

dV L

4- I 2

(5)

above that

CHECKING A TAPER HOLE BY MEANS OF BALLS

43

So that

D ~
=

93

93-8

12VT+100

To

10

12-012

81 -788

mm

Checking a taper hole by means of balls

For

this

it is

necessary to use two balls of different diameters which will


touching its sides. The ball sizes should be chosen to give

rest in the hole,

(c), and this may be measured by employing


a depth gauge from the top face of the hole to the top of the lower bah\
and a height or depth gauge to the top of the upper one.

a reasonable centre distance

Fig. 31

Generally, the dimensions R,

r,

and h

in Fig. 31

would be known, and

we require to derive formulae for finding a and D.


E is the point where the ball contacts with the side
is

of the hole and

BC

parallel to the side of the taper.

Then

in triangle

ABC:

AB

so that

cy

C =

AC
AC
AB

r (since

CE =

r),

sin

which enables us to

and B

90,

find the angle

j
=

.a

Sin fr

(6)

a of the

taper.

MEASUREMENT AND GAUGING

44

If the taper

dimensioned as

is

on the diameter, then from

in /

Fig. 29 (b),

R -

and from above,

sin^2

^TTT

vTTT

vJTT =
2

Square both

2(R

- rY

sides:

4{R

from which

4(i?

and

'

r)

- J c2 ~(R -

c2

r)

c*

,/

- Vc2 ~ (R ~
2{R - r)

r) 2
(7)

To obtain an expression for the top diameter


consider triangles AEF and

of the hole

we must

FGH

and

==

2(AF + GH)

= 2^AE
= 26?
For a taper of
sec

and

becomes

Example

in

j=

sec

sec

j + FG tan y J [since E = G =

y+

Atan

90]

(8)

f)

on the diameter
*

+ F and

tan

?V ' +

|=

/2

+ Al

[Fig. 29 (6)]

(9)

18. In a check on a taper hole, using the symbols and method


given in Fig. 31, the following results were obtained:

CHECKING A TAPER HOLE BY MEANS OF BALLS

R =

15 mm, r

mm,

12-5

37-4

mm and h

7-3

45

mm.

Calculate the total angle of taper and the top diameter.

Here we have from above,

that sin

15

~
This gives

y=

3 50'

and a

12-5

y=
= 00668

37-4

7 40'.

D = 2(rscc^ +

/itan^J

sec^= 10022
tan

D =

j=

2(15

00670

x 10022 + 73 x 00670) =

3 1-04

mm

Exercises 2e
1.

Calculate the diameter

and the included angle of the taper

for the case

shown in

Fig. 32.

Fig. 33

Fig. 32

2.

(See

For the gauge shown


Example 22, p. 52.)

in Fig.

33 calculate the centre height

H between the two balls.

MEASUREMENT AND GAUGING

46

3. Calculate,

are

all

4.

20

shown

for the set-up

in Fig. 34, the

dimensions

A and

B.

(The

rollers

mm dia.)

For the example shown

the centre distance

of the

Total.
1

in

in Fig.

rollers.

35,

Find

make up an

H when D

expression connecting

with

77 mm.

Taper

20

'777777777777?77777777)(7777777777777777777

58

-A

<p

Two 20 Rollers

Fig. 34

5.

hole

an expression
fit

of diameter

in

terms of

Fig. 35

has two equal plugs, B, which just

for the

diameter

d,

into the spaces left (Fig. 36).

Find d when

D=

80 mm.

Fig. 36

6.

In Fig. 37 the three radii blend together.

Calculate the angle a.

fit

into

it.

of two more plugs C, which

Fig. 37

Obtain
will just

WIRE MEASUREMENT OF SCREW THREADS

47

Wire measurement of screw threads


For the fundamental accurate measurement of a screw thread such as
is necessary in turning taps and screw gauges, the method employing 3
wires is a very useful one. The wires are arranged as shown in Fig. 38 (a).
We will work out a general case, and in Fig. 38 (b) is shown a wire,
radius r, resting in a sharp pointed thread of angle a, pitch/? and effective

mean) diameter E The wire size is not important, providing the


three are the same diameter, touch at the flat portion of the thread, and
are large enough to project above the thread for gauging. The best results
(or

Fig. 38

(a)

(*)

the wires touch the thread at the effective


diameter, and for this reason the wires should be near to the following
are obtained, however,

if

diameters:

For ISO Metric and Unified d = 0-577 p


d = 0-564 p
For Whitworth
In Fig. 38

(b),

AD

AB

cosec

y =

cosec

=-

H DE cot y = f cot 7
CD =
h

\H = 4

AD - CD =

cot

cosec

j - j cot

-x-

MEASUREMENT AND GAUGING

48

and distance over wires (W)

= DE +

2h

= de +

2 r cosec

= DE +

2r(\

= DE +

d\l

2r

we

will

2r

+cosec^-|cot|
+ cosec

Having established
thread,

f ~ f cot y) +

2)~J cot f

wnere d =

this general formula,

determine

its

dia.

of wires)

which may be applied to any


most common

special adaptation for the

thread forms.
(a)

ISO

metric and unified (Fig. 39)

DE = D -

Here

a =
cosec

y=

Z)

= D -

2(0-325/>)

60

coty =

1-732

+ d (1 +

cosec

0-65p

W{over wires)

COt

-y J

= D -0-65p + 43)- | (1-732)


= D + 3d - 1-516/j

-p

<

6l

'^fr-^Vv

6
'

Fig. 39

ISO metric and

unified

Fig.

40

Whitworth

CHECKING THE THREAD ANGLE OF A SCREW

(b)

49

Whitworth (Fig. 40).

Here the depth of thread

a =

Also since

= DE +

fF(over wires)

=
=
Example

19.

Z)

^=

d(l

0-64/?

55

cosec-y
cot

DE = D -

so that

is 0-64/7,

2-1657
1-921

cosec

0-64/?

3-1657rf

-y]

y cot -y

</(3-1657)

L 1921

l-60/>

Determine the measurement over wires

for the following

cases:
(a)

Af30 x

(b)

(a)

M30 x

ISO metric

3-5

in dia.

10

t.p.i.

using wires 2

ISO metric using

3.5

30, d=
.-.

W=
=

(b)

in dia.

10

t.p.i.

in dia.

2mm wires.

W=D
D=

mm dia.

Whitworth using wires 0-062

+ 3d -

1-516/?

2 and/)

3-5

30+

30-694

1-516

3-5

mm

Whitworth using 0-062 wires


+ 3-1657rf- 1-60/7

W= D
D=

\,d

W=
=

= 01
x 0-062 -

0-062 and/)
1

3-1657

1-60

0-1

1-036 in.

Checking the thread angle of a screw


By taking measurements over two sets of wires of different diameters
a check on the thread angle may be made. The underlying theory of this
is similar to that given on page 43 for the measurement of taper holes

by means of two

balls.

MEASUREMENT AND GAUGING

50

Miscellaneous problems in measurement

Examples

in

gauging and measurement are so

many and

varied that

it is

impossible to establish set rules for application to every problem. If the

fundamental rules of geometry and trigonometry are known thoroughly


nearly always possible to apply some of them to the solution of the
problem. The following miscellaneous examples will serve to indicate
it is

methods of dealing with problems of a

possible

similar type.

Example 20. Two 25 mm circles centres D and B, touch a 100 mm circle,


and their centres subtend an angle of 50 at its centre. Find the diameter of
a circle which will touch the other three. The problem is shown at Fig. 41
and we require to obtain the diameter of circle C

Fig. 41

If

and B are joined and

AC =

50

r;

CB =

triangle

12-5

r,

ABC

AB =

Applying the cosine rule for triangle

is

considered,

62-5 and

we

have:

A = 25 (r = radofC)

ABC

CB 2 = AC 2 + AB 2 - 2AC.AB

cos A"

Substituting the values from above gives us


(12-5

a-)

(50

r)

(62-5)

2(50

r)(62.5)(0-9063)

MISCELLANEOUS PROBLEMS IN MEASUREMENT

51

Multiplying out the brackets gives:


156-3

eliminate r

25r

= 2500 +

from both

25r

lOOr

sides

lOOr

and

+ 3906 - 5664 - 11329r

collect terms

2500

38-29r

=
=

585-7

13-29 r

+ 3906 - 5664 -

15-29

38-29
giving a circle of 2

15-29

mm

= 30-58mmdia

From a piece of round material 40 mm radius, a piece 50 mm

Example

21.

radius

cut as

is

156-3

585-7

shown

in Fig. 42.

Find the distance x

Fig. 42

AC
AB =

If

and
59,

also

BC

are joined as

shown

in the figure,

AC = 40 and BC = 50
AC = AB + BC - 2AB.BC
2

cos D
B

cos

then in triangle ABC:

(cosine rule)

5-9 + 5 -4 2
,.
= AB + ^BC -AC =
(working
2 AB.BC
2x5-9x5
2

43-81

0-7425

59

A = 423'
B

If

CD is 1

r to

AB, then

DB = CB

cos B = 50 cos 423'


= 50 x 0-7425 = 37- 125 mm
x = AB - DB = 59 - 37-125 =

21 -875

mm

in

cm)

MEASUREMENT AND GAUGING

52

Example

22.

A profile gauge is as shown by ABCD in Fig. 43. Two plugs

are placed in the gauge and dimension h

required as a check.

is

Fig. 43

HN

is

be able to determine

h.

it.

HM are drawn parallel to AB and PG in per-

EF and

In the diagram,

pendicular to

a horizonatl

CK
In triangle

JCG:

line,

26 x tan 32

JCG =

and

if

we can

16-25

find

GN we shall

mm

^ = 61, JG = 12-5 and JC = JG cot 61 =


12-5 cot 61

= 6-93mm

ALB: LB = ALtan24 = 26 tan 24 = 11.57mm


In triangle JGF: JF = JG tan 24 = 12-5 tan 24 = 5-56 mm
FC = JC - JF = 6-93 - 5-56 = 1.37mm
BF = LK - (LB + FC + CK) = 51 - (11-57 + 1-37 + 16-25) = 21-81 mm
In triangle

GP = BF

PM =

cos 24

21-81 cos 24

GH

cos

/\
GM
= -p^Y
HGM
Grl

/\

/\

Now HGN = PGN and since

PGN =

12-01
1Zr
W1

20-5

HG

HGN

cos
Distance h

12-5

mm

12-01

20-5

mm

mm

/\

0-5858 and

HGM = 548'

/\

+24 =

90

20-01

HGM

.HGN =

GN

GM = 20-01

rad of small plug so that


= sum of plug radii

114

114

54

8'

59 52'

= 20-5 cos 59 52' = 20-5 x 0-5020 =


= [JG + GN + rad of small plug] - 26
= 12-5 + 10-29 + 8-26
= 4-79 mm

10-29

mm

MISCELLANEOUS PROBLEMS IN MEASUREMENT

Example

23.

For the turned part shown

may

so that the diameter at the throat

in Fig. 44, calculate the radius (/?)

be

20mm

shown.

as

Fig.

The

radius

53

44

blends into the 20 angular portion, and into the 20

mm

radius, spherical end.

We have to construct and solve an equation to give us R.


DC is drawn perpendicular to AB, and DF is drawn to the point where
R blends into the 20 angular portion so that FDE = 20 GFE is parallel
.

to

AB.

Then we have

GF = GH

that

GF + FE

+ CB = AB = 51 mm.
= (AH - AG) cot 20 = (AH - CE)

cot 20

= [AH - (CD - DE)] cot 20


= [19 - {(/? + 10) - R cos 20}] cot 20
= [19 - R - 10 + 0-9397/?] cot 20
= [9 -0-0603/?] cot 20
= 24-73 -0-166/?
FE = /? sin 20 = 0342/?

CB = VDB 2 - DC 2 = V(R +

20)

Hence equating (GF + FE + CB)


24-73

and

this

0-166/?

0-342/?

to

+ V(R +

(/?

AB =

20)

10)

51

(/?

10)

reduces to

V(R +
Square both

20)

(/?

10)

26-27

0-176/?

sides:

(/?

20)

(/?

10)

(26-27

0-176/?) 2

51

cot 20 c

MEASUREMENT AND GAUGING

54

i.e.

by squaring out the brackets

R 2 + 40R +

- R 2 - 20R -

400

100

Collecting and re-arranging on the i?H side:


0-03 IR 2 - 29-25.R + 390-1

This

is

690-1

25R + 0-03LR 2

=*

a quadratic equation in R, and can be solved by the formula

method.

R=

29-25

V29-25 2 - 4 x

0-031

390-1

2 x 0-031

From which R = 930


The smaller
Hence

root,

or 13-55

R=

13-55

is

R =

obviously the one


13-55

we

require

mm

Exercises 2f
1.

Calculate the diameter over wires for the following screw threads:

M20 x
M36 x

(a)

(b)
(c)

2.

ISO metric over 0-577/>mm wires


ISO metric over 0-577pmm wires
X lOt.p.i. Whitworth over 0-564/? wires

fin

2-5

screw thread has the form and angle shown

in Fig. 45. Calculate the reading

mm plugs placed in opposite threads.

over 8

n pitch

J.

7&4

\Lj2

Fig. 45

3.

wedge

wedge
is level,

rests

between two radiused jaws as shown

in Fig. 46.

When the top

of the

calculate the distance H.

4. Solve the previous problem,

when

the radius on the right-hand side jaw

is

mm.

MISCELLANEOUS PROBELMS

5. In

Example

3,

if

the

wedge has an included angle of

angle of 10, calculate the distance


6.

H to

its

40,

IN

and

MEASUREMENT

is tilted

through an

higher corner.

Calculate the distance from the centre of the circle (O) to the centre of the 20

plug placed in the

slot

shown

55

mm

in Fig. 47.

Fig. 48

7. Fig. 48 shows the profile of a die form.


width d at the narrowest portion.

From

the information given, calculate the

Fig. 49

8.

From

the information given in Fig. 49 calculate the width

W of the profile shown.

Calculations for cutting,


turning and boring

Speed and feed range

The reader

will,

no doubt, be acquainted with the meaning of speed and

feed in connection with turning and boring operations.

The driving arrangements of machine tools usually make provision


number of speeds and feeds, so that a suitable one may be chosen
for the work in hand. The reader will probably be curious as to how these
for a

are determined. In the case of spindle speeds, the highest and lowest
speeds in the range are generally related to the extremes of size for which
the machine is designed. For example: a lathe might be designed to take a
rr.nge of

work varying from

10

cutting speed of 22 m/min, this

N=
XT

mm to 250 mm diameter.
would

1000 x 22 x 7
77j
22 x 10

1000 x 22

n x T7
10

as being suitable for the

10mm

Allowing for a

give for the top speed:

_
700

rev/min

diameter work.

For the lowest speed:

N=
XT

These

will

1000 x 22
X 250

1000 x 22 x 7
22 x 250

28 rev/min

and if we assume there


must be chosen and
the intermediate speeds being so calculated that the whole
be the highest and lowest

in the range,

are eight speeds altogether, six intermediate speeds


fitted in,

some regular order.


One method of arranging the speeds would be to make them in straight
line form, in which each speed would be the same amount greater than the
series

is

in

one below it. In this case, as there are


would be:

8 speeds

and 7

interval

Top speed bottom speed _ 700


7

28

_
-

672

_
-

_,

*&

intervals,

each

SPEED AND FEED RANGE

and the speeds would


1st

57

be:

28 rev/mm, 2nd 28
3rd 124

96

+ 96 =

124 rev/min
220 rev/min

and so on.

700 -

If these

and the

4
5
6
Speed Number

Fig. 50

were plotted on a graph, the result would be as shown in Fig.


is known as an Arithmetic Progression.

50,

series

In practice, speeds arranged in this

way

are not suitable, as the steps

between the speeds at the lower end (28 rev/min, 124 rev/min, 220 rev/min)
are too great, whilst at the upper end of the range (700, 604, 508 rev/min,
etc.) a larger interval value could be tolerated without inconvenience.
To overcome these objections and provide a convenient range of
speeds, they are generally arranged in Geometric Progression. When
arranged in this way, instead of each speed being a constant amount
greater than the one below it, the speed is a constant multiple of the one
below it. The calculation for determining speeds arranged in geometric
progression is as follows:
Considering the case we have taken, where the extremes are 28 and
700 rev/min with 8 speeds.

The 2nd speed

will

be a constant amount multiplied by the

1 st,

3rd will be the same constant multiplied by the 2nd, and so on.
Let this constant be denoted by K.

Then

1st

speed

2nd speed
3rd speed
4th speed

= 28
= 28 X K = 28AT
= 28*: x K = 2SK 2
= 2SK 2 x K = 2SK

and so on to the 8th speed, which we can see

will

be 2%K\

and the

CALCULATIONS FOR CUTTING, TURNING AND BORING

58

Now the

8th speed

is

700 rev/min, so that

2SK = 700
1

ZD

K
Hence we have

--

v/25
st

speed

28

No

1-584

25

Log.
7)1-397 9(0-1997)

28 rev/min

2nd speed = 28 x 1-584 = 44 rev/min


3rd speed

The speeds arranged


51,

and

their

in

44 x 1-584

70 rev/min, and so on.

geometric pregression are shown plotted in Fig.


straight-line arrangement is shown in

comparison with the

the table below.

The reader will observe

that the geometric arrangement

bottom of the range and wider ones


more useful under application.

gives closer intervals at the

top which

is

Speed

Arithmetic

Geometric

Progression

Progression

rev/min

rev/min

28

28

124

44

220

70

316

111

412

176

508

279

604

442

700

700

700-

4
5
6
Speed Number

at the

Fig. 51

We

might put a geometric progression

in general

follows:

Let

A = 1st term
A 2 = 2nd term
x

A n = nth term
K = constant multiplier
n = number of terms

symbolic form as

SPEED AND FEED RANGE

=
=
=
=

1 st term
2nd term
3rd term
nth term

(i.e. if n

A2 = A K
A = A K = A,K 2
A n = A K"
= 8, then the index of K is 8 - 1 = 7).

Hence

A n =A,Kn ~

if

*- = d* and
1

In an example, A,

would enable

Example
if

59

= J45

An and n would be given and the expression above

K to be

found and the whole

series calculated.

Calculate a suitable range of six speeds for a drilling machine,

the size range of the machine

a cutting speed of 22 m/min

is

is

to be from 2-5

to be given.

mm to 10 mm drills and

Show a speed table with suitable

each speed.

drill size for

We have that N =

IQO0S

-3 where jV

S =
d =
For the top speed

(2-5

1000 X 22

*X2.5 =

Drill diameter.

1000 x 22 x 7
22 x 2-5

0Qnn
= 2800rev/min

.xlO =
fa

1000 x 22 x 7
22 x 10

_
= 70
rev/mm
.

72800

=Jf =a/^ = >/4


No.
4

Log.
5)0.6021(0-1204

Antilog 0-1204

We may now calculate

1-319

the range of speeds as follows:

= 700 rev/min
2nd speed = 700 x 1-319 = 924 rev/min
3rd speed = 924 x 1-319 = 1220 rev/min
1st

drill)

1000 x 22

AT (the multiplier)

Cutting speed (m/min).

mm drill)

Lowest speed (10 mm


Nl

Spindle speed (rev/min).

speed

K.

CALCULATIONS FOR CUTTING, TURNING AND BORING

60

4th speed
5th speed

6th speed

=
=
=

1220
1610

x
x

= 1610rev/min
= 2120rev/min
= 2800rev/min

1-319
1-319

2120 x 1-319

The relationship between the speeds and the drill sizes they will accommodate may now be calculated:

mm

Nearest 0-25
1st

700rev/min suitable for 10

speed,

mm drill

10mm

700
924rev/min suitable for 10 x q~j

2nd speed,

3rd speed, 1220rev/min suitable for 10 x


4th speed, 1610rev/min suitable for 10 X

Spindle Speed (rev/min)


Suitable

drill

diameter (mm)

4-25

mm

700
700
2120

mm drill

is

mm

1610

6th speed, 2800rev/min suitable for 2-5

diameter table

5-75

700

drill

mm

1220

5th speed, 2120rev/min suitable for 10

The speed and

7-5

mm
2- 5 mm

3-25

shown below.

700

924

1220

1610

2120

2800

100

7-5

5-75

4-25

3-25

2-5

Feeds

The

factors governing the choice of feed-range limits is rather beyond


our scope, but when the limits of the range have been fixed, together
with the number of intermediates in the range, the steps usually follow
the rules for geometric progression in the same way as the speeds.

1.

lathe

is

Exercises 3a
work varying from 25 mm

operating on a range of

to

250mm diameter.

Allowing for a cutting speed of 22m/min, calculate the highest and lowest speeds
necessary. If there are 8 speeds in the complete range, find the range of speeds if they
are in geometric progression. Make out a table showing the most suitable diameter to
be turned on each speed.
2.

drill

has 4 speeds and

Calculate the four speeds

if

speed table. Cutting speed

drills

a range of holes from 2

mm

they are in geometric progression, and

16-5m/min.

to 6

make

mm

drill

diameter.

diameter

CUTTING TOOL LIFE

For Ques.

3.

60 plot a graph showing spindle speeds

p.

61

and speed number

vertical,

horizontal.

On

4.

400mm

stroke single-pulley,

turns of the driving pulley required to

were found to be as

all-geared

shaping machine the number of

make one complete double

stroke of the

ram

follows:
1st

speed, 27 turns

2nd speed, 16 turns

a
*u
Assuming
the

ratio

3rd speed,

8 turns

4th speed,

4 turns

Cutting time
-=
^.

Return time

to

be

1-25

and to remain constant, estimate a


'

suitable pulley speed to give an average cutting speed of

and on the longest stroke.


With this pulley speed,
5.

The

find the

most suitable stroke

highest spindle speed for a small lathe

llm/min

for

in the lowest gear

each of the other speeds.

1500 rev/min. In order to obtain a


holes in brass, a drill head is mounted
is

some 3 mm
on the carriage, and driven in the opposite direction to the spindle. At what speed
must the drilling spindle be driven to give a cutting speed of 66 m/min?
suitable cutting speed for drilling

Cutting tool

As

life

its work it becomes blunted, and a time ultimately


must be taken out and re-sharpened. The life of the tool
between the times of re-grinding is influenced by the severity of its
treatment whilst it is cutting. Depending upon circumstances, there is a
best economic tool life for every tool; if the cutting duty is made such as

a cutting tool does

arrives

when

it

to allow the tool to last longer than the best economic time, then it is
cutting below an efficient rate and is doing less work then it might. On

the other hand,


it

to

if its

become blunted

pense and

lost

performance is raised to a level such as to cause


in less than the economic time, then undue ex-

time are being incurred in the additional sharpening and

re-setting necessary.

The problem of tool life and of cutting generally is rather complicated


and indeterminate, since there are so many variable factors involved.

From

experimental data, however, cutting speed and tool


found to conform roughly to the following rule:

VT =
where

C,

V = Cutting speed in metres per minute


T ~ Corresponding life in minutes
C = A constant depending on cutting conditions

life

have been

62

CALCULATIONS FOR CUTTING, TURNING AND BORING

to \ for roughing cuts in steel

12

>

for light cuts in steel

J_
10

for

roughing cuts

The above values of n


tool shape, use of cutting

in steel

~ :j ^ ;,
carbide
tools.

are only approximate and are influenced by

compound,

us to estimate probable tool

Example

for roughing cuts in cast iron

life

as

The above relationship enables


shown in the following examples:

etc.

When operating with roughing cuts on

mild steel at 20m/min


of 3 hours between re-grinds. Estimate the life of
this tool on similar cuts at a speed of 30m/min.
In the VT" = C expression for this case we will take n = .
The first step is to calculate the value of the constant C.
We have that when V = 20, T = 180 min and n = \.
2.

a certain tool gave a

life

C=

Hence

20 x 1801

Taking logs

No.

T
LogC=log20+
,

log 180

180
180r

8~

20

1-5829

log

8)2-2553

^02819
1-3010
1-5829

Antilog 1-5829

Hence we may

write:

38-27

C.

VT* = 38-27

We now require T when

V=
307^

30
38-27

Tk = 2*Z =

T=
T=
=

(1-2757)

1.2757
8

antilog 0-8456
7-008, say 7 min.

No.

Log

1-2757

0-1057

8_
0-8456

TOOL CUTTING ANGLES

Example
grinds

probable
ing,

3.

A tool cutting at 20m/min

when

and

life
fo

hour between reWhat will be its


cuts? [Taken = for rough-

gave a

life

of

operating on roughing cuts with mild

when engaged on light

finishing

63

steel.

for finishing cuts.]

Here we have

for roughing:

= C
1-5233 = 33-38

20 x 60i

C =

antilog

No.

log

60

8)l-7782(

60i

0-2223

20

1-3010
1-5233

Applying to the finishing conditions


20 x

n- ^
3

T =

n=

(1-669)

33-38

1-669

10

No.

log

1-669

0-2225

(1-669)

T=

antilog 2-225

10

2-225

167-9, say 168 min.

Tool cutting angles

The

principal angles

these are

shown

on a cutting tool are

its

rakes and clearances, and

in Fig. 52.

Side Rake

Front (Top)

Rake

Front
Clearance

Side
Clearance
Fig. 52

The choice of suitable


cut,

cutting angles depends upon the material being


and the reader should look up particulars in books dealing with

CALCULATIONS FOR CUTTING, TURNING AND BORING

64

Workshop Technology.

We might consider here the effect on the cutting

angles of various tool settings.

When

a tool

is

cutting a circular bar of material

a radial line drawn from the centre of the


in Fig. 53(a) the tool

it is

cutting relative to the line

is

operating relative to

work to the

cutting point.

OA.

Thus

If the tool point

is

of the work the line OA is horizontal and the cutting


angles operating are the true values put on the tool.
If, however, the tool point is placed above or below the centre, the
cutting angles will be modified since the line OA is not now horizontal.
is

level with the centre

Top Rake
Top Rake (r)
i_

^Clearance
Clearance(c)
Fig. 53(a).

Fig. 53(6).

In Fig. 53 (b) the tool point is

The

line

we have

that sin

The top rake


the total angle
tool

is

shown a distance h above the work centre.

OA is now tilted up an angle a, and if R is the radius of the work


a =

-=-

angle of cutting will be increased by the angle a, and since

/5

has not changed the clearance will be reduced by a. If the

put very high, the clearance will be so reduced that

altogether and the tool will rub instead of cut. If the tool

is

it

will vanish

placed below

the centre the effects are opposite, the rake being decreased and the

clearance increased.

We might calculate the effect on the cutting angles of

a numerical example.

mm

4. A bar of material 60
diameter is being turned with a tool
having 20 top rake and 6 front clearance. Calculate (a) the cutting

Example
angles
tool

when

the tool

is

2-5

must be above centre

mm

above centre, and

for the clearance to

(b) the

become

amount the

zero.

TOOL CUTTING ANGLES

The

conditions are as

(a) sin

^^^J^

From which a =

shown

65

at Fig. 53 (b).

0-0833.

4 47'.

The rake is increased and the clearance decreased by this amount.


Thus the rake becomes 20 + 4 47' = 24 47' and the clearance becomes 6 - 4 47' = 1 13'.
(b) If the clearance
sin

a =

to vanish, then angle

^7j-and since sin 6

0-1045

is

a must be

6.

0-1045

*j-

= 30 x 01045
= 3-14mm
Exercise 3b

had a life between regrinds of 2 hours when


20m/min. If the relationship between life and speed is given by VT = C, calculate C, and estimate the tool life at a speed of 15m/min.
2. For the tool in Question 1, plot a graph of tool life-cutting speed over a range of
speeds from 30m/min to 15m/min.
3. For a certain tool it was found that the relationship between speed and tool life was
given by VFi = 50. Estimate the cutting speed to give a time of 2 hours between re1.

certain tool

when

cutting cast iron

cutting at

grinding.
4. If the relationship for high-speed steel tools

tools

VT = Q, and
5

assuming that

at

is

VT* = C and

for tungsten carbide

a speed of 25m/min the tool

life

was

3 hours in

each case, compare their cutting lives at 35m/min.


5. For a certain tool it was found that the relationship between cutting speed (K)and
tool life (T) was as follows:

T in

V and

T when V =

25m/min.
and a clearance of 7 Calculate the modified
below centre on a bar 44 mm diameter.
values of these angles when the tool is cutting 3
7. When turning a bar 50 mm diameter, how much above centre may a tool with a
clearance of 6 be set before the clearance vanishes? When the tool is in this position, what
is the effective value of the top rake, if the rake on the tool is 15?
8. A boring tool 10mm deep is required to bore out holes to 40mm diameter. If the
body of the tool is horizontal, how much clearance will be necessary if the bottom corner
Express
6.

terms of

find

cutting tool has a top rake of 20

mm

of the tool

is

to clear?

CALCULATIONS FOR CUTTING, TURNING AND BORING

66

9. If the clearance face


in Fig. 54, calculate

of the tool in Question 8

the angles

a and

is

made

with two angles as shown

for the tool to clear the hole.

/5

Fig. 54

10.

The

tool

50

mm

is

12mm

diameter boring bar

is

concentric with a 72

mm hole which

is

being bored.

square and passes through the centre of the bar. Calculate the tool angles

necessary so that the cutting rake shall be 10, and the clearance 6.

Taper turning

When a tapered
face

is

or formed surface

is

being turned the accuracy of the sur-

influenced by the position of the tool point relative to the centre

of the work. The conditions in the case of taper work are shown in
Fig. 55 (a) If the tool is set on the centre, and its movement controlled so
.

as to turn the correct taper,


line

AB,

it

starts at

A, and when

it

has travelled the

the correct taper has been produced.

End View
Fig. 55

If,

now, instead of being on the centre, the tool

centre and starts at C,

same

it

circle as B, the length

CD

is

a distance h below

CD, and if D is on the


is greater than AB. The tool being set to

will travel

along the line

*-

TAPER TURNING

move

67

AB will therefore not reach the point D, and conA and C are on the same circle, the top diameter of the taper

the distance

sequently

if

than it should be. The reader will probably appreciate the


if he considers the extreme case of the tool being at E and
travelling parallel to AB. In such a case, if the tool could cut in this position, it would not turn a true taper, but would produce a tapered shape

be

will

less

point better

faintly

hollow in form.

In order to follow the problem mathematically we will show an enlarged

diagram (Fig. 55

The

(6)).

tool starts at

and moves out the distance CF, equal to AB.

turns the end of the bar to radius


it

will only attain

OF = R

Let the work be

If it

OB = R

instead of reaching the radius

r,

long as shown in Fig. 55 (a).

True taper = -*

Actual taper obtained

An attempt to reduce R

'

to an expression in terms of the other quantities

awkward terms, and cases will be best evaluated from the


information available Such an example is illustrated as follows:
involves rather

Example

move
the

5.

In turning a taper of

in 6

on the diameter, the

the correct angle relative to the work, but

work

is

32

mm diameter at the small end,

is

4mm

tool

is

set to

below centre. If

calculate the actual taper

obtained.

we assume the work to be 60 mm


be 32 + 10 = 42 and we shall have

Referring to Fig. 55 (b),


the large diameter will

if

16

long, then

mm

R = 21mm
h

The

tool, starting at

where

OC =

4mm
16 mm, will

move out

CF = 21mm.

We require the distance OF.


OF = FG + OG =
2

But

FC =
.-.

(FC + CG) 2 +

and

OG

OF =
2

(5

OG

+ CG) 2 + 4 2

to

F where

68

CALCULATIONS FOR CUTTING, TURNING AND BORING

CG = CO - OG
2

But

CG =
Hence

v/240~ =

16 2

42

240
15-49

OF =
2

(5 + 1549) + 4
= 2049 + 4 = 435-8
OF = \/43T8~= 20-88
2

The top diameter of the taper will therefore be 2 x 20-88


of 42mm.
Since the bottom diameter

is

Actual taper
H
This gives a taper of

32

mm and length 60 mm

41-76

60

32

= 41-76 instead

= 9^6
60

in 6-15.

Form tools
For turning forms from the cross-slides of turret and automatic lathes and
sometimes from centre lathes as well, a tool is used which gives the
correct form on the work. If the tool is set on centre as shown in Fig. 56,
it must have the correct form in plane OAB. Since, however, the tool
must have clearance as shown, lengths such as BC, taken perpendicular
to the front clearance face will be less than lengths such as AB taken
on the horizontal, and the form of the tool on a plane parallel to BC will
be different from its form on AB When the tool is being made, the shaping
and other machining operations are carried out parallel to the clearance
face, so that for the purpose of making the tool it may be necessary to
determine its form when taken on a plane such as BC, perpendicular to
.

the front clearance face.

^Clearance

Fig. 56

FORM TOOLS

69

We shall best illustrate the method of determining the modified form of


the tool in planes perpendicular to the front clearance face by working one

or two examples:

Example

6.

tool

is

shown in Fig. 57 (a) on its top


determine and sketch the form on

to have the form

horizontal face. If the clearance

is

10,

a plane perpendicular to the front clearance face.

15

10

72

15

7-;i

10

^
/

i.

V
r

55 -

55
11

(a)

e)

IF2>

Fig. 57

In Fig. 57 (a) horizontal dimensions will not be affected, but vertical

dimensions will be shortened in the ratio of

/\

ABC

is

equal to the clearance angle,

cos 10

gp =

AB
=

BC
-j-tt

in Fig. 56,

and since

cos of clearance angle

0-9848

Hence the 11-2 in dimensions become 11-2 x 0-9848 = 11-03


the 45 angle will become a triangle as shown in Fig. 57 (b).
tan

A = -^- =

1-0154.

From which

A=

mm and

45 26'

11-03

Hence the

revised sketch of the tool profile taken along the clearance

shown in Fig. 57 (c).


the form of the tool incorporates circular shapes the problem
rather more involved, since the effect of shortening the depth

face will be as

When
becomes

but not the width converts the circular form into a portion of an
ellipse.

70

CALCULATIONS FOR CUTTING, TURNING AND BORING

Example 1 Calculate and sketch the form of the


.

tool

shown

in Fig. 58 (a)

when taken perpendicular to the front clearance of 12j


As before, the vertical dimensions are shortened in the
clearance angle cosine,

We thus have

cos 12|

i.e.

x 0-9763 =
x 0-9763 =

12-8
8

ratio

of the

0-9763.

mm
mm

12-50
7-81

and for the 15 mm radius,

X 0-9763 = 14.64mm

15

The base of the 20 angle is shortened to 0-9763 of its original length,


if we divide the tangent of 20 by 0-9763 we shall have the tangent

so that

of the modified angle


tan 20

Q976 3

0-364

0-3728

tan of modified angle

The sketch of the modified

12-5

116

88

30

profile

2-8 8

shown

tan 20 27'

at Fig. 58 (b)

^C20

is

iM
(a)

75
12-5 11-6

30

_8_-8

Elliptical

Form

Fig. 58

The finishing of the elliptical form given to the circular portion is apt to
be troublesome, but such a shape can be produced on a grinding wheel
by trimming it with a radius forming attachment set off centre. This is
shown

in Fig. 58 (c),

and

if

the radius truing attachment

is set

with the

FORM TOOLS WITH "TOP RAKE"

71

CDE will trim the wheel to a semicircle,


15 mm rad., in that plane. Since AB is less than CD, the true form of the
wheel on a radial plane such as ABO will be elliptical, because the width
diamond

rotating in plane

it

of the wheel at B = width at D. The semi-minor axis of the elliptical


= 30 mm.
form will be AB = FD, and the major axis will be 2 x 15
wheel
to the
the
imparted
by
one
the
plane
is
radial
on
a
the
profile
As
work we can, by forming the wheel in this way, obtain the required
elliptical shape for the tool in question and we require to determine h

mm

order that when CD = 15 mm, FD will be 14-64 mm.


Let us assume a grinding whell of 200mm radius, and consider the
problem from the aspect of two intersecting chords of a circle.
in

FD.DH = CD.DG

Then
But

FD =

1464,

Hence

and

DH

= 400 -

14-64

DG =

(14-64) (385-36)

= 15.DG

14- 64 x 385-36

, mm
= 376-1

CG =

3761 +

h2

42

15

= 3911

^- =
391-1

= R - CE =
2

15

rr

CE = CG =
But
from which h

= 38536 and CD =

195-55

200 2

195-55 2

1760

mm

Hence by trimming the wheel to a

15

mm radius in a plane 42 mm off-

centre, the required elliptical form will be produced.

Form

rake"
put on the cutting face of a form tool the cutting effect of
the tool is rather curious, because for the purpose of obtaining an accurate
relative reproduction of the tool form on the work, the tool, at the finish
of the cut, must have its top face lying on a radial line. This is shown at
tools with "top

If back slope

Fig. 59 (a),

is

where the tool is shown at the completion of its cut, and its
on the radial line OA. The reader will notice that at this

top face lies

position the effective top rake

tangent BC, which

When
(b),

and

is

is

this tool starts its cut,


it

will

zero, since the tool

perpendicular to

be seen that

if

is

cutting relative to

OA.

however, the conditions are as shown

the back slope

a on the

tool

is

at

made large

72

CALCULATIONS FOR CUTTING, TURNING AND BORING

enough, the tool

will start cutting

with an effective top rake

of/3

= a - S.

As the

tool feeds in, this rake will gradually get less until, as we have seen
above, there is zero rake at the final position. The reader will notice that

a tool of this type must be set below the centre by the amount h, where
h

- =
The

a and

smallest radius being turned.

calculation for the modified form to

a tool should be
that the angle

In Fig. 59

The

sin

made

(c),

on

is

which the front face of such

similar to that we have already dealt with, except

a must be taken

tool finishes

are put

is

into account.

the back-slope angle and c the clearance.

its

parallel to

cut relative to face

AB, but the depths of the form

AD (i.e. along CB).

Hence a length AB on the top of the tool will correspond to CB, perpendicular to the clearance face.
In triangle

ABC: C =

90 and

CB = AB
Hence depths

in the

A^Sb = a +

cos (a

c).

form must be shortened

in the ratio

of cos (a

+ c).

CIRCULAR FORM TOOLS

Fig. 60

Circular

Form

73

Tool.

Circular form tools

On some types of automatic lathes forming is done from the cross-slide by


circular form tool, a sketch of which is shown at Fig. 60.
These tools have the advantage that the form may be turned on their
rim and they may be used all round the rim by continual re-sharpenings.
Cutting clearance is obtained by making the cutting edge AB some
distance h below the centre, and the tool is applied to the work as shown
at Fig. 61 The clearance angle a is then the angle CAO and

means of a

sin

a =

AO Tool radius
and h = r sin a

(r)

Fig. 61

CALCULATIONS FOR CUTTING, TURNING AND BORING

74

Gashing the tool in this way results in a variation between the form
it and the form it imparts to the work, because a radial depth
DB on the tool will turn a depth AB on the work. Widths on the form are
unaffected, and corrections for depths may be calculated as follows,
where d = a depth on the tool and / = corresponding depth on work.

turned on

From

the property of intersecting chords of a circle

DB.BF = ABBE.
d; BF = 2r - d; AB - /
=
BE AE / = 2r cos a I
d(2r - d) = l{2r cos a - I)

DB =

But
and

Hence

which reduces to a quadratic equation

d2 in

which

The

all

2rd

in

l(2r cos

the quantities except

are

as follows:

a -

I)

known.

following example will illustrate the application of this.

8. A circular form tool, 100 mm diameter, is to be made to


produce the form shown in Fig. 62 (a). If the gashing is to give a cutting
clearance of 10, determine the form to be turned on its periphery.

Example

m
7-5r^

(b)

425Fig. 62

Here r

--=

To

50

mm and a

50 sin 10

= 10, so that
50 x 0-1736 = 8-68

turn the correct diameters

mm.

on the work, the

steps

on the face

of the tool must be:


32-5

17-5

,32-5 = __
=
7-5 mm, and

12-5

,.

10

mm

Applying the equation above to these two cases, we have

AB

CIRCULAR FORM TOOLS

(0

7-5, r

50, cos

d2 from which d
()

10, r

7-38

50,

9-82

10

0-9848

7.5(100.0-9848

7-5)

10)

mm

d1 from which d

a = cos

lOOtf

75

and cos a

lOOrf

0-9848

10(100.0-9848

mm

The angle on the tool to give an included angle of 1 20 on the work must

now be

corrected
32-5

Its

width

is

12-5

tan 30

and

10 tan 30

5-774

mm

corrected depth from (ii) above is 9-82.


5-774
Hence noy = tan of its angle 0-5882 from which the angle
its

is

found

to be 30 28'.

The turned

profile of the tool

is

shown

at Fig.

62

(b).

Exercises 3c
1.

lathe centre

is

being ground up by a 70

mm

diameter grinding wheel fixed to a

on the compound slide. If the centre of the wheel is set 10mm below
of the lathe centre, and the compound slide fed at 30, find the angle to which

tool-post grinder

the axis

the centre will be ground.


2.

What

lathe

is

a taper of! in 6 when the tool is on the centre.


ofwork 120 mm long and 60 mm top diameter when

set correctly for turning

taper will be produced on apiece

is 5 mm below (jentre?
form tool is straight, and set at an angle of 15 with the axis of the work (i.e. to
form an included angle of 30 on the work) If the tool is set to the above angle, but 5
below centre, calculate the actual angle produced on ajob 50 mm top diameter and 40 mm long

the tool
3.

mm

-&.

?7Z7

Fig. 63

4. A form tool having 8 clearance and 15 back slope is required to turn the diameters
shown at Fig. 63. Calculate (a) the depth AB on the clearance face of the tool, (b) the
amount the tool should be below centre, (c) the top cutting rake at the commencement of
cutting. (Top diameter ofwork = 10mm).

CALCULATIONS FOR CUTTING, TURNING AND BORING

76

5. Calculate the tailstock set-over for turning a taper

What

long.

mm
mm in the length

of 8 included, on a job 115

variation in taper will be produced by a variation of 2-5

of the work?
depths and the angle on a form tool
Tool has no top rake and 10 clearance.

6. Calculate the

Fig. 64.

for

producing the form shown

in

Fig. 64

7.

At

Fig. 65

is

shown a thread form which

is

to be finished

by the form tool indicated.

Calculate the angle, depth and bottom land as measured from the clearance face of a
tool having

no top rake and 15 clearance.

5-24

Fig. 65

8.

circular

form tool

55mm

diameter

is

the form indicated at Fig. 63. Calculate the

depth

AB

on the

gashed to give 10 clearance, and is to turn


off-centre for the gashing and the

amount

tool.

9. Calculate the

to give the profile

depths and angle to be turned on a circular form tool

shown

at Fig. 66, if the tool

is

60mm diameter

gashed to give 12 clearance.

APPROXIMATE CHANGE WHEELS FOR ODD THREADS

375^

77

\8-76

Fig. 66

10. In cutting the thread


is

to be

made 2%

on a core

of the lathe

is set

the thread

cut in the usual way. Calculate:

(a)
(b)
(c)

is

mould, the pitch of the thread


To do this, the tailstock
set parallel to the work, and then

for a die-casting

longer than standard to allow for contraction.


over, the lathe taper attachment

is

The actual pitch required if the nominal thread is 2mm pitch.


The tailstock set-over if the core is 150 mm long between centres.
The angle to which the taper attachment must be set.

Calculating approximate change wheels for odd threads

Sometimes a case may arise where an odd thread must be cut, the exact
pitch of which cannot be obtained with the standard machine changewheels. Also, if a lathe is not supplied with the special 127T wheel, and a
metric pitch is required, some alternative way of getting a suitable pitch
becomes necessary.
The method of continued fractions will often provide a very near ratio
to that required, and enable a pitch to be cut which is near enough for the

purpose.
In Appendix VII

be seen, that the convergents of a continued


one approaching closer
to the true value of the original ratio. If, therefore, we have a complicated
ratio, the exact value of which cannot be obtained on the machine, it
is quite possible that by converting to a continued fraction and finding
the convergents, one of these convergents will be a ratio that can be
used, and its value will probably be close enough for the purpose. The
method will be best illustrated by examples.
it

will

fraction are a series of fractions, each succeeding

CALCULATIONS FOR CUTTING, TURNING AND BORING

78

Example
with a 5

9.

Find the nearest pitch to

mm

from 20T to 120T


^,

The

2- 18

mm that may be cut on a lathe

leadscrew, and give suitable change wheels from a set ranging


in steps of 5T.

Drivers

-p-^
ratio of gears:
6

will

be

2-18 mm

5 mm
E

109
,
irkn
^~r, and since 109
.

is

250
prime number, the exact ratio could not be obtained without a gear of

Driven

this size.

Converting

this to a

continued fraction and finding the convergents we

have:

The continued

109)250(2

218

fraction

is:

2+1

32)109(3

96

2+1

13)32(2

26_

6)13(2

11
1)6(6

and the convergents


If

we take

are: 1st

\,

2nd =

the 4th convergent (#)

f,

3rd

we may

&

5th = $.
&, 4th =
obtain a gear ratio as

follows:

x
6 x

_
n
37 ~
To

6-5

_
~

20 x 85 Drivers
60 x 65 Driven

we must multiply the ratio $ by the


= ff, which when converted to a

is less

than 0-03% in error on the required

find the actual pitch obtained

pitch of the leadscrew,

decimal gives
pitch of

2-

Example
a 6

8-5

t.p.i.

18

2-

i.e.

$ X

1795 mm. This

mm.

Find the nearest pitch obtainable to 2\ mm, on a lathe with


leadscrew and a set of wheels as in the last example.
10.

2Jmm

The pitch of the leadscrew is in and the ratio required


Converting the inches to millimeters (lin
2\
'25-4

24
*

254

9x6
4x254

nn

25-4 mm)

27

270

50-8

508

POWER REQUIRED FOR CUTTING

The continued

fraction

79

is

270)508(1

270

238)270(1

1
1

7+1
2+1

238
32)238(7

224

&; 4th

14)32(2

28
4)14(3

11
2)4(2

and the convergents:


6th
Ulll

1st

2nd =

};

3rd

#; 5th

ft;

2io
508

The 4th convergent

is

the last one which can be

made into a ratio and

gives:

17

32

=
~

2 x 8-5

4x8

The actual pitch obtained


0001 1 mm short.

will

Power required for cutting


Turning and Boring. When metal
in turning

and boring, the tool

is

20 x 85 Drivers
40 x 80 Driven

be

is

25-4

2-2489 mm, being

being cut with a single-point tool as

subjected to pressure in three directions

work pressure
across the lathe, (3) horizontal feeding pressure along the lathe.
The first of these is of greatest importance from the aspect of the
at right angles: (1) vertical chip pressure, (2) horizontal

power absorbed. The other two, although absorbing some power, are of
small effect when compared with the vertical pressure and are generally
neglected.

From numerous experiments that have been made it has been established that the cutting force on a single point tool is connected in an
expression of the form

F = Cd afb
where F = force; d = depth of cut;/ = feed, and C
a and b depend on the metal being cut and other factors.

a constant.

CALCULATIONS FOR CUTTING, TURNING AND BORING

80

practical purposes the expression

For most

F = Kdf= K(Cut area)

is

If

S~

gives results

good enough.

a constant depending on the metal being cut.


cutting speed in metres per minute, the work done per minute
F x S
Watts.
will be F x S, and the power

Power =

Hence

Approximate values

for

60 qqQ

K are as

Kilowatts

follows:

Metal

Steel

Steel

Steel

Steel

being

100-150

150-200

200-300

300-400

cut

Brinell

Brinell

Brinell

Brinell

1200

1600

2400

3000

f^T

Brass

Bronze

2\
*~

900

1250

1750

700

K
(N/mm2 )

[From the form of the expression, the reader will observe that K is the
on the tool per square millimetre of cut area.]
When the power required to do the cutting has been calculated, the
total power to run the cut and overcome friction in the machine may be
found by adding on about 30%.
force

Example

1 1

mm

Calculate the power being absorbed in running a cut 3


diameter turning
1-5 mm, on a mild steel bar 50

mm

d^ep with a feed of


at

140rev/min.
.

Cutting speed

If we take the constant

n X 50 x 140

22 x 50 x 140
7 x 1000

1000

K as

1200

1200 x
D
Power =

Adding 30%
198 +

1-98

3 x 1-5 X 22
= 198kW
60000

for frictional losses in the

Xi|=

1-98

= 22m/min

0-594

machine we have

2-574 say,

25 kW to run the machine

POWER FOR DRILLING

Power

for drilling

When

drill is

cutting

81

has to overcome th e resistance offered by the


is necessary to turn it. This effort is called

it

metal and
the Turning Moment or Torque on the drill The units for torque are those
unit. The
of a force multiplied by a length and the most usual is the
turning effect of a force, or a pair of forces, acting at a certain radius,
is found by multiplying the force by the radius, or for two forces the
a twisting effort

Nm

turning effect

is

the

sum of the product of each

force by

its

radius.

Thus

torque of lONm to turn it, the torque


would be equivalent to equal and opposite forces of 250 N each operating
radius. [T = 250 x 0-02 + 250 X 0-02 = lONml
at 20
in Fig. 67, if the drill required a

mm

SON

Resistance at

each corner

Fig. 67

In addition to the torque, a

drill

requires an axial force to feed

through the work, but in power calculations


When the torque is known, the work done
the number of turns made and by In

Thus

if

T=

torque in

Nm and N =

the work done per minute

found by multiplying it by

is

speed in rev/min,
In NT

Nm

2nNT
kw
and the power =
,

it

this is generally neglected.

^^

CALCULATIONS FOR CUTTING, TURNING AND BORING

82

The torque required to operate a drill depends upon various factors,


but for the purpose of being able to obtain an approximate calculation for
it we will omit all but the drill diameter, the feed and the material being
The relation between the torque, the diameter and the feed has
been found experimentally to be that torque varies as/ 75/) 8
Using this, we may say that

drilled.

"

1'

Torque (T) = Cf- 15D hS newton metres

C=

where

/=
D =

When

a constant depending on the material


drill

feed

(mm/ rev)

diameter of drill (mm).

power can be calculated

the torque has been found, the

as

shown

above.

The
A

following table gives approximate values for the constant (C).

.,,

Material being drilled

Example
steel at

12.

Soft

Cast

Steel

brass

iron

(mild)

tool steel

0-11

0-084

007

0-36

0-4

Calculate the power required to

250rev/min and a feed or

0-5

Taking the constant,

C,

from the table


7

as 0-36

0.36/- 75 Z) 1

mm

we have

Nm

/ =0-5

and taking logarithms.


T = jog 0-36 + 0-75_log

log

D=

20

T=

0-36

0-5

1-8

(0-5)- 75 (20) 18

log 20

= j-5563 + 0.75(1-6990) + 1.8(1-3010)


= 1-5563 + 0-75(-0-3010) + 1-8(1-3010)
= -0-4437 - 0-2258 + 2-3418 = 1-6723
T = antilog 1-6723 = 47 Nm
is

250rev/min

27r.250.47

60 000

hole in mild
a 20
Find also the volume of

drill

mm/ rev.

.,

metal removed per unit of energy.

Since the speed

Carbon

Alu-

minium

_ 1ZJKW
~

POWER FOR TURNING AND DRILLING

83

Volume of metal removed per minute

(Area of hole) (Feed) (Speed)

=j x
Energy consumption

20 2 x 0-5 x 250

mow =

39 275

mm

31-9mm3 /watt

minute.

= 0-53mm 3 /joule
Exercises 3d
1.

Calculate the nearest change wheels for cutting a sparking-plug thread (l|-mm pitch)

lathe with a 4 t.p.i. leadscrew and a set of wheels ranging from 20T to 120T in steps
of 5T. For the ratio you select, find the actual pitch of thread obtained.
leadscrew. Taking
2. A worm having a lead of Timm is to be cut on a lathe with a 5

on a

mm

express the ratio required as a continued fraction, and find the nearest
convergent that can be used with a set of wheels specified for the last example. What was

as 3-1416,

the actual error in the lead obtained for the worm?


3. A shaft revolves at 15 rev/min and requires a thread cutting on

it which will cause


a nut to move along the shaft at 66-5mm/min, when it turns at the above speed. Find the
leadlead of the thread required and calculate the nearest that can be cut to it on a 5
screw with change wheels specified for Question 1. What is the actual speed of the nut

mm

with the thread you obtain?

mm

cut in cast iron


4. Estimate (a) the power input to a lathe when it is taking a 6
in feed at 20m/min. (b) The volume of metal removed per unit of
with 0-75
energy. Take the overall efficiency of the machine as 70%.
in steel of
depth at a feed of 0-8
5. A lathe is just able to run a cut of 5
diameter bar. Estimate what cut could be taken
120 Brinell, at 150 rev/min on a 50

mm

mm

mm

mm

on 25 mm bars of 250 Brinell material, at 240 rev/min and the same feed as before.
[Take values of K from the table on p. 80.]
6. Taking the value of K from the table on page 80, estimate what cut could betaken
on a lathe turning bronze b ars at 0-6 mm feed and 20 m/min, if 5 kW were available, and 30%
of the power were lost in friction.
7. For the lathe in Question 4, estimate the power cost per 8-hour day, with power at
2p per kWh and the efficiency of the motor is 80%.
8. Calculate the

speed

is

energy absorbed per cubic millimetre removed per minute.

(b) the
9.

drill

mm

diameter holes in mild steel, at a feed


drill 20
300 rev/min, calculate (a) the power absorbed in cutting,

torque required to

of 0-25 mm/ rev. If the

25

mm

drill is drilling

aluminium at HOm/min. Calculate its speed. If the feed is


and the input power if frictional losses are equivalent to

0-3 mm/rev, calculate the torque,

30% of the
10.

cutting power.

For the

drill in

Question

If the electrical efficiency


electrical

is

8,

calculate the drilling time for 100 holes, each 40

80%, calculate the cost to

data as in Question

drill

7.

By using a continued fraction calculate the nearest set of change wheels


thread specified in Example 10(a) Exercises 3 c, leadscrew 5 mm pitch.
11.

mm deep.

these 100 holes using the same


to cut the

Calculations for gears and


gear cutting

Formatiion of the involute tooth

For various

and theoretical reasons, the tooth shape most

practical

commonly used

for gearing

is

the involute. Before we

commence our con-

sideration of various problems connected with involute teeth,


as well to

examine the involute curve

will

be

form and then unwound,

at

it

itself.

Involute
If a

cord

is

wrapped

tightly

round a

circular

the same time being kept tight, the end of the cord will trace out an
involute. This

is

shown

the cord that has been

at the

top of Fig. 68, where

unwound and

CB

is

the portion of

AC is the involute. Another method

Involute

Straight-

edge
Involute
Fig. 68

of tracing an involute is to roll a line (e.g. a straight-edge) on a circle


the end of the line will trace out an involute. The size of circle will,
of course, influence the shape of the involute, but there are certain

when

properties which are

common

to

all

involutes.

Those properties which

are interesting from the aspect qf the involute as a tooth form, are as
follows:

INVOLUTE TOOTH FORM

(1)

A tangent to the involute is always perpendicular to a tangent from

the same point on the involute to the circle from which


Fig. 68 the cord

involute at
(2)

85

is

CB

is

tangential to the circle at B,

it is

formed. In

and a tangent to the

perpendicular to CB.

The length of the cord CB

is

equal to the length of the arc AB.

Tooth form
O, and 2 are the centres of a pinion and gear of which the pitch circles are
shown tangential at P, which is called the pitch point
AB is a line through P perpendicular to line C^Cv CD also passes
through P and is included at the angle
to AB. CD is called the line
of action and $ the pressure angle. The name "line of action" is given
to CD because it is on, and along that line, that the pressure between
.

if>

The angle nowadays is virtually always 20, but


was more common, being related to half the inclined
angle of the Acme thread form With the changeover of the pressure angle
from 14 to 20 the clearance between the top of the tooth of one gear
and the base of its mating tooth form has been increased from 5% of the
the teeth takes place.
at

one time

(j>

14

( = 0-157 of the module), to 0-25 of the module. The cutting


depth for gears of 20 pressure angle is thus 2-25 times the module. To

circular pitch

Fig. 69

Formation of Involute Tooth.

CALCULATIONS FOR GEARS AND GEAR CUTTING

86

is drawn tangential to CD called the base


The portion of the tooth between this circle and the top (EF) takes

obtain the tooth shape a circle


circle.

the form of an involute to this circle; the portion of the tooth below this
circle (FG) is radial (i.e. on a line joining the end of the involute to the
gear centre). This is all shown in Fig. 69, where for the sake of clearness
the construction has only been carried out on the lower gear. The con-

struction also only shows one side of a tooth; the other side is merely the
same shape reversed, and spaced away, a distance equal to the tooth
thickness.

The involute rack


The rack is a gear of
straight line

(AB, Fig.

infinite

70).

diameter so that
base circle of

^
to the line of action

its

pitch circle will be a

infinite

diameter tangential

CD

will

Fig. 70

be a straight

line coinciding with

CD. The

involute to this will be the straight line EP, and the radial continuation
will

be PF. Hence the side of the rack tooth is straight, and inclined at
The complete tooth will have a total angle equal to

the pressure angle.

twice the pressure angle (Fig. 70).


In the following considerations of gear elements the following symbols
will

be used for the quantities stated:

No.ofteethingear

... Tor

Diametral pitch
Circular pitch

Diameter of pitch circle


Radius of pitch circle

Pressure angle

Module

Addendum of tooth
Dendendum

Dord
R or r

The recommended manner of quoting


of the units employed,
as a module. In which case,

irrespective

to

it

pitch circle diameter

or

is

(ji

Add.
Ded.

the size of a gear tooth form,

to quote the

addendum and

= module x number of teeth

D = mT

refer

THE TOOTH VERNIER

87

The module

is therefore the reciprocal of the diametral pitch, irrespective


of whether measurements are made in millimetres or inches. All the
formulae which follow can be used for diametral pitch, by substituting

for

m. Until the use of the metric module becomes the preferred usage

in describing gear tooth sizes, the reader

The diametral

ral pitch series.

pitch

is

may find gears listed in a diametnumber of teeth per

simply the

unit of pitch circle diameter, and consequently

it is

necessary to be par-

ticularly careful in stating that unit, e.g.

diametral pitch of 8
or diametral pitch of 0-2
In any case, conversion to a module
ship that the

module

is

(mm series).
simply effected from the relation-

equal to the addendum; furthermore

circular pitch p

The tooth

is

(inch series)

= n x module m

vernier

The gear-tooth

vernier

thickness of a tooth.

It

is an instrument for measuring the pitch line


has two scales and must be set for the width (w)

of the tooth, and the depth (h) from the top of the tooth, at which w occurs
(Fig. 71).

Fig. 71

The angle subtended by a half tooth

at the centre

Fig. 71).

90
,360
= iof^=^=.

of the gear (AOB)

in

CALCULATION FOR GEARS AND GEAR CUTTING

88

m> = w = AO
AB
y *ri

90

~y =

sin

z>

sin

90
-=

number of teeth

a
and

D = module x
D = 2R = mT
mT
Rn = -j-

Hence

mT

-^

A
and

90
T
w = wisin-=r

To

find

fc

Add.

90

= -z- sm -=

OC -

OB.

=^ + m

90
W7,
90
OB = R cos -=- = -=- cos -~.

A
and
TT

90

i? sin -=-

we have that h = CB =

OC = R +

But

Z>

mT

Hence /* = -y- +
r

mT
90
=- cos -^ = m

/w

mrf,, ....

-^-|

1
!

T-[

90l

TJ

CQ8
cos -^

\.

(2)

1
Calculate the gear tooth vernier settings to measure a gear
of 33 T, 2-5 metric module

Example

w =

._
90
= 2-5
mT^ sm-jr

,,

=
=

82-5 sin 243'

2-5

=
=

2-5

90

X 33 sin^82-5

X 0-0474

mm

3-91

mT..
+ -2~(1 2 5
'

2-545

90,

cos yr)

33
(1

cos243')

41.25(0-0011)

mm

Constant chord method


to the method just outlined is that the measurements w
and h depend on the number of teeth (T) in the gear, and for each dif-

One drawback

ferent gear a fresh calculation has to be

made. The following method


all gears of the same

avoids this and gives a constant pair of readings for


pitch and pressure angle.

CONSTANT CHORD METHOD

89

Fig. 72

In Fig. 72

is

shown a gear tooth meshing symmetrically with a

rack.

O is the pitch point, and as we have seen above, the gear tooth will contact
with the straight-sided rack tooth at the points
line of action.

Then

B and D,

lying

on the

DB = w will thus be constant for all teeth of the same pitch and

pressure angle.

Since

EOA is the pitch line

of the rack

nm
EA = j circular pitch = \p = -y-

and
In triangle

and

OAB:

in triangle

OA = !EA =
A
A
B = 90 and O =
:. OB = OA cos

OCB: C =

90 and

.\CB= OB
Hence CB =

OA cos

iji

cos

ijt

i/j,

B = ^

cos

OA

DB = 2CB = w =

and

<f>

ij).

cos 2

i/j

Hence

OC = OA

and h =

nm
j cos

(j>

sin

iff

sin

= m\f~
1

(3)

(/)

But

(/t

iff

7tm

-j- cos 2

h = Add. - OC = m - OC.
OG = OB sin ip and OB - OA
cos

nm

r- cos 2

cos

iff.

-j- cos ^ sin ^


7t

-j

It will be seen that expressions (3) and


(m) and pressure angle (^) do not alter.

cos $ sin
(4)

,1
ty

remain constant

(4)

if module

CALCULATION FOR GEARS AND GEAR CUTTING

90

Example
for a

2.

Calculate the constant chord and the depth at which it occurs,


20 pressure angle.

30T gear of 6mm module,


Here we have

sin 20

cos 20

= x- cos

h>

m(l

6(1

-j

6 X 3-142

20
cos

ij)

=
=

0-342

0-9397

mm

x 0-7476 = 4-49 mm

(0-9397)

8-32

sin f)

0-7854 x 0-9397

0-342)

Plug method of checking for pitch diameter and divide of teeth


vernier gives us a check on the size of the individual tooth,
but does not give a measure of either the pitch diameter or the accuracy
of the division of the teeth.

The tooth

Fig. 73

Fig. 73

shows a rack tooth symmetrically

in

mesh with a gear tooth

space, the curved sides of the gear teeth touching the straight rack tooth
at the points

we

and B on the

lines of action.

O is the pitch point. If now


its

outline, a

O and radius OB would in the rack tooth and touch


at A and B (since OA and OB are perpendicular to the side of the rack

circle
it

consider the rack tooth as an empty space bounded by

with centre at

fit

tooth). Since the rack touches the gear at these points, the

(shown dotted)

will rest against the gear teeth at points

have

on the pitch

its

centre

In triangle

OBD: OB =

circle.

radius of plug required.

above

circle

A and B and will

CHECKING FOR PITCH DIAMETER AND DIVIDE OF TEETH

OD

circular pitch

B =

91

Tim

O =

90

OB = OD

cos

if/

ijf.

7im

-j- cos

(jf

nm

Dia of plug = 20B = -y- cos


This

is

(5)

iji

the diameter of a plug which will rest in the tooth space and have

centre on the pitch circle. Notice that the plug size remains the same

its

same pitch and pressure angle.


With such plugs placed in diametrically opposite tooth

for all gears having the

spaces, it is a
simple matter to verify the gear pitch diameter. The accuracy of the
spacing over any number of teeth may be found as shown in chordal
calculations.

Example

3.

Calculate for a

36T gear of 5 mm module and 20 pressure


two plugs placed in opposite spaces,

angle, (a) plug size (b) distance over


(c)

distance over two plugs spaced 10 teeth apart.

(a)

Dia of plug =

Tim

-^ cos

^S7T

= ~-

cos 20

=
=

Pitch dia of gear

mT =

x 36

7-854
7-38

x 0-9397

mm

- 180mm

(b) Distance across plugs in opposite spaces

mm

(c)

= 180 + 7-38 = 187-38


Distance across plugs spaced 10 teeth apart (Fig. 74).

Fig. 74

CALCULATION FOR GEARS AND GEAR CUTTING

92

'lf{\

Angle subtended by 10 teeth

AB = OA

sin 50

Centre distance of plugs


Distance over plugs = 137-88
2

10

-~y-

100 In triangle

90 x 0-766

x AB =

7-38

2 x 68-94

145-26

OAB:

68-94

137- 88

mm

mm

Base pitch

The base

pitch

is

the circular pitch of the teeth measured on the base

circle. It is useful for

checking the angle between adjacent teeth and for

checking a tooth against "drunkenness."

Fig. 75

AB (Fig. 75) represents a portion of the base circle of a gear, and


and EF the sides of two teeth, and then the length FD is the base
pitch. But if any lines such as CE and HG are drawn tangential to the
base circle cutting the involutes at the points shown, then
If

CD

EC = GH = FD
If there are

T teeth

in the gear,

FD
If

ij)

is

then

FD =

2ttR b

iTlRt

the pressure angle, then from Fig. 69, page 85,


= rad. of base circle (R B ) = P0 2 cos =
2

H0

and

ij>

cos

tjt.

BASE PITCH

FD =

Hence

2nR

n
But,

base pitch
TtD

~y~ = ~f =

Hence
This

is

7tm

base pitch

93

D= \
m)

(
(since -=

= nm

cos

(6)

<ji

the distance between the curved portions of any two adjacent

teeth and can be measured either with a height gauge or

on an enlarged

projected image of the teeth.

Exercises 4a
Determine the diameter of a plug which will rest in the tooth space of a 4mm module
20 rack, and touch the teeth at the pitch line. Calculate (a) the distance over two such
1.

The depth from the top of the plug

plugs spaced 5 teeth apart, (b)

to the top of the

teeth.
2. Calculate the
(a)

3.

gear tooth caliper settings for measuring the following gears:

6mm module;

37T,

A 5 mm

(b) 40T 20mm circular pitch.


module involute rack tooth is measured

at its pitch line

and found to be

mm

wide. If the tooth spacing and angle are correct, what error has been
in the cutting of the teeth? (Pressure angle = 20.)
7-99

4.

30T replacement gear of

available for cutting the teeth


is

on

is

mm

one of

module

is

made

required, and the nearest cutter

5 diametral pitch, (inch series). If the blank

turned to the correct module dimensions, and the cutter sunk in to the depth marked
it, what will be the error in the tooth?

Determine the "constant chord" dimensions for the following gears:


mm module, 20 pressure angle; (b) 25
circular pitch, 20 pressure angle.
6. Calculate the diameter of plug which will lie in the tooth space of a 5
module
gear with its centre on the pitch circle. If the gear has 50T, find (a) distance over two such
5.

mm

(a) 8

mm

plugs spaced in opposite spaces, (b) distance over two plugs spaced 12 spaces apart
(u

= 20).
Two

29T gear 20mm circular pitch, and


stood up resting on them. Calculate the distance from the face upon which
these plugs are resting, to the top of a similar plug placed in the tooth space at the top
of the gear. [Press, angle = 20, and plug diameter is that which rests with its centre
7.

the gear

plugs are placed in adjoining spaces of a

is

on the pitch circle.]


8. Determine the base pitch of the following
(b)

mm circular pitch,

30T, 25

9.

Two

teeth of a

ij>

*=

30T gear of

gears: (a)

1-25

mm

of the following measurements:


(a)

base pitch,

(b)

depth of tooth space,


chordal thickness of tooth at pitch line,
height from root of tooth to pitch line.

(d)

mm

module,

ij>

20;

module, 20 pressure angle are projected to


the length on the projected image

a magnification of 50. Calculate, to the nearest 0-5

(c)

30T

20.

mm

CALCULATION FOR GEARS AND GEAR CUTTING

94

Stub teeth

For some purposes,

particularly

when

gears are subject to shock and

vibration, the tooth of standard proportions

is

apt to be

weak and liable

to break. In such cases stub teeth are often used.

For this type of tooth the size is indicated by a fraction. The numerator
of the fraction expresses the module to which the circumferential proportions of the tooth conform, and the denominator determines the
radial proportions of the tooth. Thus a stub tooth means one in which
module, and the
the pitch diameter is worked out on a basis of 5
tooth height on the proportions of 4

mm
mm module. Since 5 mm module gives

mm module, the result is a short stubby tooth,


are generally cut with a pressure angle of
teeth
name.
Stub
hence the
20, and the following are the pitches most commonly used:
a larger normal tooth than 4

4' 5' 6'

The same method

is

10
8

12-5

10

'

and

15
12-5

used when quoting stub tooth

sizes in diametral

pitches, but in this case the ratio produces a "proper vulgar fraction",
i.e.

with the numerator smaller than the denominator. Hence, if a stub


is denoted by a fraction in which the numerator is smaller than the

tooth

denominator, the reader should appreciate that the sizes quoted refer to
diametral pitches and not modules, and it will be necessary to state
whether the diametral pitch is "millimetre series" or "inch series".

Example
f

4. Calculate the principal

dimensions for a 45T gear having a

stub tooth.
Here: the pitch diameter will be

heights

on

Pitch dia

Addendum = m
Top dia of gear
Cutting depth

Backlash

worked out on 6 mm module and the

5mm module.
= mT = 6 X
= 5 mm
= 270 + 2(5)
= 280 mm
= 2-25 X 5
= ll-25mm

45

= 270mm

in gearing

were cut theoretically correct and assembled at the


correct centre distance, a tooth on one gear would just fit hard into the
tooth space of the other, because the pitch line width of the tooth and
If a pair of gears

MEASUREMENT OF BACKLASH

95

space would be equal. For freedom of action the above conditions would
be unsuitable, and it is usual to allow a little play between the thickness
of the tooth and the width of the space into which it fits. This play is
called "backlash," and it is the backlash which allows one gear to be
turned a fraction before the drive is taken up by the mating gear.
The amount of backlash to be allowed depends on the tooth size, and

the following table gives an indication of suitable allowances:

Module (mm)
Backlash

[in

10

2-5

1-5

0-4

04

0-4

0-3

0-2

015

015

01

0-1

mm

clearance between
face of mating teeth]

Measurement of backlash
suitable methods of measuring backlash are (a) by means of feeler
gauges between the teeth, (b) by measuring the distance that the centres
of the gears may be moved nearer together from the standard distance

Two

before the teeth are in hard contact.

The first of the above methods is straightforward and needs no mathematical manipulation. For the second method it will be helpful for us to
obtain an expression giving the backlash in terms of the amount the gears
are capable of being moved together.

Fig. 76

In Fig. 76, ab is half the backlash and P is the pitch point.


If we consider the portion cb of the tooth as being a straight

moved

line,

rightangled at b, ac is the amount the gear centers


together, ab = \ backlash and angle acb = t/i.

triangle abc

is

then

may be

CALCULATION FOR GEARS AND GEAR CUTTING

96

Let

and

B=

backlash

D=

amount the gear centres can be moved together =

lab

=
ac

Then

sin

ib

sin

ij)

ac-

B_

D =

B = 2D

sin

(b

D =

or

and

2 sin

(Ji

Helical (spiral) gears

The type of gear we have dealt with so


in

which the teeth are

and

straight

far

has been the spur gear,

i.e.

one

parallel with the axis of the gear. In

on a helix. These gears


skew gears.
A sketch of a portion of a helical gear is shown in Fig. 77, in which it will
be noticed that the teeth slope at an angle a (the helix (spiral) angle) to the
axis of the gear, and in the gear shown, the teeth are cut RH helix. Teeth

helical gears the teeth are not straight, but are cut

are also called spiral gears, screw gears and

may, of course, be

RH

or LH.

Referring again to the figure,

may

it

will

be seen that the pitch of the teeth

either be taken round the rim of the gear, or it may be taken perpendi-

cular to the teeth. In the

first

case

it is

called the circumferential pitch

second case it is known as normal pitch (p). Circular pitch


ip c ),
is still considered as being taken along the surface formed by the pitch
circle. The circular pitches p n and p c are shown in Fig. 77, and as will be
seen, the relation between them is the same as the relation between the

and

sides

in the

A
AC and AB of triangle ABC. In this triangle C =

angle a

90 and

A=
A

helix

Hence

Pc

=
AB

cos a,

p n = Pc cos a

i.e.

or

pc
rc

Pn
r
cosct

= rn
pn

(7)

sec

if a section is taken through the teeth on a plane conhave the true shape of the tooth as it is cut. Hence the
normal pitch (p n ), which is the one measured parallel to AC, is the pitch
which governs the cutter to be used to cut the gear Referring again to Fig
It will

taining

be seen that

AC, we

shall

HELICAL (SPIRAL) GEARS

[Measured

97

orn

[Pitch Circle]

\
Fig. 77.

77, the pitch p c , multiplied

by the number of teeth, gives the pitch circumwhich does not

ference. This pitch, then, governs the size of the gear,

depend on the number of teeth. The larger the


will

be the ratio

helix angle

<r,

the greater

and the larger the gear for a given number of teeth.


Pn

As

and p c we may, just as in the case of spur


module form The normal module (m n ) is the
one which governs the true shape of the tooth, and since cutters are most
well as circular pitch p

gears, express the pitch in the

commonly specified in terms of the module, this is important to us from


the point of view of cutting the gear. The relation between /w n and/> is the
same

as for spur gears.

i.e.

Pn

= *n

(8)

For a spur gear we have D = mT


For a helical gear, since the circular pitch
Pc

= Pn
COS<7

then

mT
andD =

cos a

mc =

m
cos a

cos a
(9)

CALCULATION FOR GEARS AND GEAR CUTTING

98

Addendum

of the tooth

(10)

and the cutting depth (working depth + clearance)


==

In

modern

addendum +

clearance

m+

clearance.

practice, using a 20 pressure angle, the cutting depth has

standardised at (working depth

0-25

been

addendum)

==225/m

(11)

Helix (spiral) lead and angle


teeth of a helical gear are cut on a helix, which is merely a screw thread
with a very large lead. The reader will, no doubt, be aware that a screw
thread can be developed into a triangle, and the only differences between
the development of a gear-tooth helix and that of a screw thread are: (a)

The

the helix angle of a thread is the complement of that for a wheel tooth (Fig.
78(a) [complement of an angle = 90 - the angle] (b) the development is
;

' Helix

^^"

Fig. 78

Development of

Helix.

based on the assumption that the helix makes one complete turn round the
cylinder upon which it is cut. In a screw thread this is true, but the tooth
of a gear only completes a small proportion of a complete turn. [The
student may imagine a helical gear to be a short length of a very coarse

CUTTER FOR HELICAL GEARS

thread having as

many

"starts" as there are teeth in the gear.]

99

On

the

assumption noted under (b) above, the development of a helical gear


tooth is shown in Fig. 78(6). From the diagram we have the following
relationships

tan a

nD
= -pL

Pitch circum
=

-j

Lead

_
nD
nmT sec a
=
L =

or lead

.,,-.

(12)

tan a

tan a

Cutter for helical gears

When

cutting spur gears with a form cutter

cutter

is

on the milling machine, the


marked with the range of teeth for which it is suitable. For
example, to cut a 30T gear, we should use a No 4 cutter, which is suitable
for a range of 26T to 34T. Due to the twist on the teeth of a helical gear this
must be modified, and the size of cutter is given by
.

No. of teeth (T)

(cos a) 3

Example

5.

The

pitch diameter of a helical wheel

120 mm, the helix angle

is

30 and

is

to be approximately

to be cut with a cutter of 4

it is

module. Find the particulars of the nearest gear to

this.

We have that the normal module = 4 mm and a =


Hence, from

cos 30

T=

and

=
The nearest

to this

is

dia.

Cutting depth

v
From

4
30 x 0-866

26x4
^r- =

cos 30

cost?

Top

120 cos 30

25-98

267

Dn = mT

and

30.

4T

120

(9)

2-25m

mom a fur
(12) Lead of helix =

9-00

7lD

^r-

tan 30

1oni
120-1

0-866

2 Add

120-1

104

=
=

120-1
128-1

mm
2(4)

mm

mm

= 3-142x120-1
=
ttt^
0-577

'

,..

654 mm.

mm

CALCULATION FOR GEARS AND GEAR CUTTING

100

Thus the nearest gear has the following particulars: 26T. Pitch
mm, Helix angle 30, Lead of helix, 654mm.

dia.

1201

96

The

cutter for this gear

would be

,_

40,

i.e.

the same cutter as

(U-oOOJ

would be used

Example

40T

for a

4mm module,

Two parallel shafts at

6.

120

spur gear.

mm centres are to be connected by

a pair of helical gears to give a speed ratio of

wheels

mine

is

The helix angle of the

1:2.

to be approximately 20 If the normal


.

module

is

2-5 mm, deter-

suitable wheels.

Since the shafts are parallel, the helix angles of the two wheels will

be the

sarnie,

RH

but one will be

and the other

helix,

Centre distance =120


Ratio of speeds = ratio of pitch radii
r = i x 120 = 40 and R = f X 120

D=

Hence
f
from

160 and

d=

80, also

= D cos a =
Dn = mT T
m
cos a

(9)

m=
160

Since the ratio

is

to be

2: 1

let

LH

=1:2
= 80
2-5

0-9397
X
=
=-=

60-13

2-5

us try 60T and 30T, and find a

new

value for a.

Then

for the

D
T=

wheel from

cos a

cos a

m
mT
=
2-5

~
=
hence a

To

X 60

160

150

160

0-9375

2022'

obtain the leads of the helices of the wheels

we have

for the

wheel:

Pitch cir cum

and from

(19)

=
Lead =

160tt

502-7

502-7

tan 2Qo22

For the pinion Lead =

Oo

mm

^^ = 1354mm
502-7

'y =

half of lead of wheel

677

mm

HELICAL GEARS

The

101

particulars of the gears are thus as follows:

Wheel No. of teeth


Pitch dia

Add =

2- 5

Pinion.

60

160

mm

Top

mm

dia = 165
Cutting depth = 2-25

=
Helix angle

LH
Helix lead

helix.

354m

(093W

677

30

.,

cutter as

helix

mm

Cutter +t0 USe=

60

cutter as for

dia

mm

2022'.

Cuttertouse =

5-625

RH
Helix lead
_

= 80 mm
= 85 mm
Cutting depth = 5-625 mm
Helix angle = 2022'.
Pitch dia

mm

Top

No. of teeth = 30

T053tSJ>
for 36T spur

wheel.

73T spur

wheel.

at

The reader will observe that the solution to these problems is arrived
by a compromise after a system of trial and error. With wheels of this

type such a procedure

is nearly always necessary before a practical set


of working conditions can be arrived at. Generally, the conditions allow
one or more of the gear elements to be varied to suit the problem.

Exercises 4b
Calculate the pitch diameter, top diameter and cutting depth for a

1.
J

42T gear having

stub teeth.

Find the gear-tooth caliper settings for checking the tooth of a 32T,

2.

stub-tooth

gear.

A pair of gears are required to connect two shafts at 160 mm centres. Ifthe speed ratio

3.

and the gears are to have stub teeth, find their leading particulars.
27T and 63T gears of 4mm module, 20 pressure angle.
the backlash allowance is 0-2 mm, what should be the centre distance between the two

required

4.

If

gears

is 3:5,

pair of gears consists of

when

the teeth are hard in contact?

of gears consists of the following: 30T driving 48T driving 48T driving 7 5T.
module and the backlash allowance on all the teeth is 0-1 5 mm. If all
the backlash is taken up in one direction, through what angle must the 30T gear be turned
before the drive is taken up by the 75T wheel?
normal module,
6. Calculate the following particulars for a 52T spiral gear of 4
20 spiral angle: (a) pitch diameter, (b) top diameter, (c) cutting depth, (d) lead of spiral,
5.

The

train

teeth are 4

mm

mm

(e) suitable cutter to use.

7.

A helical gear is to have a helix angle of30(RH), and the normal module is 4 mm. The

pitch diameter must be as near as possible to 125 mm. Calculate (a) the
(b) the pitch,

and top diameters,

(c)

number of teeth,

the lead of the helix, (d) the correct cutter to use.

CALCULATION FOR GEARS AND GEAR CUTTING

102

8.

75mm.

spiral gear

diameter., lead
9.

a gear

has 25 teeth, a helix angle of 45, and an approximate pitch diameter of

Calculate the nearest normal metric module. Find also the pitch diameter, top

of spiral and cutting depth.

two parallel shafts 100 mm apart, with


Working on a normal module of 2-5mm, and an approximate helix angle

pair of spiral gears are required to connect

rat io

of 3

2.

of 20, determine particulars of a suitable pair of wheels.

Worm gearing

A worn

drive

is

often used to connect two non-interesting shafts which

are at right-angles

and a

fair

distance apart.

The worm is the equivalent

-Lead(L)

Start
Af?7

Start

N92
Starts
N. s

2&3
Lead 'Angle
Fig. 79

(/{.)

Diagram of 3-Start Worm.

of a screw thread, the shape of a section of the thread on a plane through


same as a rack tooth in the involute system

the axis of the worm, being the

action between a worm and wormwheel is equivalent to that of the


wheel as a gear; rolling along the worm as a rack. As the worm is usually
produced by turning, or by a milling process similar to turning, the pitch

The

Fig. 80

Worm Thread Form

for 14 Pressure

Angle.

WORM WHEEL

103

most commonly used is the circular pitch (p) Fig 79 shows the pitch, lead
and lead angle for a worm, and Fig. 80 gives the proportions for the thread
on a section through the axis for a tooth of 14| pressure angle.
The relationships between the pitch, lead and lead angle are the same as
.

for a

screw thread.

Lead (L) = (Axial pitch)(No. of starts) = pn


Lead
L
tan A =
n (Pitch dia)
nd

worm is quite an arbitrary dimension, and a


be cut to any pitch diameter suitable to accommodate it to
centre distance at which it is to engage with the wheel. In general, the pitch
diameter should not be less than four times the pitch.
The

pitch diameter of a

worm may

Worms with

large lead angles

The efficiency of a worm

mum at about 45

drive increases with the lead angle up to a maxi-

In view of this, multi-start worms with large lead angles

are to be preferred. Unfortunately, with such


ficulties

20
the

it

worms, interference

dif-

occur in cutting and operation, and when the lead angle exceeds

is

usual to increase the pressure angle

(i.e.

the included angle of

worm thread is increased). The pressure angle may be taken up to 20

and in very quick start worms is sometimes


For pressure angles other than 14 the tooth proportions must
be re-calculated on the basis of the new angle and will not be the same as
those shown on Fig. 80. Also, when the lead angle exceeds 15; it is more
advantageous to base the tooth proportions on the normal pitch. For the
case of the tooth shown in Fig. 80 these are modified as follows:
(40 incl. angle of thread),

made

30

iji

= (axial pitch)(cos of lead angle)


=
p cos X (as (7) above)
pn
Then
Addendum of thread = 0-318/
= 0-6866/?,,
Depth of thread
Width of finishing tool at bottom = 0-3 \p n

Normal

pitch

Worm wheel
For the best
the form
as

shown

worm-wheel rim should be of


For light duty and moderate speeds, wheels
give satisfactory results. Teeth with curved bot-

results the cross-section of the

shown

in Fig. 81 (a).

at 81 (b) will

104

CALCULATION FOR GEARS AND GEAR CUTTING

Worm Cen tre

mm
Wheel Axis
Fig. 81

(CL)

toms should be cut with a hob or a fly cutter; that at 81 (c) is really a helical
gear and may be cut as such. The shape of the teeth of worm wheels is the
same as for involute gears of the same pressure angle.

Worm wheel

dimensions

be based on the circular pitch and for large worm lead angles
the tooth proportions will be in terms of the normal pitch. In reading the
following, Fig. 81 (a) should be referred to:

These

will

Pitch dia (D)

Pitch circum.

IE
71

Throat dia
Centre distance (C)

Pitch dia

Throat rad (R t )

Whole
Width

dia

(w) approx

2 add

Pitch rad wheel

_D
~

- D +

0-63/)

pitch rad

worm

d
2

= C - \ throat dia
= 2(C- OA)
= 2[C-*,cos(i0)]

= 2BC
= 2 (Top rad of worm)
= (d + 0-636/?) sin (i/J)

[sin

(/J)]

In cases where tooth proportions are based on normal pitch, then in


expressions (19) and (23) above, p n should be used instead of/?.

SPEED RATIO WITH

Speed

ratio with

worm

WORM GEARING

105

gearing

T teeth, and the worm is single threaded (1 start), then


the worm will turn T times for 1 turn of the wheel. A 2-start worm will turn
T
yr times per revolution of the wheel, and so on. Hence for T teeth
If the

wheel has

in the

wheel and n

starts

Speed

on the worm:
ratio

= Rev

of

worm

Rev of wheel

Determine the dimensions of a worm and wheel to operate


at 120 mm centres and give a ratio of 16 1. Circular pitch 10 mm, pressure angle 14, wheel face angle 75.
For 10 mm pitch the minimum dia. of the worm should be 4 x 10 mm
= 40 mm. This leaves 120 20 = 100
as the radius of the wheel. Dia
of wheel = 200 mm. Circum = 200tt = 628-4 mm.

Example

mm

At
If

10mm

circular pitch this gives 63 teeth.

we make

161

the

worm 64T and

Pitch dia

wormwheel =

71

and pitch rad

=
=
Throat rad =
Whole dia =
=
Pitch rad worm =
=
and pitch dia =
Top dia worm =
Throat dia

We may now find the


w =
==

worm, we

use a 4-start

shall obtain the

ratio required.

(d

25-97

+ 0-636

203-7

mm

71

203-7
~ =

101-85

mm

+ 0-636/)
+ 0-636(10) = 21006 mm
- K2 10-06) = 1497 mm

203-7
203-7

120
2tl20
2 [120

14-97 cos 37]


14-97

x 0-7949 = 216-24 mm

rad wheel
- 10185 = 18-15
2 x 18-15 = 36-30 mm
36-30 + 0-636/? = 36-30 + 6-36 =
centre distance

120

approx. width of the wheel

sin 37

42-66 sin 37

42-66

42-66

(h>)

0-6088

mm (say 26 mm)
tan of worm lead angle

-r-

Ttd

=
7i

=
^t^k
36-30

X = 19 20'
Whole depth of tooth = 0-6866/> = 6.87 mm
Width of threading tool at end = 0-31/? = 3- 10 mm

0-3508

mm

106

CALCULATION FOR GEARS AND GEAR CUTTING

This gives us all the data necessary for the worm and wheel.
As an exercise, the reader should make a full-size drawing of the pair.
Helical (spiral) gears to mesh with

worms

Sometimes, as a compromise, and to avoid the delay and expense of


ordering a new wormwheel, an ordinary straight-faced helical wheel
is cut to replace a wormwheel. The main problem is to find, out of stock,
a suitable cutter to give a satisfactory match-up.
If stocks of circular, diametral and module pitch cutters are available,
it is often possible to arrive at a workable solution. Let us see what could
have been done to match a helical wheel to the worm in Example 7 above:

Normal

circular pitch of wormwheel

=
=

Normal module =

10 cos 1920'
10(0-9436)

9-436

9-436

mm

3-003

71

mm

This is very near a 3


module and a
probably cut a satisfactory gear.

mm

module

cutter

would

Bevel gears

Bevel gears are used to connect two shafts whose axes meet, and which
are in the same plane. We saw in connection with spur gears that the

motion of two gears was equivalent to that of two thin cylinders or discs
of the discs being the same as the pitch
diameters of the gears. In the case of bevel gearing the fundamental
conception of the motion is that of two cones rolling together.
rolling together, the diameters

Fig. 82

BEVEL GEAR CALCULATIONS

In Fig. 82,
at

O.

COD

107

OA and OB represent the axes of two shafts intersecting


DOE are the two elemental cones, having OA and OB

and

as their axes.

The cones touch along the

line

OD, and

if

one

will drive the other. In practice, the gears only consist

is turned it
of a narrow

frustrum of the cones and are shown thickened. Metal is added at the
back, as shown, to strengthen up the teeth in that region.

The two elemental cones are called the pitch cones and become the
imaginary pitch surfaces of the gears. The angle 6 P is the pitch angle of the
pinion,

W that of the wheel and I

number of teeth
diameters CD and DE.

cut in the gears, the

the pitch

Hence

Note

if

is

the shaft angle.

in

each gear

rev/min of wheel and

6P

that

N=

DE
CD
+ W

will

When

teeth are

be proportional to

rev/min of pinion

sin

sine,

=Z

Bevel gear calculations

/\

In Fig. 83:

AOB =
AC =
/\

DOA

is

the pitch angle.

pitch dia

= a

(/)).

is

the addendum angle

is

the dedendum angle

S\

AOF =

/5

/\

EOB =

+ a

is

the face angle

/\

FOB = p = 6 is the
C is the cone distance.
ji

is

root angle

the tip distance.

/is the face width and

may be made about =

-~

D, L and C are given capital or small letters according to whether


they refer to the wheel or to the pinion. The angles are generally given
a suffix p or w to differentiate them, [p for pinion and w for wheel.]

The back

AO, and

DAF

face
is always made perpendicular to the pitch surface
the size and shape of the teeth as developed round that face

correspond to the proportions for the pitch of the teeth

in the

gear

CALCULATION FOR GEARS AND GEAR CUTTING

108

Add m

Fig. 83

(e.g. if

the gear had teeth of 5

mm module,

then the teeth at the surface

DF (as shown developed round line CH) would be the correct size for that
pitch). In travelling down the tooth from face DF towards O, every line
on the tooth converges to O
From

Fig. 83:

-=- --

C=

and

Add

pr- =

tan a

tan

sin 6

Ded _
C ~

Whole diameter

AD

But

C=
,

8.

speed ratio

Two
is

2 sin 6

-^ (where

m=

j
x
module)
i

l-25m

(over corners

= Add =
Whole

Examples

-^.

DE) =

pitch dia

+ 2AD

dia

= D + 2m

cos

be geared together by bevels. The


and the pinion pitch diameter is to be 120mm.

shafts at 90 are to

to be 3:2

Determine the dimensions of 5 mm bevels.


Since the ratio is 3:2 and d = 120mm

D =

120

cos 6

= 180mm

T=

36 and

24

BEVEL GEAR CALCULATIONS

109

Fig. 84

Signifying the pitch angles by 6 W

6p

33 41' and B
w

Then tan

Add = m =

mm

(Fig 8 3).
.

Ded

and

=% = \
90

1-25/n

OA =

33 41'

6-25

V90 2 + 60 2 =
5

tan of add angle

108- 10

0-0463

0-0578

108-1

6-25

tan ded angle

56 19'

mm
mm

a =
/$

2 39'

3 18'

108-1

Face
Face
Root
Root

Whole
Whole

= 56 19' + 239' = 58 58'


= 3341' + 2 39' = 36 20'
angle wheel P w = 56 19' - 3 18' = 53 1'
angle pinion Pp = 33 41' - 3 18' = 30 23'

angle wheel

dia (wheel)

dia (pinion)

<j>

= D + 2m cos W = 180 +
= d + 2m cos P = 120 +

Face width

/=

<t>

angle pinion

(if

made

}C)

'2 sin

120

20

6 x 0-5155

0-5155

sketch of these wheels

is

shown

10(0-5155)
10(0-8056)

at Fig.

=
84

38-80

mm

= 185- 16 mm
= 128-06 mm

110

CALCULATION FOR GEARS AND GEAR CUTTING

Shafts not inclined at 90

When

the shafts are inclined at angles other than 90 the calculation for
is slightly more difficult. The following example
method of evaluating such cases.

the pitch angles


indicate a

Example

9.

will

Determine the dimensions of 4 module bevels to connect two


The pitch diameter of the pinion is to be 80 mm and the

shafts at 70.
ratio 4: 5.

From

the information given

we have

d = 80 mm

D =

80 X

| = 100mm
4

Z,

In triangles

Also

Hence

70

OAC and OAB (Fig.


7T-T-

OA
50

OA

sin 6 W

Sin

and

85),

-~-r-

OA

AC =
sin 6 P

50 and

AB =

sin (70

40

^=sin(70<

(1)

K)

(2)

3*39'

Fig. 85

BEVEL GEAR CALCULATIONS

Divide

(2)

by

sin (70 c

40
=
^
50

(1)

>

1 1

K)

sin u
sui
9w
W

-- ms
cos

70 ens
ow
cos ft

sin

70 sin

ft

W (see Appendix VI)

sin e w

0-9397 cos o w

0-342 sin

sin o w

sin

0-937

tan

-0-342

0-937

^5 +

= f^4r- from which e w =


tan W

0-342

and

70

- Ow =

70

30 22'

39 22'

AB

nA
OA
=

sin 30 38'

30 38'

0^095 =

1QAQ
7848mm

Add = module = 4 mm
Ded = 4 x 1-25 = 5 mm
4

tan add angle

=
^-^
/o-4o

0-05107

a =

2 55'

tan ded angle

^^ =

0-0638

/J

3 39'

Face angle wheel W = 39


Face angle pinion p = 30

22'
38'

+
+

2 55'
2 55'

=
=

42

17'

33 33'.

Whole dia wheel = D + 2m cos W = 100+8 cos 39 33' = 106- 18 mm


Whole dia pinion = D + 2m cos P = 80 + 8 cos 30 38' = 86-88 mm
The main dimensions are shown on Fig. 85.

Exercises 4c
1.

Calculate the top diameter, root diameter and helix angle for a 2-start

10mm

pitch and

2. If the

worm

in

Question

the centre distance, and


3.

A worm

starts

in

is

worm

of

40mm pitch diameter.


60mm

full

a wheel, and the gear ratio

1 drives

pitch diameter, and

order that the lead angle

is

17 to

1,

calculate

worm wheel.

particulars for the

20mm

circular pitch. Find the

may be approximately

30,

and

number of

state the actual

lead angle. Calculate the normal thickness of the thread on the pitch line.
4.

A worm

drive operates at 150

a circular pitch of

and wheel
5.

Two

10mm

mm

worm

and a

centres and the ratio required

about

50mm

is

15 to

1.

Taking

pitch diameter, find a suitable

worm

for the drive.

shafts at 90

are to be connected by equal bevel wheels. Determine the

dimensions of one of these

if

the module

is

2-5

mm, and

the pitch diameter

60mm.

CA LCULATION FOR GEARS AND GEAR CUTTING

12

6.

Two

shafts at 90 are to

be connected by bevels to give a ratio of 3:2. If the pitch


130
and the module is 5 mm, determine the
is

mm

diameter of the smaller bevel

dimensions of the wheels.


7.

bevel gear has 20 teeth of

4mm

module and a pitch angle of 45. Determine

the top diameter and included angle of a taper pin, which will rest in a tooth space

with
its

its

centre on the pitch cone,

its

large end level with the back face of the gear,

curved surface making contact with the tooth sides for


8.

Two

shafts, inclined at 120, are to

whole length.

(ij>

and

20).

be connected by bevel wheels to give a ratio


is 90mm and the teeth are 5mm module.

of 4:3. The pitch diameter of the smaller gear

Determine particulars of the gears.

its

Milling
milling

and the
machine

Milling Cutters

For the purpose of considering the calculations necessary

in

connection

with milling cutters, we may divide them into three general types: (a) those
with fluted teeth, (b) machine relieved,
these are

shown

(c)

inserted teeth. Sketches of

in Fig. 86.

Blade
Cutter

(c) Inserted

(b)Machine Relieved
Cutter

(a) fluted Cutter

Fig. 86

Number

of teeth

Milling cutters and milling conditions vary so widely that


to set hard
in

and

fast rules for

determining the

it is

difficult

number of teeth to be put

a cutter.

For

fluted

and relieved cutters the rule N


= No. of

reasonably proportioned tooth [N

2-75

teeth,

VD - 5-8 gives a
D = Diameter of

cutter]

The formula N =

-pr

8 gives a fairly coarse tooth for cutters over 60

diameter.

Take a 100 mm
AT

cutter, the first

2.75\/lOO

formula

5-8

22 teeth

whilst the second expression gives

N = }W

gives:

16teeth-

mm

114

MILLING AND THE MILLING MACHINE

For an inserted-blade-face mill it is better to assess the number of teeth


on the assumption of their being spaced a suitable distance apart on the
periphery of the cutter. Thus if we take a 200mm face mill and assume
the blades to be spaced 30

No of blades =
Rake on

mm apart, we have

Circumference of cutter
30

200;*

30

= approx20

cutter teeth

If a cutter has its teeth milled with their faces radial,

cutter axis as

shown

in Fig. 87(a), the teeth

and parallel to the


have neither top nor side rake

however, the end view of the tooth is as shown in Fig. 87(6) the front
is the angle a, since the tooth cuts relative to a radial line OA from
the centre to its tip. Side rake is put on the tooth by milling it on a helix
as shown at Fig. 87(c). The side rake is then equal to the helix angle /3.
When teeth are of this form the relation between the hand of the helix and
the direction of rotation of the cutter is important, in order that the end
thrust introduced may be accommodated efficiently.
If,

rake

(CL)

No Top Rake
No Side Rake

(c) Side

The

calculation of the helix angle

is

Rake

Fig. 87.

discussed in the section on spiral

milling.

Top rake can be put on

the teeth by milling

it

shown in Fig.
on the centre line it is

off-set as

88. Instead of the front of the tooth being milled

RAKE ON CUTTER TEETH


cut off centre by distance x.

angle required

Rakes up to

we

Then ifR =

see that

sin

radius of cutter and

a and x = R

10 are advantageous, but

sin

115

the rake

above that angle they may cause

the cutter to chatter.

Blank
being Fluted

Fig. 88

Example

Calculate the amount of offset to give 10 of rake on the tooth

mm diameter.

of a cutter 80
In this case

R =

40 and since

x = 40

The

Fig. 89

sin 10

=
=

sin 10

0-1736

40 x 0-1736
6-944 (say 7 mm)

case for an inserted-blade cutter

is

shown

in Fig. 89,

where ifR =

radius over blades, then

x =

sin

as before.

Angle of fluting cutter

For milling the flutes in cutters the problem arises of determining the
a of the fluting cutter to give the required depth (d) of the flute

angle

(Fig. 90).

'

116

MILLING AND THE MILLING MACHINE

Fig.

In the following analysis any land on the tooth

assumed

as a sharp edge. Also, the point

is

is

90

neglected,

assumed

A being

as a sharp corner,

any radius on the cutter, B is the point at which the


and AB would intersect.
The variation due to the first assumption tends to cancel out variations
due to the second.
AD is drawn perpendicular to CBO, then
so that

if

there

cutter edges

AD

and since

Now

But

is

CB

/\

AO sin AOC
= AD sin -rr- [where N
=

in cutter]

AO = rad of cutter, R,
AD = R sin 360
#
tan

AD

AD
=
DB ~ CB - CD "

AD
d - CD

CD = CO - DO = R - AO
_
_
R R

cos

R
Hence

= No. of teeth

tan

360
fi-

= RJ.
II
1

360
sin

a=

</-*(.

cos

cos**)

360

R
"

sin
J1

"

~ d-

360

cos

360
360\

fi-

AT

CD

CUTTER CLEARANCE

Example
6

2.

117

Calculate the angle of fluting cutter required to mill 16 teeth,

mm deep in a cutter 80 mm diameter.


Here R = 40, N = 16 and d = 6
R
tan

360
sin

a =

360

360

16

22^

40 sin 22^
6

-40(1
15-31

3-044

From which a
The

cos 22i)
15-31

5-18

2-956

796'

nearest cutter to use

would probably then be an 80

cutter.

Clearance

The cutting clearance is put on the teeth at the time they are sharpened.
The cutting edges may be ground either on the periphery of a disc wheel
as shown at Fig. 91(a) or on the face of a cup wheel as at (b).

When

the teeth are ground on the periphery of a disc wheel as at

the centre of the cutter

is

set

(a),

below the centre of the wheel and the radial

Grinding

Wheel

Fig. 91

118

MILLING AND THE MILLING MACHINE

edge to the cutter centre is horizontal. The clearance

line joining the tooth

angle obtained

is

shown

and

as C,

in triangle

OBA:

AB =
SmC
OB
OB = radius of wheel (R)
AB = offset (h c
.

But
and

Hence

-^-

hc

=R

sin

sin

Using the face of a cup wheel as at (b), the position of the cutter centre
wheel is immaterial, but the tooth is set below the cutter
centre by the distance h t and in triangle OED:
relative to the

ED =
ED =

t^ft

OD

and

h,

t ;

sin

OD =
_

rad of cutter

ht

C or =

sin

r sin

(/)

mm

Example

spiral
3. Calculate the settings for grinding the teeth of an 80
Using the periphery of a 200mm disc wheel and (b) using the face
of a cup wheel. (Clearance required = 6.)
mill, (a)

The

first

condition

and

hc

=R

R =
:.h c

is

as

shown

at Fig. 91(a)

sin 6

rad of wheel
100 sin 6

= 100mm
100 x 0-1045

Using the cup wheel we have as


ht

r sin 6

10-45

mm

in Fig. 91 (b)

40 x 0-1045

= 4-18mm

Effect of the helical tooth on the clearance

When

the tooth of the cutter

above cutter
In Fig. 92

AK

axis), so that

/$

setting

is

is

is

is

helical (spiral) the calculation for the

modified as follows:

perpendicular to the end of the cutter (parallel to

its

the helix angle of the tooth. The clearance face is AC and

/\

BAC = Ca is the clearance angle referred to the end of the cutter, or to a


plane perpendicular to the cutter axis.

EFFECT OF THE HELICAL TOOTH ON THE CLEARANCE

19

Fig. 92

DG is parallel to AB and DF to AC, so that FDG = Ca as before.


DL is horizontal and perpendicular to the tooth face AD, and DE is also
perpendicular to

G and H

AD, but E is a point on the bottom of the clearance face.


F and E respectively.

are vertically above

y\

Hence

EDH

dicular to

The

its

is

the clearance on the tooth referred to a plane perpenCall this normal clearance (C).

front.

axial clearance

(Ca )

normal clearance (C)


is

is

is

that put

on by the grinding wheel, whilst the

the one effective

when

the cutter

is

in action. It

necessary, therefore, to grind such an axial clearance as will give us the

we require a relation
between Ca and Cn This may be obtained by considering triangles EHD,
and FGD, which are right-angled at H, H and G respectively.
required normal clearance, and for this purpose
.

HDG

But

tan C

= FG ~ EH
DG DG

DH
DG

cos

Hence from above: tan

/J

C,

and

DG

(since

DH
cos/J

EH

EH

EH

DG

DH_=DH
cos

fl

'

COS/}

EH = FG)

MILLING AND THE MILLING MACHINE

120

But

Hence

tan

Ca =

tan C cos

Thus when we know the value required


and the helix angle

/},

we can

Cn

tan

/$

for the

normal clearance (C)

find the axial clearance angle

Ca

for the

grinding setting.

Example
and the

Example the normal clearance required was 6

4. If in the last

cutter

had a

helix angle of 30, calculate the axial clearance

for setting.

We have that tan Ca =

tan

=
=
Ca =
Ca =
fl

tan

From which

Cn

cos

/$

and tan Cn = 0-1051


30 and cos
= 0-866

0-1051

0-866

0-091

5 12'

For small helix angles the correction is not important, but it should
be carried out on cutters with steep angles.
With the machine relieved cutter the clearance is put on at the time
the tooth is form relieved and the tooth is sharpened by grinding its front
with a saucer-shaped wheel. When this is carried out care should be
exercised to ensure that if the front of the tooth was originally radial (on
the centre), this position

is

preserved for

it.

If this is

not done, the effect

on the formed profile will be similar to that we discussed when considering


the circular form tools on page 73, and the accuracy of the cutter form
will

be

lost.

Exercises 5a
1.

Calculate the following for an 80


(a)

mm

diameter fluted cutter:


a suitable number of teeth to give a coarse pitch,

(b) the off-set of the


(c)

tooth front necessary to give 10 of front cutting rake,


the setting for grinding the teeth on a cup wheel, to give 7 of clearance.

2. 300mm face mill is to be fitted with blades


thick. Estimate a suitable number
of blades, and calculate the off-set of the blade necessary to effect 12 of top cutting rake.

6mm

mm

3. The flutes of a 25
end mill are cut LH helix 500mm lead. Assuming the flutes to
be 4
deep, calculate the helix angle, based on the mean diameter of the flutes. If the
end teeth follow this angle, is the rake on them positive or negative?

mm

4.
If

spiral cutter is

60mm

an apparent clearance of 8

diameter and the teeth are cut on a helix of


is

ground on these

flutes,

what

is

300mm lead.

the true clearance?

SPEEDS

5. Calculate the nearest angle

with 12
6.

flutes,

6mm

What depth

AND FEEDS FOR MILLING CUTTERS

of cutter to use for fluting a 60

mm

121

diameter cutter

deep.

of flute will be obtained by cutting 18 teeth in a 80

mm cutter with an

80 fluting cutter?

Speeds and feeds for milling cutters


cutting speed for milling is found in the same way as for turning and
= diameter of cutter, and N rev/min its speed,
drilling, so that if Q

The

mm

Cutting speed (m/min)

TtDN
10005
= T006 andAr = ^zJ,

..

Cutting speeds should be as high as possible consistent with an economic cutter life before it needs re-grinding, and the speeds given for
turning form a reasonable basis upon which to set the speed of a milling
cutter.

The

rate at

which the work feeds beneath a milling cutter

is

sometimes

expressed in millimetres per minute and sometimes in millimetres per


revolution of the cutter. Neither of these methods gives a reliable indication of the cutter performance since both ignore the

the cutter.

The most

equitable

method of

number of teeth in

assessing milling feeds

is

in

millimetres per tooth, since this gives an indication of the work each tooth
is

doing.

From

the feed per tooth, feed per revolution can be found by

number of teeth, and a further multiplication by the


rev/min gives feed per minute. The following table gives an indication of
the feed per tooth possible with various types of milling cutters:
multiplying by the

Table giving feeds for H.S.S. cutters.

Cutter

Spiral (slab) mill (up to 30 helix angle of tooth)


Spiral mill (30-60 helix angle)

Face

End
Saw

mill

and

shell

end

mill

mill

Slotting cutter

Form

cutters

Example

5. Calculate a suitable speed and feed for a 80


with 18 teeth to take roughing cuts on mild steel.

Feed per Tooth

mm
01
005

to 0-25

0-1

to 0-5

0-1

to 0-25

005
005
005

to 0-1

mm

to 0-2

to

01

to 0-2

spiral mill

MILLING AND THE MILLING MACHINE

122

For roughing cuts we may take a moderately slow speed with a heavy
feed.

mm per tooth.

Assume

a speed of

1000 x 22 x 7
__
10005
=
NA = -nD~
= 87 5rev / min
80x22
of 0-2 mm per tooth gives 0-2 x 18 = 3-6 mm

20m/min and a

feed of 0-2

'

feed

3-6

87-5

315

per rev.

mm/min.

Power absorbed in milling


The conditions in milling are so variable that it is possible to attempt only
a very rough computation of power requirements. From experimental
work it has been found that the power requirements for milling are
approximately as given in the table below. The figures should betaken
only as a rough guide since the power varies with the amount of cut, the
cutter, the cutting lubricant and other factors. However, even if the
reader's, results are

not

all

they might be, the working out will provide

useful mathematical practice.

ENERGY REQUIRED FOR MILLING*


Values given are Joules per cubic millimetre removed

Material being Cut

J/mm
*For face

Cast

1-9-

milling the

power may be taken

^ ^ ^
Hard

Mild

4-0 to 7-0

2-7

1-60

Alumin-

mm
0-90

as f to \ of that given in table.

Using the values given in the table, the energy being absorbed is found
by multiplying the tabulated energy by the volume of metal being removed per minute. This is found by multiplying the depth of cut, the
width of cut and the feed length.

Thus

if

d = depth of cut; w = width of

and

/=

and

Volume = d.w.f.,
Power = energy per second

To

cut,

feed
(watts)

allow for frictional losses in the machine add approximately

30%

THE DIVIDING HEAD

Example

6.

120mm

of

spiral milling cutter

per min over a cast-iron block

power required

mm deep with a feed

80mm

wide. Estimate the

to drive the machine.

Here the

= 4 mm
= 80 mm
feed = 120mm/min = 2mm/s
removed per second = 4 x 80 + 2 = 640

depth of cut (d)


width of cut (w)

Volume of metal

From

taking a cut 4

is

123

the table

we have l-9J/mm

mm

for cast iron.

.-. Power for cutting = 1-9 x 640J/s =


1216W = l-216kW
Adding 30% for machine losses we have

1-216

= l-S8kW
jjjjj

Exercises 5b

mm

diameter spiral cutter has 18 teeth. Calculate the speed in rev/min and
the feed in mm/min for this cutter to be operating at a cutting speed of 22m/min and
1.

100

a feed of 0- 1 5
2. If

mm per tooth per rev.

a cutter in Question 1 was operating on a job

80mm

wide, with a cut 4

mm deep,

volume of metal removed per minute, and estimate the power input to the
the material being cut is cast iron and frictional losses are equivalent to

calculate the

machine

if

30% of the

cutting power.

machine is equipped with a 4kW motor, estimate the deepest cut that
be taken on hard steel, when the work is 100 mm wide and the feed = 150 mm
per min. (Take cutting power as 75% of motor rating.)
diameter and has 28 teeth. If this is operating at a
4. A face milling cutter is 300
cutting speed of 33m/ min, and a feed of 0.2mm per tooth, how long will it take to travel over
3. If a milling

may

safely

mm

a cut 400

mm long?

be milled either with a 80 mm spiral mill, or with a 150 mm face


and the cutting speed to be employed is 22m per min. If
the feed for the spiral mill is 0-2 mm per tooth and for the face mill 0-25 mm per tooth,
which is the most economical method of working?
6. A 25mm end mill with 8 teeth is milling a slot 10mm deep at a feed of0-025mm
per tooth, and a speed of 600 rev/min. If the material being cut is brass, estimate the
long.
power input (assume 30% loss) and the time and power cost for milling a slot 300
5.

mill.

certain job can

Each

cutter has 16 teeth

mm

Take power

at

2p per B.O.T. Unit [1000 watt hours]

The dividing head


The dividing head, which
with the milling machine

is

Fig. 93 is used
purpose of obtaining divisions of the

shown diagrammatically'in

for the

124

MULING AND THE MILLING MACHINE

40

T.

Worm

wheel

End for
attachmem
of work

Taper
hole

Single start

worm
Plunger for locking
index plate

Crank

Fig. 93

circle. It consists essentially of the spindle to which is attached a 40-tooth


wormwheel. Meshing with this is a single-threaded worm, to the spindle
of which is attached the indexing crank. Adjacent to the indexing crank

the index plate containing several series of equally spaced holes


arranged in circles on its face. A pin in the indexing crank can be adjusted
is

so that

its

radius coincides with any of the hole circles, and an adjustable

sector enables any proportion of the index plate circumference to be

divided

off.

Since the gear ratio in the head

is

40-1, 40 turns of the crank cause the

it) to make 1 turn, or 1 turn of the


crank rotates the spindle ^th of a turn. The object of the index plate
with its holes is to subdivide further the turn of the crank, and the greater
the range of hole circles available the greater will be the number of
divisions possible without resource to special indexing methods.
The Brown and Sharpe dividing head is provided with three indexing
plates having hole circles as follows:
Plate No. 1:
15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20 holes.

spindle (and the

Plate
Plate

No.
No.

work attached

to

2:

21, 23, 27, 29, 31, 33 holes.

3:

37, 39, 41, 43, 47,

49 holes.

The standard Cincinnati dividing plate is of larger diameter than those


used on the Brown and Sharpe head and is reversible. It is provided
with the following hole

On one side: 24, 25,


On the reverse side:

circles:

28, 30, 34, 37, 38, 39, 41, 42, 43 holes.

46, 47, 49, 51, 53, 54, 57, 58, 59, 62, 66 holes.

SIMPLE INDEXING

125

all divisions up to 60 to be obtained in addition to


even numbers, and numbers divisible by 5, up to 120.
In addition to this standard plate, special ones can be obtained when
divisions beyond its range have to be indexed.

This plate enables

all

Simple indexing
The majority of divisions required can be obtained without difficulty
by indexing in one of the sets of hole circles supplied. Straightforward

working

in this

way

is

usually termed simple indexing.

Since 40 turns of the crank cause

turn of the work,

if

n equal divisions in the work each division will be -th of


n
ference and the turns required of the crank will be

reader to remember which


that
will

when more than 40


have to rotate

Example

7.

less

40

we

circum-

its

It will

help the

way up this fraction should be if he remembers


on the work the crank

divisions are required

than one complete turn.

Calculate suitable indexing for the following numbers of

divisions: (a) 6, (b) 10, (c) 15, (d) 22, (e) 28, (J) 37, (g) 48, (h) 62.
(a) 6 divisions.

Indexing

6 whole turns

f = 6 = 6f = 6# or 6JJ
14 holes in a 21 circle

or 16 holes in a 24 circle
or any combination giving
(b)

10 divisions.

(c)

15 divisions

Indexing

fg

2 whole turns

of a turn

4 complete turns

= $ =

Indexing
(d)

2f&

2f

of a turn [see

(a)

above]

22 divisions.
Indexing

ljf

lft

whole turn + 27 holes

in

lfi or Iff
a 33 circle

or 54 holes in a 66 circle
(e)

require

28 divisions.

Indexing

ff

ltf

whole turn + 9 holes

If

= 1

or

l|f

a 21 circle
or 18 holes in a 42 circle
in

126

MILLING AND THE MILLING MACHINE

if) 37 divisions.

= $ = 1

Indexing

=
(g)

whole turn +

48 divisions.

Indexing
lllUCAUlg

=
(h)

3 holes in a 37 circle

iQ
48

i
6

il
lg

20
24

15 holes in an 18 circle or 20 holes in a 24 circle

62 divisions.

Indexing

= 40
Compound

When

holes in a 62 circle or 20 holes in a 3 1 circle

indexing

is required which is beyond the capacity of the available


method of compound indexing may be used.
The index plate is usually locked and prevented from turning by means
of a plunger fitting in one of the circles of holes. The principle of compound indexing is to obtain the required division in two stages.
(1) By a movement with the crank in the usual way.
(2) By adding or subtracting a further movement by rotating the index

a division

hole circles, a

plate and controlled by the plate locking plunger.


Suppose the crank is indexed 5 holes in a 20-hole circle and then the

index plate, together with the crank, is indexed a further hole with the
locking plunger registering in a 15-hole circle.
If both movements have been made in the same direction the total
indexing will have been
to

rV

= & + & = m on

the

worm.

had been turned opposite to the crank we should have had


li
11
J
L
_ J_

6020
15
60
60

If the plate

'

By compounding suitable hole circles


number of additional divisions.

in this

way it is possible to obtain

a large
If n

is

the

number of

divisions required

on the work, then

the indexing required and the fractions representing the two


to be used

must give

n
40

either

when added

40

is

movements

or subtracted. Also the

denominators of the two fractions must be numbers equal to available


hole circles in the plate. Suitable hole circles must generally be determined by a method of trial and error and the following examples will
illustrate the

method.

COMPOUND INDEXING

Example

127

Determine suitable compound indexing for the following divi-

sions: (a) 77, (b) 91.

(a)

11 divisions.

The indexing required is $ and we require two suitable fractions which


give this when added or subtracted.
The method of trial and error may be assisted by the following working.

Put down the 77 above a

line,

77

40

the 40 below

11

it,

and

factorise

them.

2x2x2x5

The numbers representing hole circles are now required to be written


below the 40 and factorised. Their difference, also factorised, must be
written above the line. The numbers must be so chosen that all the factors
above the line must cancel out with numbers below. [The reader should
notice that since only one plate can be used, the numbers must be those of
two hole circles on the same plate.]
Choosing 21 and 33 as the numbers, we have 21 = 7 x 3; 33 = 3 x 11
and the difference 12 = 2 x 2 x 3.
Putting these numbers with their factors down we find that all the
numbers above the line will cancel thus
77
12

= 44 X 7= 2- x 2- x

3-

40=2-x2-x2x5
21

33

=
=

1-

x 3x 44

Hence 2 1 and 33 circles will be suitable and we require to find


number of holes to be indexed. Let these be a and b.

pective

tu
Then
(7

Putting on a

21
X 3)

40

77

33
(3

11)

(11

common denominator
11a

lb =

x 40

7x3x11
i.e.

11a

lb =

120

7)

the res-

MILLING AND THE MILLING MACHINE

128

By trial and error we find that if a = 9, and b = 3; 99 + 21 =


Hence the indexing required is 9 holes in a 21 circle added to
in a 33 circle (i.e. both movements in the same direction).
(Jb)

120.
3 holes

91 divisions:

Testing for suitable hole circles as before


91
10

40
39

49

= 44 X ^
= 4 x 2= 2 x 2 x
= 44 x 3
= 7 x 2

2-

we

have:

5-

49 as suitable sizes and


a

39
(13

Putting on a

(7X7)

3)

13

49a 39b

By

trial

and

(13

7)

common denominator
49a 39b

i.e.

40
91

49

x 7 x

40 X 21
7

840.

error:

If

Hence 6 holes

in

6 and b

49 X 6
294

= 14:
+ 39 x 14
+ 456 = 840.

a 39 circle added to 14 holes in 49 circle will be the

indexing required.
Differential indexing

an automatic method of carrying out compound indexing.


dividing head is shown in Fig. 94, from which it
will be seen that the index plate is unlocked, and is geared back to the
spindle. As the spindle is rotated via the crank and worm, the gear train
This

is

really

The arrangement of the

causes the index plate to turn backwards or forwards, and the net result
is

the same as

compound

if

the index plate were released and rotated by hand as in

indexing.

Differential indexing is more straightforward and is capable of dealing


with a wider range of divisions than compound indexing. The problem is

DIFFERENTIAL INDEXING

129

Index p/ate
'unlocked

Gear fixed to
index p/ate

Worm shaft
turned by crank

Gear fixed to
bevel wheel

Bevel wheels and


gears A+Bgive
J/7 ratio

Driver

Gear stud fixei


to head spindle
Showing Arrangement of Gearing

Fig. 94

to calculate the indexing

and the gear

for Differential Indexing.

ratio necessary to obtain

any given

number of divisions on the work, and we will explain the method by working out a few examples:

Example

9. Calculate the differential

indexing to give 107 divisions on

the work.

The indexing required


this indexing

times,

i.e.

turns of the crank per division, and when


is
has been done 107 times the crank has turned
X 107 = 40

the

work has turned

Since no 107 circle


indexing to the exact
ToV

If

we

i\

is

complete

circle as

available, let us take

it

should.

an approximately near

^ required.

approximately (by approx cancellation by

take 107 moves of 8 holes in a 21 circle


107

x 8_
~~

21

turns of the crank

416
21

40^

we

obtain

5)

130

MILLING AND THE MILLING MACHINE

But we have seen that the crank must make 40 turns only, during the
we must therefore subtract jf of a turn. This is done
by gearing up the plate, so that whilst the spindle makes 1 turn, the plate
107 indexings, and

makes -If turn in the opposite direction to the crank.


Hence with an indexing of 8 holes in a 21 circle, the gear
.

,,

Drivers

-=-^
spindle
to plate:
^
^

ratio

from

16
^rr

Driven
21
For the Brown and Sharpe dividing head, the gears supplied are as

follows:

24(2), 28, 32, 40, 44, 48, 56, 64, 72, 86

We may

make up

and 100

teeth.

a train for the above ratio from this set as follows:


16
32 Drivers
8 X 2 _ 64
X
27 ~ 7~x~3 ~ 56
48 Driven

In the above case the gears must be arranged so that the index plate

revolves opposite to the crank.

Example

10. Calculate the differential

indexing for 127 divisions.

Exact indexing

and roughly cancelling by

Now

127

-$;

8 gives -^ as the approximation.

moves of 5 holes

in a 16 circle gives 127

&=W=

39f^ turns

of the crank.

But

this is

Hence
same

in

40-39{ = re short of what it should be.


turn of the spindle the index plate must

make ^ turn in the

direction as the crank.

Gear

Drivers

ratio: t=-^

Driven

5
=
= tz
16

5
o

8x2
*>

With this ratio and an indexing of 5 holes in a


would be obtained.

40
24
= Ta
x 7q
64
48
16 circle, the 127 divisions

Angular indexing

Very often, instead of a number of equal

divisions,

an angle must be

indexed
Since

turn ofthe crank rotates the spindle^ turn, the angle at the

centre equivalent to one turn of the crank

360

is

-^- =

9 so that

work

ANGULAR INDEXING

rx,

= Angle

Turns of crank to give any angle

Example

131

required
~

11. Calculate the indexing for the following angles: (a) 41, (b)

15 30', (c) 29 20'.


(a) 41.

in

a 54

15 30'.

(b)

=^=

Indexing

4| turn of crank, say 4

whole turns and 30 holes

circle.

Indexing

!|

1*|

whole turn and

ift

3 holes in

an 18

circle

or 39 holes in an 54 circle

id)

29

Indexing

20'.

th.

iL

= 3^ = 3

complete turns and

7 holes in a 27 circle

or 14 holes in a 54 circle

Exercises 5c
1.

Calculate suitable indexing to obtain the following divisions on the Brown and Sharpe

head:
(a) 12, (b) 15, (c) 22, (d) 34, {e) 41,

2. Calculate suitable indexing


(a) 13, (b) 17, (c) 25,

3.

(/")

50, (#) 62, (h) 76 divisions.

on the Cincinnati head

36, (e) 45, (/) 54, (g) 65, (A)

(</)

for the following:

82 divisions.

Find suitable indexing for the following angles on the Brown and Sharpe head:

(a) 15, (b) 26, (c) 33 id) 52 30', (e) 63 40'.

4.

Determine appropriate indexing

(a) 1630', (b) 2745', (c) 31 20',


5.

50

mm

is 1

1-25

shaft,

are radial,

it

with a cutter 6

for the following angles

(^

74

15', (e)

on the Cincinnati head:

136 30'.

diameter,

is

to have a groove milled along

mm

at

the top and

wide

mm wide, after which the shaft

it.

The

sides of the

groove

6mm at the bottom. The centre is to be cut

is

to be indexed round and set over for milling

the slot sides with the same cutter setting. Calculate the indexing and set over.
6.

Determine suitable compound indexing

(a) 51, (b) 63, (c) 87, (d)

7.

The crank of a

for the following, using B.

&

S. plates:

189 divisions.

dividing head

is

indexed

indexed in the opposite direction holes in ac

N holes
circle.

in a C circle, and then the plate is


Find an expression for the number of

divisions obtained.
8.

Determine suitable indexing and gears

for obtaining the following

by

differential

indexing:
(a) 97, (b) 53, (c) 101, (d) 131 divisions.

,..,.,..
The index plate of a dividing head
.

9.

is

j (rotation
circle,

[Use B.
.

&

S. plates
.

,,

and
,

gears.]
.

geared to the spindle in the ratio

turns of spindle

opposite to crank) If the crank is now indexed 3 complete turns,


.

through what angle has the spindle been rotated?

15 holes in a 20

132

10.

MILLING AND THE MILLING MACHINE

A round

plate requires four notches, A, B,

angles between

AB, BC,

CD

and

DA

and D, indexing

in

it

spaced so that the

are in the ratio 2:3:4:5. Using the

same hole circle

throughout, determine the indexing required.

Use of continued

fractions for angular indexing

When

is

an angle

seconds,

required whose value involves obscure minutes and

unlikely that an exact indexing for

it will be possible. It is
by turning the ratio into a continued fraction, to
obtain an indexing which is very near to the exact one. The method is
illustrated by the following examples:
it is

possible, however,

Example

12. Calculate the nearest indexing

and the actual angle obtained

for the following:


(a) 14 38', (6) 21 19' 35"

(a)

|f|

The indexing

will

be

= 1^
g

Converting the fraction to minutes gives lffjj = l^fg.


to a continued fraction and find its convergents.
169)270(1

169
101)169(1

101

68)101(1

68
33)68(2

66
2)33(16

32
1)2(2

The

fraction

is

+1
1

16

We now convert

ANGULAR INDEXING

USE OF CONTINUED FRACTIONS FOR

The convergents
1st

f;

2nd

are as follows:

3rd

The 4th convergent


i

133

is

f;

4th

f;

5th

the last one

we

= $;

6th

are able to

69
\
270

make use of and

15
10 flr
16 Ul 24-

Hence the indexing

is

complete turn and

10 holes in

a 16 circle or 15

holes in a 24 circle.

The

actual angle obtained will be

9
(b)

If

The indexing

14f

14 37*' (an error of -*')

in this case will

verting the fraction to seconds

be

21 19' 35"
s

= 2%$ =

We now convert the 4& to a continued

3 19' 35'

479

2^T296"

fraction

479)1296(2

958
338)479(1

338
141)338(2

282
56)141(2

112
29)56(1
29
27)29(1

27
2)27(13

26

02(2

The

fraction

is

2+ J
1

2+

1+J
1

13

and con-

MILLING AND THE MILLING MACHINE

134

and
6th
Ulll

convergents are 1st =


a- 7th
8th ^^~
/III ia- OU1
!296-

its

46

625

\\

2nd =

\\

3rd

f;

4th

^; 5th

$;

If a 46-hole circle

is

available the 6th convergent

may be used and the

indexing will be 2 whole turns +17 holes in a 46 circle, giving an angle of


9 x 2# = 21f = 21 19'33" (an error of -2").

cannot be used, then the 5th convergent must be


be 2 whole turns +10 holes in a 27 circle.

If a 46-hole circle

dexed and

this will

This will give an angle of 9

x2ff=

21}

21 20' (an error of

in-

25").

Spiral milling

For some reason unknown, the operation of milling a helix on a cylindrical


come to be known as spiral milling. Actually a spiral is
a fiat curve shaped like a clock spring. However, so long as we know the
process and its principles, it matters little by what name we call it.
piece of work has

Index plate
unlocked^*.

Driven

Shaft
marked 'C 'J
In Fig. 94 1>J
r

Idler

F.g. 95

End View of Dividing Head Geared

to

Leadscrew

for Spiral Milling.

SPIRAL MILLING

When

the machine

is

set

up

for spiral milling the

worm

135

spindle of the

geared to the leadscrew of the machine table, so that


when the leadscrew is turned the worm is turned also. This rotates the
dividing head spindle, so that the longitudinal movement of the table is
dividing head

is

accompanied by a rotation of the work.


shown in Fig. 95.

A sketch of the machine set up is

The first calculation necessary for spiral milling is the gear ratio between the leadscrew and the dividing head worm-shaft to give the required
lead of helix.
In order to do this we must first ascertain the "lead of the machine."
The reader will recollect that the lead of a screw is the distance the screw
advances along the cylinder whilst it makes one complete turn round it
(Fig 78a) The lead of the machine is the lead of the helix it would cut if the
.

table leadscrew

were connected to the dividing head

worm by

gear

ratio.

When

this

is

the case

we know that to

rotate the dividing

head spindle

(and the work) through 1 revolution requires 40 turns of the worm. If the
gear ratio to the table leadscrew is f the leadscrew will have made 40 turns
also, and the table will have advanced 40 (pitch of leadscrew). This
distance will be the lead of the machine. On the majority of milling

machines having metric leadscrews the pitch is 5 mm, hence the lead of
(on machines manufactured to inch dimensions
is 200
the leadscrew pitch is 0-25 in, hence the lead of these machines is 10

mm

these machines
inches).

When the lead


any lead

is

of the machine

is

known, the gear

ratio to cut a helix of

given by the proportion:

Ratio

The hand of the

Lead of machine
Lead of helix to be cut

Drivers

Driven

helix (whether

RH or LH) is controlled by the presence

or otherwise of an idler gear in the train.

Example

13. Calculate suitable trains

ing leads

256mm

on a machine with a

lead, (c)

set of gears given

480mm,
on

As the leadscrew
200 mm.

is

(d)

of gears to cut helices of the follow-

mm

720mm

leadscrew: (a) 120


lead. [Select

mm

lead, (b)

from the B.

&

S.

p. 130.]

mm pitch the lead of the machine will be 5

x 40 =

MILLING AND THE MILLING MACHINE

136

(a)

120

mm

Drivers

Ratio j^t

The

train

= ff =

256mm

and

_ 200 _
~ 256 ~

Drivers

100 x 2

64 x 4

100 x 24

64 x 48

lead

Drivers

Driven
(d) 720

as follows:

64 Drivers
X 8 _ 40
~ 4 X 6 ~ 32 X 48 Driven
5

Driven

480mm

by a 40 T driving a 24 T.

lead.
.

(c)

this is given

may be compounded
40
24

(b)

|fi

200
480

_
~

40
48

_5_

10

40
32
X
48
64

mm lead
Ratio

_200_5_40_40
~
~ X
7 20

80

72

32

64

Helix angle

Before the helix can be cut

it is

necessary to set the cutter to the angle

fol-

lowed by the path of the curve. If this were not done a great deal of interference would take place and the shape of the groove would be nothing
like the shape of the cutter working to produce it. Even with the cutter
set into the helix angle some interference generally takes place and the
shape of the groove varies from the profile of the cutter.
The helix angle is the angle a on Fig. 78 (b), and if the helix is developed
out into a triangle as shown, we see that
circumference of cylinder
lead of helix

When the helix angle has been determined, the cutter head or the
machine table must be swung round so that the plane of the cutter lies at
this angle, relative to the work. Care should be exercised to swing in the
correct direction for

RH

or

LH

helix.

When grooves of appreciable depth are being cut, the circumference of


the cylinder passing through the bottoms of the grooves will be much less

than that of the cylinder in which they are being cut. This means that if
is based on the outside diameter of
the work, the inclination of the cutter will be correct at the top, but not
the calculation for the helix angle
at the

bottom of the grooves. The reverse

will

be the case

if the

bottom

HELIX ANGLE

diameter of the grooves

is

137

used when finding the cylinder circumference

above expression.
in doubt about which diameter to take for the calculation the
reader is advised to take the mean between top and bottom of grooves.
It may be that for grooves of certain shapes the top, or the bottom, might
form the more suitable basis for the calculation, but only trial and experience can decide on the best compromise.

in the

When

Example 14. Calculate the gears and setting for milling LH spiral flutes in
a reamer 40mm diameter. Lead of helix = 800mm. Machine leadscrew

5mm pitch.

Reamer

flutes

8mm deep.

Lead of machine = 40 x

Gear

To

head:

ratio, table to

r-

Driven

calculate the helix angle

of the

40

flutes, i.e.

= ^r^ =
800

200

mm

t=o
4
2

t
2

x ZT
7o
48
64

we will take the diameter at the mean depth

32 mm.

Circum of cylinder = 327rmm


32;r
Circum
n
,-- - = ^r =
= 0-1257
tan a =
^f
leadr
800
25
1

From which a =
As

the helix

7 10'

LH the table of the machine must be swung with its LH

is

end away from the operator.

Example

5.

A spiral gear has a pitch diameter of 80 mm and a spiral angle

of 30. Calculate the gears for milling the teeth in

it.

In this case we have to determine the lead of the helix in order to be able
to solve the problem.

The

pitch circum

Also tan a

.-.

Gear

ratio,

lead

80 n = 25 1-3
circum

mm

lead

circum

tan a
j-

=
-j-

251-3

251-3

~7^0-5774
tan 30 =rrznHA
i.

leadscrew to dividing head

200
-tttj

A~

435-2

1000
yyfz

mm

125

972

MILLING AND THE MILLING MACHINE

138

As

this is

an awkward fraction

we

will

convert

it

to a continued frac-

tion

125)272(2

250
22)125(5
110
15)22(1

11
7)15(2

]4
1)7(7
7

The convergents

are given by
\

1
1

and

their values are:

1st

fc

2nd = A; 3rd = &; 4th #; 5th = #

Taking the 3rd convergent and finding a suitable gear ratio we have
Drivers

Driven

The

13

65

_
I ~
J_

30
65

40
40

^ x 200 mm
mm instead of the required 435-2 mm

actual lead obtained will be

Cam

30

milliing

433-3

on the dividing head

By employing a universal milling machine fitted with a swivelling vertical


head, constant- rise cams may be cut on blanks held in the dividing head.
The set-up is shown in Fig. 96, and the dividing head is geared to the table
lead screw in the same way as for spiral milling.
The principle of the operation is that as the table moves to the right the
axis of the

spindle.
rotates,

end

mill

approaches nearer to the axis of the dividing head

same time, the dividing head is geared so that its spindle


the combination of the rotation and of the cutter approaching
If,

at the

CAM MILLING ON THE

DIVIDING

HEAD

139

head
swung over

^Vertical

Shaft

marked
in Fig.

94

Gear connection
similar to that
for spiral milling

(Fig.9S)
Table

lead screw

Fig. 96

Set-up for

Cam

Milling.

to be cut on the blank held in the head.


The rate at which the end mill approaches the dividing head axis is controlled by the angle a, and the reader will observe that if this is made zero
(dividing head spindle horizontal), then, instead of a cam, a circular disc

nearer to the centre, causes a

cam

was long enough to do it. (It will be


cutting proceeds, the blank gradually moves down the

would be cut provided the end


observed that as

mill

end mill so that a fairly long cutter is necessary.)


(As an alternative to the arrangement shown, the end mill axis may be
located below the cam axis. Then the table must move to the left and the
cam will move up the end mill as cutting proceeds.)

MILLING AND THE MILLING MACHINE

140

The expressions

for calculating

any particular case may be derived

as follows:

Let a == angle of inclination (Fig. 96)


(Note that both cutter and dividing heads must be inclined

=--

Gear

=-

pitch of table leadscrew

ratio

-=p

at a)

between leadscrew and dividing head

worm
lead of

/ ==

cam

to be milled

(Radial drop in profile in

Then, for
turn

revolution)

turn of the table leadscrew, the dividing head

worm will

R times and the dividing head spindle, because of the 40-1 reduction,
D

will turn

2^ times

Hence, since

in

turn of

its

leadscrew the table advances

pmm we

have:

R_

Turns of work
Movement of table

40

40/)

From which
Turns of work

For

-r~-

(movement of table)

turn of the work:


1

-Tpj

(movement of table)

movement of table = J- (for


K

and

turn of work)

Now
has

because of the inclination of the head and work, when the table
moved the distance cb (Fig. 97) the centre of the end mill has approach-

ed the centre of the work by the length ac.

[^-Movement

of Tafa/e->-|

Fig. 97

CAM MILLING ON THE

Hence

if

work, ac

cb represents the horizontal table

will represent the lead

ac

-r

sin

a or

cb

of

cam

cut

movement

Table movement

Hence

movement

for

and from the

I
t-.

table

DIVIDING

sin

sin

HEAD

141

turn of the

triangle:

If we substitute this in the expression for the table movement

above we

have:

= =/-,

Table movement

40p
^

R =

and

lip

mm,

as

is

i.e.:
sin

sin

-=r-

usually the case, the expression reduces to

200

R =

sin

R and a and in using it a value


one of them will have to be assumed before the other may be calculated. If a first trial gives unsatisfactory conditions, then one of the values
may be changed to bring the other to reasonable dimensions.
This expression controls the variables

for

Example 16. Calculate a suitable setting for milling a cam, the profile of
which falls 12 mm in 100 of its angle. Leadscrew of machine has a pitch of

5mm.
Here p =
12

-tqtt

5 mm,

and if the cam profile falls 1 2 mm in 100

its

lead will be

= 43-2mm

Let us assume that

R =

-,,

Then

40o

sin

=i
3

Drivers

be suitable.

a =

Hence a gear ratio -=r~-

200

sin

43-2

x 43-2
0-648

This gives

sin

40 24'

= y3 and an angular setting of a = 40 24' will

MILLING AND THE MILLING MACHINE

142

Exercises 5d
1.

Calculate the nearest indexing for the following angles, using the standard Cincinnati

plate,

and determine the actual angle obtained

for the indexing used:

(a) 10 36' 30", (b) 41 24'20", (c) 75 45'30"


2.

Determine the nearest indexing to divide an angle of 76


on B. & S. plates.

30' into 7 parts.

Use hole

circles available

mm

3. A plate is rectangular, 123


x 79 mm, with a hole in its centre. Ifthis is on a mandril
between dividing head centres, find the nearest indexing to rotate it through the angle contained by joining the end corners to the centre. [Angle contained by short side required.]
In the following exercises use the B. & S. gears (p. 130) and take the Lead of Machine as

200 mm.
4. Calculate suitable gear ratios to cut the following leads

168 mm, (b) 288 mm,


5.

(c)

450 mm,

(d)

on a B.

&

S.

machine:

(a)

640 mm.

A gear has a pitch diameter of 100mm and the lead of the spiral is 420mm. Determine

a suitable gear ratio and find the helix angle for setting.
6. Calculate the gear ratio

on a worm of
7.
it

100mm

spiral milling cutter

which make approx

and angular

setting for milling a 4-start thread of35

mm pitch,

pitch diameter.

80mm

is

of their lead

diameter and
in the length

120mm

long. Flutes are to be milled on

of the cutter. Calculate suitable gears

and angular setting for milling the flutes.


8. Slots h aving a lead angle of 30 are to be milled in a cylinder 45 mm diameter. Determine
the gear ratio.
In the following examples take the table leadscrew pitch as 5mm.
in 50 of revolution, and determine a
cam which rises 10

mm

9. Calculate the lead of a

and gear ratio for cutting it.


10. A cam which revolves at 2 rev/min has to move the roller in contact with it at a rate of
50mm/min. Determine its lead, and find a suitable gear ratio and setting to mill its profile.
11. A cam is heart-shaped with uniform rise. The radius to the point of the heart is 60 mm,
and to the corner where the curved portions meet the radius is 30 mm. Determine the lead and

suitable setting

find a suitable gear ratio

and

setting to mill

it.

The calculation of solid angles


Angular milling and shaping jobs often occur where a solid angle has to be
calculated, the value of the angle depending upon the angles between
other surfaces on the same work. Examples of such cases are likely to be
varied, but the following worked cases may convey to the reader how any
other example might be approached.

Example 17. Calculate the true angle between the sloping faces of the
block shown in Fig. 98.
If we project a section

through the angle, the section plane being taken

at 90 to the sloping corner,

bottom

oJ

the diagram.

we shall obtain the triangle ABD shown at the

The

true angle

we

require will then be

ADB.

THE CALCULATION OF SOLID ANGLES

143

Fig. 98

Now
and since triangle

DE = CE cos 30
ABC is right angled at C and has 45

In triangle

AE =
ADE (sectional view): ^^
5

From which
/\

/\

tan

ADE

^N

tan

ADE =

ADE =

49

7'

4-33

1-155

/\

/\

which we require

Example

A andB

CE = AB = 5.
DE=5cos30 =4-33 mm

Hence

ADB

angles at

is

twice

18. Calculate the angle

ADE =

2 x 49

7'

98 14'

between the base and the sloping face of

shown in Fig. 99.


The block is shown by full and plain dotted lines. Chain dotted lines are

the block

constructional only, for the purpose of explanation.


If

AB

is

FC

is

AG and BE, and BC perpendicular to BE


on the base), then the angle we require is angle ABC.
to EB, and BD to FE

perpendicular to

(BC being a

line

parallel

MILLING AND THE MILLING MACHINE

144

Fig. 99

Then

BDC:

in triangle

10

BD = FE =
/\

BDC =
AC

But-o^

BC = BD

45 so that

/\

==

tan of ABC and

10

tan 60

sin 45

AC

tan

10

ABC =

(a)
(b)
(c)

19. Calculate for the tool

The
The
The

x 0-7071 = 4-083

2-453

4-083

ABC =
Example

5-774

10

/\

.\

5-774

1-732

67 49

shown

in Fig. 100.

true angle between the cutting edge

AB

and the

line

inclination of the top cutting face, perpendicular to

AC
AB

true angle between the top cutting face and the front clear-

ance face.
Lines

FE on the

dicular to the edge

cutting face

and

EG on the clearance face are perpen-

AB.

on the cutting face and is perpendicular to AC


and EK are vertical lines and angles FHG and EKG = 90
In Fig. 100 (b), EM and FS are horizontal, LM vertical and EL

FA
FH

is

pendicular to
(a)

If

AC.

True angle between

we

call this

EM
Now ^rr- =
EL

angle a,

AB

and

AC

EL
then -ry- =

cos 25 and

EL =

tan

EM

^rcos 25

is

per-

THE CALCULATION OF SOLID ANGLES

Fig. 100

AL =

Also

EM

and

Projected

EM

AM
AL

and

Projected length

AL

AM

tan 30

EM
tan 30

EM
Hence

EL
tana =

AL

cos 25

EM

EM

cos 25

tan 30

EM

tan 30

Hence

tan 30

0-5774

cos 25

0-9063

a =

0-6371

32 30

of top face perpendicular to edge


This will be the inclination of line FE
(b) Inclination

AB

145

MILLING AND THE MILLING MACHINE

146

Now since points A,

E and L

F,

FAL = FEA =

are

all in

the same plane, and

AFE = EAL = a = 32 30'


FE = FA cos a and FA = OR = PQ = ^
90;

cos 25

cos 25

Hence

FF
FE
The

21
==

c^25^

a = ~^Si2P

21 cos 32 30'

C0S

vertical distance of F
==

= 21x0-8434
0-9063

,__.

19

54mm

below E = ES

Distance of F below

A-

Distance of E below

PR - LM
= PQ tan 25 - EL sin 25 =21 tan 25 - EL sin 25
== 21 x 0-4663 - EL sin 25 = 9-79 - EL sin 25
EL = EA sin a and EA = FE tan a
=

But

EL = FE tan a

.'.

Hence EL sin
a = 32 30'

25

= FE tan a
=

PR - LM =
The

AB =

sin 25

which, since

FE =

x 0-6371 x 0-05373 x 0-4226 =

19-54

9-79

sin

sin

2-83

6-96

19-54,

and

2-83

ES.

inclination of the top cutting face in a plane perpendicular to

Angle EFS

/\

FS

=
H
FE

and

sin

EFS =

y\
EFS =

From which

6.06

-^19-54

0-3563

20 52'

True angle between top face and front clearance

(c)

This will be

FES 90

face.

20 52'

90

28 52'

61

8'

Exercises 5e
Determine the angle, when measured perpendicular to the clearance face, of a tool for
cutting acme threads (29 on its top face). Clearance angle on tool = 15.
2. The angle of the vee in the block at Fig. 101 is to measure 60 on the front face as
shown Calculate the angle of the vee when measured along its slope (i.e the angle to which
it would be milled)
1.

THE CALCULATION OF SOLID ANGLES

Fig. 102

Fig. 101

3.

147

Find the true angle a between the sloping face and the base of the block shown in Fig.

102.
4.
at

square pyramid

is

40mm high

and has a base

30mm

square. Calculate (a) the angle

the apex between two opposite faces, (b) the angle between two adjoining faces as mea-

sured perpendicular to the sloping edge bounding them.


5.

piece of sheet steel

240mm x 120mm

is

bent as in Fig. 103. Determine the base,

height and vertical angle of a triangular piece of material which will

fit

into the angle as

shown dotted.

Fig. 103

6. In Fig.

Fig. 104

104 calculate (a) the angle between the corner

AB

and the top face of the

block, and (b) the angle between the two sloping faces as measured perpendicular to

AB.

Mechanical
principles

Vectorial representation

We

are familiar with the numerical representation of quantities

and with

we have to submit our calculations to obtain the


study of some parts of mechanics it is an advantage

the processes to which


desired result. In the

form of vectors. When


anything has amount and direction it can be represented by a vector, and
a vector is a line, the length of which represents the amount of the quantity

to be able to express certain quantities in the

being represented, and whose direction indicates which way the quantity
is acting. Thus in Fig. 105, ab represent a vector 3j units long directed in an

Fig. 105

upward direction

at

45 to the horizontal; cd represents a vector 5 units

long directed horizontally from

left

to right.

Addition and subtraction of vectors

When we add or subtract numerical quantities we merely add or subtract


the numerical amounts, the result being a numerical

may

sum

or difference,

When

adding or subtracting vector quantities,


however, we have to take into account not only their numerical value but
also their direction. This is achieved if we observe the following rules:
as the case

be.

Adding

To add two

or

more

vectors,

draw the

first in

continue the second one on the end of the

first,

the direction of its arrow,


the third on the end of the

ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF VECTORS

second, and so on.

ning of the

first

The sum of the

vectors

is

149

the vector joining the begin-

to the end of the last in the series.

The arrow on the sum

vector must be in the same general direction as those on the vectors being

added. This will be understood from the vectors shown added in Fig. 106.
Draw ab equal and parallel to vector A on the end b drawee equal and
parallel to B and from c draw cd equal and parallel to C. The sum of A,
;

C is

and

the vector ad, and

its

arrow

is

as

shown.

Fig. 106

The

chief mistake

made

in

adding vectors

is

to add the succeeding

vector to the beginning instead of to the end of the previous one. This can

be avoided if the reader observes the following rule: When adding vectors,
do not remove the pencilfrom the paper until the end ofthe last one is reached.
Subtracting

We know that A -

Bis the same

as

A + ( - B) Hence to subtract a vector


.

another one A we may add BtoA.A minus vector


one with the direction of its arrow reversed.

B from
This

if

represent

The

>

is

is

a positive

<

a vector representing + A, then b

c will

A.

following example will illustrate the subtraction of vectors:

Example

Subtract a vector of 5 units horizontal L to R, from a vector of


at 45 to the NE, and then add a vector of 6 units vertical

4 units directed

downwards.

The vectors

are

shown

at Fig. 107 (a),

-A

and the problem

+ C

is

MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES

150

A=5

C=6'<

+c ,r

Fig. 107

It does not matter in which order we deal with the vectors, providing we
observe the rules for their addition or subtraction.
In this case we have to reverse the arrow of A and then add them all

together. This

is

shown

at (b)

and the

result

is

the vector ad.

To

convince the reader that the result is unaffected by the order in


which the vectors are drawn, the diagram has been re-drawn at (c), where
the vectors have been taken it the order C B A instead of B A C, as at (ft).

The

result is the

same

each case, since eh and ad are equal

for

in length

and direction.

Exercises 6a
[Where an angle is specified, it refers to the angle made with the horizontal or vertical
line drawn to the beginning end of the vector.]
1

Draw

vectors to represent the following: (a) 7 units, vertically upwards; (b) 8-5 units

horizontal

to R;

of vertical;

(c) 3

units

(e) 7-2 units

upwards
to

at 30 to

at 30

L of vertical; (d) 64 units downwards 15 to


(/) 5 units L to R at 45 below

above horizontal;

horizontal.
2.

Add

together the following vectors:

(a) 6 units vertically

upwards, to 4 units horizontal

to R.

(if)

to L, to 7-1 units vertically downwards.


4-5 units downwards, 10 to
of vertical, to 6-5 units vertically downwards.
7-2 units R to L 20 above horiz, to 6-5 units L to R, 45 below horiz.

(<?)

6-3 units vert

(/?)
(<)

8-2 units horizontal

upwards to 6 units horiz L to

R to 6 units R to L, 30 below horiz.

APPLICATIONS OF VECTORS

downwards, to

151

to R, 30

above

No 2, subtract the second vector from the first in (a), (b), (c) and (d).
No 2, (e) and if), subtract the third vector specified from the sum

of the

(/) 5 units horiz

to R, to 5 units vert,

8 units

horiz.
3. In Ex.
4. In Ex.
first

5.

two.

A horizontal

vector, ab, 8-6 units long,

ac and cb, where acb-

and
6.

90. If ac

is

arrow L to R, represents the sum of two vectors,


above the horizontal, find the values of ac

to R, 40

cb.

vertical vector, ab, 10 units long,

vectors (ac

cb).

Vector ac

is

arrow downwards, represents the difference of two

8 units long,

downwards, 30 to

R of the vertical.

Find the

value of vector cb

A vector ab,

15 units long, L to R, 45 above the horizontal, represents the sum of two


and cb. The angle between ac and cb is 30, and ac is upwards, 30 to R of the
vertical. Find the values of ac and cb.
8. When two vectors, ab and be, are added, the result is a horizontal vector 10 units
long, L to R. When be is subtracted from ab the result is an upward vector, 30 to the R of
7.

vectors, ac

the vertical, 10 units long. If the angle between ab and be

is

90, find their values.

Applications of vectors

We

will

now

consider

some of the examples which occur

in practice,

requiring the use of vectors for their solution.

Forces
In order to specify a force completely we must know its amount, its line
of action and its direction. Force may be represented vectorially since the

may represent the amount of the force, the inclination


of the vector may represent its line of action and the arrow head will show
the direction. When problems arise where a number of non-parallel forces
length of the vector

are acting at a point, the solution can be arrived at vectorially, since this
method takes into account the angular effect as well as the magnitude of

A simple example will probably make this clear. Suppose that


being driven into a hole by a force F, applied on an angle as shown

the forces.

a pin

is

in Fig. 108 (a). We know from experience that if F were large enough it
would eventually drive the pin home, although it would not do so as well
as if it were acting vertically. We also know that if F were sloping too far
over towards the horizontal, it would bend the pin We may say, therefore,
that F is equivalent to the combination of a vertical force and a horizontal
one, and Fig. 108(6) shows the forces acting on the pin: Q is the pressure
of the side of the hole and R is the resistance tending to prevent the pin
from entering the hole. By drawing a vector diagram we may find Q and F
.

MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES

152

Fig. 108

if we know the amount and direction of F, because we know that F Q +


R. The diagram is shown in Fig. 108(c). The vector for F is drawn parallel
to F and equal to its amount to some scale. Since only 3 forces are acting,
the diagram is a triangle, and this is completed by making one side parallel
to Q and the other parallel to R, Q, being drawn from one end of F and/?
from the other./? represents the driving in effect, and Q and bending effect

ofF.

The reader will observe that here the arrows follow round the diagram,
whereas when we were discussing the addition of vectors they did not.
Here we are dealing with vectors representing a set of forces which are in
balance amongst themselves, whilst before we were finding a vector which
represented the resultant of a number of others. If F were representing the
resultant, or the net effect of Q and R, its arrow would point upwards, but
as it represents a force which balances the other two, then its direction
must be reversed. The only difference between the resultant of a number
of forces and the single force that will balance them is that the balancing
force

is

opposite in direction to the resultant.

Example 2
of

100N

is

A round bar of metal which exerts a vertically downward force


resting in a 90 vee block. Find the load

on the

sides of the

block.

In all problems of this type, a clear conception of the forces acting


should be gained before attempting the vectorial solution. Also, in all

APPLICATIONS OF VECTORS

153

100N

Fig. 109

vectorial problems, the data or details

that the vectors

may be drawn

must be drawn out to scale in order

parallel to the quantities they represent.

In this case the weight of the bar (100N) acting vertically downwards is
being balanced by the forces R andR 2 exerted on the bar by the vee block.
As the vee block is symmetrical about the centre line, the forces R andi? 2
will be equal. The bar, of course, exerts equal and opposite forces, R and
t

2,

on the block

(Fig. 109a).

draw a vertical vector to represent


From each end of this draw
vectors parallel to the balancing forces acting. The lengths of these will
represent the magnitude of the forces. This is shown in Fig. 109(b).
In drawing the vector diagram,

first

the weight of the bar acting downwards.

be seen that in the vector triangle abc, since each side of the
vee block slopes at 45, the angles abc are each 45
It will

Hence

Example

be

3.

=
=
=

ab

sin 45

ac

0-707 x

A casting whose weight exerts a downward force of 1000N is

slung by chains as

shown

(b) the least angle

a between

the chains

=R
= 0-707 ab
100 = 70-7 N

/?,

is

in Fig.

10(a).

Find (a) the tension in the chains,

the chains and the casting

not to exceed 1600N.

if

the tension in

MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES

154

1000

(*)

Fig. 110

(a) The forces acting at the ring where the chains meet are
(1) lifting
chain pulling upwards, (2) sling chains pulling in their directions. These
forces are shown by the arrows.

The diagram must be

set

out to scale so that vectors

parallel to their forces; this has

been done for Fig.

may be drawn

10(a) to save an addi-

tional diagram.

We may now draw the vector diagram,


ab

and

this is

shown in Fig.

10(b).

the vertical vector for the upward pull of the lifting chain, whilst ac
and be are drawn parallel to the sling chains.
is

Upon measurement, ac and be are found


700N, which is the force in the chains.
(b) If the tension in the chains is

to have a length representing

1600N, the vector diagram

will

be as

shown in Fig. 1 10(c), and by measurement the angle a is found to be 19


The reader will observe that the smaller the value of a, the greater will
be the load on the sling chains.
Exercises 6b

The leadscrew of a lathe is threaded 5 mm lead, and is connected to the spindle by a


gear ratio. The feed shaft is set to give a feed of 1 mm per rev to the
cross-slide. If the nut and
1.

the cross-slide feed (outwards) are engaged at the


ment of the tool point.

same

time, determine the actual

move-

CONDITIONS FOR EQUILIBRIUM

155

2. A fitter holds a chisel at an angle of 40 to the horizontal, and strikes it a 50N blow
with a hammer. Find the force tending to drive the chisel horizontally, and that tending

to drive
3.

it

vertically into the metal.

A bar of steel, which exerts a vertically downward

force of

300N,

rests symmetrically

on a pair Of 90 vee-blocks.
(a) Determine the reaction between the bar and the block at an area of contact
(b) If contact takes place on an area of size 50 mm x 0-08 mm, what is the contact

N/mm ?
60mm diameter,

pressure in
4.

wheel,

rolls

along a

fiat

surface at 0-06 m/s. Determine the actual

speed and direction of a point on its circumference, and level with its centre.
5. A bar of steel 2m long and 31 kgf (304 N) weight, is lifted by a chain attached to
ends.

The

total length of the vee

formed by the chain

is

2-5 m.

Determine the tension

its

in the

chain.

A casting weighing 20 kgf (196 N) is suspended by a chain and is being pulled to one
by another chain attached to it. If, when the first chain is inclined at 30 to the
vertical, the angle between the chains is 105, find the tension in the chains.
7. A casting of weight equivalent to 2000N is raised by driving 4 wedges under it. If
the angle of each wedge is 25 and the weight is equally distributed between them, find
6.

side

wedge out, and the pressure perpendicular to the wedge


between the wedge and casting.]

the force tending to push the


surface. [Neglect friction

Conditions for equilibrium

For a body to be in equilibrium under the action of 3 forces, the forces


acting upon it must satisfy one of the following conditions:
(a) They must be parallel, or
(b) If not parallel they must meet at a point, and their vectors, when
drawn, must form a closed figure.

As we

shall

be dealing with parallel forces

later,

we

will consider case

(b).
It is

not always obvious, upon the examination of a problem, in which


all the forces are acting. Generally the points which they are

direction

being applied can be picked out easily, as can the directions of at least two

of them. When we know that to be in equilibrium, non-parallel forces must


meet at a point, we can generally find this point by using what information
we have, and employ it to help in the solution of the problem.

we might remind the reader of the following:


The weight of a body always acts vertically downwards through its

In this connexion
(a)

(b)

Centre of Gravity, and if the mass is m kilogrammes, the weight can


be taken as 9-81 m newtons.
When friction is neglected the pressure between two bodies acts at
the point of contact and in a direction perpendicular to a tangent

drawn

to the surfaces in contact.

MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES

156

Example 4. A bar of metal, mass 15 kg (147N weight), is rested on its end


and leaned against a wall so that it is inclined at an angle of 60 to the floor.
If the friction between the end of the bar and the wall is neglected, find the
force on the floor and against the wall.
The forces acting on the bar are (1) The gravitational pull of its weight,
acting downwards through its centre; (2) the reaction of the wall acting
horizontal (since friction
these

and

is

neglected); (3) the reaction of the floor.

we know the amount, direction and line of action of (

1 ),

Of

the direction

and the point of application of (3).


and (2) are drawn on the diagram they meet at O
[Fig. 1 1 1 (a)] Obviously, if the forces acting must meet at a point, the third
force must pass through O, and since it must also act at the end B of the
bar, its line of action is OB. Having thus determined the directions of all
the forces acting, and knowing that they must form a closed vectorial
figure, we may now draw the vector diagram.
line of action of (2),

If lines representing

(1)

147 NT

Fig. Ill

Draw

ab to represent the weight of the bar, be parallel to OB, and ca

parallel to

From
on wall

AD.

the diagram
(ca)

we find that

reaction of floor (be)

= 153N and load

= 40N.

Example 5. A bell crank lever ABC is pivoted at B and the forces acting at
A and C are as shown in Fig. 1 12(a). Find the force on the pivot B.

FORCES ACTING ON A CUTTING TOOL

If the lines

157

of action of the forces at A and C are continued they meet at

on the

[Fig. 112(6)], so that the third force acting

lever

must pass

through D. Since the lever is supported at B, this force must also pass
through B, so that the forces acting on the lever are as shown by the
arrows.

>A
200N
60

()

120

100Nrr

Fig. 112

The vector diagram of forces is shown


B = ac
= V200 2 + 100

at Fig.

12(c)

and from it we see

that force acting at

= 224N
Forces acting on a cutting tool

We have noticed previously that when a lathe tool is cutting there are three
it. These are shown diagrammatically in
vertical
where
Cis
the
cutting force, Fthe feeding force, and//
1 13(a),
the horizontal pressure of the work. By means of vector diagrams we may

perpendicular forces acting on


Fig.

determine the resultant of these forces.


Since the forces are acting in two planes we must solve the problem in
two stages. Let us find the resultant of F and C first. This is shown by the
vector diagram abc at (b), and R FC represented by ac, is the resultant, acting in the vertical plane containing Fand C. We may now imagine the tool
being acted upon by the forces RFC and //, acting in a plane inclined at to
,

MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES

158

Fig. 113

the vertical as

shown

at (a).

Combining these

in a

second vector diagram,

we

obtain the final resultant force on the tool (R) as shown at (c).R lies in a
plane sloping at 6 to the vertical and its line of action is inclined at a to
the line of
is

H A diagrammatic
.

sketch of the forces and their resultants

shown at (d).
The reader will observe that we might solve this problem by calculation

alone, since from Fig. 113(6)

(c)R 2
In

= R
all

and tan a

such cases, however,

F2 + C = R
2

2
,

f
C

and-^ = tan

6;

and from

=^H
it

is

advisable to be able to visualise the

conditions and not to calculate a result blindly from a formula.

Example 6 The forces acting on a lathe tool are


.

H=

400N

[Fig. 113(a)]

C=

1000N, F = 100N and

Find the resultant force on the tool.

THE BALANCING OF WORK ON LATHE FACE-PLATES

As we have discussed the problem diagrammatically, we


problem by calculation.
Referring to Fig. 113(6), (c) and (d).

Rfc = F2 + C =
2

R FC = V700 + 1000 = 1220N


_
.
= F = 700 = n

tan0

a7

TOOO
from which 6 =

R* =

R FC +
*

tan a

resultant

R.

400 2

1220

400
from which a

is

35.

1220 2

R = V1220 +

Hence the

will solve this

700 2 + 1000 2

159

=
=

+ 400 2

= 1285N
3-05

71 51'

a force of 1285N, and the angles a and 6 in Fig.

are 71 51' and 35 repectively.

113(fi0

The balancing of work on lathe face-plates


When a mass is rotating at a certain distance from the centre of rotation
the disturbing effect due to its being out of balance is proportional to the
mass and to its distance from the centre of rotation. Furthermore, the
disturbing effect is always directed from the centre to the masses. Thus if
Fig. 1 14 represents a rotating plate carrying rotating masses m, and m 2 at
radii r and r2 the out-of-balance forces are proportional to m r andm 2 r 2
and are directed from the axis (O), through the mass centres.
l

We

are thus able to deal with such problems vectorially, provided we

draw our vectors equal

in length to the

product mr.

Fig.

14

160

MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES

Example
radii

80

7.

mm

rotating plate carries masses of 15 kg and 20 kg placed at


and 100 mm respectively. The angle between the masses is

120.

Find where a 22 kg mass must be placed to balance the system.


The two masses are shown at Fig. 115(a).

Wrfor pl}~**
<t

of Balance

Weight
Fig. 115

The products of their mass and

radii are

X 80
20 x 100
15

The vector diagram

is

now drawn

= 1200
= 2000

with the vector lengths proportional

and 2000, the directions of the vectors being parallel to radii joining the c entre O to each respective weight This is shown at abc in Fig .115
(b) and ca is the vector representing the product mr for the balancing mass.
From the diagram the length of ca is 1700 units, and since for the balance
to 1200

m=

1700

= 77 mm.
22
The position of the balance weight relative to the other two is found by
drawing a line through O parallel to ca This is shown dotted on Fig 1 1 5(a)
Hence to balance the masses given, the 22 kg mass must be fixed at 77
weight

22 kg, r

mm

and 97 from the 15kg mass.


When working out the balancing of irregularly shaped castings, the
point or points must be determined where the mass of the casting is acting
radius,

(the Centre of Gravity). If the metal

centre of gravity

may be determined

is all

concentrated together, the

as a single point, but

if the

casting

lumps of metal concentrated at different positions, a better


method would be to estimate them as separate units of mass.
consists of

APPLICATIONS OF VECTORS

161

Exercises 6c
1. The forces acting on a lathe tool are 1200N vertical, 800N along the axis of the work
and 500N outwards, perpendicular to the axis of the work. Find the amount and direction of

the resultant force.


2. If the tool in question 1

is

20mm

action of the resultant force intersect


3.

The

its

deep,

how

far

back from

its

point does the line of

base?

helix angle of the tooth of a spiral milling cutter

cutting force perpendicular to the cutter axis

850N,

is

is

find the

20.

When

the tangential

end thrust and the force

acting perpendicular to the tooth face.


4.

The arms of a

bell

inclined at 45 to the

crank lever are

upwards

and 40mm long. When the long arm is


arm is below the centre line, and with the
of 120N at the end of the long arm is balanced

60mm

vertical, the short

upwards force
by a horizontal force of 180N at the end of the short arm. Find the force acting on the

lever in this position a vertical

lever pivot.
5.

and the

bar of
floor

steel

and

weighing 31 kgf (304 N)

rests

with one end in the corner between a wall

inclined at 30 to the horizontal.

is

It is

held in this position by a rope

attached to the outer end, the rope making an angle of 90 with the bar. Find the tension in
the rope and the force where the bar rests in the corner.
6.

countershaft

is

75 with the top one.

down

side of the

driven by a horizontal belt and the

down

belt

makes an angle of

When the tension in each side of the driving belt is 200N and in each

belt

120N

find the resultant force

on the

shaft.

350 N

rmXJ
r-

\Z50N
Fig. 116

7. Fig.

the
8.

A
A

is

a diagrammatic sketch of a gear drive, and forces of 350 N act on the teeth of

gear as shown. Find the resultant thrust on the bearings of this gear.

toggle press

250N and
9.

16

100mm

the angle

casting

is

mechanism

CA D
2

is

bolted to

is

as

shown

in Fig. 121.

When the horizontal

5, find the vertical force at the

force at

C is

ram.

a lathe face-plate, the total mass being equivalent to

162

MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES

200mm

radius and 60kg at 260mm radius. The angle between these is


and position of a 50kg mass which will give balance.
10. For the mechanism shown at Fig. 126, if a load of lOkN acts vertically downwards at E, what is the thrust in link BC?

masses of 50kg

at

120. Find the radius

11.

CI pulley has two out-of-balance bosses on it each 60 mm diameter and


A = 260mm and B = 360mm, and the angle between radii
and B is 110. Find the volume and position of a lead balance weight to be

large

40mm

thick. Their radii are

drawn

to

attached to the pulley at

[Density CI

360mm

7-5g/cm 3 lead
,

radius.

ll-3g/cm 3 ],

Vector diagrams of velocity

may be represented by a vector since it has


amount, line of action and direction. The application of vector velocity
diagrams is very useful when studying the speeds of points in machine
mechanisms, and for that reason it is worthy of consideration.
Before going further into the subject it will be well to impress certain
fundamental points on the reader's mind, as the success or otherwise of
his further study will depend upon his appreciation of them.

Velocity, as well as force,

Fig. 117

(1)

When

an object

is

rotating in a circle

speed and r

is

the radius, then the velocity

applications the rotational speed

is

velocity at any instant

its

upon which

directed perpendicular to the radius

is cor.

it lies.

If co rad/s

is

is

the

For most engineering

usually quoted in rev/min and the

radius in millimetres. For general purposes the most convenient unit for
velocity

is

metres per second, and hence

N=
and

speed in rev/min

= 60000 = 60000

radius in millimetres

2nrN

,,

then

if

7idN

metres/ second

VECTOR DIAGRAMS OF VELOCITY

163

Whatever may be the motion of a rigid rod, the only velocity that
one end may have relative to the other is perpendicular to the rod. (The
"relative" motion of one body to another is the motion the first would
(2)

appear to have to an observer situated

at the

second one.)

Fig. 118

1 18, AB is a rod having any motion whatsoever. To an observer


A, B can only appear to move perpendicular to AB. If it could move
in any direction other than this, it must either approach nearer to A
or recede from it. Both of these are impossible since AB is rigid and of

In Fig.

at

fixed length.
(3)

When a part of a machine is guided in slides it can only move parallel

to the slides.

We will

discuss vector velocity diagrams by working one or

blems, and the reader

is

two pro-

advised to take particular note of the system of

lettering adopted.

Example

8.

ABC is a slider crank mechanism. Find the speed of C for the

position and values given (Fig. 119).

Speed of B =

27irN

60000

x 22 x 60 x 500
7 x 60000

3-142m/s

500

rev/min

Fig.

19

164

MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES

From
(1)

the diagram

is

we know

the following:

AB at 3-142m/s per sec,


can only move perpendicular to BC,
can only move horizontal.

moving perpendicular to

(2) Relative to B,
(3) Relative to A,

C
C

306

The

velocity diagram

shown

Fig. 120

at Fig.

120 and the explanation of its

(Arrows are shown on the vectors, but

in practice these are omitted.)

construction

is

is

as follows:

ab represents the velocity of B relative to A (i.e. the velocity B would


appear to have to an observer at A). The relative velocity of C to B is
perpendicular to BC, hence from b a line is drawn perpendicular to BC,

and c must

lie

somewhere on

that line. But relative to A,

C can only move

somewhere on a horizontal line through a.


The point c is therefore given by the intersection of the two lines drawn,
and abc is the velocity diagram. For the given position C is moving
horizontal, hence c must

lie

towards A at a speed of 3-06 m/s, scaled off from ac.


[Note in the lettering of velocity diagrams that ab = velocity of B
relative to A and not of A relative to B as might have been expected.
Similarly for ac, be, etc.]

Example

9. The mechanism of a toggle press is shown in Fig. 121 (a).


Find the speed of the ram for the position shown. The figure is drawn

to scale.

When the frame (the fixed element) appears in more than one place it
should be given the same letter with small figures. In this case A, and
A 2 are Iboth fixed frame points and are lettered accordingly.
The vector

velocity diagram
..

+
ofe
Velocity

D =
B

is

shown

at Fig. 121 (b).

InrN

^^ =

= 0.314m/s

X 22 X 60 X 50

7x60000

VECTOR DIAGRAMS OF VELOCITY

165

-260

Fig. 121

Draw ab perpendicular to A,B to represent the velocity of B relative


From b draw a line perpendicular to BC, and from a draw per-

to A,

pendicular to

From

draw a

(velocity of

C. The intersection of these lines gives the point

line perpendicular to

c.

CD and from a draw a vertical line

D relative to A is fixed as vertically)

The intersection of these

gives point d.

The vector ad represents the relative velocity of D to A (the frame).


This is shown to be downwards and scales off from the diagram to be
0-052 m/s. If the speed and direction of a point on any lever is required, it
can be found immediately from the vector diagram, since lines on the
vector diagram are images of corresponding ones on the mechanism.
for a point E, the distance from C to D, locate the point e,
from c to d, and ae represents the velocity of E.
There are one or two additional points to be explained in connection
with velocity diagrams, and these will be covered by the next example.

Thus

Example 10. The mechanism for a slotted-link shaping machine quickreturn motion is shown drawn to scale in Fig. 122 (a). Determine the
speed of the ram for the position shown.
The crank A,B rotates, and the block B moves up and down in the
slotted lever

2 2,

AD
2

This lever

and through the

link

is

thus

made

DE drives the

to oscillate about

ram of the machine.

its

pivot

MECHANICAL

166

When

P.

mechanism

which the end of one lever slides


moves, the lettering up should be
arranged as shown. B represents the block, and C represents a point on
the lever A 2 D. B is rotating about A, whilst C is rotating about A 2 The
reason for doing this will be seen when we discuss the velocity diagram.
in Or

dealing with a

on another

lever

which

in

itself

vi
D
Velocity off B

x 22 x 80 x 40

x 600oo

.,__
^
5

^
.

Ram

'in

andBJock)

C( Point on Lever

/ajd;

Fig. 122

In Fig. 122 (b) ab represents the velocity of


velocity of

draw a

AD
2

relative to

line parallel to

(or

AD
2

(since relative to A,

to A.

oiac to d such that


their

movements

The
ac

ad

to C)

is

relative to

along the lever

A. Now the
2 D. From b

and from a draw a line perpendicular to


moving perpendicular to A 2 D). The inter-

is

section of these gives the point


velocity of

c.

The

line ac

now

represents the relative

D relative to A will be a continuation


A C because C and D are on the same lever and
A,D

velocity of
2

are proportional to their respective radii. (For this

FORCES ACTING

IN

A MECHANISM

167

purpose C is assumed to be coincident with B, as it is only an imaginary


point introduced for this purpose of the construction.)
When d is thus located, draw a line through it perpendicular to DE,
to represent the velocity of E relative to D and draw a horizontal line
through a to represent the relative velocity of E to A. The intersection
of these gives the point e. From the lettering it will be seen that E is
moving to the right and the scaled length of ae gives its speed to be
0-353 m/s. The speed at which the block B is sliding in lever A 2 D is given
by the length be on the velocity diagram.
Forces acting in a mechanism

mechanism may be used to estimate


when the force at another point is
known. Let us assume that for a mechanism we have the velocity of
two points A and E, and the force acting at A. If vA and vE are the

The vector

velocity diagram for a

the force acting at a certain point

and FA and FE the forces, respectively, then assuming A to


be the energy input point and E the point of output, the input rate of
work at A will be FA vA and if the machine is 100% efficient, this will
equal the output rate FE vE
We can assume an efficiency r] and then we shall have
velocities,

v
or, since

we know FA

_ Output _ FE vE
~ Input ~ FA vA

and

E,

FE _

?(

Fa va)
VE

Example 11. If the torque input to the toggle press in Example 9 is


lOONm and the efficiency of the mechanism is 60%, estimate the pressure
on the ram for the position shown.
Since

100

=
=

of the crank

torque

Here we have

Hence

that vB

(Force)(radius),

and

60

mm

0-06

(Force)(0-06) and the force at the end

100
j^-^

= 1670N

U-Uo

efficiencv
emciency

0-3 14 m/s, vD

FpVp
-

'

From which FD =

0-052 m/s, and

Fd x
0-6 =
uo

im

'

FB =

- 52

x Q314

314

= 6000 N

670

MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES

168

Exercises 6d
mechanism similar to Fig. 119 the crank AB is 60mm long
and the connecting-rod BC is 220 mm. Find the speed of C when AB is rotating at
lOOOrev/min and (a) the angle BAC is 45, (b) angle BAC = 120.
2. For the problem in Question 1, find the velocity of the mid-point of BC, when
In a slider-crank engine

1.

angle

ABC =

3. Fig

90.

123 shows a quick return shaping machine drive in which cutting takes place

when C moves

to the

left.

Find

(a)

The

ratio

cuttl "g

timc

return time
if

is

to have a velocity of 0-24 m/s

when

at the

b\ The speed of

in rev/ min

mid-point of its cutting stroke.

Fig. 123

4. In Fig. 124 crank

and forwards.

AB

When AB

is

revolves at 200rev/min and


at 30 to the horizontal as

CD is caused to rock backwards


shown, find the speed of C and

of E, the mid-point of BC.


5. In Fig. 125 A and B are two blocks which slide in slots at right angles. If AB = 240mm
and AC = 80 mm, find the speed and direction of C when angle OBA = 40 and A is
moving downwards at 0-24m/s.

Fig. 125

Fig. 126

APPLICATIONS OF VECTORS

6. In Fig. 126

the speed of

crank

AB

E when AB

7. In a toggle press

A C = CD =
2

is

CDE

shown and

is

a solid

bell

crank lever. Find

at 20 to the vertical.

mechanism

160mm. The

A, is 120mm below
When B is rotating at

rotates as

169

similar to Fig. 121,

vertical centre lines are

the centre line of

A,B = 40mm, BC = 240mm,

280mm

apart and the centre line of

60rev/min and angle

CA D
2

is

10, find the

speed of D.

problem if the torque on A,B is 100 Nm, find the load at D if the
overall efficiency is 60%.
moving
9. In the press mechanism shown in Fig. 127, find the speed of E when D is
upwards at 0.02m/s (A,E is horizontal). If in this position the load at D is 4000N,
what force can E exert if the overall efficiency is 50%? [CA,E is a solid lever.]
8. In

the

last

Path of

A,B

= 170

~i^

A2 C = 120
EC

10. In the
slides

= 300

Fig. 128

Whitworth quick-return mechanism sketched


along the lever

CD.

CD

Time of outer
Find

(a)

^>

Fig. 127

A, and

is

pivoted at

stroke,

for E,

the ratio

Time of

2
,

and

in Fig. 128,

rotates about

w.

(b) the

jn-u
ad*
E when A,B

speed of

is

at

inner stroke

45 as shown.
11. In Fig. 129 AB is a door hinged at A. CD is a spring-loaded arm for closing the
door and hinged at C. If B is moving at 0-36 m/s, find the speed at which D is sliding along
the door when the door has opened 45

Fig. 129

MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES

170

The moment or turning effect of a force


a force acts on a body, and the effect of the force is considered relative
to some point not on its line of action, the tendency is for the force to
rotate the body about the point. This tendency is called the moment
of the force about the point. Thus in Fig. 130, if the effect of the force
F is considered relative to the point 0, F tends to rotate the body about
O The numerical value of the moment of F about O is found by multiplying F by the perpendicular distance from O to its line of action. Thus the
moment of F about O = Fx. If F were rotated to act in some other direction (e.g. as shown dotted), then its moment would h^F, (perpendicular
If

distance)

To

F,_y.

moment we multiply a force by a distance so


moment is usually newton metres (Nm) (although
such as Nmm may be more convenient to save

calculate turning

that the unit of turning

on occasions a unit
converting and re-converting units of length).

Fig. 131

Fig. 130

When two

equal and opposite forces act on either side of a pivot they


is called a Couple, and the turning moment exerted by a

constitute

what

couple

given by one of the forces multiplied by the perpendicular

is

distance between their lines of action (Fig. 131).

Total

moment of forces P = Fr + Fr
= 2Fr = F(2r)

= F(perp

distance between forces).

A good example of a couple is given by the forces applied to a tap


wrench or die stocks when cutting a thread. The couple applied is equal
to the turning

moment

resistance at the cutting edges of the tap or die.

CONDITIONS FOR EQUILIBRIUM WITH MOMENTS ACTING

171

Moment of a force about a point on its line of action


Since moment = (Force)(distance), if the distance is zero, then the
moment will be zero if the point lies on the line of action of the force.
Thus in Fig. 130 the moment of F about A = F x O = 0.
Conditions for equilibrium with moments acting

The reader

will

have observed that a moment may be directed clockwise

or contra- clockwise.

The condition for a body to be in equilibrium isthat the sum of the clockmoments about any point must be equal to the sum ofthe contra-clockwise

wise

When

moments.

this condition

is

satisfied there will

be no unbalanced

turning effort causing the body to rotate.

m long between the bearings and carries 3


and 6 m from the LH bearing. The downward
force on the pulleys due to the belt drives is 300 N, 250 N and 350 N
respectively. Calculate the load on each bearing (Fig. 132).

Example

12.

shaft

is

pulleys spaced at 2 m, 3

7-5

-7-5m

Fig. 132

Since the loading on the shaft by the pulleys is downwards the forces
exerted on the shaft by the bearings will be upwards. Call these R A

andi? B

We thus
since

it is

have the shaft acted upon by a system of parallel forces, and


in equilibrium, the conditions to be satisfied are:

(1)

Total upward forces

(2)

Clockwise moments

If

we

take

Total downward forces.


Contra-clockwise moments.

moments about

acting there since

it

will

we can neglect
moment about that point.

the bearing A,

have no

the force

172

MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES

Hence by moments about


Clockwise moments
Contra-clockwise

A
= 300 x 2 + 250 x 3 + 350 x 6
= 600 + 750 + 2100 = 3450Nm
= R B X 7-5Nm

These must be equal


7-5

Also, since

RB =

3450 and

3450

RB =

460

= downward forces:
300 + 250 + 350 = 900N
*a + *b
=
R A 900 R,
900 - 460 = 440
upward

forces

Example 13. A system of levers is shown in Fig. 133. Calculate what load
hung at
may be balanced by a force of ION at A. [Neglect friction
and the weight of the levers.]

H20 h
T

240

^ir?

R\

"10N
J$2-

kip

a
^

Wu
200

Fig. 133

\15

which will be balanced by the force


at A.
Taking moments about B, and working in units of N and mm, we
have
First let us consider the top lever,

in the

connecting link and the

Clockwise

Hence
This

Now

10

x 240 = 2400 and


2400

will pull

ION

down on

20 F and

contra- clockwise

= 20F

F = 120N

the top, and upwards on the bottom lever.

consider the bottom lever and take

Clockwise
Contra-clockwise

moments about C.

= F x 215
= W x 15

EXAMPLES INVOLVING MOMENTS

These must be equal, and since

F=

120

x 215 =
12 * 215

120

W=
The

173

\5W

= 1720N

would be affected by friction, the weight of the


and of the stirrup. If the lever weight is appreciable it can be
allowed for by assuming the weight of each lever to be acting as a downward force approximately at the lever centre. For example, if each lever
weighs ION and the weight is assumed at the lever centre, we have for
actual value of

levers

the top lever:

20 x

F=

10

x 240 +

= 2400 +
F = 175N

10

1100

x 110

= 2500

For the bottom lever

Fx
175

215

x 215
15

= 15W - 10 x 107-5 and since F = 175N


= 15 W- 1075,
= 37 625 + 1075 = 38 700

W
y-Jg-2580N

To obtain an exact calculation, the centre of gravity of the levers could


be found by balancing on a knife-edge. The weight is then taken as
acting through the centre of gravity.
Example 14. If in Example 6, p. 158, the work is 240mm long between
centres, and the cutting tool is 60 mm from the tailstock centre, calculate
the forces acting on the centres.
The forces acting on the work are as follows:
(1) Vertical upwards force of 1000N.
(2) Horizontal force of 400 N directed away from the tool.

Longitudinal dorce of 700


towards the headstock.
in Fig. 134 (a).
Let us consider the vertical force first. This will cause an upward
force on each centre and an equal and opposite downward force on the
work by the centre.
(3)

These are shown

Taking moments about centre A, and working on units of

mm we have
Clockwise

moment =

(vert force at

B)240

and

MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES

174

1000N

Headstock

Fig. 134

(a).

Contra-clockwise

moment =1000 x

Hence

B =

Vert force at

A =

same way we have

In the

forces of 300

The 700 N

at

that the

B and 100N

at

longitudinal thrust

180

240 (vert force at B)


Vert force at

(b).

180 000

180 000

180 000

240
1000

750 N

750

400N

force

= 250N
is

balanced by horizontal

A.
is

transmitted through the bar entirely

to A.

We thus have forces acting on the two centres as shown by Fig. 134(b),
and as an additional exercise the reader should combine these vectorially
to find the resultants.

Exercises 6e
1.

bell

crank lever has equal arms of 120

mm at 90. When the lever

is

pivoted with

upwards, a weight of 120N is hung on the end of the horizontal arm.


What force, inclined at 45, must be applied to the end of the upper arm to balance the

one arm

vertically

lever?
2.

480mm

20

mm

long.

hand reamer

The hole

is

is

being operated by hand pressure at each end of a lever

20mm

long and each of the 6 teeth

If the cutting pressure at the teeth is

be applied
3.

bar

at
is

each end of the

240mm

480mm

80N

per

is

is

taking a cut of 0-04

mm

of cut, estimate what force must

wrench.

long between lathe centres.

stock the vertical cutting pressure

mm

When

850N. Find the

the tool

is

vertical force

90mm

from the tailon each centre due

to this.
4.

piece of material

is

held in a lathe chuck and the point at which cutting takes

place overhangs from the centre of the front bearing by 125 mm. If the vertical pressure

due to the cut

is

1200N, and the bearings are 360 mm apart, estimate the force on each

EXAMPLES INVOLVING MOMENTS

[Assume point contact at each bearing and


The bearings of a countershaft are 900mm

bearing.
5.

the top belt

down

belt

175

neglect weight of spindle and chuck.]


apart.

The

horizontal force due to

450N at 240 mm from the LH hanger and the vertical force due to the
400N at 720mm from the LH hanger. Find the load on each bearing.

is

is

120mm

long between the centres of the clamping and supporting points.


from the clamping point, to what tension must it be tightened up in
order to apply a clamping load of 1000 N? What will be the reaction at the support?
7. A casting is being raised by a 720mm crowbar which is supported at 40mm from the
end where it takes the weight. If the casting has a mass of 612 kg (6000 N weight), and
half this is taken by the crowbar, what force must be applied at the end of the bar in order
6.

clamp

If the bolt

is

is

45

mm

to raise the casting?

Blade

P"otl

F/xech
Pivot

40

Work'to
he sheared

8.

Fig. 135

bench shearing machine is shown diagrammatically at Fig. 135. If the shearing


2
is 400N/mm
what force F must be applied to shear a piece of material

strength of steel

10mm x

2-5

mm?

Mechanical
principles

II

Friction

workshop that the calculations


we press two
surfaces together and attempt to slide one over the other, a resistance is
encountered, and this is caused by the friction between the two surfaces.
Let us consider a block pressed on to a surface with a force
as shown
in Fig. 136. Another force is now applied to the block, tending to slide it
Friction plays such an important part in a

connected with

it

are worthy of

some

consideration. If

As soon as this force is applied, frictional resistance


and prevents the body from moving. This resistance is
denoted by /and indicated by the arrows at the surfaces. Depending
upon W, and on the nature of the surfaces, however, there is a limiting
value beyond which / cannot increase, so that if we gradually increase
the force tending to slide the block, a point will be reached at which the
block will just be on the point of sliding. Let the force then be F, and since
from

to right.

left

comes

into action

the block

is

F = /, the frictional resistance. The block


being acted upon by three forces: (1) W downwards, (2) F

just

at this point is

about to

slide

horizontal, (3) the reaction of the other surface (say R).

diagram

is

shown drawn

in Fig.

The vector

136 at abc.

F=f
that when

Fig. 136

friction is neglected the reaction


We mentioned earlier,
between two surfaces is normal to their common tangent or along ab in
Fig. 136. It will now be seen that when friction is allowed for, the reaction
moves round so as to oppose motion, and its line makes an angle with
the normal line to the surfaces.
<j>

CLAMPING FRICTION

This angle ^

is

called the Friction

The

_
~

Angle and

it

will

be noticed that

Frictional force

F_

W~

Pressure between surfaces

ratio

177

-^ is called the Coefficient of Friction and

is

usually denoted

by fi.

*=W
Thus

if

F =

Tp

tan

<j>

and also

/u

tnen
ju

as

would

tan

<j> .

R between the
and is directed in such a
to oppose motion, if he considers where and in which direction it

[The reader
surfaces

way

will appreciate the fact that the reaction

moves round

to

some angular

position,

act in the event of a definite step being raised in front of the block.]

Approximate Values

Nature of surfaces

for the Coefficient of Friction

in contact

,T

(Coefficient).

Cast iron on cast iron (dry)

0-15

on cast iron
(dry)
Steel on brass
(dry)
Cast iron on oak
(dry)
Steel on leather
(dry)
Steel on leather
(greasy)
Oak on oak
(dry)
Leather on oak
(dry)
Ferodo bonded asbestos on steel

0-20

Steel

[Values of /u depend to

speed of

some

extent

0-15

0-49
0-56
0-23
0-40
0-33

0-3- 0-4

upon the pressure between the surfaces and upon the

sliding.]

Clamping of work
Almost all methods of clamping in the shop depend for their hold upon
the frictional resistance between the two surfaces being clamped. This
applies to work clamped to machine tables, in lathe chucks, work held
in vices, and so on.

178

MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES

100

40

rffe
10>

.15*

w:
Q
A\

w:
7vft

Work
Fig. 137

W/////////////7///////////////

t<

1
A casting is clamped to a shaping machine table by 4 clamps
arranged as shown in Fig. 137. If the cutting pressure at the tool causes

Example

a thrust of 4500N against the work and if the coefficient of friction


between the work and the table is 0-15, what is the least tension to which
the bolts be tightened in order that the job may not move under the
pressure of the cut.
If the sliding force to be resisted is 4500N and /u =0-15, the surfaces

must be pressed together with a force of

4500N

30

0-15

Each clamp must therefore exert a pressure of


In Fig. 137 the forces exerted by the clamp are
in bolt,

WA and WB =

000N

= 7500N

shown and T = tension

Pressure exerted on work and packing respectively.

W
W
W

We will assume that A and B act at the centre of the length being
clamped as shown. Then from
A to the centre of the bolt will be
40 - 7-5 = 32-5 mm and from B 60mm - 5mm = 55mm.
Taking moments about B and working in units of N and mm, we have
= T X 55
moment = WA (55 +

Clockwise moment
Contra-clock

But

WA

must be 7500N from above,


moments we have

32-5)

87-5

WA

so that putting in this value

and

equating the

Example

2.

arbor and

is

55T =

87-5

T =

87-5

milling cutter

is

X 7500
X 7500 - 12 000N

55

tightened up between the collars on the

driven by the friction between

itself

and the

collars. If the

FRICTION

79

Fig. 138

collars are

20

mm bore and 40 mm outside diameter, calculate the tightenkW is being absorbed

ing force necessary if the cutter is not to slip when 3-3


at

70rev/min [Coeff of
If

T newton

metres

friction

is

0-15.]

the torque to tbe transmitted,

Power = T newton metres/ second =


Power = 3-3 kW = 3300 W,

also

N=

Now

cfw

so that

(o

we have
Ta> Watts

70 rev/min

=
70 x
Z7r
OU

2tt

_ Power =
T=
oi

22

,.

-^- rad/s
J

3300 x 3
22

CAXT
= 450Nm
.

This torque must be transmitted by the friction between the collars and
slip when it takes place, must occur at two faces:

the cutter, and

Hence torque transmitted per

450
= -y= 225Nm

face

This torque will be developed by a tangential frictional force F which we


assume to act at the mean radius of the collars (Fig. 138).

will

Hence

Mean

radius

= 15mm = 00 5m

-=

T =Fr,F =

Now if W =

N =
m

2 5
_
A1 5
g
0-01

15

Force between the collars

F
7p=

W=

p>

l5

- e -

000

15

w
=

100

_
' 15
= A1

000N

000N

MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES

180

II

Exercises 7a
1.

The

tailstock of a lathe has a

slides is 0-122.

the

What

amount and

2.

coefficient of friction at the

horizontal force will be required to slide the tailstock? Determine

direction of the least force necessary to slide

it.

A disc 240 mm diameter has a ring of ferodo 240 mm outside diameter and 20 mm wide

riveted to

one

face. This

moment

turning

is

made

to press against and drive another steel disc. If the

to be transmitted

have to be pressed together. [Take


3.

mass of 21.5kg and the

planing machine

force of the cut

is

fi

is

Nm

33

estimate the pressure with which the discs

for ferodo

on

steel as 0-4.]

taking a cut on a casting bolted directly to the table.

7400N and

The

clamped by four clamps. If the coefficient of


friction between the casting and the machine table is 0-15, what force must be exerted on
the work by each clamp to prevent the work from sliding under the force of the cut?
4. A 300mm diameter brake drum is attached to a shaft the driving pulley of which is
200mm diameter. When two leather-faced brake blocks are pressed against opposite sides
of the drum with a force of 200N what force must be applied to the rim of the pulley to
turn the shaft. [Take /u for leather on cast iron as 0-45.]
5. The table of a planing machine with weight equivalent to 5000N is supporting a
casting which exerts a similar force of 2000N. If "the average speed of the table is 0-2 m/s
and for half the time a downward cutting force of 800N is acting, calculate the average
power required to overcome friction at the table slides. [Take fi = 0-08.]
6. A block is clampted between the jaws of a milling-machine vice, the force at the
jaws being 12 000 N. If the cutter operating on this is 80mm diameter and its speed
52-5 rev/ min, calculate the approximate power being absorbed when the work is caused
to slip in the jaws of the vice by the force of the cut. [Take /u at the vice jaws
is

the job

is

as 0-15.1

Machines and

efficiency

a contrivance for receiving energy in some form and con-

mach ine

verting

Most

it

is

into energy of a type

more

suitable for the purpose required.

of the energy available in a machine

energy

(line shafting, rotation

shop is in the form of rotational


of driving motors, etc.). A machine, such as

a shaper, receives some of this rotational energy at


verts part of

it

into the energy contained in the

its pulley, and conbackwards and forwards

movement of the ram and part into the various other movements required
to transverse the tool across the

work.

Each element of a machine may be regarded as a little machine in itself.


For example, in the mechanism for elevating the knee of a milling machine
a torque

is

applied to the handle, and this torque

rotation of a nut or screw. This in

its

is

converted into the

turn raises or lowers the table and

cross-slide on the vertical slides. An electric motor is just as much a


machine as any other, for it takes in electrical energy from the mains and

converts

it

to rotational energy at

its

driving pulley.

MACHINES AND EFFICIENCY

181

For mechanical machines:


the Effort

and

the

The

the force applied at the input end of the machine,

is

Load

is

the resistance

ratio p~.

is

overcome

Distance

output end.

called the Mechanical Advantage of the

moved by Effort
moved by Load

Distance
4-+u~
the ratio

at the

machine and

m the same time, .,,,,


called the Velocity
.

x,

is

Ratio of the machine.


If we called the effort E,

and the load W:


be E (Distance moved) and the output
fF (Distance moved).

The work input


time

The

Efficiency

will

in the

same

of the machine will be -= Input


(Distance moved)
_

E (Distance

W =

But

Mechanical Advantage

moved by W
moved by E

Distance

and

Distance

Hence

moved)

Efficiency

Velocity Ratio

Mechanical Advantage

Velocity Ratio
If the efficiency

same

were

Mechanical Advantage would be the


is always less than 1
so that the Mechanical Advantage is always less
unity, the

as the Velocity Ratio. Actually the efficiency

due to

frictional losses,

than the Velocity Ratio.

Example 3. The knee, cross-slide and table of a milling machine have


a total mass of 600 kg, and it is found that a force of 60 N must be applied
at the end of the 210mm elevating handle to raise the knee.
the handle raises the knee 2 mm.

One turn of

Calculate the Mechanical Advantage, Velocity Ratio and Efficiency


of this mechanism.
Effort (E)

= 60N

Load (WO = mg = 600 x

Mech Advantage =

,.

60

98

9-81

= 5886N

MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES

182

Velocity Ratio

II

Distance moved by effort


Distance moved by load
In X 210
660

mm

When

Mech.Adv.

Efficlency

mm

Vel. Ratio

98
660

Example
machine

table can be pushed along by a force

load in

turn

4.

n*Ao
'' 48

M 8/
1^00/
'

disengaged from the operating mechanism a grinding

of40N. With the mechanism engaged, a torque of 0-35Nm at the traversing wheel is required to
move it. One turn of the wheel moves the table a distance of 10mm. Find
the efficiency of the traversing mechanism.
The load on the mechanism = resistance of the table = 40N
work done on the
If 1 turn of the handwheel moves the table 10

mm

= 40N X 10mm = 40N x 0-010m


= 0-4Nm = output

Nm in
Nm

Work done

by a torque of 0-35
= In X 0-35

Efficacy

The

turn

= 2-2Nm =

input

-<g*- = <M82 -.8.2%

inclined plane

We have seen in previous work (Fig. 78a) that a screw thread is an inclined
plane wrapped round a cylinder. In order to study the mechanics of the
screw, therefore, we must give some attention to the inclined plane. We
find that in doing this friction plays

be allowed

an important part and

its

effects

must

for.

Tightening up
When a nut is being tightened up under a load W, the conditions are equiup an inclined plane sloping at the helix
valent to pushing a weight
is the tangential force
angle of the screw. The force F which is pushing

at the

tion.

mean

This

Now

if

is

radius of the screw and

shown

in Figs. 139

there were

no

is

being applied in a horizontal direc-

and 140.
between the block and the plane the

friction

SCREW THREAD AS AN INCLINED PLANE

183

Load on

Nut(W)

Angle of Incline*
Helix Angle of Screw

Effort

(F)

Development of Screw and Nut


Fig. 139

vector diagram for the forces acting on the block would be as abc; ab =
weight of block acting downwards, be = F, the force to pushing it up the
plane and ca = the reaction between the plane and the block. We have
seen, however, that when friction is present, the reaction R is no longer
perpendicular to the surfaces, but is rotated round through the friction
angle
in the direction to oppose motion. Hence the vector for R will
<j>

be rotated round to ad, and the force


plane will become = bd.

F required to push the block up the

Lead of
Thread

j? c

Now

/\
bd
= tan bad =

ab

tan (or

tan(ar

Fig. 140

<j>)

^)

and

F = Wtan(a +

^)

(1)

MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES

184

II

A to B, F moves the distance


BC.
Hence the input = work done by F = F.AC
and
the output = work done on W W.BC
In pushing the block from

AC

and

raised to distance

is

The

efficiency

{rj)

output

fF.BC

r ^
F.AC
.

input

But from above:


have

F=
t]

W tan a

-77

W tan (a
w.

tan a
rv
-p tan

F
+

since

L"
(f)

and

if

Wtana
Wtan(a +

we

BC

AC

tan or

substitute this for

F we

0)

tana
tan (a

a = Helix

angle of screw,
<j>

This
is

in

i.e.

tana =

Friction Angle

(2)

(j>)

Lead

Mean circum
= /u

Tan

is an expression for the efficiency of a screw when tightening up and


terms of /u and the helix angle of the screw.

Loosening

When

a nut is being unscrewed it is equivalent to the load Amoving down


the plane. There are two cases to consider: (1) When is greater than a
and the load must be pushed down, and (2) when a is greater than and
</>

a push up the plane

is

necessary to stop

W from sliding down of

its

own

accord.
(1)

greater than

As motion
line

is

now

(Fig. 141).

taking place in the opposite direction, the reaction


side of the normal ac, and the vector

ad swings round to the other

d ]? b

Fig. 141

FRICTION AT VEE THREADS

bF
diagram

is

abd. In this case since

a position to the

left

Force required

at

<j>

185

Fig. 142

is

greater than a,

ad swings lfound to

oiab.

mean

radius to unscrew nut

= F=
=

db

ab tan had

W tan

(</>

a)

(3)

a greater than ^ (Fig. 142).


In this case a force = bd will be required to hold the nut fj-om un-

(2)

screwing.

F=

bd = ab tan(a

f)

= Wtan(a -

</>)

(4)

Vee threads
is the normal load
The above reasoning for screw threads assumes that
on the thread surfaces. Whilst this is true for a square thread [Fig. 143 (a)]

when a vertical load W is applied to a vee thread the force is resolved into
components as shown by the vector diagram abc shown at (b).

(b)

Fig. 143

MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES

186

The normal load on

II

the thread surface

now the

is

length ac, whilst be is

the force tending to burst the nut.

Hence normal load on thread

face

ac

W sec 6

cos 6

As the frictional resistance depends on the normal pressure we may


modify our previous formulae to apply it to vee threads by modifying the
value of the coefficient of friction
If,

instead of taking

/u

we take

(/u).

for

it

a value equal to /u sec0, we

may use

the previous formulae as they stand.

For a metric thread, the vee-angle

is

60, hence 6

30 and sec#

1-155.

Hence

for a metric thread take a modified value for the coefficient of

friction equal to 1-155 ,u.

Friction at a nut face

In addition to the friction at the threads, friction at the nut face must be

allowed

for.

W=

Let

load on nut

= coefficient of friction
r = mean radius of nut.
Then frictional force at nut face = fxW.
Torque necessary to overcome this = (force) (radius) =
Hi

Example

50mm

5.

dia

the threads

of

200N

is

fiWr

A screw-operated arbor press has a square-threaded screw


5mm pitch single start. If the coefficient of friction at
is 0- 10,

what load may be applied by the press when an

applied at the end of a handle 200

effort

mm long attached to the

screw.

Since tan ^

/u;

tan

<j>

0-1

and the

The mean circumference of


149-2
If

friction angle (0)

the thread

,t(50

=
2-5)

543'

47-5 n

mm

is

the helix angle of the thread


5
nm-c
~Lead = 149-2
An . = 0-0335
Circum
from which a = 155'

tana =

The mean

radius of the screw

23-75

mm so that a force of

FRICTION AT A NUT FACE

200N

at

200mm radius will be equivalent to

mm radius

= 1684N.

This

is

the force

F = Wtan( +

Now

=
=

F up

at 23-75

the inclined plane.

^)(Fig. 140)

fTtan(l55'

W tan738'

w - orao

a force

187

543')

WX

= 515? =

0-1340

i^ON

Example 6. A machine slide weighing 255 kgf (2500 N) is elevated by a


acme thread (29 thread angle) 40mm dia, 4mm pitch. If the

2-start

coefficient of friction
slide, {b) to

32

lower

is

0-12, calculate the torque necessary (a) to raise the

The end of the screw

it.

is

carried

on a thrust

collar,

mm inside and 56mm outside diameter.


Mean dia of thread = 40 mm - 2 mm = 38 mm
Mean circum = 38 n = 119-4 mm
Lead = 2 x 4 mm = 8 mm
If

a =

helix angle tan

g
a = -rnrz = 0-0670

a =
Since the thread half angle
of friction = 0-1 2 sec 14}

3 50'

14^

we have to

use a modified coefficent

= 0-12 x 1-033 = 0-124


tan^ = 0-124 and ^ = 7 4'
To

raise the load

we have if F = force at the mean radius


50' + 7 4')
f) = 2500 tan(3
- 2500 tan 1054' = 2500 x 0-1926 = 481-5N

F = Wt&n(a +

will be F (radius at which it acts)


38mm =
f x 0-019m = 481-5N x

The torque

= F x

0-019m = 9-15Nm

To

this

torque must be added the friction torque at the thrust collar.

Frictional force

Frictional torque

= 2500^ = 2500 x 012 = 300N


= 300 (mean rad of collar)
=

300 x ^y5B.

Total torque to raise slide

9-1

= 300N x

5Nm

6-6

0-022

Nm

= 6-6Nm

= 15-75Nm

188

MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES

To lower

II

JFtan(0 - a) (Fig. 141)


= 2500 tan(74' - 3 50')
= 2500tan314' = 2500 x 0-0565 = 141-25N
Torque = 141-25N x 0-019m = 2-68Nm

the load

F=

Adding the friction torque at the collar


Total Torque to lower the slide = 2-68

we have
+ 6-6 Nm = 9-48Nm.

Nm

Friction of sliding keys

often necessary in machine-tool construction to slide a collar or wheel


along a shaft at the same time as the wheel is being driven by the shaft
through one or two sliding keys. The force required to slide the collar or
It is

wheel along the shaft is worthy of "consideration as it is affected by the


disposition of the keys.
In Fig. 144(a) the key is fixed in the shaft which rotates in the direction
of the arrow and drives the outer part. Clearances have been exaggerated
and it will be seen that the torque is transmitted by a force F at the key
and a similar force
acting at the circumference of the shaft. If r is the
radius to the centre of the key as shown, and T is the torque being trans-

mitted, then

T = Fr and F =

~
r

The
F/jl

force required to slide the outer

+ Wfi=

IFfx (since

F=

member

along the shaft will be

W).

Fig. 144

FRICTION OF SLIDING KEYS

In Fig. 144 (b) there are two keys, and

if

they are well

each takes an equal share of the load, the torque

W r=

F,{2r) [since

Hence F, =

^-,

F =

is

189

fitted so that

given by

T= Fr+
x

W,].

which

is

half the force for the case of Fig. 144 (a).

Force to slide outer member along the shaft


which is half of that for the case of Fig. 144 (a).

= F

/u

/u

= 2F

u,

1(

Exercises 7b
hand crane a 20T gear attached to the handle drives an 85T gear on the rope
drum. The radius of the drum to the centre of the rope is 35 mm. If the handle is 300mm
long, calculate the velocity ratio. If the efficiency is 75%, what force must be applied to
the handle to raise a load of 250 kg on the rope?
2. A chain conveyor carries goods up an incline of 28 at a speed of 0-2m/s. If the average
mass of the articles carried is 20 kg, and they are spaced at 300 mm centres, calculate the
power necessary to drive the loaded conveyor if its efficiency is 75%, the incline carries
60 articles, and 0-4 kW is necessary to overcome friction.
3. The saddle of a lathe is equivalent to a weight of 1600N and 1 turn of the traversing
wheel moves it 100mm along the bed. If the efficiency of the traversing gear is 0-7 and
1.

In a

the coefficient of friction at the slides 0-10, calculate the force necessary at the rim

of a
4.

140mm

wheel to move the saddle.

flypress has a screw of

50mm

lead, the efficiency of which

is

60% Neglecting the


.

weight of the screw and top arm, what force must be applied at the end of and perpendicular to the level of
5.

280mm

radius to put a force of

Calculate the efficiency of a 20

mm

the coefficient of friction at the threads

by a nut

if

120N

is

is

2500N on

the ram?

square-threaded screw of 5

0-080.

mm

pitch 2 start

if

What tension may be exerted on this screw

applied at the end of a 350

mm

spanner? [Neglect friction at the nut

face.]

6.

face

The
is

a 240

and nut

efficiency of a screw

0-1. If

the lead of the thread

mm wrench

to pull

is

is

15%, and the coefficient of friction at the nut


what force must be applied to the end of

2mm

up the nut against a tension of 8000 N? [Mean radius of nut =

15mm.]
7.

30
"sn

The
20

x Z?"

spindle of a lathe

is

connected to the leadscrew by the following gears: -=r-:

is

^ e l ead screw

mm

pitch, calculate the velocity ratio

between the carriage

and a point on the rim of an 160 mm chuck screwed on the spindle. If the overall efficiency
of the arrangement is 10%, calculate the force necessary at the rim of the chuck to turn
the lathe and traverse the carriage against a resistance of 200N.
of a M24 thread when the coefficient of friction at the
M24 thread take the mean diameter as 22 mm and the pitch 3 mm.]

8. Calculate the efficiency

threads

is

0-08. [For the

9. Calculate the

sloping at 30,

if

work done

in

pushing a

the coefficient of friction

applied horizontally.

What

moving down the plane?

is

horizontal effort

slide

of mass 100 kg up an inclined plane

is 3 m long, and the push is


would be necessary to hold the slide from

0-15, the plane

MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES

190

10.

wheel

slides

along a shaft and

is

driven by a sliding key. If the shaft

is

45mm

mm from the circumference, calculate the force necessary


being transmitted at 315rev/min and
shaft when 6-6 kW

diameter and the key projects 5


to slide the wheel along the

H =

is

0-15.

11. If the shaft in the last

same amount
is

example were

fitted

with two opposite keys projecting the

as before, calculate the torque being transmitted

required to slide the outer

member along

the shaft,

i/n

when an

axial force

of 60

= 01 5.]

Bearings
function of a bearing is to hold and line up the shaft it carries
and support the load to which the shaft is subjected. Bearings are generally
designed on the basis of the load carried per unit of projected area, and
if the length and diameter of a bearing are / and d respectively, the
projected area will be / x d (Fig. 145).

The main

Fig. 145

If the

load on the shaft

= W, the intensity of bearing pressure (p) will be

Load
Area

W
P= ld
The pressure to which bearings may be subjected in practice depends
upon various factors, including the speed, method of lubrication, duration of full load operation, materials in contact, and so on.

191

The

following table conveys an idea of bearing pressures used:


Table of Bearing Pressures
Allowable
Pressure

Type of Bearing

N/mm

0-7- 1-0

Line-shafting (bronze lined)


High-speed engines: Main bearings

1-0- 2-0

2-0- 4-0

Crank pins

Main bearings
Crank pins
Punching and shearing machines (low speed

Gas

3-5- 5-0

engines:

10

-12-5

15

-30

intermittent

loading)

0-3- 0-5

Horizontal turbines

Probably the most severely loaded bearing

in the

whole of engineering

the tailstock centre of a lathe.


Let us consider the vertical tool pressure only, and assume the moderate
at
case of a load of 4000 N, with the centre in a hole measuring 5
practice

is

mm

the large diameter of the countersink. Since the angle of the countersink
is 60 the projected area will be
i

0-866

10-8

mm

and the bearing pressure when the tool is cutting close to this centre will be

4000N
-r^r

10-8

mm r
2

370

N/mm

quality mild steel

2
,

about half the ultimate

The main bearing

area of probably 3000 to 4000

Example
be

7.

If

carries only the

of a good

same load with an

2
.

the bearings for the shaft in

Example

12, p. 171 are to

be 2\ times the diameter,


the bearing pressure is not to exceed

proportioned so that their length shall

calculate their dimensions


0-4

mm

failing stress

N/mm

The
If

if

L =
^

2\d,

< .

But area of bearing


b

Hence

= 460 N
= Area of bearing.

biggest load to be carried

L x d = 2W x d =

2\d2
<P

2\d 2

Load
=,

Pressure

460
= 77-r= nm
llSOmnr
,

0-4

=1150

= il^ = 460mm

MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES

192

d = \/460 = 21-5 mm
2\ x 21-5 = 53-8 mm

L =
Bearing

When

friction

a bearing

is properly lubricated the two metals forming it are not


but are separated by a thin film of oil. The friction now is
not that of one metal rubbing on another but is the internal friction of the

in contact

lubricant

itself. It

has been found experimentally that the coefficient of


with film lubrication depends upon the rubbing

friction in a bearing

speed

and upon the pressure, and the relation between them

P =
where

=
=
p =
K=
/u

Work
The

is

KV\

coeff. of friction

surface speed of shaft in m/s

bearing pressure in

a Constant

lost in

N/mm

(i.e.

MN/m

0-032 for the usual

oils.

bearing friction

effect of friction in a bearing

is to introduce a tangential resistance


= load on the bearing and n = coperiphery of the shaft. If
efficient of friction, then the tangential resistance will be
= /u. Calling

at the

this resistance F,

The work

lost

and the power

we have F =

W/u (Fig. 146).

per second will be Fv

lost

Fv watts

Fig. 146

AND STRAIN

STRESS

Example

8.

A 50mm

193

dia shaft running at 525rev/min carries a load of

8000N.The bearing is 100 mm long. Estimate (a) the coefficient of friction,


and

(b) the tangential friction resistance,

the power lost in friction.

(c)

0-032Vv
w
that a =
We uhave *u

P
v

J^L =

22

60 000
Bearing pressure (p)

= -^

8000
r^r

0-032 x

^~

50

><

><

525

1.375m/s

x 60 000

N/mm

1-6

W-375 ~

0-032

1-172

0-0234

1-6

1-6

Tangential frictional
resistance

Power

=
=

0-0234 x 8000
187

lost in

friction

= 187 N x
= 257W

m/s

1-378

Stress and strain

material

is

placed in a state of stress

numerical value of the stress

is

when a load

F
Load actingp
r-:
r = -r, when
A
Area subjected to load
.

The
area,

SI unit of stress

i.e.

is

per square metre

upon

it,

and the

FTLoad, and A = Area


j

F=

therefore one unit of load divided by one unit of

the newton per square metre

for practical purposes

acts

given by

(N/m 2 ). This

unit

is

very small

and so stresses will often be quoted in meganewtons

(MN/m 2 ).

This unit

is

quite convenient, since

lMN/m = lN/mm 2
2

and as loads are often quoted in newtons, while dimensions of engineering


components are usually quoted in millimetres, if we ever require a stress
in

MN/m

it is

useful to evaluate the stress in

45

N/mm =
2

45

N/mm

MN/m

2
.

2
,

e.g.

MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES

194

It is

II

possible that the unit adopted for fluid pressure will be the bar,

from the previous metric system. In some ways

unit inherited

more convenient

unit since
1

As

it

utilises the

bar

10

N/cm 2

is

very near to atmospheric pressure:

atm =

10-13

N/cm 2

is the effect of gravity on its mass. The


mass of m kilogrammes can be taken as,

weight

As we
that the

= mass x
= mass x

discussed in Chapter

mass of

as the unit of area.

The weight of a body


gravity on a

a.

bar (b) = da N/cm 2 = 10 N/cm 2


2
3
1 hectobar (hb) = 10 N/cm

a mental landmark, the bar


1

cm 2

this is

kilogramme

of mass and written

acceleration due to gravity


9-81 newtons.

the reader will find, in his normal

is

effect of

life,

referred to as "weight" or a kilogramme

kg, with the inference of weight.

it is sometimes expedient to express the weight of 1 kg of


form
and when doing this it should be written kgf At the
mass
kg
same time it should be remembered that 1 kgf =9-81 newtons.

In our

work

in its

When

materials are stressed they change their shape: for example, a

bar will lengthen under tension or shorten under compression. This


change of shape is called strain. We usually express the strain in terms
of the natural length ofthe material, so that if abar 100
to tension

and stretches 01

mm,

the strain

is

mm long

is

subjected

expressed as j^-

0-001.

Within certain limits the materials with which we have to deal behave in
an elastic manner, i.e. the deformation caused by a load vanishes
when the load is removed. If, however, the load on a bar is gradually
increased, a point is reached beyond which the material will not return
to its original shape when the load is removed. This point is called
the Elastic Limit ofthe material. For most materials it has been found that
within the elastic limit the change in length is proportional to the load
producing it: e.g. if 1000 N causes an elongation of 0-05 mm, 2000 will
cause

010 mm, and

so on.

Hence we may

say that within the elastic

limit:

Stretch

is

proportional to

Load

STRESS

same

or, since for the

bar, strain

AND STRAIN

195

proportional to stretch and stress to

is

load:

Strain

proportional to Stress.

is

= a constant quantity

Stress

This

is

the same thing as saying: ~-

This constant quantity is called Young's Modulus, and has a particular


value for every material. It is usually denoted by the letter E. For
steel

000N/mm

has a value of about 200

It is difficult at first to visualize

N/mm

The

signifies.

2
.

way of considering

following

= 200 000
might help the

and to appreciate what E


it

reader:

Stress
t=

means

and a material would have unit

Stress per unit Strain

Strain

strain if its length

were doubled.

(Original length
If,

Stretch

Strain

f)

its length were doubled


would have the value E.

then, a material could remain elastic whilst

under a load, the

Example

9.

20

stress in the material

mm bolt 160 mm long carries a load of 20 kN. Calculate

the extension in the bolt

H
the U
bolt
Stress in *U

if

E =

200 000 N/mm 2

L ad =

20 000

Area

ti

-r

20000

-,

ji^'Z

,_ rw?2

1 XT/
63-7
N/mm

4"(20)
Strain

160

Stress
-=.

E =

200 000

Extension

Strain

63-7

x 160

Ext

Ext
T60
63-7

Stress 63-7

63-7

x 160 _

0-05

lmm

200 000

A 20 mm steel bolt is threaded through a brass sleeve 100 mm


24mm bore and 32mm outside diameter. A nut and washer are

Example
long,

Ext

E =

200000

Extension
Orig. length

10.

MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES

196

II

put on and the nut tightened up until the brass sleeve has shortened by
0-05

mm.

Calculate the extension in the bolt.

for steel

N/mm

200 000

for brass

-^ = 0-0005

Strain in sleeve

and since

E =|==^:

Stress

^(Strain)

80 000

N/mm

80 000 X 0-0005

40

N/mm

= 40N/mm 2

Strain
Stress in sleeve

Cross-sectional area of sleeve

=
Hence compressive load

|(32

22 x 448

24 2 )

mm

a
352

by sleeve =

carried

40 x 352

14

==(1024

576)

(Stress) (Area)

080N

This will be equal to the tension in the bolt.

Hence

1-1* = 14080 = 14080 =


,.
3142^

stress in bolt

AA OXT/
448

N/mm

p*y

E =
But

and

Stress

-=-

Ci

Strain

strain

'

Ext

Extension of bolt

Extension
Orig Length

1^L_~

44-8

Stress

Strain

200 000
Ext

100

44-8

100
200 000
100 x 44-8

200 000
0-0224

~
nM
0224mm
A

mm

Exercises 7c
1.
If

bearing has to carry a load of 3000N, with a bearing pressure of 0-75N/mm 2

the length of the bearing is to be made equal to twice its diameter determine its dimensions

2. A 50mm diameter shaft runs in two bearings spaced at 2-5 m centres, the bearings
each being 80mm long. Loads of 700N, 800N and 750N act on the shaft at 0-5m, l-25m
and 1 -8 m respectively, from the LH bearing Determine the load and bearing pressure at each
.

bearing.
3.

bearing

50mm

diameter,

80mm

long, carries a total load of 6000N. If the shaft

rotating at 210 rev/min estimate the coefficient of friction from the expression

/u

is

0-032Vv
.

Hence determine the number of

P
i.e.

the power lost in watts.

joules of

work

lost in friction

per second,

STRESS

4.

The end

shaft. If the

thrust

AND STRAIN

197

on a spindle is taken by a collar on a 60mm diameter portion of the


2
is 2100N, and the bearing pressure is not to exceed 0-7 N/mm

maximum thrust

determine the necessary top diameter of the collar.


5. A line of 60mm shafting runs in six bearings each 100mm long. The average load
on each bearing is 6000N and the speed of the shaft is 3 1 5 rev/min Estimate the coefficient
of friction and the power being lost in friction.
2
what load would a
6. If the Elastic Limit of a certain material were at 160 N/mm
sustaining
a permanent stretch?
20 mm diameter bar of the material carry without
2
calculate the load in
7. Taking the ultimate stress of a mild steel to be 500N/mm
the
root
of
the thread. [Take the
metric
bolt
at
Newtons necessary to fracture an M6
diameter at the root of the thread as 4-5 mm .] Hence taking the efficiency of the
thread at 10%, find what force at the end of a 200mm spanner will cause the bolt to
.

[M6

fracture.
8.

the

Calculate

1 mm]
800mm long, is pulled up to a
2
bolt, and if E = 200 000 N/mm

thread has a pitch of

drawbolt

20mm

stress

in

dia,

the

tension of 16
,

000N.

determine the total

extension.
9.

An

air cylinder is

and nuts.

140

mm diameter and the cylinder head

If the nuts are tightened

at the root

of the thread when the

up to an

air

initial

pressure in the cylinder

M12 thread at 9-5 mm.]


ring 20mm wide, 10mm thick

is

held on by six

M 12 studs

tension of 1000N, calculate the stress


is

0-6N/mm 2 [Take the root


.

diameter of the
10.

steel

and shrunk on

to a shaft

the tension in the ring.

150mm

diameter. If

and 14985 mm inside diameter,

E = 200000N/mm

2
,

is

heated up

estimate the stress and

Mechanical

principles

III

The equations of motion


The distance travelled during a given time by a body moving at a certain
constant speed will be given by multiplying the speed by the time, or if
s

space travelled,

velocity (or speed), and


s

It is

vt

time,
(1)

important that the time units of v and t are coherent (e.g. if v is in


t must be in seconds and s will then be in metres).

metres/ second, then


Acceleration

Acceleration
starts

from

is

rest

the rate of increase of velocity. For example: if a body


with an acceleration of 1 m/s every second (i.e. 1 m/s 2
),

velocity at the

end of

second will be 1 m/s, at the end of 2 seconds it


will be 2 m/s, and at the end of / seconds it will be t metres per second.
Hence we may say for a body starting from rest with an acceleration a:
Final velocity (v) after time t
v = at
If, instead of starting from rest, the body already had an initial
velocity
of u, then: Final velocity after time t = u + at
its

This gives us

at

(2)

may be slowing down or decelerating.


acceleration will then be a minus quantity, and we shall have for its final

Instead of accelerating, a body


Its

velocity:
v

This slowing

down

is

at

generally termed retardation.

A graph of velocity-time for equation (1) above is shown in Fig. 147(a)


and the area under the graph is equivalent to the distance moved.
If we now plot a similar graph for equation (2) it will be as Fig. 147(6).
In this case, due to the acceleration, the velocity is increasing at a constant
rate and the graph is a sloping line instead of a horizontal one. The
distance moved will be, as before, the area under the graph (Area O ABC).

ACCELERATION

199

Fig. 147

OABC = OADC

But

=
=

This gives us
If u

= O

+
+

ut

ut

hat

then the line starts at

and

hat

The reader

ADB

\tat
2

(3)

strongly advised to interpret problems of accelerated

is

motion as far as possible with the help of a graph.


Equation (3) could have been obtained as follows: For any motion the
velocity
this

is

by the time

Finally,

eliminate

(average velocity) (time). In Fig. 147 (b) the average


at a height midway between A and B, i.e. u + \at. Multiplying

space travelled

we

we

get s

ut

hat

as before.

require an equation connecting

v,

and

t.

In equation (2)

we have

and

u
t

at

Substituting this value for


s

in

equation

ut

hat

uv

u2

-^r-

(3)

we have

/v

*\

2uv

u2\

a, so

we must

MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES

200

Putting on the

III

common denominator 2a
2uv 2u 2 + v
s =
2

2uv

u1

2a

u2
s

2a

which gives us that

If the initial velocity

u2

2as

(4)

(body starting from


v2

then

rest)

las.

In problems dealing with the motion of bodies falling under the action

of gravity then,
a

This

is

acceleration

generally signified by

due to gravity =

9-81

m/s 2

g instead of a, and the reader should note


and seconds. The

particularly that in using 9-81 forg the units are in metres


units of

all

the other quantities in the equations must be kept in coherent

units.

Example
Find

its

drop stamp

Here

and

falls freely for

moment

velocity at the

it

m under the action of gravity.

strikes the tup.

= s = 6ma = 9-81 m/s 2


= las
= 2 x 9-81 x 6 = 117-72
= Vl 17-72 = 10-85m/s

Example 2. A shaping machine ram is running on a stroke of 450mm. It


starts from rest, accelerates at a uniform rate until the centre of the stroke
and then retards at a unifrom rate to a standstill at the end of the stroke. If
the stroke occupies \\ second, find the acceleration and the maximum
speed attained.
This problem

is

best illustrated graphically,

and the motion

is

repre-

sented in Fig. 148.

The ram is accelerated from O to A, its velocity increasing uniformly


and the reverse process takes place from A to B.
The area OAB represents the space travelled, which in this case is
450 mm = 0-45 m

ACCELERATED MOTION

Hence
.-.

045 = OB.AC and since OB =


045 = i.HAC = |AC
AC = v = 0-6 m/s

For half the stroke

acceleration

Note

=
=

anda = 0-8m/s 2

a. \

0-8

speed of ram

max

seconds

at

0-6

Hence

201

that the average speed of the

m/s 2

0-6 m/s

ram =

0-3

m/s

Vel.

Fig. 149

Fig. 148

Example

A planing machine table is set for a travel of 900 mm. It starts

3.

uniformly during the first 1 50 mm, runs at a constant


and then retards uniformly to rest during the last 1 50
speed for 600
of the travel. The total time taken travel the 900mm is 4 seconds.

from

rest, accelerates

mm

mm

Find (a) the average speed, (b) the maximum speed, (c) the acceleration.
A graph showing the motion is shown at Fig. 149. Let the maximum
retardation
velocity be v and the times of acceleration, uniform speed and
as shown.
f,, t 2 and
tj,

(a)

The average speed

will

be
0-9

distance
~~

time
Since the

first

acceleration

For the

and

last

m =

0-225 m/s

4s

portions of the travel are identical: retardation

(a).

first

part of the stroke:


v

las

0-3a (since s

0-15 m)

(1)

MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES

202

Also, for the

first

and

last

III

portions of the travel

at,

and

at,

t,

t,

and

for the

second

s2

t2

vt 2

= 600 mm =

(since s 2

0-6
.,,,,,
+t + =- +
+ - =
a
a
v

..t

(since total time

From

ti

equation

2v
0-6

+
a

,v

(2)

4 seconds)

# =

(1):

2v

(2):

0-6

0-3

V2

+ =4
0-6

0-6

0-3

ii=4

i.

4v=

and

(1)

Substituting this in equation

Since from

0-6 m)

0-3

1-2, v

0-3

0-3m/s2

0-3

Exercises 8a

from rest and with uniform acceleration attains a speed of 300 rev/min
in half a minute. Sketch the graph of velocity-time, and calculate (a) the acceleration in
rev/min 2 (b) the number of revolutions made by the shaft during the period.
2. A drop stamp falls freely under the action of gravity from a height of 8 m. Calculate
(a) the time of fall, and (b) the velocity at the instant it strikes the bottom block.
3. Starting from rest, a shaping machine ram, with uniform acceleration, reaches a
speed of 24 m/min during 240mm of travel. Find the acceleration and the time taken.
4. A cam rotates at 180 rev/min. During 90 of its revolution it causes a plunger to
rise a distance of 25 mm. Half the rise is made with uniform acceleration and the remainder
with an equal retardation. Calculate the acceleration of the plunger and sketch the graph of
1.

shaft starts

velocity-time for
5.

The

it.

total travel of a planer table

uniformly for

\\

2-1

is

m.

Starting

from

rest,

the table accelerates

seconds, runs at a constant speed for 2 seconds, and retards to rest

during 1| seconds. Calculate the acceleration, and the speed during the middle interval.
Sketch the graph of velocity-time.
6.

After the power has been shut

off,

a flywheel rotating at 180 rev/min slows

to rest during 90 turns. If the retardation

time taken by the wheel in coming to


7.

machine

slide

is

uniform finds

its

down

value in rev/min 2 and the

rest.

has an acceleration of 0-08 m/s 2

How

far will this slide travel

from

MASS AND WEIGHT

rest
8.

0-1

before reaching a speed of 24m/min, and

m/s 2

how long

will

it

203

take for this to be effected?

from rest and travels a distance of l-25m with an acceleration of


2
and then comes to rest again with a retardation of 0-05 m/s Calculate (a) the

slide starts

maximum

speed attained,

{b)

the total time taken.

Sketch the graph of velocity-time.

Motion and force


Newton's First Law of Motion states that every object remains at rest or
moves with uniform velocity in a straight line until compelled by some
force to act otherwise. His Second Law states that change of motion is
proportional to the impressed force, and takes place in the direction in

which that force


Before

acts.

we can

arrive at a quantitative relation

between force and

change of velocity we must consider the velocity of an object as something


more than a rate of movement, since force required will depend upon the
size or

amount of material

Mass and

in the

body.

weight

Every object is made up of a mass of material (iron, wood, stone or whatever it might be), and this mass is constant and invariable, so long as we
do not cut away from or add material to it. Due to the gravitational
pull of the earth acting

on

body exerts a downward


weight of a body is not a
The
of the body.

this material every

force. This force is the weight


constant quantity because the pull of gravity varies according to the
distance from the centre of the earth. For example, the weight of the same
amount of mass would be about \ percent greater at the poles than at the
equator. We thus have the mass of a body, being the amount of substance

and a constant quantity, and the weight, being the downward force
caused by the gravitational pull acting on the mass.
We may now define the quantity of motion of a body as being (mass)
(velocity), and for the given velocity this will not vary since mass is a
in

it,

mv (m = mass) is called Momentum.


Force
is proportional to change of motion,
Law:
Second
By Newton's
of mv.
change
to
proportional
i.e. Force is
constant.
is
it
as
change
cannot
But m
.-. Force varies as m (change of v)
Now change of velocity is acceleration.
Force varies as ma
Hence
causes unit
If the units of F, m and a are chosen so that unit force
constant quantity. This product

MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES

204

we may

acceleration on unit mass


relationship

III

say

F = ma, and this is the fundamental

between the quantities.

The

SI system of units is coherent. This means that the SI unit of force


the force that gives to one unit of mass one unit of acceleration. To

is

honour the contribution of Sir Isaac Newton


newton. Hence

F (newtons) = m
Let us
i.e.

now

to Science this

is

called the

(kilogrammes) X a (metres per second every second)

consider the action of gravity on a mass of

m kilogrammes,

the weight of the body.

Using

F = ma

and

F mg

=g

The weight of a body of mass m kilogrammes is, therefore, mg newtons;


g may be taken

as 9-81

m/s 2

Example 4. If the planing machine table in Example 3 has a mass of


400 kg, and the coefficient of friction at the slides is 0-1, calculate (a) the
total force necessary to accelerate it, and (b) the power being taken to
accelerate and overcome friction at the instant when the table has moved
75

mm from the beginning of


(a)

Force to overcome
(mg)fi

Force to accelerate

= ma

= 400 X
=

force to

=
(b)

After 75

travel.

= (W)/u
= 400 x 9-81 x

friction

Total force

its

0-3

0-1

= 392-4N

= 120N

friction + force
+ 120N = 512-4N

overcome

392-4

mm of movement,

speed of table

to accelerate

-1-

0-3

m/s

= (force) (speed)
= 512-4 x 0-3 = 153-75W
Power = 154W = 0154kW

Rate of doing work

We might add that during the middle portion of the stroke no acceleration
is

taking place and the table has merely to be kept moving against friction

(neglecting any cutting force).

Here we have:

frictional resistance

392-4

FORCE OF HAMMER BLOWS

= 0-6 m/s
= 23544 W =

Speed

Power = 3924 x

0-6

0-235

205

kW

Force of hammer blows


The force of a hammer blow may be estimated by considering the retardation of the hammer as shown by the following example:

Example 5. A hammer of mass 1kg and moving at 2 m/s strikes a pin


and is brought to rest by driving in the pin 5 mm. Calculate the average
force of the hammer blow on the pin.

To

hammer we may

find the retardation of the


v

Here

u2

v (final velocity

(initial velocity)

u2
a

Force

Example

6.

= ma =

=
=
=
=
=

use the equation

las
2 m/s
5

mm

0-005

las
I2

= -400 m/s

x 0-005
X 400 = 400 N
1

A machine slide, of mass 500 kg and moving at 24m/min, takes

second to come to rest after the power is shut off. Calculate the average
Motional resistance assumed as a force acting against the slide.
To find the retardation of the slide we may use the formula
1

Here

= 04 +

a(l)

= |=

= -04 m/s (-ve

0:

0-4 m/s:

If the average resistance

is

at

500 x

second

because retardation)

denoted by

F = ma =

04 = 200N

Exercises 8b
of mass 100kg starts from rest and accelerates uniformly to a speed of
12m/min in 2 seconds. Neglecting friction, calculate the force necessary to produce the
1.

slide

acceleration.
2.

machine table has a mass of 60kg and the

frictional resistance at the slides

is

MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES

206

III

equivalent to a force of 50N. If a constant force of

speed will
3.

it

have attained

4.

is

applied to this slide, what

planer table in Ex. 8a, No.

If the

friction at the slides

during the

80N

after 2 seconds?

first

were

portion of

0-08,

its

5, had a mass of 300kg, and the coefficient of


what force would have been required to accelerate it

travel?

lkg hammer head moving

l-2m/s

at

is

brought to

a distance of 10 mm. Assuming the retardation of the

rest

hammer

by driving a pin through


to be constant, calculate

the average force of the blow delivered to the pin.

Taking the mass of the cam plunger in Ex. 8a, No. 4, to be 1-2 kg, calculate the
by the plunger on the cam face during the portion of the lift that
the plunger is accelerating. [The plunger moves upward on a vertical centre line.]
6. A shaping machine ram has a mass of 150kg and on its return stroke it starts from
rest and moves through a distance of 360
in 0-75 s with uniform acceleration. Neglecting
5.

vertical force exerted

mm

friction, calculate the acceleration,

moved 360mm and

the accelerating force, the velocity after the

the power necessary to

move

it

ram has

at that instant.

drop stamp of mass 100kg falls freely from a height of 6m. Calculate its final
brought to rest by compressing the metal on the bottom block through a
distance of 10mm. Determine the retardation of the stamp and the average force ofthe
blow delivered
7.

speed.

8.

It is

machine

slide

of mass 50 kg

frictional resistance to

its

motion

is

is

moving

at

0-8m/s when the power

equivalent to a force of 50N,

how

is

shut off. If the

far will

it

travel

before coming to rest?

Energy
There are various forms of energy (e.g. heat energy, chemical energy,
electrical energy, etc) and the origin of all of them may be traced back
to energy derived from the heat ofthe sun. The Law ofthe Conservation
of Energy states that energy cannot be destroyed: one form may be
changed into another, but we can neither create new energy nor destroy
that which is in the universe. At the moment we are interested in the
energy of mechanical movements, and in this connexion we may define
the energy of a body as the power of overcoming resistance or ofdoing work.
A body may possess energy by virtue of its position, e.g. a weight on
a cord wound round a shaft may rotate the shaft and do work as it descends
to the floor. A wound-up clock-spring possesses energy. Energy of this
kind

is

called Strain Energy.

When

a body

Kinetic Energy.

is

moving,

it

possesses energy of a different kind called

machine slide are


examples of moving bodies possessing kinetic energy.
Since we may convert energy from one form to another without loss,
we may obtain an expression for kinetic energy:
Let a body of mass m (i.e. weight mg) be raised to a height h above

some datum

rotating flywheel or an oscillating

line (Fig. 150).

When

in this position the

body

will possess

ENERGY

207

mgh units of potential energy, since this amount of work must be expended
to lift it there. If now the body be allowed to fall, it will lose its potential
energy, and gain an equal

amount of kinetic energy and

KE = PE = mgh

We may express the K.E. in terms of v


v

las.

and
:.v 2 = 2gh

0; a

and

because

g,

h.

2g

Hence

mgx

KE = mgh

v2

Tg

2
= mv

(6)

~T
m

and v.
expression for kinetic energy in terms of
metre,
i.e. the joule (J).
newton
is
the
energy
of
of
all
forms
unit
The SI
The reader is reminded that energy and work are interchangeable: to

An

put a body in possession of a certain amount of energy requires the


expenditure of an identical amount of work.

m
1

F = \mg

v\\
1

Datum

LL.UPS1
Fig. 150

shaping machine ram has a mass of 200 kg and accelerates


of its travel in 0-75 s. Find
rest, covering the first 360
the velocity at the end of this travel, and show that the kinetic energy of
the ram at that point is equal to the work done in accelerating it.
In Fig. 151 the motion of the ram may be represented by the lineOA,

Example

7.

uniformly from

and

AB

mm

represents the velocity v attained after 0-75 second.

208

MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES

III

= Area OAB =

Since space travelled

i(v

!)

360

0-36

0-36

5" =0-36,

and

mm
=

0-96 m/s

To

we have

find the acceleration

096 =
Force

Energy of 200kg ram

Example

8.

1-28

stopped

slide is

in

Hence 40

do

is

from the aspect of energy.

0-4

0-4

second from a speed of 0-4 m/s

0-4

(velocity) (time)

J of energy

the force acting to

it

Average speed
space

92- 16 J

04 m/s

= 92-16 J, as before,

Solve Example 6 by treating

mv 2 _ 500 X

= 256 N
256 x 0-36
200 x ' 962

= ma = 200 x

at 0-96 m/s

v
=-

at or a

(force) (distance)

Kinetic energy of 500 kg slide at

The

ne
28m/S

0T75

Work done =

-~

0-2 m/s

=0-2x1=

0-2

dissipated over a distance of 0-2

m and

if

is

it

40

Work =
= F x 0-2
=

(force) (distance)

F=
200

40

-s-

0-2

as before.

before
250 kg drop stamp falls through a height of 4
in a
brought
to
rest
and
is
metal
compresses
the
striking the work. If it
blow.
force
of
the
average
the
25
mm,
estimate
distance of

Example

9.

Work stored up in stamp when


= potential energy = mgh =
This

is

striking

work

250 x 9-81 x 4

98 10 J

mm = 0-025 m
Work = (force) (distance)
9810 = F x 0-025

dissipated over a distance of 25

7om
aQ25

392 huui>
400N
j?x

CIRCULAR MOTION

209

Circular motion

Many

of the problems of the shop deal with rotating masses (flywheels,

pulleys, etc), so that

we must adapt our knowledge

to circular as well as linear

of motion and force

movement.

It is quite permissible to use the equations of motion as they stand


and apply them to some point on the rotating body. In general, this will
be a point on the rim should the body in question be a flywheel or pulley.

however, when dealing with circular motion, to use


if we consider any rotating body
the speed of points at different radii will vary according to their radius.
The angular speed of the body, however, is constant, irrespective of the
It

is

better,

the angular notation of quantities, since

radius.

Fig. 152

We have

seen that

if

we

consider an angle

struck from the centre O, and r


If this refers to a
if

arc

AB =

space

body having

moved

(s),

if

AB

circular

then -

or

v
is

in m/s,

and

r in

m, then

the arc

6 in radians.

motion about

angle

centre:

(radians), or

of the body at radius

(v)

velocity

O as

Or

represents the velocity

- = angular

If v

is

Again,

AB =
radius, then

the

is

AOB, where AB

r,

(&>)

cor

to will

then

(7)

be

in radian

per second.

same way the relation between the linear acceleration a and the
angular acceleration a of a body moving in a circle is that
In the

= a
r

or a

ar

210

MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES

III

When the reader has become accustomed to these simple conversions


from the linear to the angular notation, he will find the angular working
is preferable to and more rational than linear working for problems of
rotation

The equations

of motion given on pages 198 later

when

angular notation
s

Since

=
=

space in radians;

may be used

for

that:

velocity in rad/s

acceleration in rad/s 2

revolution

remembered

it is

In radian we

may

convert rev/min to rad/s by

N=

rev/minJ

dividing by 60 and multiplying by 2n,


i.e.

(o

Example

10.

(rad/s)

-tk^ 71
oU

A pulley revolving at 220 rev/min comes to rest with uniform

retardation in 50 turns. Calculate the angular retardation and the time

taken

We may
retardation

obtain the time very simply without using radians, for if the
is uniform, the velocity-time graph is a straight line and the

average velocity

The

= =- =

10 rev/min

comes to rest in 50 turns


min = ffi x 60 = 27 sec.

pulley therefore

rev/min,

i.e.

in

fYfc

Using the equation

cv 2

oj x

11.

to accelerate

mean speed of 1 10

at

-pfT-Mi

a. 27.

oU
220
2n
- ~zr X ^pt
Ol) X 2/

a =

Example

at a

_,

' 853

,.

rad/s 2

gas engine which normally runs at 500 rev/min takes 20 s


flywheels to their full speed. Calculate the angular

its

acceleration and the

number of revolutions made by the engine. (Assume

constant acceleration.)

We may

obtain the

number of

before, since average speed

Using s

vt

revolutions from the average speed as

= -= =

we have s =

250
-^
oU

250 rev/min

X 20 =

83-3 revolutions.

ACCELERATING TORQUE

To

we may use

find the acceleration


a> 2

-Zrr-2 71

500

211

a> l

at

on
a.20

ol)

500 X 2.T
60 x 20

-2-

2-63 rad/s

Exercises 8c
Convert a speed of 175rev/min to rad/s, and llOrad/s to rev/min.
A pulley has an acceleration of 4 rad/s 2 How long will it take to reach a speed of

1.

2.

250 rev/min?

3.

shaft retards

2
tion in rad/s

from a speed of 500 rev/min to

rest in 3|

second. Calculate

its

retarda-

Calculate the kinetic energy of a car of mass 1400 kg and travelling at 54km/h.
is brought to rest by the brakes in 30m, find the average force of resistance exerted.

4.

If this

7, from a consideration of energy.


machine table of mass 150 kg is moving at 30m/min. Calculate

5.

Solve Ex. Sb, No.

6.

What
7.

force applied to

it

will bring

it

to rest in

600mm?

its

kinetic energy.

(Neglect friction.)

Find the energy stored in a 4kg hammer-head moving at 2m/s. If this hammer is
rest by compressing the metal under it through a distance of 25 mm, determine

brought to

the average force of the blow.

Accelerating torque

When
it

a torque acts on a rotating body or on a body capable of rotation

causes angular acceleration.


In Fig. 153

radius r and

Then

F=

let

let

the small mass

the force

ma, where a

But torque

T=

Fr,

F act on
=

be rotating about the centre

at

it.

linear acceleration of

and angular accel a =

m.

-, i.e. a

ar.

Hence F = ma = mar and T Fr = mar


But a rotating body is made up of many small masses m, each situated at
2

its

own

particular radius.

all these small masses we will call M, the total mass of


the body. If this mass could be concentrated at a single radius which we
2
a Actually
will call k, we could write for the whole rotating body: T =
the
it is possible to determine the value of a radius at which the whole of

The sum of

Mk

mass of a body may be assumed as concentrated, and


the Radius of Gyration, being denoted by k.

this radius

is

called

MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES

212

We may thus write:


Accel torque (T)

= Mk 2 a

(8)

For a flywheel having a rim heavy in proportion to the rest of the


may be assumed as the mean radius of the rim.
For a plain disc of radius r, k = 0-707 r.
We might caution the reader again regarding the units of the above
expression. If T is in newton metres (Nm),
will be in kilogrammes,
k will be in metres and a will be in rad/s 2
wheel, k

If 60*0

S/
I

l
160N

s
\

/
Fig. 153

Example

12.

Fig. 154

flywheel of mass 550kg has a heavy rim, the inside and

outside radii of which are 450

wheel

is

radial force of
is

160N.

The
x

550mm

and

is

respectively.

tangential force at

how

between the brake and

long the wheel will take to

make

When this

pressed against the rim with a

If the coefficient of friction

0-25, calculate

and how many revolutions


160

mm

rotating at 105 rev/min a brake

the wheel

25

40N

come

to rest

doing so.
the rim of the wheel tending to stop

it

will

in

it

is

fx.

160 x 0-25

mm

= 40N

= 0-55 m, the retarding torque will


Since this acts at a radius of 550
be 40 x 0-55 = 22Nm.
As the rim is heavy in comparison with the rest of the wheel, we will
take the Radius of Gyration at the mean rim radius, i.e. at 500mm radius
(0-5 m).

ACCELERATING TORQUE

Using the torque equation

22

T = Mk a we
2

550 x 0-5 X 0-5 x a from which a

We may now use

the equation

co 2

w,

213

have
22

5Q

= 0-16rad/s

at to find the time to stop

the wheel since


105

01 6

and a =

(retardation)

= -^-2* -0-16*

Hence

In 0-16?

i.e.

60

= tr
60 x

n
7

X
%* = 68
0-16
x n

'

8 seconds

Since the average speed of the wheel in coming to rest


it

will

make

52-5

X -pk~
6U

is

52-5 rev/ min

in 68-8 sec, i.e 60-2 re v.


.

A pulley is in the form of a cast-iron disc 500mm x 80mm


driven from a source of power which exerts a constant torque
of ION m. How long will this pulley take to attain to a speed of 210rev/min
when started from rest? Take the density of the cast iron to be 7280 kg/m 3

Example
thick. It

13.

is

j DH X

Mass of pulley =

= 2| x

density
52

08 x 7280 kg

= 1144 kg

Taking the radius of gyration as 0-707 x outside radius, we have k

X 0-25 = 0-1 72 m
The applied torque is

0-707

lONm

T = Mk 2 a,

and applying the torque equation


10

0-172 2
H4-4 x nmi

<x

co

= 2l0rev/min =

ttt-a

44

~ S3
15-7

seconds

114-4

0-172 2

2-8rad/s 2

44rad/s

X a

214

MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES

III

Example 14. A steel level 300mm long is of rectangular cross-section


40 mm x 20 mm, and is pivoted at its centre One end bears on a cam which
.

causes

it

to swing through a length of 25 mm, during the time that the

cam

revolution at 180rev/min. If half the swing of the lever is made


with constant acceleration, and the other half with constant retardation,
estimate the torque required to accelerate the lever. Ik for a lever pivoted

makes

= -r-approx(L =

at

the centre

as

7840 kg/m 3
The problem

shown

is

length of lever).] Take the density of steel

in Fig. 155.

Fig. 155

Approximate mass of lever = 0-3 x 0-04 x 0-02 x 7840 = 1-88 kg.


The lever is accelerated through an arc 25 mm long on a 150 mm
i.e. through an angle of radian.
This takes place during turn of a cam revolving

radius,

180 rev/min,

at

i.e.

rev at 3 rev/s

= X j = 27 second
= <ot + \at 2 = \at 2 when

Since

.-.

\at\ and a

If)

=g-

For the lever we have radius of gyration k =


25

Hence applying

mm

= ^jkr =

co

-pr

192 rad/s 2

=
yy

0-025 m, and mass

m=

1-88 kg.

the torque equation

T = mk 2 a =

1-88

(0-025) 2

X 192 = 0-225Nm

cam end of the lever being accelerated upward


amount would have to be applied by the cam to the

This means that with the


a torque of the above

THE ENERGY OF ROTATING BODIES

end of the
applied to

215

With the cam end falling, this torque would have to be


the lever by a spring or other means to prevent the roller from
lever.

leaving the cam.

of course, relative to the lever only, and


neglects the effect of attachments to its free end.

The above consideration

is,

The energy of rotating bodies


continue our consideration of a rotating body as having all its mass
concentrated at the radius of gyration (k), if the body is rotating at a
speed of a> radians/second the linear speed in metres/second of a point
If we

at radius

will

be
v

o) k, if

is

Since the kinetic energy of a body


m(a)k) 2

mv 2

-^-; for a rotating body

it

will

be

newton metres

KE =

Hence

in metres.

-=

joules

Rotating flywheels are used on presses and other machines for the
purpose of storing a reserve of energy, so that when a sudden large output of work is required the machine will not stall, or undergo an undue
slowing up in speed.

Example
500

Calculate the energy stored up in a solid disc of cast iron,

mm dia by 80 mm thick,

when

rotating at 180 rev/min. If this wheel

speed after a hole has been blanked if the


blanking pressure is 100 kN and its duration extends over 5 mm.
From Example 13 the mass of this wheel is 114-4 kg and its radius of
gyration, 0-1 72 m.
is

on a

press,

what

will

The angular speed

be

o>

its

180

-^r- x

In =

6;rrad/s

oil

Putting these in the expression for Kinetic Energy

mk (o
KE = - - =
Energy stored

at

114-4

180 rev/min

0-1 72 2

601-5 J

(6tt)

MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES

216

III

For a pressure of 100 kN extending over

100 000

0-005

mm,

the

work done

500J

This energy must be given up by the flywheel and


will

be 601-5

If oj

is

500

its

energy afterwards

101-5 J

the speed of the wheel after giving up the energy: re-applying

the expression for kinetic energy


,
Tm
101-5 =

mk*a>*
-

rev/m

rnk 2

= ^60 =

(jo

114-4

203
X 0-172 2

7-75 rad/s

7-75
-=

= x- =
In
In
=

7-75 X 60
=

232-5

Hence speed of wheel


16. Solve

_,

74 rev/min

71

2.71

Example

2 x 101-5

2
1

'

60
co

rev/s

u>

after blanking hole

Example

12

74 rev/min

from a consideration of energy and work

done.

At 105 rev/min the work stored up

in the flywheel

550 X 0-5 X 0-5 X

11

= Energy =

11

=
The tangential

8320 J

force at the brake block

8320
of energy this must travel tpt-

Revs of wheel

for 208

208

= 40 N, and to dissipate 8320 J

m on its circumference
208

208

Circum

n x

A rev, as before
60-2
,

1-1

Average speed = 52-5 rev/min

Hence time
Example
balls

17.

spaced

to stop

-py-^

X 60 min =

68-8 s

two 150mm diameter spherical cast-iron


radius. At
ends of the arm, each ball being at 500

fly-press has

at the

mm

THE ENERGY OF ROTATING BODIES

217

Fig. 156

what speed must the arm rotate


penetrating a thickness of

2-

if

the punch

is

to be just capable of

mm under a constant pressure of 20 000 N?

Take the density of cast iron to be 7280 kg/m3


The reader is no doubt acquainted with the fly-press, a sketch of which
is shown in Fig. 156.
.

mass of a

= volume x

ball

=
Energy stored

in 2 balls at

n * ai53

a speed of

pM

12-9

0-5

density

x 7280= 12.9kg

co rad/s.

mk2(o2

0-5

<o

3.225a; 2

This must be equal to the work output required


= 0-0025 m
20 000N acting for a distance of 2- 5

at the

mm

=
=
Hence 3-225w 2 =

20 000 x 00025
50J

50,

50

15-5,

3-225

Vl5-5

3-94 rad/s

3-94

^P = 0-627 rev/s

punch,

i.e.

MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES

218

1.

CI flywheel rim

is

radius of gyration as the

.1

2. If the flywheel in

HI

Exercises 8d
0-8m inside diameter and

outside,

mean

315rev/min [Density of CI

01m

radius, calculate the energy stored

wide. Taking the


up when the speed is

= 7280 kg/m3 ].

Ex. No.

1 is

attached to a press and a punching operation causes

the speed of the wheel to drop to 262-5 rev/min, calculate the energy absorbed by the
operation.
3.

at 105

CI flywheel, rim

14m

outside diameter,

lm

inside,

and

01m

wide

rev/min when two brake pads are pressed against opposite sides of

is

its

revolving
rim. If the

coefficient of friction at the brakes is 04, with what force must they be pressed against the
rim to bring the wheel to rest in 30 revolutions?
4. A motor develops a constant torque of 32Nm. It drives a shafting and pulleys of
mass 400 kg, and having a radius of gyration = 200 mm. Calculate the time taken for

motor

from rest to a speed of 3 1 5 rev/min.


form of a solid cast-iron disc 0-6 m diameter, 80mm thick, and is
carried on a 50mm diameter shaft. When the wheel is revolving at 315 rev/min it is disengaged from its drive and comes to rest in 75 seconds If the retarding torque is due entirely
the

5.

to accelerate the shaft

flywheel

is

in the

to friction at the bearings, calculate the tangential frictional force at the surface of the

50mm

shaft

upon which the wheel

A press has

is

mounted.

= 0-707 m. The press is


which the ultimate shear strength is 400N/mm 2
When a bar is being sheared the full load comes on and remains constant whilst the shear
blade moves 5 mm, after which the load drops to zero. If the above flywheel is rotating at 52-5
rev/min when a bar is sheared, calculate the reduction in speed caused by the work absorbed.
7. A fly-press has two masses each of 5 kg attached to opposite ends of the arm at
400mm radius. When the arm is rotating at 1 rev/s a punch in theram makes contact with a
pin and drives it a distance of 5mm into a hole. Calculate the average pressure exerted
on the pin by the punch.
6.

a flywheel of mass 400 kg and radius of gyration

shearing metal bars

8.

250 mm,

cylindrical
is

40mm x 20mm,

for

mixing tank mass 160kg, inside diameter lm, radius of gyration

rotating at 105 rev/min

when 20 kg of material

immediately moves to the sides of the tank and arranges


estimate the

momentary reduction

in

is

tipped into

itself at

mean

it.

If the material

radius of 400 mm,

speed caused by the extra mass.

Heat and Heat Energy


Temperature

The temperature of a substance


it

is

no indication of the amount of heat

contains, but merely a measure of

its

"hotness level."

There are two scales of temperature used in this country; the Celsius
and the Kelvin. (The Celsius scale is a more modern* name for the Centigrade scale, but the latter name is likely to persist for some time after the
adoption of the SI conventions.) The freezing-boiling point limits of water
are

shown

in Fig. 157.

AMOUNT OF HEAT

373

100"

219

Boiling

Freezing

273

Fig. 157

Celsius

Kelvin

The degrees of temperature on these systems are generally denoted C


and K respectively. The chief calculation concerning these is the conversion

from one to the other.

It will

be noted that a very simple relation-

ship exists,
i.e.

temperature in Kelvin

temperature

in

20C = 273 + 20
and 353 K = 353 - 273
(The reader

will note that the

Celsius

273.

For example

= 293K
= 80C

word "degree"

is

not used

when

referring

to the Kelvin scale.)

Furthermore, 1C of temperature rise = 1 K of temperature rise. The


symbol relates to the kelvin scale of absolute temperature and goes down
to absolute zero (0) of temperature. It is employed mostly in scientific

and thermodynamic work.

Amount of heat
Heat is a form of energy, and hence the unit for a quantity of heat is the
same unit as for a quantity of energy, i.e. the joule. For large quantities
we occasionally refer to kilojoules and megajoules.The amount of energy
mass of a substance a unit increase of temperature
is called the specific heat capacity of that substance. As an example,
the specific heat capacity of water is about 4200J/kgC. Water has the
needed to

raise unit

greatest specific heat capacity of any substance, so that

all

other sub-

stances have a specific heat capacity of less than 4200 J/kgC.

MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES

220

III

Table of Specific Heat Capacities


Specific

Substance

in J/kg

Water

1300
2140
2000
400
540
900
1300
480

oil

Petroleum
Turpentine

Copper
Cast iron

Aluminium
Lead
Steel

Brass

395
2400
880
1000

Oak
Stone generally
Air

constant pressure)

(at

When

4200
2930

Alcohol (absolute)
Olive

Heat

Capacity

a substance

is

heated up the heat transferred to

it

will

be

given by

(Mass of substance)(Rise

in temperature)(Specific heat capacity)

= mc (T - T,)
[m = mass;c = sp.ht. capacity; T and T = Temp limits.]
2

Heat

Due

calculations

to the fact that heat escapes so easily

and so rapidly by conduction,

convection and radiation, the results of heat and temperature calculations


are not to be relied upon. It is possible, however, to obtain an approximate
idea of the state of conditions, and the work involves important principles
in

which we cannot have too much practice.

Example 19. A piece of steel of mass 5kg is heated up to 700 C and


immersed in a tank 400mm square containing 250mm of water at 15C.
The steel is left until temperature conditions become steady. Assuming
that

10% of the

When
and

if

heat

is lost,

the hot steel

no heat were

is

estimate the final temperature.

placed in the water

lost externally the

it

will lose heat to the water,

heat lost by the steel would be

HEAT CALCULATIONS

equal to the heat gained by the water.


is gained by the water.

As

of the heat lost by

90%

it is,

221

the steel

Let

7 be

the final steady temperature.

Heat

lost

The mass of
in

a tank

04 m

by

steel

=
=

(mass)(sp. ht. cap.)(fall in temp)

X 480(700 - 7)

cubic metre of water

square

when

0-4

the depth

0-4

= 1000 kg,
is

so the mass contained

0-25

x 1000 = 40kg

0-25

Heat gained by water = 40 x 4200(7 - 15)


= i%(heat lost by steel) we have

(2)

Since heat gained by water

168000(7

15)

Multiplying out the brackets

0007-

168

From which

Example

20.

placed in 2

we

4 032 000

t
T=

4Q32Q0Q
170160

X 480(700 -

7)]

(3)

have:

2 520 000

piece of steel

litres

U5

170 1607

h
and

kg

512 000

1607

^ 7 or
= 2H1C
in

mass

of water. Conditions are

is

taken from a furnace and

made such that

the

minimum

of heat escapes. If the initial temperature of the water was 20C and the
final steady temperature of steel and water 52 C, estimate the temperature

of the

when taken from the furnace.


assume no loss of heat we have
Heat gained by water = Heat

steel

If we

Let

7=

Mass of 2

lost

by

steel.

furnace temperature
litres

of water

2 kg

= 2 X 4200(52 - 20)
= 8400 x 32 = 268800 J
Heat lost by steel = (mass)(sp. ht. cap.)(7 52)
= x 480(7 - 52) *= 480T Equating: 4807- 24 960 = 268 800
4807 = 293760
Heat gained by water

293760
21480
estimate
a
low
would be

24 960

Actually this

as

some heat would be

lost.

MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES

222

III

Exercises 8e
The dimensions of a workshop

40m x 16m x

and the ventilation system


temperature in the shop
is 20C and the outside temperature 12C, calculate the heat lost per hour by the shop
due to the two air changes. [Sp. ht. capacity of air = 1000 J/kg C, density of air =
l-3kg/m 3 .] Give the answer in megajoules.
2. A piece of steel mass 5 kg is taken from a furnace at 700 C and plunged into
1.

is

such that the

air in

the shop

is

8 litres (8kg) of water at 15C. If

the water

when

are

12-5

changed twice per hour.

10% of the heat

If the

is lost,

estimate the temperature of

steady conditions have been reached. [Sp. ht. capacity of steel

480J/kg C.]

Water flows through a gas-heated boiler at the rate of 12 litres per minute, and
is raised from 20C to 70C by the boiler. If the efficiency of the boiler
70% and the gas used yields 18MJ/m 3 when burned, calculate the gas consumption of

3.
its
is

temperature

the boiler in cubic metres per hour.

4.

piece of steel of mass 1-25 kg

is

and the

final steady

taken from a furnace and quickly transferred

The

initial temperature of the water was 15C,


temperature was 50 C. Assume that no heat escaped during the

into a tank containing 3 litres of water.

process, and estimate the temperature of the steel

An

5.

when taken from

flows, the tubes being subjected to a circulation of cooling water


oil

flows through the tubes at the rate of 18 litres/min,

80C, and

it

be necessary
oil

the furnace.

which the

oil-cooling arrangement consists of a nest of tubes through

desired to cool this

is

if it

= 2000 J/kg

enters at 18C

down

and leaves

its

on

their exterior.

oil

The

entering temperature

is

to 30C. Estimate what flow of water will


at

28C.

[l

litre oil

0-9 kg, sp. ht. cap.

of

C.]

6. In a certain locality the cost of gas for industrial heating was 4p per cubic metre,
and the cost of coal 1200 per tonne (= 1000kg). The heating value of the gas was
18MJ/m 3 and of the coal 25MJ/kg. Assuming an efficiency of application of 90% for the
gas and 60% for the coal, compare the relative costs of heating by gas and coal.

Heat energy
Heat is a form of energy, and when mechanical work is dissipated by fricconverted into heat. Most of our mechanical energy is derived
from heat by converting it through some form of heat engine The relation
between heat and mechanical energy was at one time called Joule's Equivalent, after the famous scientist Joule. The use of Joule's Equivalent is

tion

it is

not required

when

using SI units, as heat and other forms of energy use

the same unit.

Example

21. If

lkg of coal when burned yields 25 MJ, estimate the mass of


kW if the overall efficiency is 10%.

coal required per hour to generate 100

2 =
We have that Input

Efficiency

-r^.
100

HEAT ENERGY

Output

= lOOkW,

Input

-^

= lOOkW x

1000 kW = 1000 000


Heat energy required per hour
Heat energy in 1 kg of coal

Mass required =

Example

22.

ine

223

= lOOOkW
= 1000 000 J/s = 10 6 J/s
= 10 6 X 3600 J
= 25MJ = 25 X 10 6 J
=

144 kg

machining operation is cooled by soluble oil having a


3000J/kgC, flowing at the rate of 601itres/min.
being absorbed at the cutting point and 80% of the heat
taken away by the cooling oil, calculate its rise in tempera-

specific heat capacity of


If 10

kW

generated

is
is

ture, tl litre of coolant

Assuming

we

all

0-9 kg].

the power to be dissipated as heat at the cutting point,

have:

Heat generated per minute at the cutting point


for one minute = 10 OOOJ/s x 60s = 600 000J
Heat taken away by coolant = & x 600 000 J = 480 000
Heat taken up by coolant = (mass)(sp. ht. cap.)(temp rise)
= (60 X 0-9) (3000) (temp rise) joules

= lOkW

Equating these we have:

(60

x 3000) temp

0-9

_
Temp nse =
-

Example

23.

The

rise

= 480 000 J

480 000

60 x 0-9 x 3000

Q or
=!&--

surface speed of a grinding wheel

is

1200m/min. The

of 40mm

square cross-section is pressed against the


end of a steel bar

of 100N. If the coefficient of friction


force
a
min, with
wheel for
0-4, and if half of the heat generated is
is
the
wheel
steel
and
between the

absorbed by the steel, being momentarily confined to a depth of 2-5 mm,


estimate the temperature rise at the surface in contact with the wheel
face.
If the coefficient

of friction

is

tangential resistance will be 100

per second

= 40N x
.*.

12

Work

0-4

and the radial pressure 100N, the


= 40N and the work dissipated

0-4

= 800Nm = 800 J.

dissipated in 15 s

Heat input from work

12

000

\ x 12 000 J

= 6000 J

MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES

224

III

Taking the density of steel as 7840 kg/m 3 the layer of metal to which
this heat is assumed to be confined = volume x density.
,

=
=
Heat given =
6000 =

Temp

rise

0-04

0-04

x 0-0025 x 7840

0-031 36 kg
(mass)(sp. ht. capacity)(temp rise)
(0-031 36)(480)(temp

480 x 0031 36

rise)

^C

Exercises 8f
1.

cutting operation

is

absorbing

2kW

at the tool point. Calculate the heat

generated in kilojoules per minute. If this operation


the rate of 10

litres

per min, and

temperature,

rise in

litre oil

[l

2. Estimate the gas

is

being cooled by

taken away by the

if

90% of the

0-9 kg; sp. ht. cap. of oil

heat

is

consumption of an engine when

it

is

oil

oil,

being

flowing at

calculate

its

2500J/kgC.]

developing 12 kW with a

thermal efficiency of 20%. Take the heat value of the gas used
the answer in cubic metres of gas per hour.

at

18MJ/m and express


3

3. A bearing is 140mm diameter and runs at 500rev/min. It carries a load of 20 kN


and the coefficient of friction is 0-06. Calculate the work spent per minute in friction.
If the bearing is to be cooled by a circulation of oil [sp. ht. cap. = 1600J/kgC], and if
the temperature rise of the oil is not to exceed 8C, what mass of oil must flow through

the bearing per minute?


4.

flywheel of mass 250 kg and having a radius of gyration of 400

210rev/min, when

mm

is

rotating at

by a brake. Calculate the heat generated at the


brake. If the brake shoe is cast iron of mass 4kg, and it absorbs half the heat generated,
estimate its rise in temperature. [Spec. ht. cap. of CI. = 540J/kgC.]
5.

it

is

brought to

grinding operation

is

required for the cooling water


rise in

temperature

is

rest

absorbing
if all

5kW

at the

the heat generated

wheel. Calculate the rate of flow


is

taken away by the water and

not to exceed 4C. Give the answer in litres/min.

its

d +

J3
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225

Appendix

II

H Holes (Hole Basis)

ISO Standard

Tolerance Limits for Selected Holes. (Selected from BS 4500: 1969)

= 0001 mm)

(Unit

Nominal

Up
Over

H7

Sizes

H9

H8

Hll

to

and

UL

UL

LL

LL

UL

LL

UL

LL

includ-

ing

mm

mm

10

15

22

36

90

10

18

18

27

43

110

18

30

21

33

52

130

30

50

25

39

62

160

50

80

30

46

74

190

80

120

35

54

87

220

120

180

100

250

250

40
46

63

180

72

115

290

UL =

Upper Limit

LL = Lower

Appendix

Limit

III

H Hole
over the Range 6mm to 180mm

British Standard

[Limits for

H6

to

Hll

Abstracted from BS 1916 (1953)1

Nominal

Size

over

to

High Limit

(unit

H6

H7

H8

+ 0001mm)

H9

H10

Low
Hll

10

15

22

36

58

90

10

18

11

18

27

43

70

110

18

30

13

21

33

52

84

130

30

50

16

25

39

62

100

160

50

80

19

30

46

74

120

190

80

120

22

35

54

87

140

220

120

180

25

40

63

100

160

250

226

Limit

H6toHll

m
CI

o o o
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cn
in
in
6 6 6 6

# * X

*p

=B

Appendix VI
The Trigonometrical Addition Formulae
sometimes necessary to express the trigonometrical ratios of the sum

It is

or difference of two angles in terms of their individual ratios.


tions are
If the

shown

in Fig.

The condi-

58 and the formulae are quoted without proof.

reader wishes to pursue the proof he can do so by consulting any

trigonometrical textbook.

(a)

(b)
Fig. 158

In Fig. 158
sin

(a),

A cos B + cos A sin B


A cos B sin A sin B
tan A + tanB
=
- tan A tan B

(A + B) =

cos (A

B)

tan (A

B)

sin

cos

In Fig. 158(6),
sin

(A

cos (A
,

tan (A
v

A cos B cos A sin B


A cos B + sin A sin B
tan
A r
tan B
=^

B) =
B) =

_,.

B)

sin

cos
t

+ tanA tanB

A in (A + B) we get:
sin 2 A =2 sin A cos A
cos 2 A = cos A sin A = 2 cos A
cos A + sin A = 1)
2 tanA
tan 2 A
- tan A

By

writing

B =

230

2 sin 2

A (since

Appendix VII
Continued Fractions

A continued fraction is a series of fractions derived from a single complicated fraction, each fraction in the series approaching more nearly to the
value of the fraction from which the series was derived.
If during the course of our work we required to obtain a gear ratio
131
(e.g. for cutting

an obscure screw pitch)

we could

of, say, -r-,

only do

by having gears containing 131, and 353 teeth, because neither of the
numbers has any factors. To cut such gears for the job would be out of the
question, as in the first place they would be too large to fit on to the
machine, and the cost of making them, if they were only required once,
would be prohibitive.
By applying the method of continued fractions to such a problem, it
would probably be possible to obtain a ratio in a usable form, and having
a value so close to the original, that under the circumstances it would be
it

acceptable.

For the purpose of explaining the method we

will

convert the above

ratio to a continued fraction:

Example

18.

numerator

Put the numbers down as a division

into the

sum

only divide the

denominator
131)353(2

262

Now divide this

91)131(1

into the

original divisor

Divide into the

9J_

40)91(2
80

last divisor

11)40(3

Divide into the last divisor


(and so on every time)

33
7)11(1
7
4)7(1

4
3)4(1
3

1)3(3
3
231

APPENDIX

232

The

VII

quotients obtained from the continued division are

1,2,3,

2,

These may now be written

1, 1, 1

as the

and

3.

denominators of a continued fraction

as follows:

A
C

1
1

1
1

1
1

We now have to find what are called the "convergents" of this fraction.
In simpler terms, the convergents are approximations to the actual value

of the fraction. They are, in value, alternately too large and too small,
but each time they approach nearer to the actual value (hence the term
convergent).
1st

convergent

[Down

2nd convergent [To

to line

line

CD]

AB] = y
1

2+1

3rd convergent [To line EF]

2+1

2+

"2 +

4th convergent [to line

GH]

2+1

2+1
1

j_
2

J_

CONTINUED FRACTIONS

2+1

2+

ft

K
^

+f

-10
27

+ ^

233

5th convergent [to line JK]

2+1

\
1

+ 1
1

2+1
1+1

J_

+ &

I
H

u
9

6th convergent [to line

LM]

2+

2+

1
1

1
.

1
1

16

23

16

16

7th convergent [to line

z 23

62

_23
62-

23

NP] (The reader should now be


.

this for himself)

8th convergent [whole fraction]

able to check

= "
- 353

values of the convergents, their decimal equivalents and the error


(+ or -) from the true value of the original fraction, are set down in the

The

following table.

234

APPENDIX

VII

Original Fraction

Mi

0-3711
Error

Decimal

Convergent
No.

Equiv.

Value.

or -.

0-5000

+ 0-1289

0-3333

-0-0378

0-3750

+ 0-0039

0-3704
0-3710

-0-0007
+0-0003
-0-0001

0-37113

-rG.00003

0-3714

0-0000

0-3711

a graph of the error against the convergent No. is plotted it will be


like Fig. 159. It will be noticed that the error is only 0-0007
even at the 4th convergent, although this is a very simple fraction
If

somewhat
<#)

+
V.

O
u

\
1

A^
3

Xi^

^_
5

Convergent number
1

Fig. 159

6
"

Answers

to exercises
Exercises 2a

Hole

Clearance

Shaft

75-120

74-940

(mm)
0-226
max

75-000

74-894

min

35-062

35-018

max

0-060

35-000

35-002

min

-0-018

3. 20-021

19-980

max

0-062

20-000

19-959

min

0-020

57-046

57-083

max

57-000

57-053

min

-0-007
-0-083

(mm)

(mm)
1.

2.

0-060

(interference).

4.

(interference).
5.

Centre distance 124-98

6. 40-0062
7.
8.

mm; "Not Go"

diameter 12-079

mm

mm diameter

Open out "Go" and "Not Go" ends by 0-052 mm


Same fit with blocks on top limit. Additional clearance

of

0017mm

with pair of

blocks on bottom limits

Reduce "Go" diameter by 0-0373 mm and "Not Go" by 0-036 mm


Max. 0-271 mm: Min. 0- 170mm

9. Yes.

10.

Exercises 2b

108

1-10

1-60

1005
103

9-00

100
2000

1-60

16-00

700

5000

1-01

2.

104

3.

4.

1-70

25-00

106

7. 1-02

8. 1-05

24.00

1-30

1-50

1-40

50.00

13-00

7-00

17-00

1-70

6.

100-00
1-09

10.(a)

1005

(b)

105

11.

"Go"

1-90

1-02

1-90

3-00

1-90

12-00

1005
117

75-00

600

20-00

1-80

600

25-00

20-00
12. 1-08

400
1000
235

end.

2500
"Not go" end.
105
1-90

900
800
10-00

236

ANSWERS TO EXERCISES

Exercises 2c
1.

mm

0-30

5. 0 6'

too steep

10-31

6.

BC =

AD
7.
9.

True angle
75-79mm.

3.

37 43'; error 0

35-90mm;>>

41-40

mm higher

mm

29- 15

= 13-10mm;x = 26-93
mm; 0- 108 mm

8. 500-09

1'

1016mm

10.

One end

4.

CD =

39-25 mm;

11.

14-86mm

Exercises 2d
1.35

3. 47 4'

2. 22 20'

18'

5. 25 50'

6. a

8.

AB =

1.

40-546 mm; 252'

46-23 mm,

103-5mm; 29 32'; 34

4. (i) 3946';

a =

30 18'

(ii)a

A=

7.

152- 19

= 8,6 = 16; (iii) 25-01


mm; B = 57-81 mm

12'

Exercises 2e

- H) 2 =

4. (25

2.

225

ll-67mm

D)

102

3.

A=

5.

d = j; 26-67mm

77-508mm; B = 76-008mm

1546mm

6. 9 12'

Exercises 2f
20-53mm;
Normal to axis,
10-09mm

36-43mm;

1. (a)

(b)

2.

58-9

3.

7. 14-16

mm diagonally across plugs, 59-26 mm


12-94mm

4.

mm

(c)0-767in

8. 64-05

5.

15-4mm

6.

52-804mm

mm
Exercises 3a

28

39

54

250
877

180

130

1260

104

145

202

280

94

68

49

35

25

2630

1820

237mm,

4. 41 3 rev/min;

75

mm

7. 2-61

500
- 20

mm;

10.

Rake

1.

5728'

35-51

3.25-2m/min

h
73

27;

6.

Rake

8. 15

21

5.

4.

9.

Exercises 3c
4. (a)

155 mm;

(6)

3. 29

in 6-128;

0-65 mm;

(c)

5500 rev/min

Tu " g C arb
g .0
g
rl .o

2-8

r- approx

/5

12 10', Clearance 14 50'

19 36'; Clearance 15 36'

2.

Dia

Dia

60mm

119 mm,

Exercises 3b
32-28;

mm

rev/min

7 32'

a =

7 18';

22 13'

ANSWERS TO EXERCISES

5.

805mm;

7.

Angle 41

5' for 355' to 42'

Depth

18':

6-95

7-07mm; 247mm; 70

6.

mm Land 2-81 mm

8. 4-78

237

38'

mm; l-66mm

mm; 6122mm; 22 03' with Horiz.


204mm; (b) 29-6 mm; (c) 11 23'

9. 2-564

10. (a)

Exercises 3d
1.

x 6*
i.5009mm
*J = jjp
50 x 110
55

2. |J; Actual lead 3-1428

3. 4-433

mm;

4. (a) 1-93

Error

+ 0-0012mm

39
nearest 4-432 with -rj ratio; 66-47 mm/min

44

kW;

5.312mm;

(6)0-778mm 3 /J

8.

7. 384/7
9.

mm;

35

27-96

Nm

1400 rev/min; 14-63Nm; 2-79 kW

11. Nearest Ratio

20
49

(a)0-8786kW;
10.

40 x 25
35

6.10mm

Pitch

2-041

(b) 2-238

J/mm

53-3 m; 1-95/?

mm

?()

Exercises 4a
1.

6-69 mm; (a) 69-52

2. (a)

w =

9-435 mm; h

3. Cutting 0-06
4. Cutting

mm

(6) 0-49

mm

= 61 mm;

(6)

w = 1000mm;

6-37

mm

mm too shallow.

0-17mm

too deep; Tooth

0-12mm

thin;

Space 0-13mm wide.

w = 1110mm, h = 5-98mm; (i) w = 1104mm, h = 5-95mm


(b) 178-48 mm
7. 19346 mm
7-38 mm;
(a) 25738mm
(b) 2345 mm
(a) 23-63 mm;
(c)86-7mm; (rf)78mm
(b) 140-6 mm;
(a) 1845mm;

5. (a)
6.
8.

9.

1.
2.

3.

Exercises 4b
= 210mm; T.D. = 218mm; Depth = 9mm
w = 7-808 mm; h = 4-0768 mm
T = 40T; P.D. = 200mm; T.D. = 208mm; t = 24f;
p.d. = 120mm; t.d. = 128mm; Depth = 9mm
P.D.

4. 179-7
6. (a)

mm

5. 0-215

221-35mm;

(b)

229-35mm;

(c)

9mm;

(rf)

1910mm;

(e) 63.

P.D. 124-71 mm, T.D. 132-71 mm; (c) 678mm; (</) 42.
8. 2; P.D. = 70-71 mm; T.D. = 74-71 mm; lead = 222mm; 4-5
T.D. Helix angle, 20 22'; lead, 1016mm
9. Gear: 45T, 120mmP.D.; 125
Pinion: 30T, 80mm P.D., 85mm T.D.; Helix angle, 20 22', lead, 677mm

7. (a) 27;

(b)

mm

mm

Exercises 4c
1.

2.

T.D. = 46-36 mm; R.D. = 3263mm; A = 9 2'.


35T; P.D. 11140mm; T.D. 1 17-76 mm; Centre Dist 75-70 mm; Throat rad. 16-82mm;
Whole dia. 124-71 mm; 28-22mm [Face angle 75.]

3. 6;

4.

A =

32 29'

8-62

mm

P.D.238-73mm; throat dia. 24509 mm;


P.D.61-27mm; T.D.67-63mm; A = 1434'

Wheel: 75T;

rad. 2745

mm. Worm:

5start;

ANSWERS TO EXERCISES

238

5.

T =

Cone dist., 4242mm; Add. angle, 322'; Ded. angle, 414';


Whole dia., 63-32 mm; Tip dist., 28-23 mm.
Wheel: 39T; D = 195mm; Angles: P = 56 18'; Add., 2 27'; Ded., 33'; Face, 5845';
Root, 53 15'; Whole dia., 200-55mm.
Pinion: 26f; d = 130mm; Angles: P = 33 42'; Add., 2 27'; Ded., 3 3'; Face, 36 9';
Root, 30 39'; Whole dia. 138-32mm; Cone dist., 11716mm.
24; P. angle, 45;

Face, 4822'; Root, 4046';

6.

7. 5-9
8.

mm;

5 58'.

122-77 mm;

= 90mm;

18T; P.D.

Pinion:

dia., 96-93

73 54'; Add.,434';Ded.,543';Wholedia,

P =

Angles:

466'; Add., 434'; Ded., 543';

Whole

mm.
Exercises 5a
2. 25 to
(c)4-88mm

(6)6-944mm;

(a) 15;

1.

= 120mm; Angles: P =
Cone dist., 62-45 mm.

Wheel: 24T; P.D.

3. 731'; negative.

4. 926'.

31-19mm.
6. 4-82mm.

30;

5. 82j

Exercises 5b
1.

189mm/min

70rev/min,

4. 2-04 min

5. Spiral mill.

2.

60480mm

6.

1-8

kW,

2-94

2-5

kW

3.

3mm.

min, 0-15p.

Exercises 5c
and 5d, whole numbers refer to complete turns of the
crank, numerators of fractions to holes, and denominators to hole circles. When the
fraction is a simple one (e.g. \) it has been left in that form. Numerators of gear ratios
are drivers, and denominators are driven gears.]
[in the answers to Exercises 5c

1. (a)

3i;

2. (a)

3;

(b) 2f;

(b) 2tf;

(c)

Iff;

(d)

(c)

ljf;

(d)

(b) 2{f;

(c)

3f;

(b)

(c)

3ff;

5.

If; 3

6. (a)

3&;

(e) |?

A;

(e) ft;

(d) 5{f;

3. (a) If;
4. (a)

Iff;

lfc

f;

(g) f?;

ff;

fe)fc

(h)

(h) j?

7&.

()

(J) 8i;

(J)

CO

15

(<?)

mm

^+

^+

(6)

tf ;

(c)

if;

(<*)-*

A;

40C.c

cN - C
8 holes; 20 circle; Gears,

8. (a)

(b)

20
If

20 holes; 27
circle;

ft;

[Note.
9.

circle;

Gears,

^;

plate to turn

Gears,

ff

fj}

ft;

?f;

direction as crank,
(d)

8(a), (b), (c)

and

(d).]

10. 5ff;8f|; lift; 14ff

Exercises 5d
1. (a)

2.

,
3

If.
4
,
7*

1^; 10 36' 26";

fl^

is

41 24';

(c)

8^; 75 45'

nearer and could be obtained on Cincinnati.]

...

(b) 4f;

{a)

100 x 32

:48x56

...

(6)

100

x 24

W4T

, ,
;

32

(C)

72

(rf)

as crank.

(c)

8 holes;

10 holes, 33 circle; Gears,

direction as crank.

Other solutions are possible to

1652'

same

plate to turn opposite to crank,

same

same direction

plate to turn in

plate turn

40 x 24
64-lT48

ANSWERS TO EXERCISES

40X

32

5.

a =

239

3648'

48 x 56

6. ft
7.
9.

10.
11.

24

if;

1'

between axes of work and cutter

8. Nearest =
720mm lead; tf ratio; 19 14'
72 mm; gear ratio f; a = 4603'
Gear ratio f; a = 22 1'; lead = 25 mm
Lead = 60 mm; gear ratio = f a = 30

ft

Jg

(based on

245mm

lead)

Other solutions are possible to Nos.

UVofe.

9,

10 and 11.]

Exercises 5e
5. 55-4

3. 496'

2. 6723'

1. 2958'

mm;

245-8 mm; 1232'

4. (a) 416';

6. (a) 5046';

(6)

(b)

972'

10428'

Exercises 6a
[in the solutions to Ex. 6a the angle given

drawn to the commencing end of the


upwards; 34 to

2. (a) 7-21
(b)

10-85

(c)

10-94

(d)

31

(e)

if)

upwards; 34 to

(c)

2-2

(d)

13-4

R of vert

14-5

upwards; 50 to

downwards;

6-6; cb

L to

6. 5 units

=
=

of vert

above horiz

upwards; 21 to R of vert
R to L; 32 above horiz

(/) 9-3

7. ac

vertical or horizontal

downwards; 4 to R of vert
L; 44 below horiz
3-4 downwards; 13 to L of vert
12 L to R; 5 below horiz
10-85 upwards; 41

5. ac

made with the

to L; 41 below horiz

(b)

(<?)

that

R to

3. (a) 7-2

4.

downwards

is

vector.]

21;

cZ>

8-7

12 to

of vert

of vert

= 5-5; abc = 50.


R; 37 above horiz
=

7-6 vert

downwards.

to R; 30 above horiz; be

8.

ab

1.

R to L (outwards);

3.

212N;

6.

Suspension chain 196N; pulling chain

downwards; 30 to

of vert

Exercises 6b

53N/mm

11 18' to lathe centre line.


4. 0-085m/s; 45 to horiz.

100N

2.

Horiz 38-3N; vert

5.

266-3N
233N; 552N

7.

32-1

Exercises 6c
1.

530N

in

a plane at 34 to vertical; line of action inclined at 71 to 500N force.


4. 216N.; 34 to horiz.
3. 309N; 904N

2.

11mm

5.

130N; 200N

8.

2860N

11.

6.

520N; 26 to

9.

274mm

76-5cm 3 113 from


;

horiz.

rad; 100

from 50 kg mass

7.

10.

163-5N horiz. L. to R.

5550N

ANSWERS TO EXERCISES

240

Exercises 6d
4.

0-775mm

l-3m/s,

7. 0-088

10. (a)

m/s

2. 0-84 m/s
0-17m/s; 23 to

6. 0-8 m/s

8.

856N

9. 0-0051 m/s;

(b) 16-8

3. (a) 114;

OA

rpm.

7840

0-244m/s. 11. 0-00052m/s

(6)

f;

5.

(b) 4-64 m/s

5-36 m/s,;

1. (a)

Exercises 6e

8N

1.

170N

4.

Front bearing 1620N upwards; rear bearing

2.

5.

Right 357N;

7.

177N

1.

25-6N; 25-4N

4.

270N

3.

340N
80N

6.

left,

8.

tailstock 531N
417N downwards.
1600N, 600N

Headstock 319N;

Exercises 7a
2. 750N
5. 0-1184kW

at 6 57' to horiz.

3. 12

300N

kW

6. 0-792

Exercise 7b
1. 36-4;

5.

93-9N

68-5%; 18

2.

060N

6.

385-7N

9. 2340J,

10.

l-97kW
121N
1200N

3.

51-9N
5-3N

7. 377;

11.

4.

118N

8.

35-1%

lONm

Exercises 7c
1.
2.

3.

894mm

d = 44-7mm; L =

RH load =
LH load =

1080N; B. press
1170N; B. press

n = 0-0158,
300N

52-2 J

4. 86-2

6. 50

9. 23-1

1.

N/mm

=
=

4. 14-4 m/s 2

2. 1-28
5.

5.

= 200N/mm 2

lm;5s

1.

ION

2.

lm/s

5.

17-3N

6.

l-28m/s 2

fi

0032,

114kW

50-9N/mm 2 0-204mm
tension = 40 000N

8.
;

Exercises 8a
s, 12-5 m/s

0-4m/s 2 0-6m/s

7.

7. 10-8m/s;

mm

10. Stress

10rev/min 2 75 revs

N/mm
N/mm

7950N 63-2N

7.

0-27

0-29

3.

0-333 m/s 2 ;

6.

180rev/min 2

1-2 s
;

min

8. 0-5m/s; 15s

Exercises 8b
3. 355N
192N; 0-96m/s; 0-1849kW

5890m/s 2 589kN

8.

4.

72N

320mm

Exercises 8c
1.

18-31; 1050.

4. 157

2
3. 14-9rad/s

2. 6-55 s

500 J; 5250N

6. 18-75J;

31-25N

7. 8 J; 320

Exercises 8d
1.

22 700 J

2.

6940

3. 101

5.

131N

6.

16-5rev/min

7.

6320N

4. 16-5 s
8.

13-6rev/min

ANSWERS TO EXERCISES

Exercises 8e
1.

4.

1664 MJ

785C

2.

59C

5. 38-61itres/min

3.

12m

6.

Cost gas
Cost coal

3-09
1

Exercises 8f
1.

120kJ; 4-8C

4. 9680J;

2-24C

2.

12m /h
3

3.

264 000 J; 206kg

241

Index

Dividing head, 123

Acceleration, 198

due to

gravity,

Drilling power, 8

200

Angles, cutting tool, 63


(solid),

evaluation

of,

142

Angular indexing, 130


measurement with sine bar, 22

Efficiency of a machine, 181

Energy, 206
heat, 218, 222

of rotating bodies, 2 1

surfaces, location of points on, 32

velocity

and

acceleration, 209

Equations, of motion, 198

Arithmetical progression, 57

Equilibrium, conditions for, 155, 171

Backlash, 95

Faceplate, balancing of

Balancing of masses in one plane, 159

Feeds for

Bar (pressure),

Fluting angle for milling cutter teeth,

Bearing

work

115

friction, 192

Force, 203

pressure, 191

of

Bevel gearing, 106


Bores, measuring large bores, 28

hammer

blow, 205

Forces, acting on a cutting tool,

BSI Limit System, 14

in a

mechanism, 167

vectorial representation,

Cam

on, 159

milling, 121

Form tools,

milling, 138

Celsius temperature, 218

Fraction, continued, 231

Centigrade temperature, 218

Friction, 176

Change wheels (odd

threads), 77

at a

Circular motion, 209

68

bearing 192

at nut face, 186

Coefficient of friction, 177

coefficient, 177

Continued fraction, 231


Conventions SI, 4

in

Cosecant, 92

when clamping,

screw thread, 182

of sliding keys, 188


178

Cotangent, 92
Cutters (milling), clearance, 117

Gauge, point for bores, 28

fluting angle, 115

slip,

grinding, 117

number of teeth,

113

speeds and feeds, 121

rack, 86

tooth rake, 114

Cutting power, 79

17

Gauging large radii, 25


Gear tooth form, 85
vernier, 87

Gearing, backlash, 95

speed range, 58

base pitch, 92

tool angles, 63

bevel, 106

forces acting on, 157


life,

helical,

96

plug method of checking, 90

61

242

57

INDEX

stub,

Moment of a force,
Momentum, 203

94

worm, 102
Geometric speed range, 58

Graph of motion,

Hammer

10, 199

blow, force

of,

205

Motion

in a circle,

equations

Newton

of,

170

209

198

(force), 3

Heat, 218
Pitch (base) of gears, 92

of work, 222
specific capacity,

219

Helical gearing, 96

and

Helix, lead

angle, 98

Power

for cutting, 79, 122

Progression, arithmetic and geometric,

57

Inclined plane, 182

Rack

Indexing, angular, 130

Radian, 209

compound, 126

(gear),

Rake on

86

milling cutter teeth,

14

differential, 128

Screw

simple, 125

cutting, calculations for

odd

threads, 77

Involute, 84

ISO Limit system, 14


ISO Metric thread, 48

thread as inclined plane, 182


threads,

measurement by

wires, 47

Secant, 92

Johannson gauges, 17

Sine bar, 22
SI units, 3

Kelvin, 219

Slip gauges, 17

Kilogramme, 6

Specific heat capacity, 219

Speed range geometric, 58


Level

(spirit),

19

Spiral milling, 134

Limit, 13

Spirit level, 19

systems, 14

Strain, 193

Lines on angular surfaces, true length, 32

Stress, 193

Mass,

Stub teeth, 94
Taper, measurement with balls and

6,

203

Measurement of gears, 87-90


by slip gauges, 17
of large bores, 28

of large

radii,

25

of tapers, 23, 38,

Mechanical advantage, 181


Metre, 2

rollers,

turning, 66

Temperature, 218
Tolerance, 13

Tool
life

Milling cam, 138

38

sine bar, 23

angles, 63

calculations, 61

Tools, form, 68
acceleration, 211

cutters, 113,

Torque to cause

feeds, 121

Trigonometrical addition formulae, 230

fluting angle, 115

Turning moment, 211

indexing, 125 et seq

power, 220
spiral,

Units SI metric, 3

134

Modulus of

Elasticity, 195

Vector diagrams of velocity, 162

243

244

INDEX

Vectors, 148

addition and subtraction, 148


applications, 151

Velocity ratio of a machine, 181

Whitworth thread, 48
Wire measurement of screw threads, 47
Work, 206

Worm gearing,

102

vectorial representation, 162

Vernier (gear tooth) calculations, 87

Young's Modulus, 195

'This is a

new edition with a new format, and completely revised to present its

the introductory chapter leads straight into the "new"


and includes some worked exercises with them so the reader is left in no
doubt as to what is to follow.
'The book divides neatly into two parts, the first dealing with machine tool
calculations, liberally spaced in the text and very clearly illustrated. Each
section is concluded by a number of problems to be solved by the student;
answers are supplied at the end of the text.
"The second part of the book deals with mechanic's principles, including
statics, dynamics and a few pages on heat, invariably a product of a
machine operation. The text concentrates its attention on the practical
aspects of the principles involved and rightly leaves the more academic considerations to other authors and other places.
'The author and his books on workshop technology have enjoyed great
popularity for 30 years, the books being standard works for many technical
material

in SI units;

units

easy to see the reason for the appeal, for this edition is neat
is not over-compressed. We can expect to see it
use for another 30 years.'
Marine Engineers Review

colleges:

it

is

and compact yet the material


in

Other books in SI units by Dr Chapman:


Elementary Workshop Calculations
Workshop Technology Part 1, fifth edition
Workshop Technology Part 2, fourth edition
Workshop Technology Part 3, third edition

EDWARD ARNOLD

2.50 net
ISBN:

7131 3260 4