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SENSATION AND PERCEPTION


SENSATION
- process by which our senses gather information and send it to the brain.
- passive process of bringing information from the outside world into the body and to
the brain.
- the process is passive in the sense that we do not have to be consciously engaging
in a sensing process.

SENSATION OCCURS:

Sensory organs absorb energy from a physical stimulus in the environment.


Sensory receptors convert this energy into neutral impulse and send them to the
brain.

SENSORY RECEPTORS:
- specialized cells that respond and detects stimulus.
`example:
Touch
Sound
Pressure
Position in space
Pain
Vibration
Light

3 TYPES OF SENSORY RECEPTORS:


Exteroceptors
- sensory information from outside of the body.
`example:
Visual
Auditory
Tactile
Gustatory
Olfactory

Interoceptors
- sensory information from inside the body.
- detect internal body sensation.
`example:
From the viscera (hollow organs)
Stomach pain, pinched spinal nerves
Deep skin inflammation.

Proprioceptors
- unconscious information received.
- detect body position in space and movement.
- located in the muscles, tendons and joints inside the body and semicircular canals
of the inner ear.

DIFFERENT KINDS OF RECEPTORS:


Cutaneous Receptors
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- respond to pain, temperature, pressure, vibration, and discriminative touch.


- location where superficial or deep layers of the skin, can be either exteroceptors
(superficial) or interoceptors (deep)

Muscle, Tendon and Joint Receptors


- detect muscle length, muscle tension, joint position, deep muscular and joint pain
and tendonitis.

Visceral Receptors
- respond to pressure and pain from the internal organs
- location where inside the body.

Location of Visual Receptors


- rods (light) and cones (color) of the retina.

Olfactory Receptors
- hair cells located in the mucous lining of nasal canal (smell).

Auditory Receptors
- hair cells of the cochlea (tones, noises, speech)

Gustatory Receptors
- taste buds on the tongue (sweet, bitter, sour, salty)

Tactile (skin)
- layers of the skin (cold, pain)

PERCEPTION
- the brain organizes the information and translates it into something meaningful.
- But what does "meaningful" mean? How do we know what information is important
and should be focused on?

Selective Attention
- process of discriminating between what is important
& is irrelevant (Seems redundant: selective-attention?), and is influenced by
motivation.
Example - students in class should focus on what the teachers are saying and the
overheads being presented. Students walking by the classroom may focus on people
in the room, who is the teacher, etc., and not the same thing the students in the
class.

Perceptual Expectancy
- how we perceive the world is a function of our past
experiences, culture, and biological makeup.For example, as an American, when I
look at a highway, I expect to see cars, trucks, etc, NOT airplanes. But someone from
a different country with different experiences and history may not have any idea
what to expect and thus be surprised when they see cars go driving by.
Example - you may look at a painting and not really understand the message the
artist is trying to convey. But, if someone tells you about it, you might begin to see
things in the painting that you were unable to see before.
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Psychophysics
- can be defined as, the study of how physical stimuli are translated into
psychological experience.

PSYCHOPHYSICS THRESHOLD:
Threshold
- a dividing line between what has detectable energy and what does not.
Example - many classrooms have automatic light sensors. When people have not
been in a room for a while, the lights go out. However, once someone walks into the
room, the lights go back on. For this to happen, the sensor has a threshold for motion
that must be crossed before it turns the lights back on. So, dust floating in the room
should not make the lights go on, but a person walking in should.

Absolute Threshold
Vision
- Candle 30 miles away.
Hearing
- tick-tock of watch 20 feet away.
Taste
- 1 teaspoon of sugar/ 2 gallons of water.
Smell
- 1 drop of parfum in 3 door apartment.
Touch
- Bee wings 1 cm away/ from our back
Difference Threshold
- the minimum amount of stimulus intensity change needed to produce a noticeable
change.
the greater the intensity (ex., weight) of a stimulus, the greater the change needed to
produce a noticeable change.
Example, when you pick up a 5 lb weight, and then a 10 pound weight, you can feel a
big difference between the two. However, when you pick up 100 lbs, and then 105
lbs, it is much more difficult to feel the difference.

Signal-Detection Theory
- detection of a stimulus involves some decision making process as well as a sensory
process. Additionally, both sensory and decision making processes are influenced by
many more factors than just intensity.

Noise
- how much outside interference exists.

Criterion
- the level of assurance that you decide must be met before you take action. Involves
higher mental processes. You set criterion based on expectations and consequences
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of inaccuracy.
Example - at a party, you order a pizza...you need to pay attention so that you will be
able to detect the appropriate signal (doorbell), especially since there is a lot of noise
at the party. But when you first order the pizza, you know it won't be there in 2
minutes, so you don't really pay attention for the doorbell. As the time for the pizza
to arrive approaches, however, your criterion changes...you become more focused on
the doorbell and less on extraneous noise.

Sensory Adaption
- the last concept refers to stimuli which has become redundant or remains
unchanged for an extended period of time. Once we adapt to the perfume or the
ticking of the clock, we stop recognizing it. This process of becoming less sensitive to
unchanging stimulus is referred to a sensory adaption, after all, if it doesnt change.

SIGHT/VISION
- the eye is the organ of vision. It has a complex structure consisting of a transparent
lens that focuses light on the retina. The retina is covered with two basic types of
light-sensitive cells-rods and cones.

Cons Cells
- sensitive to color and are located in the part of the retina called the fovea, where
the light is focused by the lens.

Rods Cells
- not sensitive to color, but have greater sensitivity to light than the cone cells. These
cells are located around the fovea and are responsible for peripheral vision and night
vision.
- the eye is connected to the brain through the optic nerve. Experiments have shown
that back to the bran maps the visual input from the eyes.

The visual system works on sensing and perceiving light waves. Light waves vary in
their length and amplitude:

Wave Length (also referred to as frequency, since the longer a wave, the less
often/quickly it occurs) - affects color perception (ex., red=approx 700, yellow approx
600)

Wave Amplitude (this is the size/height of the wave) - affects brightness perception.
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STRUCTURE OF THE EYE:


Cornea
- the round, transparent area that allows light to pass into the eye.

Lens
- the transparent structure that focuses light onto the retina.

Retina
- inner membrane of the eye that receives information about light using rods and
cones. The functioning of the retina is similar to the spinal cord - both act as a
highway for information to travel on.

Pupil
- opening at the center of the iris which controls the amount of light entering the eye.
Dilates and Constricts.

Rods & Cones


- many more rods (approximately 120 million) than cones (approx 6.4 million).
Cones
- visual receptor cells that are important in daylight vision and color
vision. The cones work well in daylight, but not in dim lighting. This is why it
is more difficult to see colors in low light.

Rods
- visual receptor cells that are important for night vision and peripheral
vision. Can only detect shades of gray.

Seeing In Color
- we can see many colors, but only have 3 types of cones that receive
information about color. We have cones that pick up light waves for red,
green, and blue.

COLOR VISION THEORIES:


Trichromatic Theory
- this theory indicates that we can receive 3 types of colors (red, green, and blue) and
that the cones vary the ratio of neural activity (Like a projection T.V.). The ratio of
each each color to the other then determines the exact color that we see.

Opponent-Process Theory
- color perception depends on the reception of pairs of antagonist colors. Each
receptor can only work with one color at a time so the opponent color in the pair is
blocked out. Pairs = red-green, blue-yellow, black- white (light-dark).

FACTS ABOUT SENSE OF SIGHT:


1. The eyes are made up of over 2 million moving parts and the eye muscles are the
most active muscle in the human body.. Most people blink every 2-10 seconds and
when we do blink we shut our eyes for around 0.3 seconds.
2. There are 3 types of colour-blindness:
Total colour blindness
- an inability to see one colour and an impairment, not loss, of normal
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colour vision.

Colour blindness
- also more common in males.

3. At birth your eyes are about 70% of their adult size, but your nose and ears never
stop growing.
4. The older we are the less tears we produce.
5. Your eyes begin to develop after 2 weeks of conception.

VISUAL DEFECTS:
Nearsightedness
- inability to see far objects.

Farsightedness
- inability to see near objects clearly.

Presbyopia or Old-sightedness
- a condition where in a person in unable to focus clearly on near objects.

AUDITION/HEARING
- the ear is the organ of hearing.

Sound waves
- are vibration in the air that are processed by the auditory system.
- measured by:
Amplitude: decibel
Pitch:
high-lowness determined by frequency measured by HERTZ:
fast = high; slow - low
Timbre:
complexity of sound
Knowing the basic structure of the ear is essential to understanding how hearing
work.

THREE PARTS OF EARS:


Internal/Inner Ear
- liquid-filled cavity hollowed out of the temporal bone that transforms sound
vibrations into nerve influxes to be interpreted by the brain.

Middle Ear
- air-filled cavity hollowed out of the temporal bone, it receives sounds from the

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external ear, amplifies them through the auricles and transmits them to the internal
ear.

External/Outer Ear
- visible portion of the ear enabling sounds to be collected and directed to the middle
ear through the acoustic meatus.

Hearing Loss
- can be categorized by which part of the auditory system is damaged.

BASIC TYPES OF HEARING LOSS:


Conductive Hearing Loss (CHL)
- occurs when sound is not conducted efficiently through the outer ear canal to the
eardrum and the tiny bones (ossicles) of the middle ear.
- usually involves a reduction in sound level or the ability to hear faint sounds.

Sensorineural Hearing Loss (SNHL)


- occurs when there is damage to the inner ear (cochlea), or to the nerve pathways
from the inner ear to the brain. Most of the time, SNHL cannot be medically or
surgically corrected.
- common types of permanent hearing loss.

Mixed Hearing Loss (MHL)


- the combination of conductive hearing loss and sensorineural hearing loss.

FACTS ABOUT HEARING:


1. Sitting close to loudspeakers at concerts (which can reach about 120 decibels) can
damage your hearing in just 7.5 minutes.
2. At the age of 65, one in three adults has some hearing loss; however, a majority of
the people who suffer from hearing loss are under age of 65.
3. Hearing loss is the third most common health problem in the United States.
4. Excessive noise exposure is the number one cause of hearing loss.
5. The bones in the middle ear (malleus, incus, and stapes) are the bodys smallest
bones. All three can fit together on the surface area of a penny.
6. 37% of children with hearing loss fail at least one grade.
7. The outer ear never stops growing throughout ones lifetime.
8. The middle ear is about the size of a M&M.
9. The inner ear is no longer than a pencil eraser in circumstance.
10. Not all living creatures hear with ears. Snakes use jawbones, fish respond to
pressure changes,and male mosquitoes use antennae.
11. The eardrum moves less than a billion of an inch in response to sound.
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12. In World War I parrots were kept on the Eiffel Tower in Paris because of their
remarkable sense of hearing. When the parrots heard enemy aircraft, they warned
everyone of the approaching danger before any human ear would hear it.
13. Sometimes if you have damage to your ears, your perception of taste may be off
because the nerves (called the Chorda Tympani) run through the ear and connect the
taste buds on the front of your tongue to your brain. Sometimes people who have
had ear surgery experience a change in their sense of taste, it does not mean that
hearing loss directly correlates to an inability to taste.
14. Ear infections are more common on children because of their developing immune
systems and difference between their Eustachian tubes (at more of a horizontal
angle) than those of adults.
15. Ear wax been useful to anthropologists for studying mankinds migratory
patterns.

SMELL/OLFACTION
- a chemical sense that occurs when chemicals in the air receptor cells in the nasal
cavities.

FACTS ABOUT SMELL:


1. Humans have 7 primary odours that help them determine objects and if your nose
is at its best you can tell the difference between a staggering 4,000 - 10,000 smells.
2. Humans can tell the difference between 10,000 different odors. But often is
difficult to name the odors.
3. As you get older your smell gets worse, so children are more likely to have better
sense of smell.
4. Everyone has a unique smell except for identical twin.
5. Taste is about 75% smell.
6. Dogs can be 10,000 more sensitive to odors than humans. Yet, a individual human
olfactory receptor is no less sensitive than a dogs.
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Olfactory Receptors
- smell (olfactory) receptors and taste receptors are chemoreceptors, which means
that chemicals dissolved the liquids stimulate them. Smell and taste function closely
together and aid in food selection because we usually smell food at the same time
we taste it.
- the lateral wall of the nasal cavity (cut in sagittal section) showing the olfactory
recess and olfactory bulb.
People who have a smell disorders either have a decrease in their ability to smell or
changes in the way they perceive odors.

Hyposmia
- is a reduced ability to detect odors.

Anosmia
- is the complete inability to detect odors. In rare cases, someone mya be born
without a sense of smell, a condition called congenital anosmia.

Parosmia
- is a change in the normal perception of odors, such as when the smell of something
familiar is distorted, or when something that normally smells pleasant now smell foul.

Phantosmia
- is the sensation of an odor that isnt there.

GUSTATION/TASTE
- happens when chemicals stimulate receptors in the tongue and throat, on the inside
of the chick, and on the roof the mouth.
- are inside taste buds, which in turn are inside little bumps on the skin called
papillae.
- have a short life span and are replaced about every ten days.

Umami
- the fifth taste.

Monosodium Glutamate (MSG)


- has an umami taste as do many protein-rich foods.
The 5 taste can actually be sensed by all parts of the tongue. Only the sides of the
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tongue are more sensitive that the middle overall. This is true of all castes - with one
exception: the back of our tongue is very sensitive to bitter tastes. This is apparently
to protect us so that we can spit out poisonous dor spoiled foods or substances
before they enter the throat and are swallowed.

PERCEPTION
PERCEPTION
- the primary process by which we obtain knowledge about the world we live in.
- it involves taking in of information, through the activity of our sense organs
responding to external stimulation (sensation), followed by process of information to
make sense of what we hear or the so called meaning.

Gestalt Psychology (Wertheimer, Koffka, Kohler)


- we perceive figures and forms as whole patterns that are more than the simple sum
of individual sensation.

Law of Pragnanz
- of all the several geometrically possible organizations, what will be perceived is the
best, simplest and most stable shape.

MAJOR 2 FUNCTIONS:
I. Localization
- determining where objects are.

SEGRAGATION OF OBJECTS:
Figure-ground Organization
- we see part of an image (the figure) as a solid, well-defined object
standing out against a less distinct background (ground) (fig. 01)

Ambiguous figure-ground relationships


- situations in which the figure and the ground reverse from time-totime.
FIGURE 01

Gestalt Principle of Grouping:


Proximity
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- objects near each other tend to be seen as a unit (fig. 02)


FIGURE 02

Similarity
- objects similar to each other tend to be seen as part of the same
pattern (fig. 03)
FIGURE 03

Continuity
- objects that form an unbroken contour tend to be grouped together
(fig. 04)
FIGURE 04

Closure
- when figure has a gap, we tend to perceive it as a closed,
complete figure (fig. 05)
FIGURE 05

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PERCEIVING DISTANCE (Depth Perception):

Monocular cues
- those that require the use of only one eye.

Relative size
- if an image contains an array of similar objects that differ in size,
we interpret the smaller objects as being far away. (fig. 06)
FIGURE 06

Relative height
- among similar objects, those that appear higher are perceived as
being farther away (fig. 07)
FIGURE 07

Superimposition
- of one objects is positioned so that it obstructs the view of another,
we perceive the overlapping objects as nearer (fig. 08)
FIGURE 08

Linear perspective
- when parallel lines seem to converge, they are perceived as
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vanishing in the distance (fig. 09)


FIGURE 09

Motion parallax
- refers to the relative movement of objects from different distances
from the observer. Like when traveling you will see nearby objects
moving quickly in the opposite direction, while more distant objects
move slowly.

PERCEIVING MOTION:

Stroboscopic motion
- illusion of movement produced by a rapid pattern of stimulation on
different parts of the retina. Like movies.

Induced motion
- movement of a large object induces the apparent movement of a
smaller stationary object. Like seeing the moon riding on the clouds.

Real motion
- the case in which an object is actually displaced on the space.

II. Recognition
- determining what objects are.

Pop-Out Effect
- easily seen (fig. 10)
FIGURE 10

Feature Analysis
- specific feature or characteristics of certain objects can be perceived as
a whole (fig. 11)
FIGURE 11
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CHRISSA

Effect Context:
Effect of Temporal Context
- what you see depends on the order in which you look at the
pictures (fig. 12)

FIGURE 12

Effect of Spatial Context


- surrounding symbols influence our perception (fig. 13)
FIGURE 13

Selective Attention
- the ability to focus on some bits of sensory information and ignore others.

PERCEPTUAL CONSTANCY:
- perceiving an objects as remaining relatively regardless of changes in lighting, the
position from which we view it, or its distance from us.

Shape Constancy
- the perceived shape of an object remains constant even though its
retinal image changes, as when the object moves (fig. 14)
FIGURE 14

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Location Constancy
- despite the fact that a series of changing images strike the retina as we
move, the positions of fixed objects appear to remain constant.

Light and Color Constancy


- depends on the relations among the intensities of light reflected from
the different objects (fig. 15)
FIGURE 15

Size Constancy
- as an object moves away from the perceiver, the retinal size gets
smaller but the perceived distance increases, and the two objects cancel
each other out resulting in constancy.

SLEEP
Electroencephalograph
- allowed scientist to study sleep in ways were not previously possible. During the
1950s a graduate student named Eugene Aserinsky used this tools to discover
what is known today as REM sleep.

TWO AMIN TYPES OF SLEEP:

Non-Rapid Eye Movement (NREM) sleep


- the quiet sleep

Rapid Eye Movement (REM) sleep


- the active sleep or paradoxical sleep

Beginnings of Sleep
- during the earliest phases of sleep, you are still relatively awake and alert.
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- the brain produces what are known as beta waves (small and fast). As the brain
begins to relax and slow down alpha waves (slower waves).

Hypnagogic hallucinations
- strange and extremely vivid sensations. Like falling, hearing someone call your
name.

Myoclonic jerk
- odd phenomenon, quite common. Like if you ever startled suddenly for seemingly
no reason at all.

STAGES OF SLEEP:
Stage 1
- cane be considered a transition period between wakefulness and sleep.
- the brain produces high amplitude theta waves, which are very slow brain waves.
- this period of sleep lasts only a brief time (around 5-10 minutes).
- if you awake someone during this stage, they might report that they werent really
sleep.

Stage 2
- lasts for approximately 20 minutes.
- the brain begins to produce bursts of rapid, rhythmic brain wave activity known as
sleep spindles.
- body temperature starts to decrease and heart rate begins to slow.

Stage 3
- deep, slow brain waves known as delta waves begin to emerge during stge 3
sleep.
- sometimes referred to as delta.
- during this stage, people become less responsive and noises and activity in the
environment may fail to generate a response.
- also acts as a transitional period between light sleep and a very deep sleep. Bedwetting and sleepwalking are most likely to occur at the end of this stage of sleep.

Stage 4
- most dreaming occurs, known as rapid eye movement (REM) sleep.
- REM sleep is characterized by eye movement, increased respiration rate and brain
activity.
- REM sleep is also referred to as paradoxical sleep because while the brain and other
body systems become more active, muscles become more relaxed.
- dreaming occurs due because of increased brain activity, ut voluntary muscles
become paralyzed.

The sequence of Sleep Stages


- it is important to realize, however, that sleep does not progress through these
stages in sequence.
- sleep begins in stage 1 and progresses into stages 2, and 3. After stage 3 sleep,
stage 2 sleep is repeated before entering REM sleep. Once REM sleep is over, the
body usually returns to stage 2 sleep. Sleep cycles through these stages
approximately four or five times throughout the night.
- on average, we enter the REM stage approximately 90 minutes after falling sleep.
The first cycle of REM sleep might last only a short amount of time, but each cycle
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becomes longer. REM sleep can last up to an hour as sleep progresses.

TOP 10 HEALTH BENEFITS OF A GOOD NIGHTS SLEEP:


(by Mark Stibich, Ph.D. Updated July 11, 2014)
1.

Sleep keep your heart healthy

- your heart will be healthier if you get between 7 and 9 hours of sleep each
night.
2.

Sleep may Prevent Cancer


- people working the late shift have a higher risk for breast and colon cancer.
- Melatonin
- a hormone that both makes us sleepy and is thought to protect against
cancer.
- appears to suppress the growth of tumors.
- be sure that your bedroom is dark to help your body produce the melatonin
it needs.

3.

Sleep Reduces Stress

4.

Sleep Reduces Inflammation

- the increase in stress hormones raises the level f inflammation in your body,
also creating more risk for heart-related conditions, as well as cancer and diabetes.
- Inflammation
- os thought to one of the causes of the deterioration of your body as you
age.
5.

Sleep Makes you More Alert


- a good nights sleep makes you feel energized and alert on the next day.

6.

Sleep Bolsters your Memory

- while your body may be resting, your brain is busy processing your day, making
connections between events, sensory input, feeling and memories.
- your dreams and deep sleep are important tome for your brain to make
memories and links. Getting more quality sleep will help you remember and process
things better.
7.

Sleep may Help you lose Weight

- researchers have also found that people who sleep less than seven hours per
night more likely to e overweight or obese.
- lack of sleep impacts the balance of hormones in the body that affect appetite.
The hormones ghrelin and leptin, important for the regulation of appetite, have been
found to be disrupted by lack of sleep.
8.

Naps Make you smarter

- napping during the day is not only an effective and refreshing alternative to
caffeine, it can also protect your health and make you more productive. A study of
24,000 Greek adults showed that people who napped several times a week had a
lower levels of stress.
- napping also improves memory, cognitive function and mood.
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18

Sleep may Reduce your Risk for Depression

- sleep impacts may of the chemicals in your body, including serotonin. People
with a deficiency in serotonin are more likely to suffer from depression. You can help
to prevent depression by making sure you are getting the right amount of sleep,
between 7 and 9 hours each night.
10.

Sleep Helps the Body Make Repairs

- sleep is a time for your body to repair damage caused by stress, ultraviolet rays
and other harmful exposures. Your cells produce more protein while you are sleeping
these protein molecules form the building blocks for cells, allowing them to repair
damage.

SLEEP DISORDERS:
Insomnia/Hypersomnia
- sleeplessness, is a sleep disorder in which there is an inability to fall asleep or to
stay asleep as long as desired.
- The main symptom of hypersomnia is excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), or
prolonged nighttime sleep.

Sleep Apnea
- a type of sleep disorder characterized by pauses in breathing or instances of shallow
or infrequent breathing during sleep.

Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS)


- also known as Willis-Ekbom disease (WED) or Wittmaack-Ekbom syndrome, is a
neurological disorder characterized by an irresistible urge to move one's body to stop
uncomfortable or odd sensations.

Narcolepsy
- also known as hypnolepsy, is a chronic neurological disorder involving the loss of
the brain's ability to regulate sleep-wake cycles normally.

Night terrors/Nightmare
- pavor nocturnus is a parasomnia or sleep disorder, causing feelings of terror or
dread, and typically occurs during the first hours of stage 3-4 non-rapid eye
movement (NREM) sleep.
- an unpleasant dream that can cause a strong emotional response from the mind,
typically fear or horror but also despair,anxiety and great sadness.

Sleep walking/Somnambulism
- a sleep disorder belonging to the parasomnia family.

Sleep talking/Somniloquy
- a parasomnia that refers to talking aloud while asleep.

Bedwetting
- Nocturnal enuresis or nighttime urinary incontinence. is involuntary
urinationwhile asleep after the age at which bladder control usually occurs.

Jet Lag
- medically referred to as desynchronosis and rarely as circadian dysrhythmia, is a
physiological condition which results from alterations to the body's circadian
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rhythms resulting from rapid long-distance transmeridian (eastwest or westeast)


travel on high-speed aircraft.

Bruxism
- is the excessive grinding of the teeth and/or excessive clenching of the jaw.[1] It is
an oral parafunctional activity.

MOTIVATION:
- is literally the desire to do things, it is the process that initiates, guides and
maintains goal-oriented behaviors.

Instinct
- an innate biological pattern of behavior that is assumed throughout a species.

Need
- a deprivation that energizes the drive to eliminate or reduce the deprivation.

Drive
- an aroused state that occurs because of a physical need.

Incentive Theory of Motivation


- suggest that people are motivated to do things because of external rewards.

Drive Theory of Motivation


- people are motivated to take certain action in order to reduce the internal tension
that is caused by unmet needs.

Arousal Theory of Motivation


- people take certain actions to either decrease or increase levels of arousal.
- people are motivated to maintain an optimal level of arousal although this level can
vary based on the individual or the situation.

Humanistic Theory of Motivation


- lower level needs must be satisfied first before the other higher needs be achieved.

MASLOWS HIERARCHY OF NEEDS


Responsibility Demands Sacrifice
- Princess Bubblegum

Code: A29
School year: 2014 - 2015

Chrissa Mae Tumaliuan Catindoy


AB Legal Management 2

20

According to Abraham Maslow, nobody has ever reached the peak of his pyramid.
We all may strive for it and some may even get close, but no one has achieved full
self-actualization.

Self-actualization
- means a complete understanding of who you are a sense of completeness of being
the best person you could possibly be.

Aldefers ERG Theory


- Aldefer agrees to Maslow that individual needs are arranged in hierarchy. His needs
include

Existence
- needs satisfied by such factors as food, air, water, pay, working conditions.

Relatedness
- needs satisfied by meaningful social and interpersonal relationships.

Growth
- needs satisfied by making creative or productive contributions.

Emotion
- comes from the Latin word emovere meaning to move out
- subjective, conscious experience that is characterized primarily by
psychophysiological.
- refers to a state involving thoughts, physiological changes, and outward expression
or behavior.

THEORIES OF EMOTION:
James-Lange Theory
- argues that an event causes physiological arousal first and then we interpret this
arousal. Only after our interpretation of the arousal can we experience emotion.
Example: youre walking down a dark alley late at night. You hear footsteps behind
you and you begin to tremble, your heart beats faster, and your breathing deepens.
You notice these physiological changes and interpret them as your bodys preparation
for a fearful situation. You then experience fear.

Cannon-Bard Theory
- argues that we experience physiological arousal and emotional at the same time,
but gives no attention to the role of thoughts or outward behavior.
Example: youre walking down a dark alley late at night. You hear footsteps behind
you and you begin to tremble, your heart beats faster, and your breathing deepens.
At the same time these physiological changes occur you also experience the emotion
of fear.

Schachter-Signer Theory
- according to this theory , an event causes physiological arousal first. You must then
identify a reason for this arousal and then you are able to experience and label the
emotion.
Example: youre walking down a dark alley late at night. You hear footsteps behind
you and you begin to tremble, your heart beats faster, and your breathing deepens.
Responsibility Demands Sacrifice
- Princess Bubblegum

Code: A29
School year: 2014 - 2015

Chrissa Mae Tumaliuan Catindoy


AB Legal Management 2

21

Upon nothing this arousal you realize that is comes from the fact that you are walking
down a dark alley by yourself. This behavior is dangerous and therefore you feel the
emotion of fear.

Lazarus Theory
- states that a thought must come before any emotion or physiological arousal. In
other words, you must think about your situation before you can experience an
emotion.
Example: you are walking down a dark alley late at night. You hear footsteps behind
you and you think it may be a murder so you begin to tremble, your heart beats
faster, and you breathing deepens and at the same time experience fear.

Facial Feedback Theory


- according to the facial feedback theory, emotion is the experience of changes in our
facial muscles
Example: youre walking down a dark alley late at night. You hear footsteps behind
you and your eyes widen, your teeth clench and your brain interprets these changes
as the expression of fear. Therefore you experience the emotion of fear.

THEORIES OF DREAMS:
Freud
- unconscious wish fulfillment theory.

Reverse Learning Theory


- send and receive; filter

Dreams for Survival


Activation Synthesis
- we need to dream to organize the information.

EXTRASENSORY PERCEPTION (ESP):


- psi phenomena a paranormal psychology.

Telepathy
- communicate without talking.

Clairvoyance
- limited to seeing.

Clairaudience
- limited to hearing.

Precognition
- ability to see the future.

Retrocognition
- able to see the past.

Mediumship
- ability of person possess by spirits.
Responsibility Demands Sacrifice
- Princess Bubblegum

Code: A29
School year: 2014 - 2015

Chrissa Mae Tumaliuan Catindoy


AB Legal Management 2

22

Psychometry
- ability of a person to know the other person belongings.

Telekinesis
- able to move something using your mind.

Responsibility Demands Sacrifice


- Princess Bubblegum

Code: A29
School year: 2014 - 2015