ASIAN JOURNAL OF CIVIL ENGINEERING (BUILDING AND HOUSING) VOL. 6, NOS. 12 (2005) PAGES 2133
DESIGN OF A DOUBLE CORBEL USING THE STRUTANDTIE METHOD
Bhupinder Singh ^{∗}^{1} , Yaghoub Mohammadi ^{2} and S.K. Kaushik ^{3} ^{1} Department of Civil Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Jalandhar144 011, India, ^{2} Department of Civil Engineering, University of Mohaghegh Ardebili, Ardebil, Iran, ^{3} Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Roorkee, Roorkee247 667, India
ABSTRACT
The strutandtie method can be used for the design of regions of structures where the basic
assumptions of flexure theory, namely plane sections remaining plane before and after
bending, are not applicable. Such regions occur near force discontinuities arising from
concentrated forces or reactions and near geometric discontinuities such as abrupt changes
in cross section etc. The strutandtie method of design is based on the assumption that
appropriate regions in concrete structures can be analysed and designed using hypothetical
pinjointed trusses consisting of struts and ties connected at nodes. Although IS 456:2000
recommends the strutandtie method for design of corbels, no guidelines are given for
determination of concrete strut and node dimensions and for the allowable stresses for
design. The ACI Code 31802 on the other hand, gives explicit and practical
recommendations related to the design of structural members using the strutandtie method.
To amplify the application of these recommendations to the design of structural concrete a
complete example on the analysis and design of a double corbel using the strutandtie
method has been presented.
Keywords: corbel, strut, tie, node, truss, detailing
LIST OF NOTATIONS
P _{v} = Design Vertical Load on Corbel
P _{h} = Design Horizontal Load on Corbel
f _{c}_{k} = Characteristic Cube Compressive Strength of Concrete
’
f _{c} = Specified Cylinder Compressive Strength of Concrete f _{y} = Specified Yield Strength of Reinforcement f _{c}_{u} = Effective Compressive Strength of Concrete in a Strut or a Nodal Zone β _{n} = Factor whose values are specified in Clauses A.5.2.1 through A.5.2.3 of ACI 31802
^{∗} Emailaddress of the corresponding author: singhb@nitj.ac.in
22 Bhupinder Singh, Yaghoub Mohammadi and S.K. Kaushik
Φ = Strength Reduction Factor = Shear Span, Distance between Concentrated Load and Face of Support a 

d 
= Distance from Extreme Compression Fibre to Centroid of Longitudinal Tension Reinforcement 
D 
= Overall Depth of Corbel at Column face 
h = Overall Thickness of Member W _{s} = Width of Strut b = Outofplane Dimension of Corbel A _{s}_{t} = Area of Tension Reinforcement A _{s}_{t} min. = Required Minimum Area of Tension Reinforcement
β _{s} = Factor whose values are specified in Clauses A.3.2.1 through A.3.2.4 of ACI 31802 A _{H} = Area of Shear Reinforcement Parallel to Flexural Tension Reinforcement A _{n} = Area of Reinforcement in Bracket or Corbel Resisting Tensile Force N
uc
N _{u}_{c} = Tension Force Applied at Top of Bracket or Corbel
A _{s}_{i} = Area of Surface Reinforcement in the i ^{t}^{h} layer crossing a strut
S _{i} = Spacing of Reinforcement in the i ^{t}^{h} layer Adjacent to the Surface of the Member
γ _{i} = Angle Between the Axis of a Strut and the Bars in the i
th
Crossing the Stru
layer of Reinforcement
INTRODUCTION
The corbel geometry and the loads for which the corbel has to be designed are shown in Figure
1. The principal dimensions of the corbel may not be known a priori and the fixing of such
dimensions is explained later on. The structure under consideration is a region of discontinuity
since it encompasses abrupt changes in geometry and is in the vicinity of concentrated forces.
The conventional flexure theory is not applicable to regions of discontinuities and hence the
application of the strutandtie method for the design of the corbel is justified. The structure
will be designed as per recommendations of AppendixA of ACI 31802, Ref. [1] (herein
after referred to as the Code) and other applicable clauses of the same Code.
LOADS AND MATERIAL PROPERTIES
Design vertical load on each corbel= P
v = 325 kN (Figure 1)
Design horizontal load on each corbel = P
h
= 75 kN (Figure 1)
Design axial load on column = 950 kN (Figure 1)
Characteristic cube compressive strength of concrete (assumed) = f _{c}_{k} = 25 MPa
Take cylinder compressive strength of concrete
= f’ _{c} = 0.80 f _{c}_{k} = 20 MPa
Yield strength (0.2% proof stress) of reinforcement bars = f _{y} = 415 Mpa
DESIGN OF BEARING PLATES
The sizes of the bearing plates located at the loading points have to be determined. The
DESIGN OF A DOUBLE CORBEL USING THE STRUTANDTIE METHOD ...
23
bearing plates at the load locations, as will be seen later on, are resting on the underlying CCT (CompressionCompressionTension) nodes of the strutandtie model. The applied load on the bearing plates exerts a bearing stress on a ‘face’ of the hypothetical nodal zone, which is assumed to enclose the CCT node. This bearing stress should be within Code specified limits for CCT nodes.
Figure 1. Loads on the double corbel
Assume the size of the bearing plates as 300 x 200 mm, the longer dimension being along
the plane of the corbel.
Hence, the bearing stress in concrete at loading points =
325
×
10
3
300
×
200
= 5.42 MPa
As per Clause
A.5.2
eq.
A8
^{[}^{1}^{]} ,
the
effective compressive
stress
at the
face
of
node=f _{c}_{u} =0.85β _{n} f′ _{c} .
The values of the parameter
β n
is specified in Clauses A.5.2.1, A.5.2.2 and A.5.2.3 ^{[}^{1}^{]} .
a
For the CCT node which anchors one tie (the ‘T’ in CCT), Clause A.5.2.2 ^{[}^{1}^{]} is applicable
wherein β _{n} = 0.80.
Therefore,
f cu
= 0.85 x 0.80 x 20 = 13.60 MPa
The allowable bearing stress is equal to
Φf cu
where Φ is the strength reduction factor ^{[}^{1}^{]} .
As per Clause 9.3.2.6
[1]
, for strutandtie models, Φ= 0.75
Hence, Φf _{c}_{u}
= 0.75 x 13.60 =10.20 > 5.42 MPa, ok.
Hence, the assumed size of the bearing plates is adequate.
SELECTION OF CORBEL DIMENSIONS
As per Clause 11.9.1 of Ref. [1], for application of the recommendations related to the strut andtie method given in AppendixA of Ref. [1] for the design of corbels, the spantodepth
24 Bhupinder Singh, Yaghoub Mohammadi and S.K. Kaushik
a
ratio of the corbel, d
(Figure 2), should be less than 2. Further, Clause 11.9.2 of Ref. [1]
requires the corbel depth beyond the bearing area to be at least 0.5 d.
Figure 2. Structural action of a corbel
Select overall depth of corbel at column face, D, equal to 500 mm. Select a depth of 250
mm at the free end of the corbel.
Allow a clearance of 100 mm from the outer edge of the bearing plate to the free edge of
the corbel. The selected dimensions of the double corbel are presented in Figure 3.
Figure 3. Selected dimensions of the double corbel
DESIGN OF A DOUBLE CORBEL USING THE STRUTANDTIE METHOD ...
25
SELECTION OF STRUTANDTIE MODEL
Multiple strutandtie models can be developed for a single load case. Some options for the double corbel being designed are shown in Figure 4. The moot question at this stage is how to select the optimal model. Usually, that model is the best in which the loads follow the path with the least force and the least deformation [2]. At the same time, since ties are more deformable than concrete struts, the model with the least number and the shortest ties is likely the best. This requirement can be quantified as ΣF _{I} l _{i} ε _{m}_{i} = minimum, where F _{i} is the
force in the strut or tie, l _{i} is the length of the member i and ε _{m}_{i} is the mean strain in member i Ref. [2]. In addition to the above requirements, the selected strutandtie model should be such that the angle between the axes of the struts and ties acting at a node should be as large as possible so as to mitigate possible cracking and to avoid incompatibilities due to
shortening of the struts and lengthening of the ties occurring in almost the same directions.
The ACI Code of Ref. [1], recommends that the angle between the axes of any strut and tie
entering a single node shall not be less than 25º.
In light of the above recommendations, the strutandtie model of Figure 4 (a) is selected
for modeling the double corbel.
Figure 4. Strut and tie models for a double corbel
26 Bhupinder Singh, Yaghoub Mohammadi and S.K. Kaushik
DETERMINATION OF TRUSS FORCES
The forces in the members of the strutandtie model are determined from conditions of static equilibrium. The location and orientation of the struts and ties is defined by the position of the nodes. The selected strutandtie model for the double corbel is shown in
Figure 5. The center of the top horizontal tie BC (Figure 5), is assumed to be at a distance of
75 mm from the top of the corbel. Since the tie capacity is assumed to be furnished
exclusively by the reinforcement bars, the assumed cover takes care of requirements for clear cover to the tie reinforcement bars and for the provision, if required, for two layers of reinforcement bars for the tie BC. Like wise, all ties are assumed to have an effective cover of 75 mm.
Figure 5. Selected strut and tie model for the double corbel
Hence, d = 500 –75 = 425 mm.
Therefore,
a
d
=
200 = 0.47 < 2, ok ..
425
The strut AD is assumed to lie on an imaginary horizontal line running through the point
of intersection of the sloping face of the corbel and the vertical face of the column.
As shown in Figure 5, the column axial load of 950 kN is resolved into two equal loads
of 475 kN each acting in line with strut AG and DH respectively. The position of the centerline of the strut AE can be found by calculating the width
w
s
of strut AE (Figure 5). Let F _{A}_{E} be the required compressive force in strut AE. As per Clause A.3.1 of Ref. [1],
the nominal compressive strength of a strut = F _{n}_{s} = Φf _{c}_{u} A _{c} , where
A
C is the crosssectional
DESIGN OF A DOUBLE CORBEL USING THE STRUTANDTIE METHOD ...
27
area at one end of the strut and f _{c}_{u} is the effective compressive strength of concrete in the strut. As per Clause A.3.2 eq. A3 ^{[}^{1}^{]} , f _{c}_{u} = 0.85β _{s} f _{c} . Assuming strut AE to have a uniform crosssectional area (prismatic strut), the value of β _{s} as per Clause A.3.2.1 of Ref. [1], is equal to 1.0. A _{C} = w _{s} b, where b is the outofplane dimension of the corbel and is equal to 350 mm in this case.
Hence, F _{A}_{E} = 0.75 x 0.85 x 1.0 x 20 x 350 x
w
s
By
inspection of the conditions of loading symmetry
(i)
in Figure
5,
it
can be easily
determined from conditions of equilibrium that the force in the strut
AE=F _{A}_{E} =
^{9}^{5}^{0} +
2
325 =800 kN
Substituting for F _{A}_{E} in (i) and solving, gives
w = 179.27, say 180 mm.
s
Hence, the centerline of the strut AE and the center of node A are located at
^{1}^{8}^{0}
2
mm from the vertical face of the column.
= 90
Therefore, the geometry of the strutandtie model is fixed.
The forces in all the members of the strutandtie model are determined from conditions of
static equilibrium and are summarized in Table 1 and also illustrated in Figure 6.
Figure 6. Computed forces in the members of the strutandtie model
28 Bhupinder Singh, Yaghoub Mohammadi and S.K. Kaushik
Table 1. Computed truss forces
Member
AB = CD
BC
AD
AE = DF
AG = DH
Force (kN)
+386.77
 284.68
+221.84
+800
+475
+Compression, Tension
DESIGN OF TIES
The capacity for tie BC is furnished by steel reinforcement and concrete is not assumed to
carry any tensile loads.
The area of reinforcement required for tie BC is equal to A
st
=
F
BC
σ
Y
, where F _{B}_{C} is the
tensile force in tie BC and σ _{y} is the permissible tensile stress in the steel reinforcement and
is equal to Φf _{y}
Φ f
y
where Φ is the strength reduction factor for the reinforcement yield
stress f _{y} f and is taken as 0.75 as per recommendations of Clause 9.3.2.6 of Ref. [1].
y
Therefore, A _{s}_{t} =
284.68
×
10 ^{3}
0.75
×
415
= 914.63 mm ^{2}
As per Clause 11.9.5 ^{[}^{1}^{]} , the required minimum area of tensile reinforcement =
'
0.04 f
c
f
y
bd
= 0.04
20
415
350
×
425
= 286.74 mm
2 < 914.63 mm ^{2} , ok.
Clause A.4.2 of Ref. [1] requires tie reinforcement to be distributed approximately
uniformly over the width of the tie. This may entail furnishing the tie reinforcement in
several layers rather than concentrating the rebars in a section normal to the plane of the
member being designed, as is usually done in the case of beams.
Provide 6 bars of 16 mm diameter in two layers of 3 bars each as tie reinforcement.
Area of steel provided = 6 x 201 = 1206 > 914.63 mm ^{2} , ok.
CHECK ON NODAL ZONES AND ANCHORAGES
The nodal zones of interest are at nodes A, B, C and D. The dimensions of the nodal zones
have to be such that the stresses acting on the faces of the nodal zones are within permissible
limits.
The width
w of strut AE was so determined that the stresses in the strut are within
s
permissible limits. Strut AE bears on one face of nodal zone A and Appendix1 of Ref. [1] suggests that the faces of nodal zones loaded in compression shall have the same widths as that of the ends of the struts bearing on them. In consequence, the stresses in nodal zone A (and D) are deemed to be within permissible limits.
DESIGN OF A DOUBLE CORBEL USING THE STRUTANDTIE METHOD ...
29
Therefore, only nodal zones B (and C) need to be checked. Nodal zone B encompasses a CCT node. If any of the forces acting on a node is tensile, the required minimum width of a side of the nodal zone containing such a node is calculated from the width of a hypothetical bearing plate anchoring one end of the tie which is assumed to exert a uniform bearing pressure on the back side of the nodal zone, Figure 7. The width of the hypothetical bearing plate in turn is equal to the width of the tie anchored in the node.
Figure 7. Tie width in a CCT node
The permissible bearing pressure for a CCT node has already been computed as = 10.20 MPa
Φ f
cu
=
Therefore, the required width of the tie to be anchored in the CCT node =
284.68
×
10 ^{3}
10.20
×
350
= 79.74 mm
F
BC
=
Φ f
cu
b
Available tie width = 75 x 2 = 150 > 79.74 mm, ok.
To provide positive anchorage to tie BC, weld the six 16 mm bars to a steel angle ISA
150 x 150 x12 located at the free end of the corbel, as shown in Figure 8.
CHECK ON STRUTS
The check on struts involves determination of strut widths required to shoulder the computed strut forces and to determine whether the required strut widths will fit in the geometry of the structure.
30 Bhupinder Singh, Yaghoub Mohammadi and S.K. Kaushik
Figure 8. Strut and tie dimensions
Consider strut AD
The effective compressive strength of strut AD =
Φf cu
, where f _{c}_{u} = 0.85β _{s} f _{c} .
Strut AD is expected to have a uniform crosssectional area throughout its length
(prismatic strut). For such struts, as per Clause A.3.2.1
[1]
, the parameter β _{s} =1.0.
Therefore, required width of strut AD =
F
AD
Φ f
cu
b
Select a width of 100 mm for strut AD. It
= 
221.84 
× 10 ^{3} 
= 49.71 mm. 

0.75 
× 
0.85 
× 
1 × 
20 
× 
350 

can be 
verified that 
this 
width can be 
accommodated in the geometry of the structure, Figure 8.
Consider struts AE and DF
The required widths of struts AE and DF have already been calculated as 180 mm each and
it can be verified that this width can be accommodated in the geometry of the structure,
Figure 8.
Consider struts AG and DH
The effective compressive strength of strut AG = Φf _{c}_{u} , where f _{c}_{u} = 0.85β _{s} f′ _{c} .
Strut AG is expected to be a bottleshaped strut as the width of the compressed concrete
in the strut at its midlength can spread laterally. If no transverse crack control reinforcement to resist the bursting forces is provided in this strut then as per recommendations of Clause
A.3.2.2 ^{[}^{1}^{]} , β _{s} = 0.60.
Therefore, required width of struts AG (and DH)=
F
AG
Φ f
cu
b
=
475
×
10 ^{3}
0.75
×
0.85
×
0.60
×
20
×
350
DESIGN OF A DOUBLE CORBEL USING THE STRUTANDTIE METHOD ...
31
= 177.40 mm. Select a width of 180 mm for each of the struts AG and DH such that their widths are also equal to the widths of the underlying struts AE and DF respectively. It can be verified that these widths can be accommodated in the geometry of the structure, Figure 8.
Consider struts AB and CD
The effective compressive strength of struts AB and CD = Φf _{c}_{u} , where f _{c}_{u} = 0.85β _{s} f′ _{c} . Struts AB and CD are nonprismatic and assuming that the required transverse crack
control reinforcement is provided in them, the parameter β _{s} as per recommendations of Clause A.3.2.2 ^{[}^{1}^{]} can be taken equal to 0.75.
Therefore, required width of strut AB (and CD) =
F
AB
Φ f
cu
b
386.77
×
10 ^{3}
=
0.75
×
0.85
×
0.75
×
20
×
350
= 115.56 mm.
The above required strut width is compared with the available strut width at the smaller
end of the strut AB. A perusal of the geometry of strut AB in Figure 8 reveals the width of
the smaller end of the strut to be 147 mm> 115.56 mm. Hence, the available strut width is
adequate.
All the strut widths fit within the geometry of the corbel and thus the proposed strutand
tie model is acceptable.
CRACK CONTROL REINFORCEMENT
For adequate crack control in the vicinity of a tie, Clause 11.9.4 of Ref. [1] requires the
provision of reinforcement in the form of horizontal stirrups, the plane of these stirrups
being parallel to the reinforcement in the tie. The Clause further specifies this crack control
reinforcement to be distributed uniformly within
say 280 mm) of the corbel adjacent to the tie BC.
3 ^{2} of the effective depth (
2
×
425
=
283.3
,
3
As per Clause 11.9.4 of Ref. [1], the area of these horizontal stirrups must not be less
than A _{h} = 0.5 (A _{s}_{t} – A _{n} ), where A _{n} is the reinforcement area required to resist the horizontal load at the bearings and A _{s}_{t} is the reinforcement provided in the tie BC.
Therefore, A _{h} = 0.5
1206 −
75
×
10
3
0.85
×
415
= 496.69 mm ^{2}
Provide 4 numbers of 10 mm diameter two legged horizontal stirrups within 280 mm
from the top edge of the corbel at an average spacing of
^{2}^{8}^{0} = 93.33 mm, say 90 mm c/c.
3
Area of stirrups provided = 628.31 > 496.69 mm ^{2} , ok. Since β _{s} has been assumed as 0.75 while computing the strength of struts AB and CD, confining reinforcement is required for these struts to take care of the transverse tensile stresses. According to Clause A.3.3.1 of Ref. [1], for concrete strengths less than 42 MPa, the requirement of confining reinforcement shall be deemed to be satisfied if the axis of the
32 Bhupinder Singh, Yaghoub Mohammadi and S.K. Kaushik
strut
under
relationship:
consideration
is
crossed
by
reinforcement
that
satisfies
the
following
A
si
bs
i
sin γ
i
≥
0.0030
where
A
si
is the total area of reinforcement at a spacing
s
i
making an angle of
axis of the strut, γ
i not being less than 40°.
γ
i
to the
For this double corbel, the crack control reinforcement provided above crosses the axis of the struts AB and CD at an angle of 55° (Figure 8).
Hence, _{∑}
A
^{s}^{i} sin
bs
i
^{γ} i
=
628.31
350
×
90
sin 55
° = 0.016 > 0.003, ok.
Therefore, the provided reinforcement serves the purpose of crack control as well as
confinement.
Also provide three numbers of 12 mm diameter framing bars in the double corbel.
The detailing of reinforcement in the double corbel is presented in Figure 9.
Figure 9. Detailing of reinforcement in the double corbel
Acknowledgement: Generous assistance has been derived from ACI SP208 of Ref. [3] while preparing this manuscript which is gratefully acknowledged
DESIGN OF A DOUBLE CORBEL USING THE STRUTANDTIE METHOD ...
REFERENCES
33
1. ACI 31802, “Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 31802) and Commentary (ACI 318R02) “, American Concrete Institute, Michigan, USA, 2002, 443 pp.
2. Schlaich, J., Schafer, K. and Jennewin, M., “Toward a Consistent Design of Structural Concrete”, PCI Journal, MayJune 1987, pp. 75146.
3. SP208, “Examples for the Design of Structural Concrete with StrutandTie Models”, American Concrete Institute, Michigan, USA, 2003, 242 pp.
Viel mehr als nur Dokumente.
Entdecken, was Scribd alles zu bieten hat, inklusive Bücher und Hörbücher von großen Verlagen.
Jederzeit kündbar.