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ASIAN JOURNAL OF CIVIL ENGINEERING (BUILDING AND HOUSING) VOL. 6, NOS. 1-2 (2005) PAGES 21-33

DESIGN OF A DOUBLE CORBEL USING THE STRUT-AND-TIE METHOD

Bhupinder Singh 1 , Yaghoub Mohammadi 2 and S.K. Kaushik 3 1 Department of Civil Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Jalandhar-144 011, India, 2 Department of Civil Engineering, University of Mohaghegh Ardebili, Ardebil, Iran, 3 Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Roorkee, Roorkee-247 667, India

ABSTRACT

The strut-and-tie method can be used for the design of regions of structures where the basic

assumptions of flexure theory, namely plane sections remaining plane before and after

bending, are not applicable. Such regions occur near force discontinuities arising from

concentrated forces or reactions and near geometric discontinuities such as abrupt changes

in cross section etc. The strut-and-tie method of design is based on the assumption that

appropriate regions in concrete structures can be analysed and designed using hypothetical

pin-jointed trusses consisting of struts and ties connected at nodes. Although IS 456:2000

recommends the strut-and-tie method for design of corbels, no guidelines are given for

determination of concrete strut and node dimensions and for the allowable stresses for

design. The ACI Code 318-02 on the other hand, gives explicit and practical

recommendations related to the design of structural members using the strut-and-tie method.

To amplify the application of these recommendations to the design of structural concrete a

complete example on the analysis and design of a double corbel using the strut-and-tie

method has been presented.

Keywords: corbel, strut, tie, node, truss, detailing

LIST OF NOTATIONS

P v = Design Vertical Load on Corbel

P h = Design Horizontal Load on Corbel

f ck = Characteristic Cube Compressive Strength of Concrete

f c = Specified Cylinder Compressive Strength of Concrete f y = Specified Yield Strength of Reinforcement f cu = Effective Compressive Strength of Concrete in a Strut or a Nodal Zone β n = Factor whose values are specified in Clauses A.5.2.1 through A.5.2.3 of ACI 318-02

Email-address of the corresponding author: singhb@nitj.ac.in

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  • 22 Bhupinder Singh, Yaghoub Mohammadi and S.K. Kaushik

Φ = Strength Reduction Factor = Shear Span, Distance between Concentrated Load and Face of Support

a

d

= Distance from Extreme Compression Fibre to Centroid of Longitudinal Tension Reinforcement

D

= Overall Depth of Corbel at Column face

h = Overall Thickness of Member W s = Width of Strut b = Out-of-plane Dimension of Corbel A st = Area of Tension Reinforcement A st min. = Required Minimum Area of Tension Reinforcement

β s = Factor whose values are specified in Clauses A.3.2.1 through A.3.2.4 of ACI 318-02 A H = Area of Shear Reinforcement Parallel to Flexural Tension Reinforcement A n = Area of Reinforcement in Bracket or Corbel Resisting Tensile Force N

uc

N uc = Tension Force Applied at Top of Bracket or Corbel

A si = Area of Surface Reinforcement in the i th layer crossing a strut

S i = Spacing of Reinforcement in the i th layer Adjacent to the Surface of the Member

γ i = Angle Between the Axis of a Strut and the Bars in the i

th

Crossing the Stru

layer of Reinforcement

INTRODUCTION

The corbel geometry and the loads for which the corbel has to be designed are shown in Figure

1. The principal dimensions of the corbel may not be known a priori and the fixing of such

dimensions is explained later on. The structure under consideration is a region of discontinuity

since it encompasses abrupt changes in geometry and is in the vicinity of concentrated forces.

The conventional flexure theory is not applicable to regions of discontinuities and hence the

application of the strut-and-tie method for the design of the corbel is justified. The structure

will be designed as per recommendations of Appendix-A of ACI 318-02, Ref. [1] (here-in-

after referred to as the Code) and other applicable clauses of the same Code.

LOADS AND MATERIAL PROPERTIES

Design vertical load on each corbel= P

  • v = 325 kN (Figure 1)

Design horizontal load on each corbel = P

h

= 75 kN (Figure 1)

Design axial load on column = 950 kN (Figure 1)

Characteristic cube compressive strength of concrete (assumed) = f ck = 25 MPa

Take cylinder compressive strength of concrete

= f’ c = 0.80 f ck = 20 MPa

Yield strength (0.2% proof stress) of reinforcement bars = f y = 415 Mpa

DESIGN OF BEARING PLATES

The sizes of the bearing plates located at the loading points have to be determined. The

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DESIGN OF A DOUBLE CORBEL USING THE STRUT-AND-TIE METHOD ...

23

bearing plates at the load locations, as will be seen later on, are resting on the underlying CCT (Compression-Compression-Tension) nodes of the strut-and-tie model. The applied load on the bearing plates exerts a bearing stress on a ‘face’ of the hypothetical nodal zone, which is assumed to enclose the CCT node. This bearing stress should be within Code specified limits for CCT nodes.

DESIGN OF A DOUBLE CORBEL USING THE STRUT-AND-TIE METHOD ... 23 bearing plates at the load

Figure 1. Loads on the double corbel

Assume the size of the bearing plates as 300 x 200 mm, the longer dimension being along

the plane of the corbel.

Hence, the bearing stress in concrete at loading points =

325

×

10

3

300

×

200

= 5.42 MPa

As per Clause

A.5.2

eq.

A-8

[1] ,

the

effective compressive

stress

at the

face

of

node=f cu =0.85β n fc .

The values of the parameter

β n

is specified in Clauses A.5.2.1, A.5.2.2 and A.5.2.3 [1] .

a

For the CCT node which anchors one tie (the ‘T’ in CCT), Clause A.5.2.2 [1] is applicable

wherein β n = 0.80.

Therefore,

f cu

= 0.85 x 0.80 x 20 = 13.60 MPa

The allowable bearing stress is equal to

Φf cu

where Φ is the strength reduction factor [1] .

As per Clause 9.3.2.6

[1]

, for strut-and-tie models, Φ= 0.75

Hence, Φf cu

= 0.75 x 13.60 =10.20 > 5.42 MPa, ok.

Hence, the assumed size of the bearing plates is adequate.

SELECTION OF CORBEL DIMENSIONS

As per Clause 11.9.1 of Ref. [1], for application of the recommendations related to the strut- and-tie method given in Appendix-A of Ref. [1] for the design of corbels, the span-to-depth

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  • 24 Bhupinder Singh, Yaghoub Mohammadi and S.K. Kaushik

a

ratio of the corbel, d

(Figure 2), should be less than 2. Further, Clause 11.9.2 of Ref. [1]

requires the corbel depth beyond the bearing area to be at least 0.5 d.

24 Bhupinder Singh, Yaghoub Mohammadi and S.K. Kaushik a ratio of the corbel, d (Figure 2),

Figure 2. Structural action of a corbel

Select overall depth of corbel at column face, D, equal to 500 mm. Select a depth of 250

mm at the free end of the corbel.

Allow a clearance of 100 mm from the outer edge of the bearing plate to the free edge of

the corbel. The selected dimensions of the double corbel are presented in Figure 3.

24 Bhupinder Singh, Yaghoub Mohammadi and S.K. Kaushik a ratio of the corbel, d (Figure 2),

Figure 3. Selected dimensions of the double corbel

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DESIGN OF A DOUBLE CORBEL USING THE STRUT-AND-TIE METHOD ...

25

SELECTION OF STRUT-AND-TIE MODEL

Multiple strut-and-tie models can be developed for a single load case. Some options for the double corbel being designed are shown in Figure 4. The moot question at this stage is how to select the optimal model. Usually, that model is the best in which the loads follow the path with the least force and the least deformation [2]. At the same time, since ties are more deformable than concrete struts, the model with the least number and the shortest ties is likely the best. This requirement can be quantified as ΣF I l i ε mi = minimum, where F i is the

force in the strut or tie, l i is the length of the member i and ε mi is the mean strain in member i Ref. [2]. In addition to the above requirements, the selected strut-and-tie model should be such that the angle between the axes of the struts and ties acting at a node should be as large as possible so as to mitigate possible cracking and to avoid incompatibilities due to

shortening of the struts and lengthening of the ties occurring in almost the same directions.

The ACI Code of Ref. [1], recommends that the angle between the axes of any strut and tie

entering a single node shall not be less than 25º.

In light of the above recommendations, the strut-and-tie model of Figure 4 (a) is selected

for modeling the double corbel.

DESIGN OF A DOUBLE CORBEL USING THE STRUT-AND-TIE METHOD ... 25 SELECTION OF STRUT-AND-TIE MODEL Multiple

Figure 4. Strut and tie models for a double corbel

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  • 26 Bhupinder Singh, Yaghoub Mohammadi and S.K. Kaushik

DETERMINATION OF TRUSS FORCES

The forces in the members of the strut-and-tie model are determined from conditions of static equilibrium. The location and orientation of the struts and ties is defined by the position of the nodes. The selected strut-and-tie model for the double corbel is shown in

Figure 5. The center of the top horizontal tie BC (Figure 5), is assumed to be at a distance of

  • 75 mm from the top of the corbel. Since the tie capacity is assumed to be furnished

exclusively by the reinforcement bars, the assumed cover takes care of requirements for clear cover to the tie reinforcement bars and for the provision, if required, for two layers of reinforcement bars for the tie BC. Like wise, all ties are assumed to have an effective cover of 75 mm.

26 Bhupinder Singh, Yaghoub Mohammadi and S.K. Kaushik DETERMINATION OF TRUSS FORCES The forces in the

Figure 5. Selected strut and tie model for the double corbel

Hence, d = 500 –75 = 425 mm.

Therefore,

a

d

=

  • 200 = 0.47 < 2, ok ..
    425

The strut AD is assumed to lie on an imaginary horizontal line running through the point

of intersection of the sloping face of the corbel and the vertical face of the column.

As shown in Figure 5, the column axial load of 950 kN is resolved into two equal loads

of 475 kN each acting in line with strut AG and DH respectively. The position of the centerline of the strut AE can be found by calculating the width

w

s

of strut AE (Figure 5). Let F AE be the required compressive force in strut AE. As per Clause A.3.1 of Ref. [1],

the nominal compressive strength of a strut = F ns = Φf cu A c , where

A

  • C is the cross-sectional

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DESIGN OF A DOUBLE CORBEL USING THE STRUT-AND-TIE METHOD ...

27

area at one end of the strut and f cu is the effective compressive strength of concrete in the strut. As per Clause A.3.2 eq. A-3 [1] , f cu = 0.85β s f c . Assuming strut AE to have a uniform cross-sectional area (prismatic strut), the value of β s as per Clause A.3.2.1 of Ref. [1], is equal to 1.0. A C = w s b, where b is the out-of-plane dimension of the corbel and is equal to 350 mm in this case.

Hence, F AE = 0.75 x 0.85 x 1.0 x 20 x 350 x

w

s

By

inspection of the conditions of loading symmetry

--------------(i)

in Figure

5,

it

can be easily

determined from conditions of equilibrium that the force in the strut

AE=F AE =

950 +

2

325 =800 kN

Substituting for F AE in (i) and solving, gives

w = 179.27, say 180 mm.

s

Hence, the centerline of the strut AE and the center of node A are located at

180

2

mm from the vertical face of the column.

= 90

Therefore, the geometry of the strut-and-tie model is fixed.

The forces in all the members of the strut-and-tie model are determined from conditions of

static equilibrium and are summarized in Table 1 and also illustrated in Figure 6.

DESIGN OF A DOUBLE CORBEL USING THE STRUT-AND-TIE METHOD ... 27 area at one end of

Figure 6. Computed forces in the members of the strut-and-tie model

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  • 28 Bhupinder Singh, Yaghoub Mohammadi and S.K. Kaushik

Table 1. Computed truss forces

Member

AB = CD

BC

AD

AE = DF

AG = DH

Force (kN)

+386.77

- 284.68

+221.84

+800

+475

+Compression, -Tension

DESIGN OF TIES

The capacity for tie BC is furnished by steel reinforcement and concrete is not assumed to

carry any tensile loads.

The area of reinforcement required for tie BC is equal to A

st

=

F

BC

σ

Y

, where F BC is the

tensile force in tie BC and σ y is the permissible tensile stress in the steel reinforcement and

is equal to Φf y

Φ f

y

where Φ is the strength reduction factor for the reinforcement yield

stress f y f and is taken as 0.75 as per recommendations of Clause 9.3.2.6 of Ref. [1].

y

Therefore, A st =

284.68

×

10 3

0.75

×

415

= 914.63 mm 2

As per Clause 11.9.5 [1] , the required minimum area of tensile reinforcement =

'

  • 0.04 f

c

f

y

bd

= 0.04

20

415

350

×

425

= 286.74 mm

  • 2 < 914.63 mm 2 , ok.

Clause A.4.2 of Ref. [1] requires tie reinforcement to be distributed approximately

uniformly over the width of the tie. This may entail furnishing the tie reinforcement in

several layers rather than concentrating the rebars in a section normal to the plane of the

member being designed, as is usually done in the case of beams.

Provide 6 bars of 16 mm diameter in two layers of 3 bars each as tie reinforcement.

Area of steel provided = 6 x 201 = 1206 > 914.63 mm 2 , ok.

CHECK ON NODAL ZONES AND ANCHORAGES

The nodal zones of interest are at nodes A, B, C and D. The dimensions of the nodal zones

have to be such that the stresses acting on the faces of the nodal zones are within permissible

limits.

The width

w of strut AE was so determined that the stresses in the strut are within

s

permissible limits. Strut AE bears on one face of nodal zone A and Appendix-1 of Ref. [1] suggests that the faces of nodal zones loaded in compression shall have the same widths as that of the ends of the struts bearing on them. In consequence, the stresses in nodal zone A (and D) are deemed to be within permissible limits.

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DESIGN OF A DOUBLE CORBEL USING THE STRUT-AND-TIE METHOD ...

29

Therefore, only nodal zones B (and C) need to be checked. Nodal zone B encompasses a CCT node. If any of the forces acting on a node is tensile, the required minimum width of a side of the nodal zone containing such a node is calculated from the width of a hypothetical bearing plate anchoring one end of the tie which is assumed to exert a uniform bearing pressure on the back side of the nodal zone, Figure 7. The width of the hypothetical bearing plate in turn is equal to the width of the tie anchored in the node.

DESIGN OF A DOUBLE CORBEL USING THE STRUT-AND-TIE METHOD ... 29 Therefore, only nodal zones B

Figure 7. Tie width in a CCT node

The permissible bearing pressure for a CCT node has already been computed as = 10.20 MPa

Φ f

cu

=

Therefore, the required width of the tie to be anchored in the CCT node =

284.68

×

10 3

10.20

×

350

= 79.74 mm

F

BC

=

Φ f

cu

b

Available tie width = 75 x 2 = 150 > 79.74 mm, ok.

To provide positive anchorage to tie BC, weld the six 16 mm bars to a steel angle ISA

150 x 150 x12 located at the free end of the corbel, as shown in Figure 8.

CHECK ON STRUTS

The check on struts involves determination of strut widths required to shoulder the computed strut forces and to determine whether the required strut widths will fit in the geometry of the structure.

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  • 30 Bhupinder Singh, Yaghoub Mohammadi and S.K. Kaushik

30 Bhupinder Singh, Yaghoub Mohammadi and S.K. Kaushik Figure 8. Strut and tie dimensions Consider strut

Figure 8. Strut and tie dimensions

Consider strut AD

The effective compressive strength of strut AD =

Φf cu

, where f cu = 0.85β s f c .

Strut AD is expected to have a uniform cross-sectional area throughout its length

(prismatic strut). For such struts, as per Clause A.3.2.1

[1]

, the parameter β s =1.0.

Therefore, required width of strut AD =

F

AD

Φ f

cu

b

Select a width of 100 mm for strut AD. It

=

221.84

×

10 3

 

= 49.71 mm.

 

0.75

×

0.85

×

1

×

20

×

350

can be

verified

that

this

width can be

accommodated in the geometry of the structure, Figure 8.

Consider struts AE and DF

The required widths of struts AE and DF have already been calculated as 180 mm each and

it can be verified that this width can be accommodated in the geometry of the structure,

Figure 8.

Consider struts AG and DH

The effective compressive strength of strut AG = Φf cu , where f cu = 0.85β s fc .

Strut AG is expected to be a bottle-shaped strut as the width of the compressed concrete

in the strut at its mid-length can spread laterally. If no transverse crack control reinforcement to resist the bursting forces is provided in this strut then as per recommendations of Clause

A.3.2.2 [1] , β s = 0.60.

Therefore, required width of struts AG (and DH)=

F

AG

Φ f

cu

b

=

475

×

10 3

0.75

×

0.85

×

0.60

×

20

×

350

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DESIGN OF A DOUBLE CORBEL USING THE STRUT-AND-TIE METHOD ...

31

= 177.40 mm. Select a width of 180 mm for each of the struts AG and DH such that their widths are also equal to the widths of the underlying struts AE and DF respectively. It can be verified that these widths can be accommodated in the geometry of the structure, Figure 8.

Consider struts AB and CD

The effective compressive strength of struts AB and CD = Φf cu , where f cu = 0.85β s fc . Struts AB and CD are non-prismatic and assuming that the required transverse crack

control reinforcement is provided in them, the parameter β s as per recommendations of Clause A.3.2.2 [1] can be taken equal to 0.75.

Therefore, required width of strut AB (and CD) =

F

AB

Φ f

cu

b

386.77

×

10 3

=

0.75

×

0.85

×

0.75

×

20

×

350

= 115.56 mm.

The above required strut width is compared with the available strut width at the smaller

end of the strut AB. A perusal of the geometry of strut AB in Figure 8 reveals the width of

the smaller end of the strut to be 147 mm> 115.56 mm. Hence, the available strut width is

adequate.

All the strut widths fit within the geometry of the corbel and thus the proposed strut-and-

tie model is acceptable.

CRACK CONTROL REINFORCEMENT

For adequate crack control in the vicinity of a tie, Clause 11.9.4 of Ref. [1] requires the

provision of reinforcement in the form of horizontal stirrups, the plane of these stirrups

being parallel to the reinforcement in the tie. The Clause further specifies this crack control

reinforcement to be distributed uniformly within

say 280 mm) of the corbel adjacent to the tie BC.

3 2 of the effective depth (

2

×

425

=

283.3

,
3

As per Clause 11.9.4 of Ref. [1], the area of these horizontal stirrups must not be less

than A h = 0.5 (A st – A n ), where A n is the reinforcement area required to resist the horizontal load at the bearings and A st is the reinforcement provided in the tie BC.

Therefore, A h = 0.5

   1206

75

×

10

3

0.85

×

415

   

= 496.69 mm 2

Provide 4 numbers of 10 mm diameter two legged horizontal stirrups within 280 mm

from the top edge of the corbel at an average spacing of

280 = 93.33 mm, say 90 mm c/c.

3

Area of stirrups provided = 628.31 > 496.69 mm 2 , ok. Since β s has been assumed as 0.75 while computing the strength of struts AB and CD, confining reinforcement is required for these struts to take care of the transverse tensile stresses. According to Clause A.3.3.1 of Ref. [1], for concrete strengths less than 42 MPa, the requirement of confining reinforcement shall be deemed to be satisfied if the axis of the

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  • 32 Bhupinder Singh, Yaghoub Mohammadi and S.K. Kaushik

strut

under

relationship:

consideration

is

crossed

by

reinforcement

that

satisfies

the

following

A

si

bs

i

sin γ

i

0.0030

where

A

si

is the total area of reinforcement at a spacing

s

i

making an angle of

axis of the strut, γ

  • i not being less than 40°.

γ

i

to the

For this double corbel, the crack control reinforcement provided above crosses the axis of the struts AB and CD at an angle of 55° (Figure 8).

Hence,

A

si sin

bs

i

γ i

=

628.31

350

×

90

sin 55

° = 0.016 > 0.003, ok.

Therefore, the provided reinforcement serves the purpose of crack control as well as

confinement.

Also provide three numbers of 12 mm diameter framing bars in the double corbel.

The detailing of reinforcement in the double corbel is presented in Figure 9.

32 Bhupinder Singh, Yaghoub Mohammadi and S.K. Kaushik strut under relationship: consideration is crossed by reinforcement

Figure 9. Detailing of reinforcement in the double corbel

Acknowledgement: Generous assistance has been derived from ACI SP-208 of Ref. [3] while preparing this manuscript which is gratefully acknowledged

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DESIGN OF A DOUBLE CORBEL USING THE STRUT-AND-TIE METHOD ...

REFERENCES

33

  • 1. ACI 318-02, “Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 318-02) and Commentary (ACI 318R-02) “, American Concrete Institute, Michigan, USA, 2002, 443 pp.

  • 2. Schlaich, J., Schafer, K. and Jennewin, M., “Toward a Consistent Design of Structural Concrete”, PCI Journal, May-June 1987, pp. 75-146.

  • 3. SP-208, “Examples for the Design of Structural Concrete with Strut-and-Tie Models”, American Concrete Institute, Michigan, USA, 2003, 242 pp.

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